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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Written by Jane Bourke. © Ready-Ed Publications - 2005. Published by Ready-Ed Publications (2005) P.O. Box 276 Greenwood Perth W.A. 6024 Email: info@readyed.com.au Website: www.readyed.com.au

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COPYRIGHT NOTICE Permission is granted for the purchaser to photocopy sufficient copies for non-commercial educational purposes. However, this permission is not transferable and applies only to the purchasing individual or institution.

ISBN 1 86397 620 5

Cover Photo Acknowledgements Parrot, panda, dolphin and gorilla images courtesy of IMSI Masterclips/MasterPhotos Collection, 1895 Francisco Boulevard, East San Rafael, CA 94901-5506 USA. While every attempt has been made to acknowledge the ownership of photos used within, in some instances this has not been possible. If you know of the photographers for any of these images, please contact the publisher so that proper acknowledgement can be given.

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ENDANGERED SPECIES AROUND THE WORLD

Teachers’ Notes r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

This book endeavours to educate students to the plight of critically endangered, endangered and threatened species. It draws attention to wellknown species such as tigers and Malayan bears, but also focuses on less recognised animals that are in a similar predicament such as the tuatara, the Humboldt penguin and the ponderous manatee.

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Despite the efforts of a range of conservation programs, several native Australian animal species are still classified as critically endangered at a national level. While there are extensive education programs in place, many students are usually unaware of some of the lesser-known native species struggling for survival.

Other aims include clarifying the terms and status of endangered species as well as providing reasons for endangerment, which often vary among species. Students are also informed of what they can do to help certain species through a range of practical and simple strategies.

The animal species explored in this book are classified according to the regions in which they are found. For each featured animal there is a background information page (Fact File) that contains relevant details (e.g. species’ name, habitat, description and so on) as well as conservation efforts, trivia and websites for further research. The tasks can be carried out in any order and completed independently. While Internet sites have been provided they are usually not essential to the activity. A symbol ( ) indicates where Internet access is required.

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There is a heavy emphasis placed on exploring the issues that threaten animal survival and students are given opportunities to examine conservation programs that are currently in place. The activities lend themselves to extension activities, which have been detailed on page 10 as part of ideas for National Threatened Species Day. At the end of each activity page is a WebQuester Challenge that will require access to the Internet. Ideally, the students should use the websites provided on the Fact File page as a starting point for their research.

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School World Endangered Species Project (Page 51)

This is a global school project involving thousands of students from around the world. The aim of the project is to allow students to share their information on endangered species with other classes. Please visit the website at www.schoolworld.asn.au/species/species.html to ensure that your students meet the required guidelines before attempting to complete this activity. Specific guidelines for reporting are available at this link: www.schoolworld.asn.au/species/outline.html - Report Outline

WEBSITES All websites mentioned in this book, including the page of Useful Websites on Page 5, have been linked online through the Ready-Ed Website at:

www.readyed.com.au/urls/kids/species.htm By bookmarking this page, students can easily access the sites without having to type the addresses in. The websites are also checked regularly and replaced where necessary. Any broken links should be reported to fixlink@readyed.com.au 2

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Contents 2 4 5 6 7 8 10 11

Threatened Mammals Fact File: Malayan Sun Bear - Central Asia .............................................................................................. Activity: Saving the Sun Bear .................................................................................................................... Fact File: Polar Bear - Arctic .................................................................................................................... Activity: A Polar Bear Polaroid ................................................................................................................. Fact File: Giant Panda - Central Asia ........................................................................................................ Activity: A Pad for a Panda ........................................................................................................................ Fact File: Endangered Bats - Around the World ..................................................................................... Activity: Beneficial Bats ............................................................................................................................ Fact File: Asian and African Elephants - Asia and Africa ........................................................................... Activity: Tasks About Tusks ...................................................................................................................... Fact File: Big Cat Family - Around the World .......................................................................................... Activity: Big Cats, Big Hunters ................................................................................................................. Fact File: Black Rhinoceros - Africa ......................................................................................................... Activity: Rhino Recovery ...........................................................................................................................

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Threatened Marine Mammals and Fish Fact File: Humpback Whale - Global Oceans .......................................................................................... Activity: Whales in the World’s Waters ................................................................................................... Fact File: Manatee - Western Atlantic Ocean .......................................................................................... Activity: Manatee Mayhem ....................................................................................................................... Fact File: Great White Shark - Global Oceans ........................................................................................ Activity: Protecting a Predator ................................................................................................................. Fact File: Leafy Sea Dragon - Global Oceans .......................................................................................... Activity: Looking Out for Leafy Sea Dragons ...........................................................................................

26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

Threatened Reptiles and Amphibians Fact File: Tuatara - New Zealand ............................................................................................................. Activity: Tuatara - Ancient Reptile Survivors ............................................................................................ Fact File: Komodo Dragon - South East Asia ........................................................................................... Activity: Missing Reptile Report ............................................................................................................... Fact File: Galapagos Giant Tortoise - Central America ............................................................................ Activity: Galapagos Action Plans ............................................................................................................... Fact File: Harlequin Frog - Central America ........................................................................................... Activity: Amphibian Alarm! .......................................................................................................................

34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41

Threatened Birds Fact File: Humboldt Penguin - Southern Oceans .................................................................................... Activity: Help the Humboldt .................................................................................................................... Fact File: Philippine Eagle - South East Asia ........................................................................................... Activity: Endangered Bird of Prey ............................................................................................................

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General Activities Activity: An Endangered Species - Facing the Future .............................................................................. Activity: A Wild Zoo ................................................................................................................................. Activity: Comparing Species ..................................................................................................................... Activity: Awareness Campaign ................................................................................................................. Activity: Animal Trading Cards ................................................................................................................. Activity: School World Endangered Species Project ................................................................................ Activity: Think Globally, Act Locally .......................................................................................................... Activity: World National Parks ................................................................................................................. Activity: Word Search ............................................................................................................................... Answers ....................................................................................................................................................

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Teachers’ Notes ........................................................................................................................................ Curriculum Links ..................................................................................................................................... Useful Websites ....................................................................................................................................... Endangered Species - Definitions ............................................................................................................ Glossary .................................................................................................................................................... So Why Are These Animals Threatened? ................................................................................................ National Threatened Species Day ............................................................................................................ What is CITES? .........................................................................................................................................

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Curriculum Links NEW SOUTH WALES Science & Technology

Strands / Outcomes VA7

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LT S3.3

ES S1.6

Human Society & Its Environment (HSIE) Strands / Outcomes Environments: Demonstrates an understanding of the interconnectedness ENS3.5 between Australia and global environments and how individuals and groups can act in an ecologically responsible manner. Social Systems and Structures: Describes how Australian people, systems and communities are globally interconnected and recognises global responsibilities SSS3.7 (e.g. protecting endangered species). Change and Continuity: Explains changes in the local community and global environments CCS2.2 and their effect on individuals, groups and living things.

3.1 3.3

SOSE Time, Continuity and Change: Organises information about the causes and effects of specific historical events. TCC 3.4 Place and Space: Compares how diverse groups have used and managed natural PS 3.1 resources in different environments; Describes the values underlying personal and other people’s actions PS 3.5 regarding familiar places; Cooperatively identifies an environmental issue of concern and PS D3.6 contributes to its solution.

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Values and Attitudes: Appreciates contributions made by individuals, groups, cultures and communities to scientific and technological understandings. Information and Communication: Creates and evaluates information products and processes, demonstrating consideration of the type of media, form, audience and ethical issues. Living Things: Identifies, describes and evaluates the interactions between living things and their effects on the environment. Earth and its Surroundings: Identifies and describes ways in which people and other living things depend upon the Ear th and its environment.

QUEENSLAND Science Life and Living: Draws conclusions about the relationship between features of living things and the environments in which they live; Describes some interactions between living things and between living and non-living parts of the environment.

VICTORIA Science Biological Science: Describes environmental factors that affect the survival of living things. Students describe some interactions between living things and between living and non-living parts of the environment.

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3.1 2.6 3.5

3.1 2.6

WESTERN AUSTRALIA Science Life and Living: Understands that living things have features that form systems which determine their interaction with the environment.

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NATIONAL CURRICULUM (NT / TAS / ACT)

Science Life and Living: Maps relationships between living things in a habitat; Explains why some living things have become extinct and identifies current endangered species. SOSE Time, Continuity and Change: Gives reasons why the local community and environment have changed and are likely to change. Place and Space: Identifies issues about the care of places arising from the different ways in which they are valued. Resources: Describes ways in which innovation and enterprise affect people and the environment. Natural and Social Systems: Describes examples of cycles within natural systems (e.g. understands how animals and plants are linked by a food chain). Investigation, Communication and Participation: Frames questions and identifies sources of information.

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SOSE Natural and Social Systems: Identifies elements of natural systems and shows examples of animals and plants linked in a food chain. Time, Continuity and Change: Understands that changes have occurred over time which have affected, people, animals and the environment. Place and Space: Investigates issues related to the care of places, particularly animal habitats.

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SOUTH AUSTRALIA Science Earth and Space: Describes the characteristics that sustain life on the Ear th and changes to these characteristics and their impact over time. Life Systems: Communicates understandings of life cycles and the importance of diversity for the future; Explains the interrelationships between systems within living things, and between living things in ecological systems. Society & Environment Time, Continuity and Change: Identifies and explains sequences of change that have occurred over time and recognises various perspectives on events. Place, Space and Environment: Identifies and describes significant resources, explains the threats which endanger them, and suggests strategies to combat threats. Understands that people cause change in natural and built environments.

3.7 3.9

3.3 3.6 3.12 3.13 3.16

3.1

Society & Environment Investigation, Communication and Participation: Justifies decisions from a personal perspective using related evidence and gathers information from more than one source. Place and Space: Understands that the features of places are influenced by various natural processes. Understands that people have different views about which places need to be cared for. Understands that people act to sustain the environment according to their values. Natural and Social Systems: Understands that elements of natural systems link to form cycles of which people are a part. Time, Continuity and Change: Understands that at particular times there are various factors which result in change.

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ICP 3.2, ICP 3.4 PS 3.1 PS 3.3 PS 4.3

NSS 3.1

TCC 3.1

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Useful Websites GOVERNMENT SITES AND OFFICIAL BODIES www.redlist.org/ - 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species www.ifaw.org/elephants.html - Information about endangered elephants, rhinos and gorillas www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/ - Threatened Australian Species and Threatened Ecological Communities www.bagheera.com/ - Bagheera www.wildaid.org - WildAid - Protecting and Educating

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www.unep-wcmc.org - UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre

SITES FOR KIDS library.thinkquest.org/J0111700/Index.htm - Endangered Animals of the World - A ThinkQuest Site library.trinity.wa.edu.au/subjects/science/endangered.htm - Endangered Species Links www.kidzworld.com/site/p2203.htm - Endangered Reptile Species library.thinkquest.org/19689/data/esframe.html - World Endangered Species - A ThinkQuest Site www.nationalgeographic.com/ngkids/9902/crime-busters/ - Wildlife Crime Busters

www.kidsplanet.org/factsheets/map.html - Kids Planet Especies www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/information/20-tips.html - How You Can Help! www.schoolworld.asn.au/species/species.html - School World Endangered Species Project www.science.org.au/nova/010/010key.htm - Australia’s Threatened Species from NOVA www.museum.qld.gov.au/features/endangered/ - Queensland Museum Endangered Species Online www.rainforestinfo.org.au/spp/ - The Endangered Species Project www.kidcyber.com.au/topics/Austendangered.htm - Endangered Australian Animals www.spx.nsw.edu.au/src/Links/endanganim.html - Endangered Animals Links www.calm.wa.gov.au/plants_animals/watscu_splash.html - Saving Our Threatened Wildlife www.australianwildlife.org/ - Australian Wildlife Conservancy www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/information/factsheets/index.html - World Wide Fund for Nature www.extinctanimal.com/extinct/extinct_mammals.htm - Extinct Mammals users.netconnect.com.au/Easter_Bilby/ - Read the Easter Bilby Story www.museum.vic.gov.au/bioinformatics/mammals/images/thumblmar.htm - Mammal Images rainforestinfo.org.au/spp/Schouten/ - Extinct Australian Species www.calm.wa.gov.au/plants_animals/feeding_wild_animals.html - Feeding Wild Animals www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/information/factsheets/index.html - National Threatened Species Day edtech.kennesaw.edu/web/endangsp.html - Excellent Links Page

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Endangered Species Definitions • Sumatra orangutan (Pongo abelii) - Indonesia • Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) - Eastern, central and southern Africa.

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In Australia, the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999) classifies threatened species using the categories below. The aim of the Act is to promote the conservation and biodiversity of threatened Australian species. The classifications vary slightly among states and territories.

ENDANGERED: Refers to species that are likely to become extinct in the “near” future unless the threats and dangers to their survival are removed. Animal species in this category are not “critically endangered” but they are still facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild. Examples of endangered species include:

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Threatened animal species are classified according to the severity of their risk of extinction. Each country has its own Environment Protection and Conservation Act. Internationally, the World Conservation Union (IUCN) assesses the conservation status of all species and sub species to highlight those that are threatened with extinction and devise ways of promoting their conservation. The IUCN produces a Red Data Book that lists all threatened animal species. This is commonly known as the Red List and you can learn more about at this website: www.redlist.org

• Asian elephant (Elephant maximas) - India and Asia

• Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) - Most oceans, however only 1500 of these whales still exist

VULNERABLE: Refers to species that are not classified as endangered or critically endangered, yet are facing a risk of extinction in the “medium-term” future. Species that fall into this category are likely to be classified as “endangered” within the next 25 years if no action is taken to preserve the species. Species that are considered “vulnerable” include:

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• Dodo bird (Raphus cucullatus) Last seen in 1681 (Mauritius)

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• Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) - Most warm oceans of the world • Chuditch, Western quoll (Dasyurus geoffroii) - Western Australia NEAR THREATENED: Refers to species that have been evaluated but do not qualify as critically endangered, endangered, or vulnerable. However, at some time in the future they are likely to qualify as a threatened species.

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• Thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) Last seen in 1936 (Australia) - also known as the Tasmanian Tiger • Steller’s sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) Last recorded sighting in 1768 (Pacific Ocean)

EXTINCT IN THE WILD: When a species exists only in cultivation, in captivity (i.e. a zoo program) or as a naturalised population outside its past range. Examples include: • Saudi gazelle (Gazella saudiya) - Saudi Arabia • Hawaiian crow (Corvus hawaiiensis) - Hawaiian Islands

CRITICALLY ENDANGERED: Refers to species that are facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the “immediate” future. Examples of critically endangered animals include: 6

• Great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) - Southern and Pacific Oceans

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EXTINCT: A species is said to be extinct when there is no reasonable doubt that the last member of this species has died. Extinctions can be hard to prove and a limit of fifty years with no official sightings of the species is now used. Some scientists suggest that up to ten species have become extinct every year for the last 600 million years. Examples of extinct species include:

Examples include:

• Maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) - South America LEAST CONCERN: Refers to species that have abundant populations and are considered to be of least concern. There is no recorded evidence of a decline in numbers. An example includes:

• Brown bear (Ursus arctos) - Europe, Asia and Northern America DATA DEFICIENT: Species where little is known about remaining numbers and populations are listed in this category. Check Out: www.kidsplanet.org/factsheets/esa.html for more.

