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The Volcano Theme © Rea dyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Book o c . che e r o t r s super

Written by Alison Fletcher. Illustrated by Terry Allen. © Ready-Ed Publications - 2002. Published by Ready-Ed Publications (2002) P.O. Box 276 Greenwood Perth W.A. 6024 Email: info@readyed.com.au Website: www.readyed.com.au COPYRIGHT NOTICE Permission is granted for the purchaser to photocopy sufficient copies for non-commercial educational purposes. However, this permission is not transferable and applies only to the purchasing individual or institution.

ISBN 1 86397 457 1


About This Book Introduction Volcanoes and earthquakes can change the surface of the earth very suddenly, and without warning. They both involve the release of a huge amount of pressure from deep within the earth. A tsunami, or giant wave, can result from an earthquake or volcanic eruption. The devastation caused by earthquakes, volcanoes and tsunamis kills many thousands of people every decade and destroys homes and land, but there are also many benefits of these powerful phenomenon.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok In this book you will find ... u S Teac he r

The study of volcanoes, earthquakes and tsunamis provides the basis for an interesting, exciting and motivating classroom theme, for students of all ages.

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Teachers’ Notes

Each Teachers’ Notes section contains comprehensive background information on volcanoes, earthquakes and tsunamis. Pictures and Diagrams Many detailed pictures and diagrams have been included to demonstrate the various processes.

Glossary This contains definitions of the terms you will need to know when teaching about volcanoes, earthquakes and tsunamis.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Student Activities

Web Sites A list of web sites has been included. These are designed specifically for children and are a great way to enhance your teaching programme.

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Activities have been devised to enhance and consolidate the topics of volcanoes, earthquakes and tsunamis. These cover a range of learning areas including language, mathematics, science, technology and enterprise, society and environment, and health.

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The activities are designed for the 6 to 8 year age group, and include: cloze activities, word sleuths, sentence matching, crosswords, comprehension, unjumbling of words, labelling, addition and subtraction, mapping and grid work.

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Outcome Statements Links (Page 4)

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Links have been made to the curriculum profiles of the Australian National Curriculum. A grid showing links across all subject areas has been included on Page 4. The activities in this book refer to material from the various National Curriculum Profile documents. These documents are published by: Curriculum Corporation, St. Nicholas Place, 141 Rathdowne St, Carlton, Victoria, 3053 www.curriculum.edu.au/catalog/primary.htm

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Contents

Page

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2 4 5 6 7-9 10 - 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 - 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

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About This Book Co-relation between activities, summarising statements and strands Useful Web Sites Glossary Teachers' Notes: Demonstrating Volcanic Processes 1, 2 and 3 Teachers' Notes: About ... Volcanoes, Earthquakes and Tsunamis Student A ctivities: Activities: Make a Model of the Earth Cloze Activity - Volcanoes Make a Model Volcano Label a Volcano Maths - Addition and Subtraction Teachers' Notes: Hot Spot Volcanoes: Surtsey and the Hawaiian Islands Student A ctivities: Activities: Sequencing Pictures: Surtsey - An Island Grows Teachers' Notes: Different Types of Volcanoes Student A ctivities: Activities: Labelling Different Types of Volcanoes Alphabetical Order Acrostic Poems Teachers' Notes: Different Types of Eruptions Student A ctivities: Labelling Different Types of Eruptions Activities: Teachers' Notes: Volcanic Rocks / Types of Lava Student A ctivities: Activities: Lava Jumble Volcano Crossword Teachers' Notes: Volcanic Hazards Student A ctivities: Activities: Word and Picture Match Teachers' Notes: Hot Springs and Geysers Student A ctivities: Activities: Geysers and Lava Flows (modified version of Snakes and Ladders) Teachers' Notes: Benefits of Volcanoes Student A ctivities: Activities: Benefits of Volcanoes: Cloze Activity Teachers' Notes: Historic Eruptions Student A ctivities: Activities: Ordering Eruptions Teachers' Notes: Myths and Legends Student A ctivities: Activities: Myths and Legends: Word Sleuth Teachers' Notes: About Australia Student A ctivities: Activities: About Australia: True or False Teachers' Notes: Earthquakes: How They Occur Student A ctivities: Activities: Earthquake Word Match Teachers' Notes: Monitoring Earthquakes Student A ctivities: Activities: Design a Survival Kit Design an Emergency Shelter Appraisal of Shelter Design Earthquake Maze Teachers' Notes: Predicting Eruptions and Earthquakes Student A ctivities Activities ctivities: Predicting Eruptions and Earthquakes Teachers' Notes: Tsunamis Student A ctivities: Activities: Tsunami Dot-to-Dot Island Grid Reading Comprehension - The Run Uphill Teachers' Notes: Bingo Student A ctivities: Activities: Bingo Game Board Word Sleuth - Earthquakes and Tsunamis Word Sorting Tsunami Trivia

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Teachers’ Notes Co-relation between activities, summarising statements and strands Learning Area

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Activity 12

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Summarising Statements (See below)

English

Playdough Earth Model Volcano Cloze Make Model Volcano Label Volcano Volcano Maths Sequencing Surtsey

1, 2, 7, 8, 9 1, 7, 9

5, 7, 9

Reading and Viewing

1, 9 1, 9 1, 7, 9

Reading /View. Writing Reading and Viewing

25 26

Alpha. Order Acrostic Poems Sentence Matching Lab. Eruptions Lava Jumble

1, 5, 7, 9 1, 9

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Crossword

1, 2, 9

29 41 31

Matching Pics. Words Geysers and Lava Flows Volcano Word Sleuth Comprehen. Activity Design a Survival Kit Design a Shelter Appraisal of Shelter Maze Pred. Eruptions