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Glossary Least concern: This is the status given by CITES (The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) when a species of plant or animal has been evaluated but does not qualify as being threatened at this time.

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Community: Term used to describe all organisms inhabiting a common environment where all living things interact with each other. Ecosystem: A self-supporting biological system involving all the organisms in a community and the natural environment. This basically includes all species of plant and animal and the relationships that exist between them and the non-living aspects of their environment such as air, water, light and soil. If anything upsets the delicate balance the whole ecosystem will be affected. An example of an ecosystem is a worm farm where there are many independent factors that work together so the whole system survives.

Marine Protected Areas: A marine protected area (MPA) is any marine area, together with its overlying water and associated flora, fauna, historical and cultural features, which has been reserved by law or other effective means to protect part or all of the enclosed environment. Some of the functions of MPAs are protecting important habitats and areas, studying the effect of developments such as marinas on marine habitats, protecting endangered marine species and regulating the fisheries to make sure size limits do not endanger the survival of certain species.

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Biodiversity: (Biological diversity) is the term used to describe the variety that exists among organisms and their environments. It is important that biodiversity be protected so as to allow species to continue to thrive. In the past, species have become extinct as a result of natural causes. Today, however, loss of biodiversity is largely caused by humans. People have hunted certain species to extinction and polluted and destroyed their habitat. Conservation and protection efforts of recent years have slowed down the loss of biodiversity but have not stopped it.

Predators: Predators are carnivorous animals that hunt and kill other animals for food. This term is used to describe any animal that lives by preying on another animal. For example sharks are predators of smaller fish, frogs are predators of beetles and insects, crocodiles are predators of fish, eagles are predators of lizards and humans are predators of dairy cattle.

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Environment: The surroundings in which a plant or animal lives is called its environment. An animal’s environment is very important because it can influence its development and behaviour. The environment of an animal includes its immediate habitat, climatic conditions, weather and human interference. An animal or plant adapts to its natural environment in order for it to survive. If an animal exists in a harsh environment it will try to develop special features over time that will allow it to exist more easily in the particular environment. For example, chameleons have developed a way to change their skin colour to allow them to blend in with their surroundings, escaping predators in the process.

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Habitat: The place or places normally occupied by a particular species or population. Home range: The home range is the area in which an animal will move around in order to feed.

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Special adaptations: Animals make adaptations to their environment by changing to become better suited to their environment in order to survive and reproduce. Some of these adaptations may be behavioural while others, which happen over long periods of time, may be physical. Kangaroos, in times of drought when there is little food, will not have as many babies so there are fewer kangaroos to share the limited food sources. When there has been a really good season they will have more joeys than normal because there will be an ample food supply.

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Endemic: Refers to a species or population that occurs in one particular region in all months of the year and all years. For example, the chestnut-breasted whiteface (Aphelocephala pectoralis) is endemic to South Australia while the golden-shouldered parrot (Psephotus chrysopterygius) is endemic to the Cape York Peninsula.

Species: This is the basic unit of classification for all members of the animal and plant kingdoms. Animals are grouped together according to their common characteristics. Each group is classified as a species. Members of a species all have common characteristics and differ from all other living things in one way or another. The scientific name for species is usually written in italics or is underlined. No two species in a genus have the same name and most of these names come from Greek or Latin words. All organisms are known by different common names around the world, however, their scientific name is always the same no matter what language.

Sub species: A group that is a subdivision of a species, which usually occurs because of isolation within a species.

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So Why Are These Animals Threatened? INTRODUCED SPECIES Since Australia was colonised by European settlers, many animal and plant species have been introduced from other parts of the world. Some species have been used for agricultural purposes, e.g. chickens, sheep and cows, other species such as horses and greyhounds have been used in sporting events and some have been brought here merely as pets, e.g. cats and dogs.

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HABITAT CHANGE Changes to an animal’s habitat can occur after a natural disaster such as bushfire, flood, drought or storm. Over time, these habitats can recover, but some communities may not survive or may have been completely destroyed in the actual event itself. Human activities, such as clearing of natural bushland or rainforests, mining and other industrial processes can have such an impact that the natural environment is unable to recover or restore lost habitats, causing many ecological communities to suffer.

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HABITAT LOSS Imagine if you came home from school one day and your home was gone and possibly your family! Well, this is what millions of living things are facing on a daily basis. Most habitats are lost or destroyed to make room for urban development. Habitats can disappear when trees are cut down, when bushland is cleared, when areas are prepared for mining and other industrial activities, and when weeds and pests take over an area.

While certain introduced species can contribute greatly to Australia’s economy and provide fresh food sources for humans, others have caused widespread environmental damage in the wild. Some animal species have upset the delicate balance that exists in an ecosystem by preying on the eggs and young of native species, others compete with native species for food and space while some types of fish, such as the European carp, muddy waterways and upset other species’ habitats that exist within a natural ecosystem.

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Clearing native vegetation results in habitats being broken up and can even isolate some populations of plants and animals. If only a small section of the habitat remains then it will only be able to support a reduced amount of the original population. Unless there are similar habitats nearby that the animals can colonise, these animal species will not survive.

Check out this site for a list of Australia’s introduced pests www.teachingtreasures.com.au/scienceprojects/pests.htm

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Marine habitats, such as rivers, lakes and coastal waters, can be affected by industrial activity such as run off into waterways. The run off can contain harmful pesticides, herbicides, fertilisers, sewage, oil, toxic chemicals and sediments. Such substances can kill marine species (both freshwater and saltwater) or make them very sick. These substances also damage the natural environment that the living organisms depend on for food and shelter.

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So Why Are These Animals Threatened? ANIMALS BEHAVING BADLY

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• Livestock such as rabbits, goats, pigs, sheep, buffalo, donkeys, horses, camels and cattle have been responsible for the degradation of natural environments through their grazing habits.

PREDATORS Introduced species such as foxes and cats prey on many native species. The numbat, western quoll (chuditch), woylie and many species of wallaby are a food source for such predators and so it is difficult to release these Australian species back into the wild where the spread of foxes and cats cannot be controlled.

Records show that these starfish were possibly brought to the Tasmanian region as early as 1986 and marine biologists estimate that there are at least 30 million existing in the Derwent Estuary today.

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• The hooves of some animals compacts the soil and stops new plants growing in areas of revegetation. • The lack of plants then leads to soil erosion and soil salinity (too much salt). • Introduced animals also compete with native Australian species for food, shelter and breeding sites.

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duced numbers of the spotted handfish in the Derwent estuary. Scientists say that this marine “pest” poses a serious environmental threat from New South Wales coastal areas and could reach right across to Western Australia in the near future. Early efforts to destroy this pest were unsuccessful.

Source: massbay.mit.edu/exoticspecies/oceanspace/ seastar.html

PLANT PESTS Weeds are plants that invade an area in the same way introduced animals have invaded areas. These “invasions” upset the natural balance of an ecological community. Weeds are able to thrive in places where they would not normally grow. By doing this, they compete with native plants for space, water and nutrients from the soil. Weeds generally have the ability to invade disturbed sites such as sites that have been cleared, and are often not able to be of any use to native animals as they are not a food source or form of shelter. In fact, the only animals likely to benefit from such plants are feral animals!

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MARINE INVASIONS Introduced predators aren’t just restricted to land! Many ships have brought fish, crustaceans, molluscs and worms into Australian waters through their ballast water.

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WHAT IS BALLAST WATER? In order to maintain stability during transit along coasts and on the open ocean, ships fill their ballast tanks with water. This water comes from coastal port areas from where the ship sets off. It is then transported with the ship to the next port of call where the water may be discharged into the harbour or exchanged.

Check out Weedbusters~! www.weedbusterweek.info.au/ Learn all you need to know about weeds and how to get rid of them! Also visit www.weeds.org.au/ to identify a particular weed!

One of the more well known “bio-invaders” is the Northern Pacific seastar (Asterias amurensis).This species of starfish was officially discovered in Tasmanian waters in 1992 and has caused the decline of many native seastar populations as well as being responsible for reReady-Ed Publications

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National Threatened Species Day highlight the damage that such bags cause on our environment, the animals and plants that they affect and the alternatives we can use when we shop. You can find about local projects by ringing your local Threatened Species Network on 1800 032 551.

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National Threatened Species Day draws attention to the dangers affecting many plant and animal species as well as highlighting ways that the community can help the futures of these threatened species.

3. Creatures Collage: Create a chart showing all of the threatened species that live near your area. Write key facts for each such as their scientific name, habitat, threat risk, reasons for being classified as threatened, diet, behaviour, special features, other locations around Australia and so on. Use your local library to find images of these species. If possible, try to take some photos to help illustrate your poster.

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This special day is held on September 7 each year with the aim of encouraging the community to reduce the risk of extinction for threatened native species. Many Australians use this day to celebrate our national flora and fauna. The day was first held in 1996 and marked the 60th anniversary of the death of the last Tasmanian Tiger in captivity in Hobart. It was organised by the Threatened Species Network which is a community-based program of the Natural Heritage Trust and the World Wildlife Fund www.wwf.org.au) (Australia). (

4. Advertise a local event that is coming up, e.g. tree planting, local clean-up day, weeding day, etc.

5. Create a poster for the RSPCA – give details on where the nearest centre is, what their mission is and why you should contact them. On your poster be sure to make a note of everything the RSPCA can help you with in terms of caring for abandoned or injured wildlife. You should also note down the number for your local wildlife rescue service.

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Design a poster for National Threatened Species Day. This poster can be displayed at your school or in your local community, e.g. shopping centre notice board, shop window, park notice board, church, community hall and so on. You can choose whatever focus you like for your poster. Here are some starting ideas below:

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7. Choose an important community action to highlight. Think of an eye-catching headline to get people looking at your poster. Ideas for poster themes include: • Extinguish your camp fires and cigarette butts when you are in the bush. (Catchy headline = BUTT OUT!) • If you live by the seaside, throw back fish that are too small when you are fishing. • Drive slowly at dawn and dusk to reduce the risk of animal road deaths. • Take your own bag shopping rather than using the plastic ones which can choke marine animals.

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1. Threatened Species Fact File: Research specific details of a particular threatened species and create a poster that highlights the unique features. Be sure to include in your poster the locations and habitat of this species and the threats it is currently facing.

2. Advertising a Community Project: If there are any projects that you know of that are aiming to reduce the threat of extinction of certain plant and animal species, then find out as much as you can about this initiative and use your poster to promote community involvement. For example, your community may be pushing to stop the use of plastic bags at shopping centres. If this is the case, your poster could

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6. Create a poster for the Parks and Wildlife Service that explains what to do if you sight any unusual animals or plants, or feral pests and weeds.

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Check Out: www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/ threatened/information/factsheets/ index.html - Fact Sheets

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ENDANGERED SPECIES AROUND THE WORLD

What is CITES? CITES stands for the Convention of International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna.

This convention was organised in the 1960s at a time when the status of animal species and conservation efforts were not as obvious as they are today.

Animal trade is a multi-billion dollar industry. Species are traded as live animals or as animal products such as in leather goods, food products, souvenirs and medicines. Some animal trade has greatly contributed to the decline in animal numbers, with several species close to extinction. While other animal species are not classified as threatened, trade must still be monitored in order to protect this species in the future. As international trade crosses borders between countries, cooperation from a number of countries is required. Over 30 000 animal and plant species are protected through CITES. The first agreement was drafted in 1963 at a meeting at the World Conservation Union (IUCN). IN 1973, the Convention was signed by 80 countries in Washington DC, in the United States. CITES came into force on 1 July 1975.

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It is an international agreement between governments around the globe. Its main goal is to ensure that international trade in animal species does not threaten the survival of that species.

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Since CITES was established, not one of the 30,000 listed species has become extinct. CITES is one of the largest international agreements in existence in the world today and to date, 167 parties (countries) have signed. However, it should be noted that CITES is not an international agreement on the conservation of endangered species and does not prohibit killing endangered animals or require that nations protect habitats. The laws of an individual country determine whether it is legal to kill or sell an animal. For more information visit:

www.cites.org/ - CITES

www.iucn.org/ - World Conservation Union

 www.redlist.org/ - Red List of Threatened Species from IUCN

Australia and Endangered Species

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

 www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/publications/ trade-use/factsheets/cites.html

New Zealand and Endangered Species:

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Australia’s commitment under CITES is explained through the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act, 1999.

New Zealand’s commitment under CITES is explained through the Trade in Endangered Species Act, 1989.  www.doc.govt.nz/Conservation/International/Convention-on-International-Trade-inEndangered-Species/index.asp

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©IMSI Masterclips/ MasterPhotos collection.

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Threatened Species of Central Asia

Malayan Sun Bear Fact File

Status meter

Scientific Name::Helarctos

malayanus

Vulnerable

Endangered

(IUCN Red List) Critically Endangered

Sun Bear Adaptations r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

There are eight species of bears in the world; the Malayan sun bear, the Asiatic black bear, the spectacled bear, the American bear, the giant panda, the sloth bear, the polar bear and the brown bear. The Malayan sun bear is the smallest of all these bears. Despite the small size (1.2 metres tall and 64 kilograms in weight) they can be extremely dangerous. They live in the tropical forests of China, Burma, Malaysia, Sumatra, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam and Borneo. Sun bears are primarily nocturnal and arboreal, building nests in tree branches and napping and sunbaking during the day.

Extinct?

The Malayan sun bear has many different adaptations to suit its habitat. This bear is a very skilful climber, aided by long sickle-shaped claws on all four feet. These extremely long claws (up to 15 centimetres) allow the bear to dig for honey and grubs, which it licks up using its long tongue. Its jaws are disproportionately large so that it can break open hard fruits like coconuts. The sun bear is able to tear trees apart with its long curved claws to get to the insects under the bark.

Diet

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Least concern

Decreasing population

©IMSI Masterclips/ MasterPhotos collection.

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Threats to Survival

There are many reasons for the endangerment of the Malayan sun bear. Logging and conversion to agriculture have destroyed the majority of the Malayan sun bear’s forest habitat. The logging roads allow poachers to capture the bears more easily. As natural food sources disappear, the sun bears are driven by hunger to forage for food on farms and plantations, where they are shot or trapped by angry farmers.

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Conservation Measures

Some conservation measures have been put into place to protect the Malayan sun bear. They have been listed as a threatened species but the belief in the medicinal properties is so firmly rooted in some cultures it is virtually impossible to change.

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Malayan sun bears are also kept for pets – the mother bears are killed in order to obtain cubs young enough to tame.