1, 9

13 32 14 15 20 16 35 18

39 53 44 45 46

51 52 55 56

Working Scientifically Earth & Beyond Energy Earth and Beyond Earth and Beyond

Space

Tech./ Enterprise

Health/ Phys. Ed

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Society/ Environment

Place and Space

Number

Measurement Chance/ Data

Number Writing; Rdg. and Viewing Reading /View. Writing Reading and Viewing

2, 9

Earth and Beyond

Earth and Beyond Earth/Beyond Earth and Beyond

Number Earth and Beyond Space Number

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1, 7, 9

1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9 2, 3, 4, 6, 9 1, 3, 4, 6, 9

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Dot-to-Dot Grid Activity Bingo

Earthquake Word Sleuth Word Sorting Tsunami Trivia

Reading and Viewing Reading /View. Writing Writing

2, 9 2, 9

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1, 9

1, 9

7, 9

Earth and Beyond

Technological Processes Technological Processes Technological Processes

Writing

Writing

2, 9 1, 3, 7, 9

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Space Reading and Viewing

2, 9

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Science

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21 22 24

2, 6, 7, 8, 9 1, 2, 7, 9

Maths

Space Space Earth and Beyond

Speaking/ Listening Writing Reading/View. Reading and Viewing Writing

Number Space

Health of Indiv. Natural/ & Populations Social Systems Health of Indiv. Natural/ & Populations Social Systems Health of Indiv. & Populations

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Place and Space

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IC & Participation

Earth and Beyond

Summarising Statements 1. Students use language which helps them communicate ideas and information in their interactions with others. 2. Students know and apply numerical and spatial concepts and techniques. 3. Students understand what information is needed and how and where to obtain it and use it. 4. Students select, use and adapt technologies. 5. Students acknowledge patterns, structure and relationships in order to understand, interpret, justify and make predictions. 6. Students visualise, think laterally, recognise opportunity and potential and are prepared to test options. 7. Students understand aspects of the world around them and are able to make decisions and judgements in relation to it. 8. Students participate in creative activity and interact with others involved in their own activities. 9. Students are self motivated and confident in their approach to learning and are able to be cooperative in their work with others. Page 4

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Teachers’ Notes

Web Sites

These web sites have been carefully checked and are designed especially for children. They are full of fun activities, information and pictures. Updates and changes will be posted on the Ready-Ed web site at this address: www.readyed.com.au/urls/volcano

Volcanoes

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www.fema.gov/kids/volcano.htm

www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/volcano/activities.shtml

www.fema.gov/kids/quake.htm

www.kidscraftcorner.com/ (Click on the earthquake link.)

Tsunamis

www.fema.gov/kids/tsunami.htm

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Earthquakes

www.pmel.noaa.gov/tsunami-hazard/kids.html (This site contains links to five fantastic tsunami sites, including animations and material that can be downloaded.)

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Teachers’ Notes

Glossary of Volcano Terms

A’a Lava: Active: Caldera: Crater: Core: Crust: Dormant: Emit: Epicentre: Extinct:

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Glowing Cloud: Hot Spot Volcano: Igneous Rock: Lahar:

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Fumarole: Geothermal Energy: Geyser:

Lava that has a rough and jagged surface. A volcano that could erupt at any time. A huge crater that is formed by the collapse of a volcanic crater. The funnel shaped opening at the top of a volcano. The centre of the earth. Hardened outer layer of the earth’s surface, broken into pieces called plates. Describes a volcano that has not erupted for a long time, but may become active again. To release or give off. Erupting volcanoes emit ash, steam and gases as well as lava. The point directly above where the rocks moved in an earthquake. Describes a volcano that has not erupted for thousands of years, and that experts do not believe will erupt again. A hole in the ground in volcanic areas from which steam and gases escape. Energy that comes from heat inside the earth. A hot fountain of boiling water which shoots out of the ground in places with volcanic activity. Cloud of burning ash and gas released by an erupting volcano. A volcano that has formed in the middle of a plate, over a source of magma, e.g. The Hawaiian Islands. Rock formed when lava or magma cools and hardens. A mudflow that forms when volcanic ash is mixed with melting snow and ice or water. Magma from inside the earth that has erupted on the earth’s surface. Blobs of molten lava which are sometimes twisted into spindle like shapes as they fly through the air. This is formed when a jet of lava is sprayed into the air by the rapid formation and expansion of gas bubbles in the molten rock. These can reach heights of up to 500 metres. This refers to a large volume of molten rock contained in a crater or vent, forming a liquid or semi-liquid lake. This is formed when the top of a lava flow crusts over, enclosing a molten stream of lava in a tunnel of hardened rock. Molten rock from inside the earth. The place below a volcano that fills with hot magma. The layer between the earth’s core and crust. Lava that has a smooth and ropy surface. This is the golden strands of volcanic glass, as thin as human hair, created during the formation of Pelé’s Tears. When lava becomes tiny droplets of black, volcanic glass. Lava that erupts underwater. A section of the earth’s crust. Light, grey-white volcanic rock filled with bubbles of gas. The record of an earthquake made by a seismograph. An instrument used to detect, record and measure an earthquake. A scientist who studies earthquakes. These are formed when part of the roof of a lava tube collapses, exposing the molten lava stream underneath. A giant wave caused by an earthquake or volcano. A tunnel leading from the volcano’s magma chamber to the earth’s surface, through which gas, steam, ash and lava may escape. A scientist who studies volcanoes. Ready-Ed Publications

Lava Pond/Lake: Lava Tube:

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Magma: Magma Chamber: Mantle: Pahoehoe Lava: Pelé’s Hair:

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Pelé’s Tears: Pillow Lava: Plate: Pumice: Seismogram: Seismograph: Seismologist: Skylight: Tsunami: Vent: Vulcanologist: Page 6

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Lava Fountain: •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Lava: Lava Bomb:

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Teachers’ Notes

Demonstrating Volcanic Processes 1

Making an erupting volcano Time: One Term 1. Make a volcano shape by moulding chicken wire and fastening it with masking tape onto a big piece of card. In the centre place a plastic bottle sitting on an upturned ice cream container. 2. Cover with papier mache and paint. 3. Spray with a coat of lacquer (spray can is easiest). 4. If you desire you can place a forest, rivers, villages or farms around the base of your volcano. 5. To erupt the volcano, use a funnel and pour a cup of bicarbonate of soda into the plastic bottle. Add a cup of vinegar that has been coloured red with food dye. The eruption is very quick so make sure your class is seated around the volcano when you do this. Note: The activity is best done outside.

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Extension Activity Place playdough over the areas where the lava landed, and leave to harden. This ‘lava flow’ may have covered a village or forest. Erupt your volcano at a later date and once again, cover the flow areas with coloured playdough and allow to harden. This will give a layering effect, demonstrating how a volcano can increase in size due to lava flows, and how the land can be destroyed and changed. chicken wire

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Demonstrating the formation of a crater

1. Make a small hole in a shoebox and pass a piece of plastic tubing about 1 cm in diameter through it. 2. Place a balloon at the end of the tubing inside the box. It is easier to blow the balloon up partially (to about 12 cm) before placing in the box. Keep your thumb over the other end of the tubing so that the balloon doesn’t deflate. 3. Cover the balloon with flour and flatten to make a smooth surface. 4. As you remove your thumb, the balloon will deflate, causing a crater to form in the flour just as a real one forms when magma leaves a chamber.

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Teachers’ Notes

Demonstrating Volcanic Processes 2

Demonstrating how and why magma moves inside volcanoes 1. Make up a lemon jelly (or you may use gelatine). 2. Using warm water to loosen the jelly, turn it out onto a piece of pegboard (which has holes underneath). 3. Using a syringe, slowly inject red food colouring into the jelly, through a hole underneath. (Remove any air bubbles first by ejecting a small amount of dye.) The dye simulates the lava forcing its way through the earth.

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gelatine volcano

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peg board

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Blow up a balloon to about three quarters inflated and draw a crater on the top. Mark ar point onv each side. • f o r e i e w pur posesonl y• Measure the width of the crater from point to point, and record.

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3. 4. Now inflate the balloon fully. This simulates the magma chamber filling with lava to almost bursting point, before an eruption. 5. Measure the change in diameter, and record. 6. Now release half of the air from the balloon. This simulates an eruption. 7. Measure the new diameter.

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Demonstrating the inflation of a volcano (before an eruption)

. te o c Demonstrating gas pressure and eruptions . che e r o t r s super 1. This activity is best done outside. You will need a clear, plastic bottle of soft drink with the label removed. (Gas is dissolved in the soda, as it is in magma.) 2. Ask the students to examine the bottle. No bubbles should be present. 3. Carefully open the lid partially, then close it again. The release of pressure has allowed some bubbles to appear and grow in size. 4. Now shake the bottle well. This will force the gas out of the soft drink. Unscrew the lid and watch the ‘lava’ erupt. As the pressure is released, the gas forces the soft drink out of the bottle. Page 8

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Teachers’ Notes

Demonstrating Volcanic Processes 3

Demonstrating how a tiltmeter works

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plastic cups

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1. You will need a carpenter’s spirit level. 2. As the spirit level is tilted, the air bubble moves accordingly. (A real tiltmeter can measure movement as tiny as a millimetre on the volcano’s surface.) 3. You can make a simple tiltmeter by joining three plastic cups to three pieces of plastic tubing (about 1 cm in diameter). 5. Pierce the sides of the cups and join with the tubing to form a triangle. Partially fill each cup with water that has a couple of drops of food colouring added so it’s easier to see. Fill just above the hole in each cup. 6. Now gently lift one cup and watch the water run into the other two cups. Try lowering a cup and watching the opposite effect.

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Teachers’ Notes

About ... Volcanoes, Earthquakes and Tsunamis Volcanoes

A volcano is a vent or chimney that provides an opening in the earth’s surface through which molten rock called magma, can escape. This is often accompanied by gas, ash and pieces of rock. The shape of a volcano is made up of layers of hardened lava and ash that build up with each eruption.

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Volcanoes come in different shapes and sizes, due to the rate of flow of the lava. Slow moving lava that travels a long way will produce a gently sloping, shield volcano. However, lava that hardens before it can flow very far builds up high layers, like Mount Fuji, in Japan.

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There are several different types of eruptions. These can cause huge devastation to a landscape, destroy farmland and may lead to loss of life. Lava pouring into the ocean can cause beaches to disappear and new coastlines to form. Volcanoes however, do have a positive side. Lava breaking down over the years can provide areas with rich, fertile volcanic soil. Volcanic rock may also contain precious stones such as diamonds and opals. Hot springs are a source of geo-thermal energy.

Earthquakes

When brittle rocks beneath the surface of the earth break suddenly due to pressures deep within, an earthquake can occur. This pressure often takes hundreds of years to build.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Whatever the cause, earthquakes can result in huge devastation and damage. An impending earthquake • givesf no warning and create o rr e vcan i e w chaos. pur posesonl y• Earthquakes can also be caused by the collision of tectonic plates.

Tsunamis

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Each year about 500 000 earthquakes occur around the world. Most of these tremors are very small and many occur far out at sea.

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Tsunamis are giant waves that are caused by an earthquake. They can reach heights of 30 metres and can travel at speeds of up to 800 kilometres per hour.

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They can cause massive devastation when they suddenly crash down upon the coastline.

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Many places, including Hawaii and Japan, have sirens at the ready to warn the population of an approaching tsunami. When a warning is given, people must move as quickly as possible to higher ground.

Inside the earth

The earth is more than 12 000 kilometres thick. The outer layer of the earth is known as the crust. Under the crust is an intensely hot layer of dense rock called the mantle. Inside this mantle lies the core, which is made up of an outer layer of liquid metal and a dense inner core of solid metal alloys. The temperature in the core may be as high as 5000oC. Heating and cooling that occurs in the core causes the magma from the mantle to rise near the surface of the earth. When it does force its way to the surface, it can cause earthquakes and form volcanoes.