The demand for bear products is the greatest threat to all bears. Traditional Asian medicine prescribes bear fat, gall, meat, paws, spinal chord, bile, blood and bones for complaints ranging from baldness to rheumatism. Bear entrees are popular in restaurants and sun bear paws are used in soup. 12

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Check © ReadyEdPubl i cat i o nsOut www.chaffeezoo.org/ animals/sunBear.html •f orr evi ew pur poses onl y•

These bears have an omnivorous diet, eating fruit, tips from palm trees, small mammals, birds and roots.

Many countries have banned trade in bear products, but in South Korea and Taiwan – the greatest users of bear products – the government has not banned their use. In China, scientists have developed a way to extract bile from live bears and farms have been set up to do this. This effort has been driven more by economics than concern for the animals. Although Government officials have claimed that the farming has slowed the killing of wild bears, it actually promotes the use of bear products and makes them available to more people. Ready-Ed Publications


Threatened Species of Central Asia

Saving the Sun Bear Activity IT’S BARE IN THE WOODS!

MAP IT OUT

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Myanmar

For each of your points, write down a solution or conservation effort that should be put into place. Be specific with your answers and try to give examples of how your solution/s have worked with other endangered animal species.

China

Laos

Thailand

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Use an atlas and the map below to show where the Malayan sun bear is still found. Shade the areas of each country.

Bears are rapidly disappearing from wooded areas in Asia. Summarise the two main threats to the survival of the Malayan sun bear and other bears in the region.

Vietnam

Cambodia

1. Threat to survival: e.g. Habitat loss

Problem - _________________________ ________________________________

________________________________ © ReadyEdPu bl i cat i ons A solution - _______________________ •f orr evi ew pur p osesonl y• ________________________________ Brunei

Malaysia

Sumatra

________________________________

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2. Threat to survival:

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Indonesia

Problem - _________________________

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________________________________ ________________________________

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A solution - _______________________ ________________________________ ________________________________

WebQuester Challenge: The Bear Family Bears belong to the order Ursidae. Find out the common names and locations of the sun bear’s two closest relatives: SCIENTIFIC NAME

COMMON NAME

GLOBAL LOCATIONS

Ursus arctos horribilis Ursus maritimus Ready-Ed Publications

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Threatened Species of the Arctic

Polar Bear Fact File

Status meter

Scientific Name:

Ursus maritimus

Vulnerable

Threatened (IUCN Red List) Critically Endangered

Endangered

Special Adaptations r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Check Out

Extinct?

The polar bear has many adaptations to both its marine environment and to the very cold conditions in which it lives. Winter temperatures in the Arctic often plunge to -40°C or -50°C and can stay that way for days or even weeks. The polar bear has a thick layer of blubber up to 11 centimetres thick, which provides excellent insulation and keeps the body temperature at approximately 37°C, which is average for mammals. They also have two layers of fur that consist of hairs that conduct solar energy to their heat-absorbing skin. The polar bear’s compact ears and small tail also help heat loss. On bitterly cold days with fierce winds, polar bears dig out a shelter in a snow bank and curl up in a ball to wait out the storm. When curled up in a ball, the bears sometimes cover their muzzle with one of their thickly covered paws. Polar bears actually have more problems with overheating than they do with the cold. Even in very cold conditions they quickly overheat when they run and this is why they generally walk around at a leisurely pace.

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Scientists believe that Ursus maritimus, the “sea bear”, evolved about 200 000 years ago from its brown bear ancestors. Polar bears live in the Arctic Regions and know no boundaries. They pad across the ice from Russia to Alaska, from Canada to Greenland and over to Norway ’s Svalbard Archipelago. Polar bears are the world’s largest land predator, feeding primarily on seals. The male polar bear weighs up to 750 kilograms and the female weighs from 150 kilograms to 225 kilograms.

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Least concern

Decreasing population

Polar Bear Tracker: www.panda.org/ about_wwf/ where_we_work/arctic/ polar_bear/index.cfm

©???

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Conservation of the Polar Bear

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Polar bears are considered to be marine mammals and are excellent swimmers. They have been known to swim up to 35 kilometres without a rest. They even have forepaws that are partially webbed. These features and the massive size of their paws (up to 30 centimetres in diameter), help the polar bear swim efficiently. When a polar bear emerges from the water it shakes its fur like a dog and also wrings water from its fur by dragging itself across the ice. They have excellent underwater vision and can spot food up to eight metres away.

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As polar bears are a threatened species, an International Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears was signed by the United States, Russia, Canada, Norway and Denmark in 1973. This agreement supported research and recognised the need for cooperative management of the polar bear. The natives of each country are allowed to kill a quota of bears but are restricted to what they can do with the skins and other bear products. Each country involved has different regulations, with Norway completely protecting the polar bear and Canada allowing the natives to hunt with snowmobiles and high-powered rifles. There are organisations like Polar Bears Alive devoted to educating people about the polar bear and protecting them from being hunted unfairly.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Polar Bears Alive: www.polarbearsalive.org

Bear Talk

Polar bears communicate with each other through a combination of body language and vocalisations. A deep growl serves as a warning or to defend a food source. They also like to play, communicating this by wagging their head from side to side or standing on their hind legs with their front paws hanging by their side. Among polar bears, hissing, snorting, a lowered head and ears laid back all signify aggression. A “chuffing” sound is a response to stress and mother polar bears scold their cubs with a low growl or a soft cuff. Ready-Ed Publications


Threatened Species of the Arctic

A Polar Bear Polaroid Activity

SPECIES SNAPSHOT

Find a snapshot image of a polar bear on the Internet. Print it out and stick it in the space below. Complete the report using the Fact File page and your own library research. 123456789012345678901234567890121234567890123

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Scientific name: __________________________

Range and habitat: ________________________

_____________________________________ _____________________________________

Special adaptations: _______________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________

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Commonname:___________________________

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons _____________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• _____________________________________

_____________________________________

Communication methods: ____________________________________________________________________

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Threats to survival: ________________________________________________________________________

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_____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________

Programmes in place for preserving the polar bear species: ____________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ WebQuester Challenge: Polar Puzzler Surf around the Polar Bears Alive website and find out the five main threats to polar bear survival. www.polarbearsalive.org List them below. • ______________________________ • ___________________________ • _____________________________ • ______________________________ • ___________________________ Ready-Ed Publications

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Threatened Species of Central Asia

Giant Panda Fact File

Status meter

Scientific Name: Ailuropoda melanoleuca

Vulnerable

(IUCN Red List)

Endangered

Critically Endangered

Extinct?

What are the threats to the panda? r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Read More

The panda bear feeds on bamboo only and its forest habitat in China is seriously under threat. The pandas live in a number of small populations scattered around the forest regions. Each of these populations is fairly isolated and loss of habitat is the main problem facing the pandas. The reasons for the loss of habitat include illegal logging operations and clearing of the land for farming. Also, bamboo stands often experience periodic large-scale die offs where no bamboo is available. In the past, pandas would simply migrate to a new area to find bamboo supplies. However, because the panda populations are so isolated, it is now very difficult for the animals to move to new areas to find suitable food. Poaching of panda bears has also contributed to their decline over the years. However, this practice is no longer considered a major problem as the majority of the pandas are protected in special reserves. Panda pelts were once highly sought after and poachers could make up to three times their normal annual income on the black market selling the pelts. Unlike the Malayan sun bear, panda body parts are not used in traditional Chinese medicine. Instead, pandas were generally harmed when poachers had set traps meant for deer.

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The cuddly giant panda is usually one of the animal images that first spring to mind when people talk about endangered species. The panda has become a symbol for endangered species all over the world and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) has used the panda’s name for its official website www.panda.org) and its image as the official ( WWF symbol since 1961.

Teac he r

Least concern

Decreasing population

www.un.org/works/ environment/animalplanet/ panda.html

©IMSI

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Where does the panda live?

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Once upon a time giant panda populations were found all through southern and northern China, as well as in northern Myanmar (formerly Burma) and northern Vietnam. Today, the giant panda is only found in the wild in mountainous forest areas in Central China, south of the Yellow River. It is believed that there are less than 1600 pandas left in the wild.

o c . che e r o t r s super Saving the Panda

Check Out Want to know more? nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/GiantPandas/ and giant-panda.com/ Panda Cam: www.sandiegozoo.org/pandas/ pandacam/index.html

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Read more about the panda’s plight at this site:

The Chinese government has set up more than 30 reserves for the panda bear. While this action does improve the panda’s chance of survival, it hasn’t stopped the problems of habitat destruction and poaching and it also fails to protect pandas that do not live in these reserves. Only about 60% of China’s panda population is under protection. A commercial logging ban was declared at the end of 1998 protecting most panda habitats from destruction. Ready-Ed Publications


Threatened Species of Central Asia

A Pad for a Panda Activity

CONSERVATION AND CAPTIVITY

The poor giant panda was once listed as one of the most critically endangered species in the world, but has since been re-classified as “endangered” as a result of some successful breeding programs and conservation efforts.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S DESIGN ACTIVITY

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Apart from reserves created in China, successful captive breeding programs are taking place in international zoos such as the San Diego Zoo and the Smithsonian National Zoological Park in the United States. To date, only 20 pandas have been born in captivity outside of China. China also has established special research and breeding facilities for giant pandas. Imagine you are the zookeeper at one of the zoos or breeding facilities above. Design an enclosure for a giant panda. You will need to take into consideration many of the panda’s special features and of course their requirements. One of the most difficult things will be working out where to get all the bamboo!

Make some notes below to show what your enclosure might involve. Draw a sketch of the enclosure in the space.

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Space - How much space will the pandas and their future cubs need to roam around? Water - What water sources will you include?

Trees - What vegetation should be present in the enclosure?

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Food - Where will the bamboo come from and how much will be needed each day? How much do you estimate this will cost? Panda toys: What other things do you need to add to the enclosure to keep the pandas amused?

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Light - How much light do pandas require?

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Breeding: What special things will you need to take into consideration to make the breeding program a success? (You will need to research this section carefully.)

Extension:

Sometimes giant pandas may give birth to more than one cub. Usually the giant panda will pick one of these cubs to look after and the other cub will be removed and may be cared for by humans or given to a panda that has lost a cub. How do you feel about panda cubs being raised by humans? Write your thoughts on the back of this sheet.

WebQuester Challenge: Pandas on Loan What are the names of the two pandas on loan from the China Wildlife Conservation Association? How long are they on loan for?

Ready-Ed Publications

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Threatened Species Around the World

Bats Fact File

Status meter

Bulmer’s Bat (Aproteles bulmerae) ScientificFruit Name: Ailuropoda melanoleuca Bougainville Monkey-faced Bat (Pteralopex anceps) Convex Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus convexus) and many more species.

Vulnerable

Endangered

(IUCN Red List) Critically Endangered

Echolocation r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Extinct?

Bats have many special adaptations to their environment and the most interesting is echolocation. This is a way that bats can orient themselves to their surroundings, detect obstacles, communicate with others and find food. The process works as a series of short, high-pitched sounds are emitted by the bat. The sound travels out and bounces off objects and surfaces in the bat’s path, creating an echo. The echo returns to the bat giving it a sense of what is in its path. A bat can determine an object’s size, shape, direction, distance and motion. This echolocation system is very accurate, so much so that bats can detect insects the size of gnats or objects as fine as a human hair.

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Bats are classified as mammals because, like humans and other mammals, they feed their young milk. They are unique as they are the only mammals that can fly. These interesting creatures do not have feathers but their wings are formed from their skin, which is stretched over their fingers. Bats are nocturnal animals, roosting during the day and coming out to feed only at night.

Teac he r

Least concern

Decreasing population

Check Out

Bats live all over the world with the exception of very remote islands and Antarctica. They do not live in very cold or very hot climates, preferring warm weather.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Bat Conservation International: www.batcon.org/ and endangered.fws.gov/bats/ bats.htm

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©Museum of Natural Biology, USA

Bats under threat

Bats are helpful to humans!

Bats are under threat for a number of reasons, most of which are caused by humans. Widespread use of insecticides and chemicals kill the insects that the bats feed on. There has also been a loss of suitable roost sites. Bats often roost in roofs that are sometimes treated with toxic chemicals, leading to poisoning.

• Bats are considered to be nature’s best pest control with a single little brown bat catching up to 600 mosquitoes in just one hour.

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How can we help to save the bat? We can help save the bat from harm by becoming more educated about them. We can share this information with families and classmates. Do not disturb bats where they live and don’t go into caves or under bridges where they may be found. Bat losses are occurring at alarming rates worldwide and it is important that everybody makes an effort to protect bats from extinction. 18

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Bats 4 Kids: members.aol.com/bats4kids/

• With bats eating so many insects and other pests, this means less chemicals and poisons are used on crops and this is healthier for consumers. • Tropical bats are important to rainforests because they pollinate flowers and spread seeds for many trees and bushes. Flowers that bloom at night rely on bats for pollination. • Bat excreta (guano) is one of the world’s best natural fertilisers available and is believed by scientists to contain a bacteria that may be useful in cleaning lakes and streams from industrial pollution.

Ready-Ed Publications


Threatened Species Around the World

Beneficial Bats Activity

Many people associate bats with creepy stories, dark caves and vampires and think that they cause nothing but trouble. In reality, bats are actually an amazing help to humans.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Read the endangered bat Fact File and then explain in your own words how bats can benefit humans. • ___________________________________________________________________________________

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• ___________________________________________________________________________________ • ___________________________________________________________________________________ • ___________________________________________________________________________________

Bats have rabies!

RAISING THE BAT PROFILE

Bats suck your blood!

Bats are blind!

These are just some of the common myths surrounding bats, that aren’t quite true.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

You’ve been asked by the Bat Society to raise the profile of an endangered bat species around the globe. You may like to choose one of the species listed on the Fact File page or you can choose your own bat species for research.

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In the space below, create a plan for a poster that draws attention to the problems bats are facing as well as highlighting some of the benefits of bats. Include all the unique features of bats. Use a sheet of A3 paper to create your poster. Illustrate it with drawings or images downloaded from the Internet.

o c . che e r o t r s super WebQuester Challenge: Bats in Danger

Find the common and scientific names of three critically endangered bat species not listed on the Fact File page. (Hint: Check out the IUCN Red List at www.redlist.org) 1. _______________________________________________________ 2. _______________________________________________________ 3. _______________________________________________________ Ready-Ed Publications

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Threatened Species of India/Africa

Asian and African Elephants Fact File

Status meter

Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) African Elephant (Loxodonta africana)

Vulnerable

(IUCN Red List) Critically Endangered

Endangered

Appearance r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Check Out

Extinct?