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Teachers’ Notes When a volcano erupts Magma from deep inside the earth’s mantle rises to the surface and collects in a magma chamber where it mixes with gases and water. Pressure builds up and forces its way though a weak spot in the earth’s crust. When this pressure pack of magma finds a vent or chimney, it surges up releasing red-hot lava, steam, gases and ash through the crater at the top of the vent.

Drifting plates

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The earth’s crust is made up of about 15 huge plates that actually float on the mantle. These fit together like a jigsaw puzzle. Over millions of years these plates have slowly drifted due to movement deep within the earth. This is known as the continental drift. The theory of plate movement is called plate tectonics. Most volcanic activity occurs along the edges of these plates.

Scientists believe that 200 million years ago land on the earth was all joined together forming one solid mass. These masses of land broke up over millions of years to form the continents as we know them today.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons The Pacific Plate: Around the rim of this plate earthquakes and volcanoes are common. This is known as • the ‘Ring of Fire’. Indonesia, one p of the the ring o of fire, has volcanoes. f or r e vi ew ucountries r poins es nl y125•

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Australia is in the middle of a plate and has no active volcanoes.

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Volcanoes under the sea

Underneath the ocean, the crust of the earth is about 5 km thick - much thinner than the continental crust which may be up to 60 km thick. Many volcanoes occur under the sea and will eventually break through to the surface. Examples of this are Surtsey and the Hawaiian Islands. After breaking through to the surface, and after thousands of years, an atoll may remain. This is a ring of coral around the edge of an extinct volcano that is made up of the skeletons of millions of tiny sea creatures. Ready-Ed Publications

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Make A Model Of The Earth

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Playdough Recipe Ingredients: 2 cups flour 4 tablespoons cream of tartar 2 tablespoons cooking oil 1 cup salt food colouring (4 colours) 2 cups water Method: 1. Mix the above ingredients in a saucepan. 2. Stir over a medium heat for 3-5 minutes. 3. When the mixture congeals, allow to cool. 4. Separate the mixture into 4 sections and dye each a different colour. To Make The Earth: 1. Roll a small ball. This will be the inner core. 2. Add another layer and shape that into a ball around the first ball. Rea dyEdPubl i cat i ons This is © the outer core.

3. Add a third layer for the mantle, and a fourth layer for the crust. 4. Ask your teacher to slice the model in half with a sharp knife. This will. show t e a cross-section of the earth. The Earth

o c . mantle crust che e r o t r s super outer core

inner corexx

Learning Objective: • The students will demonstrate an awareness of the layers that make up the earth and the correct terms for these. • The students will make play dough by following the procedure of the recipe.

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Name:____________________

Cloze Activity Volcanoes

Complete this text using the correct words: Volcanoes begin deep inside the __ __ __ __ __. .

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When a __ __ __ __ __. __ __ erupts it is getting rid of

__ __ __ __ __. __ __ __ __ __. __ __ . The magma

rises up through the __ __ __ __ __. __ __ and bursts out through the __ __ __ __ . As well as lava there is often

Re dy E d__ Pu i ca t i ons __ __ __©and __a __ __ __ __bl that escape.

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volcano . magma chamber te o c . che lava earth r e o t r s s r u e p chimney vent ash gases

Learning Objective The students will demonstrate knowledge of volcanic terms by reading a simple text and inserting the terms in the correct places.

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Name:____________________

Make A Model Volcano

(This may be enlarged to A3 size.)

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Follow the instructions to make your own volcano. 1. Colour in the volcano and the two shapes. 2. Cut out the two shapes. 3. Make the cone by gluing the edge at the dotted line. 4. Fold the tabs and glue the cone onto the base. 5. Place thin strips of orange cellophane into the top of the cone (lava).

Glue

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Name:____________________

Labelling

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Cross Section of a Volcano

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Label each part of the picture correctly, using the terms below:

crater . te magma chamber o c . che mantle e r o t r s su per crust chimney lava vent

Learning Objective The students will correctly label a cross section of a volcano, demonstrating an understanding of the correct terms.

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Name:____________________

Maths

Addition and Subtraction

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3 + 7 = ___

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Complete the following sums:

©R a EdPu i t i ons 6 -e 2d =y 7b -l 6c =a ___ ___ •f evi ew pur p esonl y• 8os 1o 1 rr - 7

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9 + 4 = ___

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2 + 6 = ___ Learning Objective The students will demonstrate proficiency in simple addition and subtraction by correctly completing the fifteen sums in the volcano.

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Teachers’ Notes

‘Hot Spot’ Volcanoes Surtsey - An Island Grows In November, 1963, a huge column of smoke and ash was seen to rise out of the ocean south west of Iceland. Witnesses thought a ship was on fire. The next day a new island appeared and kept growing. The island was named Surtsey and today it measures 2.6 square kilometres. Surtsey’s birth began when two plates on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean moved apart causing a volcanic eruption. When the top of the volcano rose above the surface of the sea, lava and ash exploded out of the vent, creating a new island. This continued for several months and then a second vent appeared. After four years the island had grown to 570 feet above sea level.

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Seeds soon reached Surtsey, carried by the wind or by birds. They produced flowers and grasses. Soon, sea birds began nesting among the rocks. By 1980 there was a whole breeding colony on the island.

Hawaii

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Volcanic islands often form over very hot spots in the earth’s mantle. The Hawaiian Islands were formed in this way, by ‘hot spots’ under the Pacific Plate.