The different types of elephants vary in appearance and size with some types being heavier, having a different colour skin, different shapes and size of their ears and varying trunk shapes. The elephant is said to be the world’s most versatile herbivore with a trunk that can bend around and pull up grass, pick up peas and tear off tree limbs. The elephant’s tusks can also pry bark loose and dig pits, while their rasp-like teeth grind up the toughest grasses, reeds, barks and branches. Elephants are active at all times, usually standing up while they sleep, although they sometimes lie on one side. They drink and bathe daily but can go without water for several days if they move away from a water source. They love to roll and wallow in shallow pools, showering themselves by using their trunk. After their swim they rub themselves against trees and rocks. To be social, adult elephants will insert the tip of their trunk into the mouth of another approaching elephant. Mother elephants lavish loving tender care on baby elephants, frequently touching them with their trunks and feet. The calf will often follow the mother, holding her tail. The mother elephant is always concerned about the safety and well being of her calf, lifting it over obstacles and pushing it under her to protect it from danger or the hot sun. When bathing, the mother sprays water over the calf and scrubs it gently with her trunk. Elephants also love to play, with trunk wrestling, shoving and butting being common among young males. If elephants are alarmed, angry or in pain they will scream and growl and if they are in danger they will form a defensive ring around the ©Asian Elephant, calves.

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Elephants are the largest animals that roam the earth today. There are two species of these great mammals with the Asian species consisting of three types and the African elephant being classified into two types. The different types cannot be divided into sub species because there is some interbreeding between elephants of the different types in each continent.

Teac he r

Least concern

Decreasing population

Elephant Facts: nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/ AsianElephants/elephantfacts.cfm Care for the Wild: www.careforthewild.org/ elephants.asp

©AfricanElephant, Corel Corporation

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Elephants in Danger

All elephant species are endangered or threatened because of problems with population growth and uncontrolled hunting. There is a loss of their natural habitat because of forest cutting and poachers kill elephant for their ivory tusks. Ivory is a hard, white substance that makes up the tusks of elephants and other mammals such as hippopotamus, walrus and mammoth species. It was previously used in the production of billiard balls and piano keys as well as dagger handles and other ornaments. The sale and trade of ivory has been banned since 1989 in a bid to save elephant populations.

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Angry Elephant

Elephants display an interesting variety of behaviours that can signify aggression, submission, social behaviour, play, alarm or pain. An aggressive elephant will stand tall with its tail raised, ears spread and its trunk hanging. It may make a rapid approach and trumpet loudly. An elephant that is submissive will flatten its ears, arch its back and raise its tail. It might also sway, swing its foot or back up and turn away.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Elephants Under Threat: www.bornfree.org.uk/ele40.htm

Corel Corporation

Ready-Ed Publications


Threatened Species of India/Africa

Tasks About Tusks Activity

Poaching has been a significant issue for elephants in both Asia and Africa. Read the Fact File to help you with the following tasks.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

What does the term “poaching” mean? Give details below.

___________________________________________________________________________________

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___________________________________________________________________________________

TUSK 1 (OOPS – TASK 1)

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Devise a proposal to increase elephant numbers in dying populations. Provide a decent background to your proposal by explaining how and why your proposal will work. Use your research skills to support your ideas. Remember to reference your work where possible. Write brief notes below and use a separate sheet to create your proposal. ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

TASK 2

Make a list of everything that ivory is used for. Think of some other materials that can be used instead.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

TASK 3

PLAN

PROS

E.g. Guard all elephants with armed forces to keep poachers away.

Would make it very difficult for poachers to get near the elephants.

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Twenty-five years ago, there were approximately 1.4 million elephants in Africa, but now it is estimated that there are about 500 000 left. In Asia, the numbers are even less. Brainstorm to think of some solutions to solving the problem of declining elephant numbers. In the table below, write down some of the advantages of your idea and then include some negative aspects to your plan. An example has been given. CONS

Would cost a lot of money and use a lot of government resources.

o c . che e r o t r s super WebQuester Challenge: Elephants in Emergency

List some ways in which elephants in Thailand helped the rescue efforts in the 2004 Asian tsunami disaster. 1. ___________________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________________ Ready-Ed Publications

21


Threatened Species Around the World

The Big Cat Family Fact File

Status meter

Scientific Name: (Family felidae)

Least concern

Vulnerable

Endangered

(IUCN Red List) Critically Endangered

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

All About Cats

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Cats belong to the family Felidae within the order Carnivora, a diverse group of meat-eating mammals. All cats are hunters. They have large, forward-facing eyes, excellent hearing, sharp teeth and strong limbs armed with sharp claws for catching their prey. All cats move silently with unusual grace, retract their claws and surprisingly, all purr – even the largest of the cat family. Cats have changed little since they first appeared on Earth over 30 000 years ago. From the beginning, they were solitary hunters that attacked from ambush with grasping limbs, sharp claws and knife-like canine teeth. Most cats hunt at dawn or dusk and have excellent senses of vision and hearing. They usually have patterned coats that help them hide from their prey. Very few cat species are social and most are territorial in behaviour.

Extinct?

Leopard (Panthera pardus) Leopards live in the continents of Asia and Africa and there are 20 sub species. They are the widest ranging of the big cats living in environments as diverse as deserts to jungles. There are eight endangered sub species of leopards with four of them classified as “critically endangered”. Threats to the leopard include habitat destruction and poaching, however, for an endangered species, this animal is actually doing well considering that there are at least 500 000 leopards still in the wild in Africa alone.

There are 36 species of wild cat. Each species has a number of sub species and every continent, except Australia and Antarctica, has native cats.

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Decreasing population

Jaguar (Panthera onca) The jaguar is the largest cat in the western hemisphere. It lives throughout Central and South America and is abundant in the dense forests of Central America and Brazil. Their rosettes are larger and set further apart than a leopard’s. They are a threatened species in some areas but there are large numbers in the Amazon Basin rainforests.

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Check Out Look at big cats online: www.ecoworld.org/animals/ ecoworld_animals_bigcats.cfm Check out an extinct big cat species: www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/mammals/ smilodon/

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This fierce family of animals has survived so long because their diet consists of meat. Their food is not found on trees and so the destruction of forests and wooded areas isn’t a major concern to their survival. Nature supplies the cat with the intelligence, courage and speed to become the hunter it needs to be to survive. The similar diet of all cats could explain why the 32 species of the family of cats resemble each other so closely.

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Tiger (Panthera tigris) The tiger is listed overall as endangered and three sub species have become extinct since 1950. The tiger lives in Asia and the largest cat in the world is the Siberian tiger. The stripes on a tiger’s body are said to be elongated spots. Already many tiger sub species have become extinct such as:

• Javan tiger (Panthera tigris mondaica) - Last specimen seen in 1979 on the island of Java, Indonesia. Extinct as a result of hunting and habitat destruction. • Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris virgata) - Last official sighting in 1968. This tiger was once found roaming Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Russia and Turkey. • Balinese tiger (Panthera tigris balica) - These tigers, which were only ever found on the island of Bali, were hunted to extinction with the last one thought to have been killed in 1937. Lion (Panthera leo) Lions evolved on the savannahs of Africa only 70 000 years ago. Until very recently, lions existed in most areas including North and South America, all across Asia, down to India, Europe and the British Isles, the Middle East and into Africa. The northern-most lions were enormous and known as cave lions, with the longest hair necessary to survive the Ice Age. They have only recently become extinct. Ready-Ed Publications


Threatened Species Around the World

Big Cats, Big Hunters Activity

Read the Fact File for the Big Cat family and answer the following.

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1. Why do you think some species of big cats are more endangered than others? Highlight any patterns you can see to support your answer. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

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2. What reasons can you find for big cats being survivors from prehistoric times?

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3. If all endangered big cat species became extinct, what effect might this have on other animals, such as the prey of big cats? _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

CATS IN CAPTIVITY © Ready Ed Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

One of the highlights of any trip to a zoo is to check out the big cats. Today in most zoos, cats are no longer housed in cages. Instead, they are usually placed in an enclosure that closely resembles the surroundings of their natural environment in the wild. 5. How do you feel about big cats in captivity?

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6. What solutions do you think will help save endangered big cat species?

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WebQuester Challenge: Smile, it’s the Smilodon!

Search the Internet to find information about an extinct sabre-toothed cat – the smilodon. List four facts about this cat creature that died out over 11 000 years ago. 1. _________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________ 4. _________________________________________________________ Ready-Ed Publications

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Threatened Species of Africa

Black Rhinoceros Fact File

Status meter

Scientific Name: Diceros Bicornis

Vulnerable

Endangered

(IUCN Red List) Critically Endangered

The Disappearing Rhinos r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

There are five rhinoceros species left on the planet with the black rhino being the most well known. Rhinoceros species have been roaming the globe for over 60 million years. An extinct species of rhino (Balucitherium grangeri) was once the largest living mammal on Earth, weighing in at 25 tonnes!

Many rhinoceros species are now extinct, however, thousands of years ago, rhinoceros species in all shapes and sizes existed on nearly every continent. The rate at which the rhino has become endangered is frightening. Usually, the reason for large mammals being classed as threatened or endangered is as a result of habitat loss. However, in the rhino’s case, it’s the result of poaching or illegal hunting.

Extinct?

In the 1970s, half of the rhinos of the world were killed. Today there is only 15% of the 1970 population in existence. While the Javan and Sumatran rhinos are facing a serious threat of extinction, many conservation efforts have saved them in recent years. The black rhino hasn’t been as fortunate and it is estimated that there are less than 2500 left, spread over African countries including Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Kenya, Namibia and South Africa. Rhinoceros species have been hunted for hundreds of years because of their horn. Some people in ancient times believed that the horn was able to turn poisons into harmless substances. In Asia, people used the horn in traditional medicines, however, the rhino was never in any danger of extinction during these times. In the 1970s, the price of oil rose. What has this got to do with rhinos? Well, in an African country called Yemen, the rising price of oil made many people very wealthy as oil was facing a world-wide shortage, so many oil producers were becoming able to afford precious dagger holders made from rhino horn. Almost everyone in Yemen was able to afford them and they became a must-have item. Suddenly, Yemen became the largest importer of rhino horns and with a population of over 6 million, a lot of rhinos were needed to keep up with the demand. The value of the rhino horns went up and this kept poachers busy. A similar story involves elephants being hunted for their ivory tusks. When such precious parts can be sold for as much as $50 000 for two, it is too much of a temptation for struggling farmers and hunters to resist.

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Least concern

Decreasing population

Remaining Rhinos © ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons The other four species: White Rhino (Ceratotherium simum) After the elephant, this is the largest living land mammal today. There are two sub species: The Northern white rhino and the ©IMSI Southern white rhino. The Southern white rhino is considered the least endangered of the remaining rhinoceros species, however there are only thought to be about 30 Northern white rhinos left and this sub species is critically endangered. The white rhino is not white in colour. Its name is thought to be a mis-translation of the Dutch word wijde which means “wide” and not “white”. Indian Rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis) As a result of rhino conservation programs, this rhino species has been saved from near extinction. It is found in Nepal and India and current rhino numbers have recovered from less than 200 to around 2400! Javan Rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus) This is the rarest of the rhino species with fewer than 60 animals left. There is a population in Indonesia and one in Vietnam. Sumatran Rhino (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) This hairy rhino species is probably the most endangered of all rhinoceros species, although it competes with the Javan rhino for this title. Numbers have declined over 50% due to poaching over the last 15 years. Less than 300 Sumatran rhinos are left wandering around very small and often isolated populations in South East Asia with Indonesia and Malaysia being the only significant range states. Their main threat to survival is poaching.

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Trade in rhino horn – and ivory for that matter – is prohibited, however, there is still a black market that continues to sell these products. Rhinos are also kept in reserves. In the past rhinos were killed in protected regions as some African governments could not afford to patrol the parks to prevent poaching. Today, because there are so few black rhinos left, they are literally under armed guard. Even when they go foraging for food, a guard with a rifle goes with them. Tragically, there have been armed guards killed by poachers, just so they can get the valuable rhino horn. Ready-Ed Publications


Threatened Species of Africa

Rhino Recovery Activity RHINO SPECIES

Common Name _______________________________ Scientific Name _______________________________

Interesting Fact _______________________________

Common Name _______________________________ Scientific Name _______________________________ Interesting Fact _______________________________ Common Name _______________________________

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What are the names of the five rhinoceros species? Write an interesting fact about each one.

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RESCUE PLAN There are numerous projects set up around the world aimed at restoring rhino numbers to healthy populations. Check out the work of the national parks below. • Nairobi National Park - www.kws.org/rhino.htm • Kruger National Park - www.krugerpark.co.za/ africa_black_rhino.html • Wild Aid - www.wildaid.org (Black Rhino Program) • Garamba National Park - www.rhinos-irf.org/ irfprograms/africaprograms/garamba/ (concerned with conservation of white rhinos). • Save the Rhino International www.savetherhino.org/

Interesting Fact _______________________________

After exploring some of the work that the above organisations and parks are involved with, create an information package that summarises and promotes the national park or program that you are most interested in. Start your notes by jotting down information for each heading below. Present your work in poster format using A3 card. Download rhino images to illustrate your poster.

Common Name _______________________________

Location: ___________________________________

Scientific Name _______________________________

Activities: __________________________________

Interesting Fact _______________________________

___________________________________________

Scientific Name _______________________________ Interesting Fact _______________________________

Scientific Name _______________________________

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Common Name _______________________________

___________________________________________ Project goals: _______________________________ ___________________________________________

What are the reasons for the dramatic decline in rhinoceros numbers?

Future plans: _______________________________

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Key statistics about rhino types involved in the program: __________________________________

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DID YOU KNOW? All black rhinos use communal dung heaps. Sometimes they scrape their feet in the dung heap to leaving a scent as they travel about. Nice one!

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WebQuester Challenge: Rhinos Down Under Use your research skills to find an answer to this challenge: Find the name of an Australian or New Zealand zoo that has a rhino enclosure. ____________________________________________________________ Ready-Ed Publications

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National Oceanic & Atmospheric Adminstration (NOAA)

Threatened Species of the Oceans

Humpback Whale Fact File

Status meter

Scientific Name: Megaptera novaeangliae

Least concern

Decreasing population

Vulnerable

Endangered

(IUCN Red List) Critically Endangered

Humpback Habits r o e t s Bo r e p ok u TheS Specs

Humpback whales are able to live to around 95 years of age. They can weigh up to 65 tonnes and grow to lengths of up to nearly 15 metres long. Their large front flippers can grow to over 4 metres.

• These whales migrate annually from the tropics to polar regions. • Humpbacks sometimes hunt in packs where several whales will circle a school of fish and blow bubbles to trap them in. This is known as “bubblenet feeding”. • Their favourite foods are krill (like tiny prawns) and school fish such as mackerel and herring. • Humpbacks will eat up to 4000 kilos of fish a day. • Male humpbacks make vocalisations known as “songs”. • Humpbacks are very well known for leaping out of the water. This action is known as “breaching” and it is thought to be a playful gesture, although it may be related to breeding habits. Scientists are still at sea on that one!

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The humpback whale species has suffered a massive decline over the last 100 years. In the 1870s it was believed that there were around 125 000 whales swimming the world’s oceans. However, today it is thought that there are less than 7000 whales in existence.