A hot spot volcano occurs in the middle of a plate. The plate slowly moves over a magma source that erupts, causing a chain of islands. A good example is the Hawaiian Islands. Kauai was formed first, then Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii. There is a new island named Loihi, currently over 3000 metres high, that is still more than 1000 metres below sea level. Scientists estimate that in about 10 000 years Loihi will break the surface.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons The biggest and youngest island, Hawaii, isp made upp of o five s volcanoes. When ity eventually moves • f o r r e v i e w u r e s o n l • off the ‘hot spot’ it will landslide into several smaller islands. The Hawaiian ‘hot spot’ has been active for 80 million years. All of these volcanoes are shield volcanoes.

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Vog is the term given to volcanic air pollution and is a problem in Hawaii. Kilauea volcano emits sulphur dioxide gas and other pollutants that react with oxygen and moisture in the air. This produces vog and acid rain. Vog is a health hazard to people with pre-existing respiratory ailments. Acid rain damages crops and can leak lead into household water supplies.

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Kilauea volcano is the largest active volcano in the world and currently gives spectacular views of lava pouring into the sea, lava skylights dotted along the hillside and other sights depending on the temperament of the volcano. The eruptions of Kilauea have resulted in 505 acres of new land being added to the island of Hawaii, but has caused losses totalling $61 million.

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Name:____________________

Sequencing

Surtsey - An Island Grows

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Colour these pictures, then number them in the correct order, from 1-4.

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Learning Objective The students will correctly sequence the four pictures showing the formation of the island of Surtsey, near Iceland.

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Teachers’ Notes

Different Types of Volcanoes Shield Volcano: These are made up of basalt-rich lava which is thin and runny and spreads a long way from the vent. This results in a shield volcano which is very large with gentle, sloping sides, e.g. Mauna Loa in Hawaii.

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Cinder Cone Volcano: These occur where an explosive eruption shoots tiny but solid fragments of ash and rock from the volcano’s vent. This eventually builds up to form a volcano that is steep-sided but not very tall, e.g. Paricutin in Mexico.

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Acid Lava Cone Volcano: This is made up of lava which is very thick or viscous. As it slowly flows it begins to harden quite close to the vent, forming a cone shape with very steep sides, e.g. Mount Ngauruhoe in New Zealand.

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Stratovolcano: These make up over 60% of the volcanoes on the Earth. These are quite tall and caused by a cycle of quiet eruptions of runny lava followed by explosive eruptions of thick lava, e.g. Fuji in Japan.

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Name:____________________

Different Types of Volcanoes r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Correctly label the following illustrations of volcanoes, using the list below:

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Can you list an example for each type using the choices below?

Shield Volcano: .

te o c Cinder Cone Volcano: . che e r o t r s Acid Lava Cone Volcano: s uper Stratovolcano: Mount Fuji, Japan

Mount Ngauruhoe, New Zealand

Paricutin, Mexico

Mauna Loa, Hawaii

Learning Objective The students will be able to correctly label the four different types of volcanoes and identify an example of each type from a given list.

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Name:____________________

Alphabetical Order

Place the following list of words into alphabetical order: lava, volcano, magma, earthquake, geyser, tsunami, mantle, core, crust, eruption, crater, ash.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok ___________________________________________ u S

1.

___________________________________________

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2.

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3. ___________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________

5. ___________________________________________ 6. ___________________________________________

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7.

8. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________

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9.

10. ___________________________________________ 11.

12.

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Learning Objective The students will place a list of 12 words into alphabetical order.

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Name:____________________

Acrostic Poems

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Can you make up some acrostic poems using the words below? Here is an example: V olcanoes O ver the sides L ava erupting C rater overflowing A mazing sights N ew land being formed O nce again V ____________________ O ____________________

L ___________________

L ____________________ ___________________ © ReadyEdAPu bl i cat i ons

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R ___________________

M ____________________

T ___________________

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H ___________________

Learning Objective The students will create several acrostic poems using volcanic terms as a base.

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Teachers’ Notes

Different Types Of Eruptions Hawaiian: The least violent type of eruption producing large amounts of runny lava which eventually forms a shield volcano.

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Vulcanian: These violent eruptions shoot out very thick lava and lava bombs.

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Strombolian: Mild but fairly regular eruptions producing ash, gas, lava bombs and cinder.

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Peléean: Very violent eruption type that produces thick, sticky lava, with a burning cloud of ash, gas and pumice.

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Plinian: This is the most violent type of gas-cloud eruption. The gases shoot up into the air in a giant gas and ash column.

Fissure/Icelandic: This displays a flow of lava that pours out of a fissure, so that a long split develops in the crust and lava pours out of it over a great length. Ready-Ed Publications

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Name:____________________

Different Types of Eruptions r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

Correctly label the following types of volcanic eruptions:

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Match•the ofv eruption to u ther correct f otype rr e i ew p p osedescription: sonl y•

Strombolian

A violent eruption that shoots out thick lava and lava bombs.

Vulcanian Peleean

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Plinian Fissure/Icelandic

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A flow of lava that pours out of a fissure.

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Hawaiian

Gases shoot up into the air in a giant gas and ash column. o

c sticky lava . che A violent eruption producing thick, e r o t r with a burning cloud of s gas, ash and pumice. super The least violent type of eruption producing large amounts of runny lava. Mild but fairly regular eruptions producing ash, gas, lava bombs and cinder.

Learning Objective The students will be able to identify the different types of eruptions by identifying illustrations and matching meanings to the eruption type.

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Teachers’ Notes

Volcanic Rocks As volcanoes erupt in different ways, lava that is released flows in different ways too. Volcanic rocks can be pyroclastic or non-pyroclastic. The term pyroclastic comes from the Greek, pyro, meaning fire and clast, meaning broken. An example of non-pyroclastic rock is the three types of lava explained in detail below. An example of a pyroclast is the rocks produced during a spectacular lava fountain. These chunks of lava and rock are thrown out forming lava bombs and blocks. Small glassy fragments can also fall to the ground during an eruption. These fragments are known as cinder.

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Ash deposits can be so hot when they settle that they can weld together to form solid rocks.

The faster that lava cools, the glassier its appearance.