Extinct?

Humpback Hardship - Where have they all gone?

You can visit the International Whaling Commission website at www.iwcoffice.org

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A TIMELINE OF EVENTS – Many other whale species are currently classified as endangered. Progress has been made in recent years to stop these species becoming extinct.

1946

1972

1979

1982 1988 1994

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Learn more about humpbacks: www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/ humpback/ and www.nwf.org/wildlife/ humpbackwhale/

Many factors have contributed to the drastic decline in humpback whale populations. The main issues concern illegal whaling, tangles with commercial fishing nets and death from marine pollution. Commercial whaling was also a major factor in reducing whale numbers and steps were taken to see this industry stopped. The humpback whale, was used a meat source for pet foods. When whaling first started in the 19th century, humpbacks were hunted for their valuable bony plates that were up to two metres long. These plates were known as whalebone or baleen and could be sold for up to £2000 which was a lot of money at the time.

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The International Whaling Commission (IWC) was established by the major whaling countries of the world, in an effort to protect the number of whales left in the oceans from over hunting. A vote was held to end commercial whaling with 53 countries voting for this decision. However, this did not take effect until 1982 when 25 countries voted for a three-year phase out. The Indian Ocean Whale Sanctuary was created by the IWC, which banned all commercial hunting of whales in the Indian Ocean. The IWC voted for a moratorium on commercial whaling and this has been in place since 1986. All nations had stopped commercial whaling. The IWC set up the Southern Ocean whale sanctuary.

Whaling Today

Unfortunately, commercial whaling is still occurring. • Iceland announced its “Scientific Whaling” program in August 2003. In 1989, Iceland had stopped its illegal commercial hunt following worldwide boycotts and economic pressure from other countries. • Norway began commercial whaling in 1993 as an attempt by one of their political parties to gain popularity in northern Norway. • Japan has conducted an annual whale hunt since 1987 in Antarctic waters which they call “scientific” whaling.

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Threatened Species of the Oceans

Whales in the World’s Waters Activity

CLASSIFICATION

The humpback whale is only one of a number of whale species that are threatened. Complete the table below by searching the IUCN Red List database at: www.redlist.org/search/search-basic.php

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Classify each of the whale species below as either

Endangered, Vulnerable or Least Concern

Endangered

Location of whale

Blue whale

Least Concern

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Beluga whale

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Gray whale

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Antarctic minke whale

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Southern right whale

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North Atlantic right whale

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Killer whale

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Sperm whale

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Fin-backed whale

_______________________

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Humpback whale

Vulnerable

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• SAVING THE WHALE

Drastic steps have been taken to increase declining whale populations. The most significant action involved a worldwide ban on commercial whaling.

Illegal whaling: _______________________________

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Marine pollution: ____________________________ ____________________________________________

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Current solutions: ____________________________

Current solutions: ____________________________

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A possible solution could be: __________________

A possible solution could be: __________________

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WebQuester Challenge: A Brainy Question Use your Internet research skills to find an answer to this challenge: Find out how the size of a humpback’s brain compares to that of a human brain. Write your answer below. ___________________________________________________________ Ready-Ed Publications

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Threatened Species of the Western Atlantic Ocean

Manatee Fact File

Status meter

Scientific Name: Trichechus manatus

Vulnerable

Endangered

(IUCN Red List) Critically Endangered

Where do they live? r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

BIG Eaters

Extinct?

Manatees are usually found in shallow, slow moving rivers, estuaries, saltwater bays and coastal areas. They migrate to warm coastal waters during summer months. The West Indian manatee has a range from as far north as Virginia in the United States and as far south as the north coast of Brazil.

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These rather ugly, but fascinating, aquatic mammals are thought to have evolved from wading plant eating mammals. They are also closely related to elephant species. This endangered species of manatee is also related to the West African manatee, the dugong (Dugong dugon), and the extinct Steller’s sea cow, which was last seen in 1768.

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Least concern

Decreasing population

Manatees Under Threat

Sadly, manatees could be on the road to extinction. They

These massive aquatic creatures are face a number of threats to their survival and herbivores, feeding on marine have a very high mortality rate as well as a vegetation and daily eating as low breeding rate. It is believed that much as 15% of their total there are less than 2600 West Indian body weight. The average manatees left. Threats include: weight of the manatee is Red tide - this is the term given around 450 kilos, so that is when there is a higher than normal a fair amount of food! concentration of marine algae in Manatees spend up to 8 the water. In regions where the hours a day eating, while the manatee populations live, most red rest of the day is spent tides are caused by a micro-algae sleeping or travelling around. (Karenia brevis) that produces a toxin (brevetoxin) that can poison manatees They graze for food along the and other marine life. riverbeds and sometimes rest ©U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s submerged at the bottom of a shalCrab trap and fishing lines - manatees low waterway, coming up to the suroften get their tails and fins caught up in these nets face to breathe every three to five minutes. in shallow water, causing gashes which easily become infected. They are able to hold their breath for up to fifteen Manatees have also been killed after swallowing fish hooks. minutes while resting. Human related mortalities - accidents in shallow waters involving watercraft (speed boats) have killed many manatees. It is thought that powerboats are one of the main threats to Manatees belong to the order of animals classified manatees. Many surviving manatees display scars from as Sirenia, a Latin word for “siren” or “mermaid”. collisions with boats. It is believed that many early sailors mistook Canal locks - a large number of manatees have been caught manatees for mythological mermaids. and drowned in canal locks and flood control structures. Learn more about these intriguing marine beasts: Habitat loss - residential development along rivers and waterways has damaged the estuarine seagrass communities that manatees rely on for food. Chemical pollution from  w w w. b a g h e e r a . c o m / i n t h e w i l d / development has also affected their habitat. van_anim_manatee.htm - Bagheera: The manatee Disease - mass deaths have been traced to a greater risk of www.savethemanatee.org/ - Save the manatee disease due to chemical pollution. Toxins build up in the bodies Also check out something more local that is in danger of of manatees making them more prone to serious diseases dying out: that can then lead to an epidemic. Chemical pollution has also  www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/ been responsible for an increase in disease among dolphins publications/dugong/ - Facts about dugongs and seals.

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Manatees Vs Mermaids

Check Out

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Threatened Species of the Western Atlantic Ocean

Manatee Mayhem Activity

MANAGING THE MANATEE

The manatee is currently facing several threats to its survival. Like most endangered animals, habitat loss plays a key role in the decline of manatee populations in the West Indian region. Create a plan to save the manatee from ALL of the factors that are contributing to this species’ low numbers. In your plan, brainstorm and then explain how you will address each of the following issues. Include how you think each of your ideas will work. Use the Action Plan below to set out your mission! Write in-depth details on an A3 sheet of paper for each of the eight problem areas.

SPEED BOAT ACCIDENTS

CRAB TRAPS

DISEASE

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RED TIDE

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Problem: ___________

Problem: ___________

Problem: ___________

Problem: ___________

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__________________

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Plan: ______________

Plan: ______________

Plan: ______________

Plan: ______________

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Evaluate the plan:

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Evaluate the plan:

Evaluate the plan:

Evaluate the plan:

(Will this plan really work? Why / Whynot?)

(Will this plan really work? Why / Whynot?)

(Will this plan really work? Why / Whynot?)

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FISHING LINES, NETS & HOOKS

CANAL LOCKS

(FROM RESIDENTIAL AREAS)

Problem: ___________

Problem: ___________

Problem: ___________

__________________

__________________

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Plan: ______________

Plan: ______________

Plan: ______________

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__________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ HABITAT LOSS

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Evaluate the plan: (Will this plan really work? Why / Whynot?)

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POLLUTION

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Problem: ___________ __________________

Plan: ______________

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Evaluate the plan:

Evaluate the plan:

Evaluate the plan:

(Will this plan really work? Why / Whynot?)

(Will this plan really work? Why / Whynot?)

(Will this plan really work? Why / Whynot?)

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__________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

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Webster Challenge: Disappearing Dugongs The dugong is currently classified as a vulnerable species. It is the only plant-eating marine mammal found in Australian waters. In what locations around Australia are dugongs likely to be found? ____________________ Ready-Ed Publications

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Threatened Species of the Oceans

Great White Shark Fact File

Status meter Least concern

Vulnerable

Endangered

(IUCN Red List) Critically Endangered

Fishing for Food r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Extinct?

As a young shark, this animal feeds mainly on a variety of fish species. As they grow larger, they prey on sea lions and seals, particularly the elephant seal, which is known as a shark favourite.

Strangely enough, one of the ocean’s most feared predators has been declared a threatened species in recent years.

Check out some great white pointers on the net:

A shark’s tooth structure changes as it matures. As a young shark, its teeth are sharp and ideal for gripping onto slippery fish. Later on, shark develops large serrated teeth that are suited to taking large bites out of creatures. A large great white pointer is capable of eating half a sea lion in one gulp! Scary.

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Scientific Name: Carcharodon carcharias

Decreasing population

Check Out

www.amonline.net.au/ fishes/fishfacts/fish/ ccarchar.htm - White shark details www.nationalgeographic.com/ kids/creature_feature/0206/ - Creature Feature www.nationalgeographic.com/ fieldtales/greatwhite/ - Shark Cam

Sharks prey on just about anything that spends time in the ocean. Penguins, dolphins, squid, turtles and even other sharks are not safe from this deadly predator. This species is also known to scavenge food off dead marine mammals such as whales.

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The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) is calling for greater protection for these marine killers. The sharks are being hunted for their teeth and jaws, which are fetching thousands of dollars in illegal trade. Shark fins are also popular ingredients in expensive delicacies such as shark-fin soup. This species is now protected in all Australian coastal waters (* Department of the Environment and Heritage 2005), despite being responsible for a small number of human deaths over the years. In 1992, South Africa became the first country to protect this species and was shortly followed by Namibia, the Maldives, Florida and California (U.S.), and then Australia. It is important to remember that this shark species has a low reproduction rate and therefore is not capable of recovering from low numbers at a fast rate. Female sharks do not reproduce until they reach at least five metres in length and even then, they produce a relatively low number of pups.

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Interestingly, sharks do not like the taste of human flesh. Most attacks on humans are usually a result of the shark mistaking a person or surfboard as a seal – especially surfers in dark wet suits! Despite the fact that human deaths are often reported, most shark attacks are not fatal. Once the shark has taken a bite, it usually realises it does not want any more and so most shark attack victims escape with loss of flesh. The fatalities are usually as a result of blood loss from injuries.

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• sleek, streamlined body • crescent-shaped tail • black eyes • long pointed snout • very large jaws • large triangular teeth with serrated edges • length: up to 6 metres • weight: up to 3000 kg Ready-Ed Publications


Threatened Species of the Oceans

Protecting a Predator Activity

The great white pointer is classified as a vulnerable species and is currently protected by law from commercial and recreational fishing in Australia. This shark has also been responsible for shark attacks, with some even resulting in death.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u “GreatS white sharks that attack people should be destroyed.” THE GREAT WHITE DEBATE

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A debate is a formal argument where two teams put forward cases for and against a topic. Read the statement below.

Put forward a case for the Affirmative side. Write your ideas and opinions in point form. Remember, the Affirmative team should always support the topic.

• _______________________________________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________________________

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• _______________________________________________________________________________ Put forward a case for the Negative side. Write your ideas and opinions in point form. Remember, the Negative team should always argue against the topic.

• _______________________________________________________________________________ • _______________________________________________________________________________

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What is your actual opinion on the debate topic above? Discuss your reasons.

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WebQuester Challenge: Age of Sharks Use your research skills to find an answer to this challenge: If a white pointer measures about 5-6 metres in length, roughly how old would scientists believe it to be? ______________________________ Ready-Ed Publications

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Threatened Species of the Southern Oceans

Leafy Sea Dragon Fact File

Status meter

Scientific Name: Phycodurus eques

Vulnerable

Dept.of Fisheries 1991)

Critically Endangered

Endangered

Extinct?

Threats to the Sea Dragon r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

The sea dragon’s interesting appearance serves as a defence mechanism to ward off predators. By camouflaging themselves among marine plants, the sea dragons become very difficult to find in their natural habitat and as a result have very few marine predators hunting them. The sea dragon’s camouflage look also helps it to prey on smaller fish.

Many sea dragons are captured for aquarium trade, as they are such a rare and beautiful species. Collectors and hobbyists will pay high prices for these delicate but fragile creatures. Many collectors are unable to provide the sea dragons with the right food and environment and this generally leads to the sea dragon dying soon after capture.

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This unique marine creature comes from the seahorse family and is very closely related to the weedy sea dragon (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus). Like their name suggests, leafy sea dragons’ bodies are covered with leaf-like structures and they resemble floating pieces of seeweed. These sea dragons can grow up to 35 centimetres long.

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Least concern

Decreasing population (Australian

Sea dragon numbers have also decreased as a result of sea storms. Their bodies are unable to cope with sudden changes in water pressure, which can occur in stormy weather. Many sea dragons are found washed up on the beach after bad weather.

Currently, it is the loss of habitat that is causing the biggest concern for sea dragon survival. Many coastal habitats are under threat of industrial pollution, and run-off caused by agricultural fertilisers and drains from mainlands.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Camouflaged •f orr evi ew pur poses onl y• Creatures Pregnant Fathers?

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Did you know that sea dragons are one of the few animal species in this world where it is the job of the male to give birth to the young?

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These rare species are found only in Australia’s temperate coastal waters. There are © IMSI records of them inhabiting the ©??? southern coastline from Kangaroo Island to Rottnest Island, off the coast of Western Australia. They prefer to live in sand patches near kelp-covered rocks and rarely venture deeper than 50 metres. They are also found around rocky reefs, seaweed beds and seagrass meadows in shallow coastal waters.

It’s true – the female sea dragon gives the eggs to the male to carry. She lays 100-250 eggs on a special patch on the underside of the male’s tail and it is here that they attach themselves to the tail and are fertilised.

o c . e Conservationc Efforts her r o t s super

Dragon Search ( www.dragonsearch.asn.au) monitors the numbers of leafy sea dragons and works closely with other marine organisations to help protect this endangered species. It also encourages community members (e.g. scuba divers) to report sightings of the sea dragons, which they can do online at the website above. This information is very important as it helps marine biologists know how many leafy sea dragons exist within a population and also helps them to develop a management plan for the species and to find out more about their habitat requirements. 32

Then, after a period of about 4-6 weeks, the male hatches two batches of eggs. The male literally “gives birth” to the tiny sea dragons. Amazingly, once a sea dragon is born, it needs no help whatsoever from its parents and is straight away able to fend for itself, eating phytoplankton until it is large enough to hunt for small marine creatures.

See Sea Dragons on the Net: www.fish.wa.gov.au/rec/broc/fishcard/dragon.html www.amonline.net.au/fishes/students/focus/ seadrag.htm www.dragonsearch.asn.au/code/dscode.pdf - Scuba Diving Code of Conduct www.deh.gov.au/coasts/mpa/ - Australian Marine Protected Areas www.doc.govt.nz/Conservation/Marine-and-Coastal/ Marine-Reserves/index.asp - New Zealand Marine Reserves

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Threatened Species of the Southern Oceans

Looking out for Leafy Sea Dragons Activity

Read the Leafy Sea Dragon Fact File and complete the following.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

SCUBA AND SEA DRAGONS

Use the Diving Code of Conduct website on the Fact File as a start.

What are the threats to the leafy sea dragon’s survival? _______________________________________ _______________________________________

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Imagine you are a scuba diver. Find out some information that you think would be helpful for other scuba divers in case they come across sea dragons in their travels.

Discuss six points that you should keep in mind should you come across leafy sea dragons in your scuba explorations. Be sure to explain why these rules should be followed. E.g. Look but don’t touch! - Important, as touching the sea dragons can injure or stress them out!

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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What are some conservation efforts that are taking place?

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WebQuester Challenge: Marine Reserves Find out the name/s of the marine reserve nearest to where you live. If you live inland, choose the nearest coastal area. List some species that are protected within this marine reserve. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Ready-Ed Publications

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Threatened Species of New Zealand

Tuatara Fact File

Scientific Name:

Sphenodon punctatus and Sphenodon guntheri

Least concern

Decreasing population

Vulnerable

Endangered

(IUCN Red List) Critically Endangered

Location and Habitat r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Tuatara may have once roamed all over the earth as well, however, today they are found only in New Zealand. Interestingly, New Zealand has no native mammals species and this may well be the ©Alan Hill reason why tuatara have been able to survive in that region.

Extinct?

Tuatara are found on about 30 small, hard-to-getto islands off the coast of New Zealand. Approximately 1000 years ago, these curious lizards were spread out over the mainland but became extinct before the arrival of European settlers. Their habitat is cold and damp with temperatures often approaching freezing.

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The tuatara is the most unique reptile left roaming the earth. Millions of years ago the tuatara lived side by side with dinosaurs at a time when the earth’s continents were joined as one. They also survived the events that led to the dinosaurs becoming extinct across the globe – many people believe that a meteor crash was responsible, occurring 65 million years ago.

Teac he r

Status meter

A Third Eye?

Yes, it’s true. Tuatara have a “parietal eye” on the top of their head! This eye contains a retina and functions in the same way that normal eyes do, however, a scale grows over the top of the eye when a tuatara reaches adulthood.

© ReadyEdPubl i ca t i ons Tuatara - Ancient Tuatara in Trouble Reptiles Tuatara flourished on mainland •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Tuatara are the only living descendents of the order of reptiles known as Rhynocephalia.

New Zealand for over 80 million years. However, several factors have since played a part in their rapid decrease in numbers over the last 1000 years. These factors include natural events such as wildfires, clearing of the land for agriculture and industry and hunting by introduced mammals such as cats, dogs, rats and even humans.

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These two amazing lizard species are the last surviving members of a reptilian family that dates back to the Mesozoic Era. This era was known as the beginning of the Age of Reptiles and occurred around 248 million years ago.

There are only about 400 members left of the Sphenodon guntheri species, which is facing extinction in the future. Fortunately, the Sphenodon punctatus species still occurs in abundant numbers with a large population on Stephen’s Island in Cook Strait. This island is rat-free and provides a safe habitat for tuataras.

o c . che e r o t r Tea Time for the Tuatara s super

Not only are tuatara an ancient species, they can also live to a ripe old age – even past 100 years old. Now that is ancient! Tuatara are nocturnal creatures, feeding only at night on foods like insects, worms, snails and almost anything else they find. Tuatara have also been known to eat their own offspring!

Check Out: www.terranature.org/tuatara.htm  w w w. p a n d a . o r g / n e w s _ f a c t s / e d u c a t i o n / middle_school/species/tuatara.cfm  www.forestandbird.org.nz/magazines/96feb/ rat_free_islands.asp - Rat-free Islands

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In recent years, conservation efforts have included the creation of “rat-free” islands such as Tiritiri Matanga. These islands are unique, as they are teeming with bird life and other wildlife that would normally have become extinct in mainland New Zealand forests. As these islands are also free of other introduced mammals they are rich in plant life that supports a whole range of lizard, insect and bird species. Using such islands as a sanctuary for tuatara and other endangered native species could be the answer to reducing the threat of extinction.

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Threatened Species Down Under

Ancient Reptile Survivors Activity

ISLAND SANCTUARIES

THINK ABOUT IT!

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Read the Fact File about fascinating dinosaur relative.

this

Describe and discuss the “rat free” island concept that is currently set up in New Zealand to address this problem. You may like to conduct some further research on the Internet using the websites listed on the Fact File page.

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Teac he r

One of the main reasons for the decline in tuatara populations was the introduction of various predators.

In your response, include your feelings about this project and other things you would like to see occur that will help the plight of the tuatara.

What possible reasons can you give for why this unique reptile was able to survive the event that led to the extinction of the dinosaurs?

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Describe the changes that have occurred on the “rat-free” island sanctuaries.

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WebQuester Challenge: A Cold-blooded Creature Study the websites for information about the tuatara’s blood temperature. Write three related facts below: ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ Ready-Ed Publications

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Threatened Species of South East Asia

Komodo Dragon Fact File Scientific Name:

Status meter

Varanus komodoensis

Vulnerable

Endangered

(IUCN Red List) Critically Endangered

Lizard Locations r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

This fierce reptile is the largest living lizard left on the planet and is also the world’s heaviest lizard. Growing to over three metres and weighing in at about 70 to 90 kilograms, they are actually quite fast moving, given their size. They are also adept at climbing trees and are excellent swimmers.

Extinct?

These cold-blooded dragon lizards are found only on the Indonesian islands of Flores, Komodo, Rinca and the smaller islands of Gili, Montang and Padar. With the exception of Flores, all of these islands are grouped together as Komodo National Park. The habitat of the dragon is particularly harsh. These islands contain arid volcanic regions which have steep slopes and hardly any water for most of the year. The region usually floods during the brief monsoon season. The dragons choose to live mainly in the forest and savannah regions.

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DID YOU KNOW? Komodo dragons weren’t known about until a report came in shortly after World War I from a pilot whose aircraft had gone down. The pilot managed to swim to Komodo Island where he was confronted by the dragons!

Teac he r

Least concern

Decreasing population

Cannibal Dragons

Check Out

Creep around these sites for more about these deadly but endangered dragons:

©John White

Komodo dragons have a carnivorous diet and are known for eating smaller dragons. They are able to kill very large prey such as adult water buffalo, pigs and small deer. They hunt anything that they can overpower and have taken a fancy to injured humans in the past!

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

www.isidore-of-seville.com/ komodo/ and www.zoo.org/ komodo/komo_flash.html

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Quick Facts:

• Dragons live between 20 and 40 years. • They are solitary animals and only come together at breeding season. • Male dragons defend a territory of up to 2 kilometres which they patrol each day. • Occasionally the dragons will swim from island to island over long distances. • During breeding season, a female dragon will lay up to 30 eggs. Hatchlings are approximately 40 cm long. • Adult dragons have about 60 teeth which they replace regularly. • They have long forked tongues which they use to detect chemicals in the air, warning them of nearby animals and prey. • A dragon’s mouth contains very poisonous bacteria, so even if prey survives an attack, it is almost certain to die from an infection shortly after. • Young dragons live in trees. • Sometimes the dragons are known as “land crocodiles”.

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The quantities of food that a dragon takes in are phenomenal. For example, witnesses have seen a 46 kilogram dragon eat a pig weighing 41 kilograms in less than 20 minutes. If we compare this to what humans eat, this is like saying that a person weighing 46 kilograms would need to eat approximately 320 hamburgers – and all in 20 minutes!

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www.zoo.org/educate/ fact_sheets/kom_dragon/ komodo.htm - Fact Sheets

o c . che e r o t r s super

Dragons Dying Out

There are less than 5000 dragons left in the wild and these dragons are facing a number of threats to their survival. The main threats include volcanic activity on the islands that they inhabit. Not only does volcanic activity destroy the dragons’ habitat, it also wipes out a lot of the prey that these dragons rely on for food. Other factors that have played a part in their decline include the poaching of prey by humans as well as tourism in the area.

Tourism has, however, contributed to the survival of the komodo dragons as well. Some travel guidebooks suggest that you bring your own goat for a dragon to eat and organisers charge a considerable amount for you to watch the gruesome display of the komodo dragon in action. Money raised from tourism goes towards protecting the komodo dragon. Check out Komodo National Park www.komodonationalpark.org/ Ready-Ed Publications


Threatened Species of South East Asia

Missing Reptile Report Activity

The Komodo dragon is probably one of the most intimidating creatures you are ever likely to encounter. It is capable of tearing apart rather large prey within seconds. One of the Komodo dragons has escaped from the Komodo Park. Read the Fact File and then fill out the missing reptile form below.

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Missing: __________________________________________________________________________

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Scientific name: ____________________________________________________________________

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Last seen: ________________________________________________________________________ (give details of locations) Is likely to be found in areas: _________________________________________________________ (give details of habitat) Is known to feed on: _______________________________________________________________ (give details of diet)

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Possesses the following traits: (please tick)

Other special features include:

Long forked tongues

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Front flippers

Warm-blooded

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Carnivorous diet

Fast-moving

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Grey scales

Skilful climber

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Poisonous bacteria in mouth

Walks on two legs

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Razor sharp teeth

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This species is threatened due to: ____________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________

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If you see this reptile: ______________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________

WebQuester Challenge: Komodo Conservation

Check out the Fact File for the listed websites and find out what conservation efforts are helping the Komodo dragon. Summarise your findings below. • ____________________________________________________________ • ____________________________________________________________ • ____________________________________________________________ • ____________________________________________________________ • ____________________________________________________________ Ready-Ed Publications

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Threatened Species of Central America

Galapagos Giant Tortoise Fact File

Status meter

Scientific Name: Geochelone elephantopus

Vulnerable

Endangered

(IUCN Red List) Critically Endangered

Tortoises Vs Turtles? r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Many sub species are classified as critically endangered.

Extinct?

Tortoises are turtles that live only on land and have different features to the turtles that live in the ocean. Their feet are more like those of an elephant as they are quite stumpy and their shell forms a high dome. The tortoises of the Aldabra Islands and the Galapagos Islands are the world’s largest land turtles. The may weigh up to 270 kilograms and can be up to 1.5 metres long. The African pancake tortoise has a flat flexible shell and when facing danger, it can easily slide into cracks between rocks to hide. It then takes a deep breath to inflate its body, which allows it to wedge itself tightly in the crack.

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The Galapagos giant tortoise is the largest species of turtle. They are only found in the Galapagos Islands, which were discovered in the 1500s by Spanish explorers. This group of islands lies in the Pacific Ocean about 970 kilometres west of Ecuador, a country on the north west coast of South America. The islands are made up of volcanic peaks and cover an area of nearly 8000 square kilometres. When the Spanish explored the area in the 16th century, they found so many giant tortoises that they named the islands “Galapagos” which in Spanish means shell and refers to the tortoise shell. At that time of discovery, there were an estimated 250 000 tortoises that inhabited the islands. Sadly, today only about 15 000 remain.

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Least concern

Decreasing population

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Check Out •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• ©Corel Corporation ©???

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Different Species

The tortoises are found on most of the Galapagos Islands yet their appearance varies from island to island. Scientists believe that there are several species, maybe as many as twelve. At least three sub species are extinct and another has only one turtle left! Successful efforts to protect the tortoises are underway on some islands but it is unlikely the tortoise numbers will ever return to 250 000.

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In the 19th century, sailors used these giant reptiles as a food supply. The sailors discovered that the animals could live on their backs for months without food or water, providing a source of fresh meat during voyages. Thousands of tortoises were collected in this way and later killed for food. The tortoises have also been prey for introduced animals to the area. Rats arrived on sailing ships in the 1500s and by 1900 there were small settlements on the islands. Human habitation has also threatened the survival of the tortoises. New settlers brought pigs, dogs and cats with them and all of these animals ate the tortoise eggs and some baby tortoises, once again reducing numbers. Other introduced animals such as goats and cattle compete with the giant tortoises for food and they are often left with little supplies. Tortoises’ diet consists mainly of nettles, leaves, fruits and berries that they must compete for with introduced animals. Physical threats to survival include fire and the many volcanoes on the islands which have erupted over time, in the process causing the deaths of many giant tortoises.

o c . che e r o t r s super

In 1959, the Charles Darwin Research Centre (www.darwinfoundation.org/) was set up on Santa Cruz, one of the Galapagos Islands. It is here that tortoise eggs are incubated at the research centre and hatchlings are raised until they are four or five years old. This process protects eggs and the newborns from being eaten by the introduced animals. More than 3500 giant tortoises have been bred in this way. Laws are currently being passed through the government of Ecuador, which will aim to protect the giant tortoises from capture and exportation.

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Why have their numbers decreased?

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www.thebigzoo.com/ Animals/ Galapagos_Giant_Tortoise.asp

Giant tortoises can live for a very long time. It’s possible that many of these tortoises are over 150 years old!

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Threatened Species of Central America

Galapagos Action Plans Activity

TORTOISE TRIVIA

Use the Fact File page to help you answer the following.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

1. What does “Galapagos” actually mean?

____________________________________ ____________________________________ 2. Who named the Galapagos Islands?

____________________________________ ____________________________________

3. Where exactly are the Galapagos Islands? Use an atlas and then highlight the Islands’ approximate location of this map of Latin and South America.

List three reasons for the decline in tortoise numbers? • ___________________________________ • ___________________________________

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Teac he r

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CONSERVATION EFFORTS

• ___________________________________

Describe some of the work of the Charles Darwin Research Centre.  www.darwinfoundation.org/ ____________________________________ ____________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Mexico

CENTRAL AMERICA

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Colombia

Brazil

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Read about some of the work of the Charles Darwin centre. Then, brainstorm with a partner and outline another possible solution to one of the problems that the giant Galapagos tortoise is facing. Explain why you believe your plan will work.

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Ecuador

AN ACTION PLAN

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4. What percentage of the original giant Galapagos tortoise population remains today? ____________________________________

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WebQuester Challenge: Mystery Man The Charles Darwin foundation was named after a very important early scientist. Search around the Internet to find out information about this man. Who was he and what was he best known for? _______________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ Ready-Ed Publications

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Threatened Species of Central America

Harlequin Frog Fact File

Status meter

Scientific Name: Atelopus varius

Vulnerable

Endangered

(IUCN Red List) Critically Endangered

Back From the Dead! r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

This uniquely patterned frog is sometimes referred to as the Panama golden frog or golden harlequin toad. It is found only in Western Panama, Central America, and is a national symbol for that country.

This frog species feeds on tiny insects and vertebrates and grows to only five centimetres in length.