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When lava cools and hardens, it forms rock. These rocks are known as igneous rocks. The most common igneous rock is basalt that makes up most of the solid surface of the earth. Andesite and rhyolite are found in more acid volcanoes. Volcanic rocks can provide a source of minerals such as silicon, zinc, lead and copper. Some precious stones such as diamonds and opals are also concentrated in volcanic rock. Volcanic rocks such as granite, are used as building materials and pumice is used by people to scrub their skin.

Types Of Lava

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Pahoehoe• Lava: (pronounced pa-hoy-hoy) Thisu smooth ands billowy looking lava is formed when f o r r e v i e w p r p o e s o n l y • the runny lava forms a skin on the surface of the flow. Sometimes the lava continues to flow under A’a Lava: (pronounced ah-ah) This jagged looking lava is thick and rough and breaks into chunks as the lava flow moves.

the hardened surface making a lava tube.

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Pelé’s Tears: These are formed when molten rock is blasted skyward in high lava fountains. Tiny droplets of lava become streamlined, forming tear-like droplets of black, volcanic glass.

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Pelé’s Hair: This is formed when fine, golden, strands of volcanic glass that are attached to Pelé’s Tears, break off. These are as thin as human hair and can be carried long distances by the wind. It usually is found in clumps, in rock crevices.

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Pillow Lava: This is the term given to lava that erupts on the ocean floor. It forms pillow-like structures.

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The longest lava flow occurred 15 million years ago in the state of Washington, USA. This flow was 500 kilometres long.

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Name:____________________

Lava Jumble

Teac he r Lava

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S fouatnni tbue Lava

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Lava

taesr Pele’s

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hira Pele’s

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bmob

pndo Lava

Learning Objective The students will un-jumble six words to correctly label the pictures of different types of lava.

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Name:____________________

Volcano Crossword

1.

4.

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7.

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3.

2.

8. © ReadyEdPubl i ca t i ons 9. • f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Across 1. This pours out of a volcano. 3. Lava under the sea is lava. 4. Underneath the earth’s crust is the . . tecools it turns into . 6. When lava o c 8. A volcano canc spew out . . e her r 9. Sulphur fumes can be poisonous. o t s super Down 2. Hawaii has many . 4. The magma sits in a chamber. under the sea. 5. Volcanoes can 7. At the top of many volcanoes is a .

Learning Objective The students will correctly complete the crossword, thereby demonstrating a basic knowledge of volcanic terms and processes.

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Teachers’ Notes

Volcanic Hazards Primary hazards Ash and Dust: A volcanic explosion causes old lava to be blasted into small pieces and hurled through the air with ash and dust. This cloud can reach several kilometres in height. Also, molten lava solidifies as it moves through the air forming ribbons of lava and lava bombs - some measuring up to 25 centimetres or more across. These airborne fragments are called tephra. Heavy tephra falls can cause damage to buildings and cause collapsed roofs. The ash and dust can remain in the air for a long time, clogging up machinery and causing difficulties in breathing, e.g. Vesuvius, in AD 79, erupted and covered the Roman city of Pompeii in 6 metres of ash.

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Hot ash can also flow down the sides of a volcano, burning everything in its path. This is known as a nuee ardente.

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Lava: Lava flows have been known to kill people, e.g. the eruption of Mount Nyiragongo in Zaire, Africa. The lava from this volcano travelled at speeds of 30 kilometres per hour. However, lava usually moves very slowly, allowing people to escape. Volcanic Gases: Huge amounts of gases such as sulphur and carbon dioxide are released into the atmosphere when a volcano erupts.

Secondary hazards

Lahars: This occurs when ash and dust moves down the sides of a volcano, mixing with water to form a mudflow. Lahars can travel up to 50 kilometres per hour causing huge devastation as they travel downstream.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Tsunamis: Some large eruptions can cause huge waves to generate, which travel at great speeds. Landslides and Debris Avalanches: Small earthquakes often follow a volcanic eruption and these can cause landslides or avalanches, e.g. Mount St Helens, USA - one side of this volcano collapsed in 1980.

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Other hazards

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These can also be caused by underwater eruptions releasing gases, e.g. the Krakatoa eruption in Indonesia (1883) caused a huge tsunami with 30 metre high waves to form, drowning more than 35 000 people.

Aircraft flying near an eruption may be faced with problems as ash may cause the engines to clog up, as happened to a KLM jet in 1990, after Redoubt Volcano in Alaska erupted. All four engines were stopped but were restarted when the plane had flown through the ash cloud.

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Eruptions are also believed to have an effect on climate.

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Name:____________________

Word and Picture Match r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

Copy the correct description next to its picture. Colour the pictures. lava fountain lava pond skylight

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Learning Objective The students will correctly label the pictures showing volcanic processes.

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Teachers’ Notes

Hot Springs and Geysers Bubbling hot springs are caused when magma heats water under the ground. The water may reach temperatures of up to 150oC. This water contains many dissolved minerals. When this water gushes out of the ground it is known as a geyser. Geysers are found in New Zealand, Iceland and the USA. For example, Old Faithful in Yellowstone National Park erupts every hour. Water and steam gushes out, reaching heights of up to 46 metres. This USA national park contains over 10 000 active hot springs.

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Geysers eventually die as their feeder channels become blocked with mineral deposits, or earthquake movements cause them to collapse. An earthquake can also create new geysers.

Fumaroles

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These are holes in the ground through which volcanic gases and water vapour can escape. It is a way for a volcano to ‘let off steam’.

The gases released can give vulcanologists important information about the proportions of gases in the magma.

Mud pots

Due to the many geysers near Lake Rotorua in New Zealand, leaking steam causes pools of boiling mud in the area. These pools bubble and plop and are known as mud pots. The mud from these pools is used for a variety of purposes, such as cosmetics.