There are about 70 other Atelopus frog species, all very similar to the harlequin frog. These frogs were presumed extinct for many years and the species was only recently rediscovered in a Central American rainforest reserve. The family of Atelopus frogs is only one of a number of amphibian families around the world suffering a massive decline in populations. Scientists believe that in the last ten years, more than 50% of over 70 different Atelopus frog species have become extinct.

Check Out Current Threats

Amphibian Alert!

An amphibian is an animal with scaleless skin that lives part of its life in water and part on land. There are about 4000 different kinds of amphibians and they make up one of the classes of vertebrates. Amphibians include frogs, toads, salamanders and caecilians.

Extinct?

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Because of its isolation and the rarity of this poisonous frog species, not much is known about its natural history. Scientists do know that these frogs vocalise in order to communicate with other frogs, particularly around breeding season.

Teac he r

Least concern

Decreasing population

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Visit this site to find out about the chytridiomycosis disease: www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/ invasive/publications/c-disease/

Apart from the usual threats of habitat loss through rainforest destruction, trout – fish which have been introduced to the harlequin frog’s natural habitat – are responsible for preying on a significant number of the harlequin tadpoles, having a huge effect on population numbers.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Amphibians mainly stayed in the water but as they began to compete with each other for food, they developed special features over a long period of time, which enabled them to live away from the water.

Scientists claim that the world’s amphibians are facing a global decline due to environmental threats such as loss of habitat, acid rain, thinning of the ozone layer and fungal diseases.

Official reports suggest that at least 122 amphibian species have become extinct since 1980 with at least a third of remaining amphibian species facing an uncertain future. Amphibians have a highly sensitive skin that is easily affected by environmental changes such as air and water pollution.

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©Robert Puschendorf

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This interesting group of animals is thought to have evolved from fish around 300 million years ago. At that time the land had plenty of vegetation and the only competition amphibians had were insect-like creatures.

Presently, the biggest threat to this frog species is the chytridiomycosis fungal disease.

Helping the Harlequin

Harlequin frog research and conservation efforts are slowly improving the future for this endangered amphibian species. Several programs have been involved in building up frog population numbers. The Rainmaker Conservation Project www.rainmakercostarica.com The Midwife Toad’s Tale - www.conservation.org/ xp/frontlines/species/10260401.xml Read more about Global Amphibian Declines www.westernwildlife.com.au/frogs/declines.htm Project Amazonas Inc. www.projectamazonas.com/subpages/ floraandfauna/amphibians.htm - Click on Toads

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Threatened Species of Central America

Amphibian Alarm! Activity

The beautiful, but poisonous, harlequin frog is found in a rainforest region currently being destroyed. As recently as the early 1980s, over 100 populations were known to exist in Costa Rica where this colourful frog was considered quite common. Fungal disease brought about the death of many of these frogs, as well as that of several other amphibian species in the area.

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What other threats is this frog species currently facing?

Teac he r

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____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________

What are the four main reasons that are thought to be causing the worldwide decline and extinction of amphibian species? 1. _________________________________________ 2. _______________________________________ 3. _________________________________________ 4. _______________________________________

Action for Amphibians

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Devise a plan to address the four main threats to harlequin frogs or other amphibian species. Write down how your plan will work and what you hope to achieve. Also note down some problems you might experience by putting such a plan into action.

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THREAT: ___________________________________ Plan: _____________________________________ _________________________________________ Potential outcomes: __________________________ _________________________________________ Potential problems: __________________________ _________________________________________

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THREAT: ___________________________________ Plan: _____________________________________ _________________________________________ Potential outcomes: __________________________ _________________________________________ Potential problems: __________________________ _________________________________________

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THREAT: ___________________________________ Plan: _____________________________________ _________________________________________ Potential outcomes: __________________________ _________________________________________ Potential problems: __________________________ _________________________________________

THREAT: ___________________________________ Plan: _____________________________________ _________________________________________ Potential outcomes: __________________________ _________________________________________ Potential problems: __________________________ _________________________________________

WebQuester Challenge: Rain Maker Project Use your Internet research skills to find out where the Rainmaker Project is based. What is this project concerned with? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Ready-Ed Publications

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Threatened Species of Southern Oceans

Humboldt Penguin Fact File

Status meter

Scientific Name: Spheniscus humboldti

Vulnerable

Critically Endangered

Endangered

Humans Vs Humboldts r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

All of the world’s 17 penguin species live in the southern hemisphere. Most of these penguin species are not in any immediate danger of extinction, particularly those penguins that inhabit the continent of Antarctica. Amazingly, penguins live in some of the harshest conditions experienced on the planet. However, certain penguin species living in more northern and more populated areas aren’t so lucky. The Humboldt penguin is one such species. This penguin, which reaches heights of up to 70 centimetres lives on the Pacific coastal regions of Peru and Chile in South America.

Did You Know?

Palaeontologists who have studied penguin fossils have suggested that penguins that lived on earth millions of years ago were able to fly. It is believed that penguins stopped flying over 70 to 60 million years ago as they preferred a life in the sea.

Extinct?

Sadly, humans are entirely responsible for the decline in Humboldt populations. This all began in the mid 1800s when people began to disturb the natural habitat of the Humboldt penguin.

Popular Penguin Poo?

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Teac he r

Least concern

(CITES)

Decreasing population

Strangely enough, penguin faeces – known as guano – became highly popular as fertiliser and people took little care when they went to retrieve it. This damaged nesting areas, preventing the birth of many new Humboldt penguins and greatly reducing penguin numbers.

Check Out

Learn more about El Niño: www.pbs.org/wgbh/ nova/elnino/

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Learn more about Humboldt penguins: www.zoo.org/ educate/fact_sheets/ penguin/penguin.htm

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Since then, their wings have evolved into flippers that are much more suited to moving around in the water. Many early explorers thought that penguins were some kind of fish or marine mammal rather than a bird!

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Oil Spills

From time to time, a massive tanker in the ocean creates an oil spill that wreaks havoc on penguin populations and other marine species. Thousands of penguins have been killed as a result of these oil spills.

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Hunting Humboldts

Along with other penguin species, these penguins have been hunted for the meat, oil and skins. Sailors in early whaling days, thought of penguins as a tasty meal! Many adult penguins and their chicks have been captured for zoos and private collectors and a number of people have collected penguin eggs. At one time, penguin eggs were so popular that some regions had special days designated to collecting penguin eggs. School children would even be given the day off to collect the precious eggs. Other factors that have contributed to the bird’s decline are the fishing nets that have caused many penguin drownings. Commercial fishing has also been responsible for the deaths of penguins and has reduced the availability of prey that penguins depend upon.

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©Image courtesy of Chicago Zoological Society

One environmental factor threatening the humble Humboldt penguin is El Niño – a warming of East Pacific Ocean seawater temperatures off the western coast of South America that has a huge impact on weather patterns and living ecosystems. When El Niño occurred in 1982-3, approximately 65% of the Humboldt penguin population living in Peru perished.

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Threatened Species of Southern Oceans

Humboldt Penguin Activity

Read the Fact File about this endangered penguin species and then complete the following.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

What are some possible conservation solutions that might help the endangered Humboldt penguin? Discuss.

• ___________________ e.g. Commercial fishing - _________________ Penguins get caught in

_______________________________________

fishing nets and drown. Also, the prey that penguins _______________________________________ depend on has been reduced through fishing. _______________________________________

_______________________________________

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Teac he r

What are the threats to the Humboldt penguin’s survival? List and discuss below all of the problems they are facing.

_______________________________________

• ___________________ _________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________

_______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons ANTARCTIC PENGUINS •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

_______________________________________ _______________________________________

• ___________________ _________________ _______________________________________

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The penguins of Antarctica are still abundant in number. Why do you think these penguin species have continued to flourish while other species have become threatened? _______________________________________ _______________________________________

• ___________________ _________________

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_______________________________________ _______________________________________

• ___________________ _________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________

_______________________________________ _______________________________________ _______________________________________

WebQuester Challenge: El Niño and the Environment Use your Internet research skills to find out more about this interesting phenomenon and its effect on living things. List three facts below. • ______________________________________________________________ • ______________________________________________________________ • ______________________________________________________________ Ready-Ed Publications

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Threatened Species of South East Asia

Philippine Eagle Fact File

Status meter

Scientific Name: Pithecophaga jefferyi

Vulnerable

Endangered

(CITES) Critically Endangered

Rainforest Ruined r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Extinct?

Like so many other endangered species, this eagle was facing extinction due to a severe loss of habitat. At one time, approximately 94% of the Philippine islands were covered in lush tropical rainforests. Following World War II, the amount of forested area fell to 40%. Today, scientists estimate that only 25% of the forests remain, with some researchers claiming that only 18% of the rainforest still exists. The rapid decrease in rainforest habitats is rather frightening. Even now, the rainforest areas in the Philippines are being cut at the rate of 170 000 trees a year, with experts predicting that rainforests may eventually disappear completely, taking the rich and unique animal and plant life with them.

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This extremely rare eagle species is the second largest in the world. (The largest eagle is the harpy eagle in Central and South America.) The Philippine eagle is taller than the harpy though and holds the world record for wingspan – more than 2.5 metres! This bird was first thought to be on the road to extinction around the 1960s. The Philippines are a group of 1700 islands known as the Philippine Archipelago. The eagle is found on only four of those islands: Leyte, Samar, Luzor and Mindanao. It is believed that there are less than 200 of these birds left in the wild.

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Least concern

Decreasing population

© ReadyEdPubl i ca t i on sEagle Hunting the •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• ©Heather Lerner

PHILIPPINES

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Predatory birds – known as raptors – are hunted all over the world. Humans kill them to protect smaller endangered species, however the eagle has always been a prized hunting trophy. Hunting these eagles became a sport and many important people paid a lot of money to participate! Young eagles have also been stolen from their nests by collectors, who hoped to make money by selling the eagles to the highest bidder.

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The Philippine islands are located above Indonesia.

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The Philippine eagle is classified as a raptor – a bird of prey. Other raptors include hawks, falcons, owls and vultures. Raptors are known for their hunting skills, seizing their prey with their taloned claws and tearing the meat with their sharp beaks. The Philippine eagle is famous for its fondness for eating monkeys. Standing over one metre tall, with a large curved beak and warlike headdress of spiky feathers, it presents a fierce and intimidating image. Along with monkeys, these eagles will also hunt small mammals such as dogs, pigs and goats. They are very skilled at snatching birds from trees. 44

Conservation Efforts

On the southern island of Mindanao, an organisation known as The Philippine Eagle Foundation  www.philippineeagle.org), was established to ( ensure that the Philippine eagle is protected. This group not only protects this magnificent bird, it also aims to draw attention to other endangered species in the region. www.peregrinefund.org) is The Peregrine Fund ( the World Centre for Birds of Prey and is involved in field research to learn more about this eagle and its environment. Conservation education to develop public awareness and understanding of eagles’ natural environment and captive breeding programs to increase numbers and populations also assist with these efforts.

Source: www.dvrconline.org/phileagle.html, www.bagheera.com

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Threatened Species of South East Asia

Endangered Bird of Prey Activity The Philippine eagle is one of the rarest birds in the world. Read the Fact File and find out all about the main threat it is facing.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S RAINFOREST DESTRUCTION

What has happened to the rainforest areas in which the Philippine eagle once flourished? ___________________________________________________________________________________

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Describe the changes that have occurred in this region since the end of World War II.

___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________

Why do you think the rainforest is still being destroyed?

___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________

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Describe some other threats that the Philippine eagle is facing.

___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________

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WebQuester Challenge: Eagle-Eye Rescue Plans

If you have access to the Internet, look up two websites listed on the Fact File page that are helping with conservation efforts. Name each organisation and outline what their main goal is. Try to find information about their specific actions as part of their role in protecting the Philippine eagle. For each one, find out how successful their projects have been.

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Name: ________________________________

Name: ________________________________

Main Aim: _____________________________

Main Aim: _____________________________

_____________________________________

_____________________________________

Activities: ______________________________

Activities: ______________________________

_____________________________________

_____________________________________

Success so far: _________________________

Success so far: _________________________

_____________________________________

_____________________________________

_____________________________________

_____________________________________

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1

Other Endangered Species

Facing the Future Activity

SAVING AN ENDANGERED SPECIES

r o e t s Bo r e p o u k Location Habitat S

Classification

Species

Threats to survival

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Choose a threatened species that you have not already studied. Find out as much as you can about this species and complete the ideas chart below by adding information for each heading.

Special features

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons SPECIES •f orr ev i ewCONSERVATION pur posesonl y•

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Brainstorm to write down everything you know about specific conservation efforts to save this threatened species. Organise your brainstorm into clear headings and use examples where possible. List the effect that these conservation efforts have had on the species.

o c . che e r o t r s super Conservation Efforts

WebQuester Challenge: Find out what the zoo in your city (or nearest city) is doing in the way of helping endangered or threatened species. On the back of this page, write a summary of what one of their programs is concerned with. Make sure you give details about how successful the program has been.

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Other Endangered Species

A Wild Zoo Activity

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Today, animals in captivity are rarely kept in cages. Instead, they are kept in specially designed enclosures that are based on their natural habitats in the wild. Choose an animal that you are interested in and design an enclosure for this animal at the Wild Zoo. Careful planning will need to take place to ensure that your animal will be able to exist comfortably in this enclosure. Remember, your animal probably wouldn’t choose to live in the zoo, so design your enclosure as close to the animal’s real habitat as you can.

WebQuester Challenge: Build a home for a Siberian Tiger!

Before you start check out this cool site: www.nationalgeographic.com/features/97/tigers/maina.html What modifications did you have to make to your tiger’s enclosure before it could be released? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

© ReadDESIGN yEd Publ i cat i ons AN ENCLOSURE •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Before you set about designing your enclosure, you will need to find out the following pieces of information: (Make brief notes for each section.) Use the back of this sheet for more room.

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Space - How much space will the animal need to roam around? _______________________________ _____________________________________ Water - Will the animal need a watery environment such as a pond or river? ________________________ _____________________________________ Trees - Will the animal need trees to swing or hang from? _____________________________________ Light - Is the animal nocturnal? _______________ _____________________________________ Food - What will the animal be fed and how often will feeding occur? ___________________________ _____________________________________ Vegetation - What types of plants need to be placed into the enclosure? ___________________________ _____________________________________ Building a home: What things do you need to add to the enclosure? _____________________________ _____________________________________ Making the enclosure safe: What type of barrier will you use to keep the animal inside the enclosure? ______ _____________________________________

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Draw a design of your enclosure in the box below:

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3

Other Endangered Species

Comparing Species Activity You are an apprentice zookeeper and have been asked to write a report on two different threatened species. To help clarify your ideas, you’ve decided to use a Venn diagram. Complete the diagram below to show what you have learned. You can pick any two animal species – you might like to choose two species that you know very little about.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Research them using some of the links on Page 5 such as the School World Endangered Species Project at www.schoolworld.asn.au/species/species.html

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(Name of Species)

WebQuester Challenge:

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(Name of Species)

What is the role of the World Wildlife Fund? ( www.worldwildlife.org) Describe and evaluate three programs it is concerned with. Write your notes on the back of this page.

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Other Endangered Species

Awareness Campaign Activity There are many groups and non-profit organisations dedicated to helping several endangered species around the globe. Many of these groups you might already www.greenpeace.org.au) and the Born Free be familiar with such as Greenpeace ( www.bornfree.org.uk). Foundation (

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These groups are specifically promoting the awareness of specific animal species: •Peregrine Fund - www.peregrinefund.org •Pacific Whale Foundation - www.pacificwhale.org •Save the Manatee - www.savethemanatee.org •Amphibian Conservation Allowance - www.frogs.org/index.asp •International Rhino Foundation - www.rhinos-irf.org •Save the Elephants - www.save-the-elephants.org

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Check out more by searching the Yahoo Directory ( dir.yahoo.com) for “Wildlife Conservation and Research”.

If possible, have a look at these websites and check out the sorts of activities and programs these organisations are involved with. Their main aim is to draw attention to the plight of endangered animals and to educate the public on how they can help save these animal species from extinction.

Start Your Own Campaign © Read yEd Pu bl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

the Department of the Environment and Heritage, 2005.

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You may notice that all of the animals above are reasonably well known. Choose a lesser-known endangered species that you are particularly interested in and create your own “Animal Conservation Fund”. You can choose your endangered species by checking out the websites on Page 5 or by going straight to the hot lists at: www.redlist.org/ - International Union for Conservation and Nature Red List (2005). www.deh.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicthreatenedlist.pl?wanted=fauna - Australian List from Plan your new organisation below by completing details for each heading.

Name of campaign: _________________________________________________________________

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Animal species at centre of campaign: _________________________________________________ Your campaign slogan: ______________________________________________________________ Your campaign’s main aims: _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Ideas on how you will go about creating a public awareness of this animal’s threats to survival: ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Tips for how members of the public can help this animal: __________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________

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3

Other Endangered Species

Animal Trading Cards Activity Create four trading cards for endangered animals. Use the templates below and download or draw a picture to illustrate. Swap the cards with your classmates.

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Name:

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Scientific name: _________________________

Scientific name: _________________________

Habitat: _______________________________

Habitat: _______________________________

Location: ______________________________ © ReadyEdP ub l i cat i ons Predators: _____________________________ Predators: _____________________________ f or_________________ r evi ew puReasons r po seso nl y• for endangerment: _________________ Reasons for• endangerment: Location: ______________________________

Name:

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Scientific name: _________________________

Scientific name: _________________________

Habitat: _______________________________

Habitat: _______________________________

Location: ______________________________

Location: ______________________________

Predators: _____________________________

Predators: _____________________________

Reasons for endangerment: _________________

Reasons for endangerment: _________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

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Other Endangered Species

School World Endangered Species Project

Activity

You will need access to the Internet to complete this activity.

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This unique World Wide Web project allows students from all around the world to publish their reports on endangered species. Over 88 countries are involved, with students from hundreds of primary schools having already uploaded their reports.

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You can find reports on a range of animals and you can also add your own report. Ask your teacher for more details.

YOUR DRAFT REPORT

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GUIDELINES FOR REPORTS Make sure you check out the guidelines at this site before you start your report. www.schoolworld.asn.au/species/outline.html

Jot down some ideas for your School World report. You may choose to concentrate on an animal species that you have already studied.

Make notes using the following headings. When you have finished, type your report using the computer and if possible find an image that you can use. You may draw a picture of your own or you may like to hunt one down on the Internet. Make sure you gain permission to use the image from the photographer.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Subject: ________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Description: _____________________________________________________________________________________

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______________________________________________________________________________________________ Environment: ____________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________

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Problems: ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Solutions: ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Summary: ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ References: _____________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________

Find out from your teacher how you can submit your report to the School World website. Ready-Ed Publications

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5

Other Endangered Species

Think Globally, Act Locally Activity Choose two threatened species and complete the Action Cards below. Brainstorm to think of everything you can do in your community to help this endangered species. Organise your ideas into categories. Even if the animal does not exist in your area, or even in your country, there are still many things you can do to help.

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Name of Species ___________________________________

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Check the Net using the website below to get you started. Draw a picture to illustrate your Action Cards. Websites: www.endangeredspecie.com/Ways_To_Help.htm - Ways You Can Help

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Action •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Name of Species ___________________________________

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Other Endangered Species

World National Parks

5

Activity Below is a list of some of the national parks that exist around the world. Using an atlas and Internet sites as a guide, shade and label their locations using the world map below. Number the parks that you can find and then use a key with a different colour for each park.

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EUROPE __ Andalucia (Spain) __ Nigula Nature reserve (Estonia) __ Killarney (Ireland) __ Cabrera (Spain) __ Red Rose Forest (UK) __ Plitvicka Josera (Croatia) __ Jasmund (Germany)

AMERICAS __ Banff (Canada) __ Iguacu (Brazil) __ Rocky Mountains (North America __ Baru Volcano Park (Central America) __ Amazon/Andes (South America-Ecuador) __ Tierra del Fuego (Argentina)

ASIA __ Chitwan (Nepal __ Komodo (Indonesia) __ Kerinci Seblat (Indonesia) __ Khao Yai (Thailand) __ Huangou (China) __ Rajaji (India)

AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND __ Aoraki/Mt. Cook (NZ) __ Kakadu (Aust) __ Karajini (Aust) __ Kahurangi (NZ)

MIDDLE EAST __ Judean Desert (Israel) __ Sinai (Egypt)

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AFRICA __ Nairobi (Kenya) __ Kalahari (South Africa) __ Kilimanjaro(Tanzania)

THE ARCTIC __ Arctic National Park These Internet sites provide a good source of information about worldwide national parks. www.iloveparks.com/international-parks.htm www.atn.com.au/parks/links.htm - World National Park links

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KEY (e.g. Nairobi) ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________

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Choose three national parks for further research. (They do not have to be from the list above)

Briefly summarise some features of each of the three national parks you have chosen: 1. __________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. __________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. __________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Ready-Ed Publications

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Other Endangered Species

Word Search Activity B K T M A B M Q L U C P E L T G I M E L E T I P P

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V L W L T X S N A T U G N A R O A R T A M U S Y U

P F K R A H S E T I H W T A E R G F Z I Z I H M L

T A B M U N W F C H K V G P X W K Y M V Y A S G U

E S H F N T A E C X I I M A B V P N G E B X T P C

F V U J L L K T U M L N D G J I G O D D G T C E N

D J M P U H I C E L L D R O Z K W G L N S G Q L R

U F P H U D W R A E B N U S N A Y A L A M L M O Q

N J B P U O J E P B O D B G C S D R K I R B A Q F

N G A H Y F S R H O R A U I G I T D P N J B B P H

M L C I T E F L O W D E N A M A T O F A Y E E T E

H C K L N A Z X F B F L H N Z N T D X M I U A A Y

T K W I L G R E E N T U R T L E M O Q S J A X Z R

U F H P D Y F R U I T B A T A L W M S A H F F G F

R C A P B L A C K R H I N O C E R O S T G K F D W

V I L I D W W V T U A T A R A P L K L X N Z O E X

W H E N M X L X E Q O Y C T D H I H M U W T R W I

P E R E G R I N E F A L C O N A R D H F F F H T M

J Q K E K N T Z L I B E R I A N L Y N X G Y K S C

O Y B A L L A W K C O R E S R T Y Z S C M F Y P I

O N O G A R D A E S Y F A E L L E Z A G I D U A S

H A R L E Q U I N F R O G I A N T P A N D A P N D

Y R A E B N W O R B D I T F X U F N W Q F Y I Y G

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

X I H Y B R O Y O Y T M R A F I L Z E L P L V S L

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E Z E R W G A E A C P Q I G Z H R D A K Y Z I E H

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Tick the animals as your find them. ASIAN ELEPHANT BLACK RHINOCEROS BLUE WHALE BROWN BEAR CHINESE ALLIGATOR CHUDITCH FRUITBAT GALAPAGOS GIANT TORTOISE GIANT PANDA GREAT WHITE SHARK GREEN TURTLE HARLEQUIN FROG HUMPBACK WHALE IBERIAN LYNX KOMODO DRAGON

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

LEAFY SEA DRAGON LEATHER BACK TURTLE MALAYAN SUN BEAR MANATEE MANED WOLF NUMBAT PEREGRINE FALCON PHILIPPINE EAGLE POLAR BEAR ROCK WALLABY SAUDI GAZELLE SUMATRA ORANGUTAN TASMANIAN DEVIL TIGER TUATARA

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ENDANGERED SPECIES AROUND THE WORLD

Answers Note: Answers will vary for most pages.

P.13: Saving the Sun Bear

P.23: Big Cat, Big Hunters WEBQUESTER CHALLENGE: Answers will vary. Check out:  www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/ mammals/smilodon/

r o e t s Bo r e p P.25: Rhino o Recovery u k S Polaroid P.15: Polar Bear WEBQUESTER CHALLENGE: Climate change; pollution; drilling and mining; fishing and hunting; other human interaction such as tourism.

P.17: A Pad for a Panda WEBQUESTER CHALLENGE: Giant pandas Mei Xiang and Tian Tian are at the National Zoo (Smithsonian) in Washington, USA. They are on loan for ten years.

WEBQUESTER CHALLENGE: Answers will vary but can include: Weribee Open Range Zoo in Victoria; Taronga and Western Plains Zoo in New South Wales; Perth Zoo in Western Australia and Orana Wildlife Park in Christchurch (NZ).

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WEBQUESTER CHALLENGE: Ursus arctos horribilis - Grizzly bear - Northwest America; Ursus maritimus - Polar bear - Southern edge of the Arctic Ice Pack

P.27: Whales in the World’s Waters Information sourced from IUCN Red List January 2005.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons P.19: Beneficial Bats •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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P.21: Tusk Tasks WEBQUESTER CHALLENGE: • Elephants helped transport supplies where cars and trucks could not travel due to washed out roads and mud. • They acted as bulldozers moving tsunami debris off streets. • Elephants helped to recover victims by lifting heavy debris off the streets. • Elephants in Thailand also ran for the mountains some time before the tsunamis hit the shores. Their excellent sense of hearing could provide an early warning system for future tsunami events.

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All oceans Endangered

Beluga whale

Arctic Sea, North Atlantic, North Pacific Vulnerable

Gray whale

Arctic Sea, North Atlantic, North Pacific Least concern

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WEBQUESTER CHALLENGE: There are at least 31 critically endangered bats species. Check the Red List for details. redlist.org/search/search-basic.php) Search ( for bats and check “Critically Endangered”.

Blue whale

Antarctic Minke whale Oceans surrounding Antarctica least concern Southern right whale

South Atlantic, South Pacific, East and West Indian Ocean, Antarctica least concern

o c . che e r o t r s super North Atlantic right whale

North Atlantic endangered

Killer whale

All oceans least concern

Sperm whale

All oceans least concern

Fin-backed whale

vulnerable

WEBQUESTER CHALLENGE: Humpback brains are nine times the size of the human brain, taking into account the proportions of the size of a human brain in comparison to the size of the human body. Ready-Ed Publications

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ENDANGERED SPECIES AROUND THE WORLD

Answers P.29: Manatee Mayhem

and the San Diego Zoo in California in the United States have supported research and conservation efforts in the field since 2000.

WEBQUESTER CHALLENGE: Most of the world’s population of dugongs is now found in northern Australian waters between Shark Bay in Western Australia and Moreton Bay in Queensland.

P.39: Galapagos Action Plans r o e t s Bo r e p ok P.31: Protecting u a Predator S

WEBQUESTER CHALLENGE: Charles Darwin (1809-1882), was a British naturalist who became famous for his theories on evolution. Like several other scientists before him, Darwin believed that, through millions of years, all species of plants and animals had developed gradually from a few common ancestors. On the Galapagos Islands he noticed many variations among plants and animals of the same general type as those in South America. He collected the fossils and other specimens for future study and decided that the animals and plants had adapted to the different environments. Darwin’s work supports the theory of evolution.

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WEBQUESTER CHALLENGE: A shark of that length would probably be between 15 and 25 years old.

P.37: Missing Reptile Report WEBQUESTER CHALLENGE: Answers will vary but may include: • The Sultan of Bima is known to have ordered protection of Komodo dragons as early as 1915. • The creation in 1980 of Komodo National Park, which protects most of the Komodo dragons left. Park rangers have been able to stop the poaching of Komodo dragons and reduce the poaching of their prey within the park. • Western organisations have provided assistance for Komodo research and conservation. Woodland Park Zoo in the state of Washington,

© ReadyEdP.41: Pub l i cat i ons Amphibian Alarm! •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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P.54: Word Search E Z E R W G A E A C P Q I G Z H R D A K Y Z I E H

V L W L T X S N A T U G N A R O A R T A M U S Y U

B K T M A B M Q L U C P E L T G I M E L E T I P P

P F K R A H S E T I H W T A E R G F Z I Z I H M L

T A B M U N W F C H K V G P X W K Y M V Y A S G U

E S H F N T A E C X I I M A B V P N G E B X T P C

F V U J L L K T U M L N D G J I G O D D G T C E N

D J M P U H I C E L L D R O Z K W G L N S G Q L R

U F P H U D W R A E B N U S N A Y A L A M L M O Q

N J B P U O J E P B O D B G C S D R K I R B A Q F

N G A H Y F S R H O R A U I G I T D P N J B B P H

M L C I T E F L O W D E N A M A T O F A Y E E T E

H C K L N A Z X F B F L H N Z N T D X M I U A A Y

T K W I L G R E E N T U R T L E M O Q S J A X Z R

U F H P D Y F R U I T B A T A L W M S A H F F G F

R C A P B L A C K R H I N O C E R O S T G K F D W

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WEBQUESTER CHALLENGE: The Rainmaker Project is located in Costa Rica, South America, and is dedicated to the conservation and protection of the Fila Chonta mountain range on Costa Rica’s Pacific side.

V I L I D W W V T U A T A R A P L K L X N Z O E X

W H E N M X L X E Q O Y C T D H I H M U W T R W I

P E R E G R I N E F A L C O N A R D H F F F H T M

J Q K E K N T Z L I B E R I A N L Y N X G Y K S C

O Y B A L L A W K C O R E S R T Y Z S C M F Y P I

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O N O G A R D A E S Y F A E L L E Z A G I D U A S

H A R L E Q U I N F R O G I A N T P A N D A P N D

Y R A E B N W O R B D I T F X U F N W Q F Y I Y G

X I H Y B R O Y O Y T M R A F I L Z E L P L V S L

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Endangered Species Series: The World  

The series of two books contains practical research activities for threatened and endangered animal species of Australia and around the worl...

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