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layers of rock

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Name:____________________

Geysers and Lava Flows (A modified Snakes and Ladders)

This is a game for 2-4 players. Go up the geysers and down the lava flows. First person to reach 80 is the winner.

65

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79

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r o e 77 76 75 74 t s B r e oo p u k S67 68 69 70 71

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2

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Learning Objective The students will play the game, demonstrating an understanding of counting and recognition of the numbers 1-80.

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Teachers’ Notes

Benefits Of Volcanoes Lava More than 350 million people all around the world live on or near an active volcano. This is mainly because volcanic activity does reap some benefits. Over many thousands of years lava breaks down into very fertile soil, providing an ideal area for farming. For example, the sugar and pineapple plantations in Hawaii are built on volcanic soil. Olives, vines, nuts and citrus fruits are grown plentifully near Mt Vesuvius in Naples, Italy, and rice is grown plentifully on the volcanic earth of Luzon in the Philippines.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Magma and geothermal energy Volcanic ash

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This also breaks down over the years to provide nutrients for the soil, when it mixes with a water source.

Magma, underneath rocks near the surface of the earth, will heat water to the point of forming steam which can be converted into geothermal energy and then into electricity. Holes are drilled into volcanic rock to release the hot water held in the cracks. When the hot water reaches the surface, the steam is used to turn turbines and make electricity. In some plants, cold water is pumped down into the volcanic rock, to be heated by the magma. This method produces very little pollution and is used in Italy, Japan, Indonesia, New Zealand and the Philippines.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Volcanic • rocks f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• These can provide a source of minerals such as silicon, zinc, lead and copper. Some precious

In Iceland, geothermal energy is used to provide hot water and heating. It is also used to heat greenhouses so that fruit and vegetables may be grown all year round.

stones such as diamonds and opals are also concentrated in volcanic rock.

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Steam vents

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Volcanic rocks such as granite, are used as building materials and pumice is used by people to scrub their skin.

In some countries the plentiful sulphur deposits left at the openings of active steam vents or fumaroles, is mined. This can be an extremely dangerous job as dangerous sulphur fumes are constantly breathed in, and temperatures are extremely high.

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Name:____________________

Benefits Of Volcanoes

Complete this passage. Use the words at the bottom of the page.

More that 350 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ people live on or near an active volcano. One of the reasons is that _ _ _ _ breaks down

r o e t s Bo r e ok_ _ _ also _ _ _ _ _u _p _ _ , in Naples, Italy. Volcanic S provides nutrients for the soil when it breaks down. Magma can heat

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into very _ _ _ _ _ _ _ soil. For example, Mount

_ _ _ _ _ to form steam and this can be converted into _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ energy, and then into

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . This produces very little _ _ _© _ _ _a _ __d . Geothermal energy isn used Re dy E Publ i c at i o s to

provide • _f _r _r water and _r _ _s _ _o _n and o e vi e w_pu po es l yto•heat

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may be grown all year round.

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greenhouses so that fruit and _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Volcanic rocks can provide _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ such as

silicon, lead,.zinc and _ _ _ _ _ _ . Granite is used as a

te o c building _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . . che e r o Sulphur can be mined at r the openings of _ _ t s _ _ _ vents. super This work is very _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . pollution material copper

steam million vegetables minerals geothermal fertile electricity lava Vesuvius ash dangerous

heating water hot

Learning Objective The students will complete a cloze activity, demonstrating an understanding of the benefits of volcanoes.

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Teachers’ Notes

Historic Eruptions Mount Vesuvius, Italy, AD 79 Tons of lava, pumice and ash erupted into the sky in a big column of smoke, blanketing the nearby town on Pompeii. The town of Herculaneum was also buried under 13 metres of boiling mud and thousands of people died. The last eruption of Vesuvius was in 1944. Mount Fuji, Japan, 1707 This is Japan’s highest mountain and is classed as a dormant volcano. When it last erupted it scattered ash as far as Tokyo.

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Stromboli, Italy This volcano has erupted regularly for centuries. Small explosions throw lava into the air every 15 to 30 minutes.

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Tambora, Indonesia, 1814 This eruption was a huge pyroclastic flow, that killed about 12 000 people. A further 80 000 people died of starvation as the farmland was completely destroyed. Krakatoa, Indonesia, 1883 This eruption destroyed 60% of the island and was heard up to 5000 kilometres away. It also caused a massive tsunami. In 1927 a new volcanic island appeared and was named Anak Krakatoa, meaning ‘child of Krakatoa’.

Mount Pelée, Caribbean Island of Martinique, 1902 This Peléean eruption (hence the name) poured a hot cloud of lava, gas and ash over the town of St Pierre killing 38,000 people.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Mount St Helens, Washington State, USA, 1980 •caused f or evi e u po s onl y• An earthquake an r explosion thatw blew p away ar large parts ofe the mountain which resulted in Novarupta, Alaska, 1912 A huge volcanic eruption buried a huge valley in ash up to 50 metres thick.

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a huge landslide. Rock, ash and gas cascaded down the mountain within seconds and then another explosion threw a column of ash and gas high into the air. This went on for four days causing widespread devastation and killing 57 people.

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Nevado del Ruiz, Columbia, 1984 As a result of this eruption, 22 000 died, mainly due to mud and debris flows.

Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, 1991 420 dead - huge ash cloud descended on the city. The weight of this ash caused buildings to collapse.

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Name:____________________

Ordering Eruptions

Write these historical eruptions in order from the earliest to the most recent:

2.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

3 5. 6.

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Krakatoa, Indonesia, 1883 Mount St Helens, Washington State, USA, 1980 Mount Pelee, Caribbean Island of Martinique, 1902 Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, 1991 Mount Fuji, Japan, 1707 Nevado del Ruiz, Columbia, 1984 Mount Vesuvius, Italy, AD 79 Tambora, Indonesia, 1814 Novarupta, Alaska, 1912

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8. 9. Learning Objective The students will place the events in order from the earliest to the most recent event, displaying an understanding of numerical order involving large numbers.

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Teachers’ Notes

Myths and Legends

Many myths and legends came about as people tried to make sense of their changing and often violent world. They provided understanding and reasons for the eruptions and earthquakes that occurred in these ancient times, before scientific developments could discover the real reasons. Some of these myths and legends are still believed by many people today.

Volcanoes

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

The ancient Hawaiians believed in Pelé, the Goddess of Fire, that lived in the Kilauea volcano. She originally settled in Hawaii after moving from Tahiti. It was believed that the volcano erupted when she was angry. Many sacrifices were made to appease Pelé, and even today, ceremonies are held once a year in which offerings are made to Pelé by the people of Hawaii.

Teac he r

Steam that pours out of many vents and fissures on Kilauea is considered to be Pelé’s breath.

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Teardrop-shaped pieces of black volcanic glass are known as Pelé’s tears, and golden, hair-like fragments that are found clustered in rock crevices are known as Pelé’s hair.

Many Hawaiians today still believe in Pelé and will sweep and tidy their homes when being evacuated due to an eruption of the Kilauea volcano, so as not to offend Pelé when she passes through. The words ‘volcano’ and ‘vulcanologist’ are derived from the name of the Roman god of fire, Vulcan.

The Greeks believed that the god Hephaistos had his blacksmiths’ workshops underneath volcanoes.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons f o r r e vi eware p ur o sesofo l y • A Japanese • legend says that earthquakes caused byp the movements an giant catfish. A Japanese legend says that the god Kunitokotache lives inside Mount Fuji.

Earthquakes

People in Mongolia thought that the earth sat on the back of a giant frog, and when the frog stumbled, an earthquake occurred.

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The Greeks thought that the sea god Poseidon banged the ocean floor with his trident, causing earthquakes.

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Name:____________________

Volcano Word Sleuth

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Learning Objective The students will complete a word sleuth, thus enhancing their reading skills and knowledge of volcanic terms.

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Teachers’ Notes

About Australia How was Australia formed? During prehistoric times, Australia was joined to other continents. This super continent was known as Gondwana. At this time the surface of Australia was mainly covered by lakes, streams and cool rainforests. The trees were not eucalypts or wattles but pines and beech. Whilst Australia was joined to other continents, the plants and animals were very similar.

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Living things could move from one continent to another because they were so close. About 200 million years ago continental drift tore Australia away from the other continents and moved it further south. A sea began to form and widen between Australia and the other continents, separating them. Australia became an island continent with its own unique plants and animals. Only swimming or flying Australian animals could migrate into other lands.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Australian volcanoes Australia is the continent onv earth with active The one the oldest, •only f o rr e i e wnop uvolcanoes. r pos ecountry sohas nl yof• flattest and most stable land surfaces on earth. Millions of years ago, though, Australia was one of Some of these are:

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Mt Warning/Tweed Volcano, NSW 100 kilometre wide shield volcano which last erupted 20 million years ago.

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the world’s most active places in terms of volcanoes and many of today’s landscapes were shaped by volcanoes that erupted in the past.

The Warrumbungles, NSW Huge magma formations from a central volcano that stopped erupting around 13 million years ago.

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Glasshouse Mountains, QLD These are the remains of plugs and domes of a central volcano which erupted between 25 and 34 million years ago. Named by Captain Cook in 1770. Canobolas, NSW An extinct shield volcano that erupted about 12 million years ago. The soil in this area is very fertile and is farmed for fruit and vegetables. Mt Shank, SA This is one of the youngest volcanoes in Australia and is a ‘scoria cone’ volcano, formed when magma came into contact with groundwater. Possibly active only 540 years ago. Mt Gambier, SA Formed about 4700 years ago, made of broad volcanic craters. Blue Lake fills one of the craters.

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Name:____________________

About Australia - True or False Circle the correct answer.

1. During prehistoric times Australia was joined to other continents. True / False

2.

volcanoes. True / False

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3.

r o e t s Bo True / False r This super continente was known as Austrana. p ok u Australia isSthe only continent on earth with no active

4. Australia is a very unstable continent. True / False

5. There are no prehistoric volcanoes in Australia. True / False 6. Many © of our landscapes have byt volcanoes Re adyE dbeen Pushaped bl i ca i onsthat have• erupted ine the past. True /pFalse f orr vi e wp ur osesonl y•

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million years old. True / False

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7. The Warrumbungles in New South Wales are around 13 8. Mount Shank is one of the youngest volcanoes in Australia. It

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tebeen active only 540 years ago. True o may have / False

9. The

c . c e Glasshouse Mountains were named her in Queensland r o t s super

by Ned

Kelly, the bushranger. True / False

10. Mount Gambier is made of broad volcanic craters. Blue Lake fills one of them. True / False Learning Objective The students will identify if 10 statements about Australia and volcanoes are true or false.

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Teachers’ Notes

Earthquakes: How They Occur Earthquakes send vibrations through the earth in much the same way as the ripples formed when a pebble is dropped into a pond. An earthquake occurs when rigid and brittle rocks near the earth’s surface break suddenly. Vibrations known as seismic waves, spread out from the point of fracture, known as the focus. These shock waves spread upwards as well as outwards. On the surface of the earth, directly above where the earthquake has occurred, is the epicentre. This is where the greatest damage occurs.

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The line along which the break occurs is called the fracture zone or fault. The break begins at a point and then runs along the fracture zone. This is called a rupture. When the ground cracks, breaks up and then relaxes again, buildings collapse, gas and water mains fracture, flooding occurs as rivers and lakes overflow and tsunamis (giant waves) may form at sea.

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Some earthquakes only last a few minutes but others will have aftershocks that will occur for days or weeks afterwards. Scientists estimate that about a million earthquakes occur every year.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Some earthquakes occur when tectonic plates collide and one plate is forced underneath the other.

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Magma

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Name:____________________

Earthquake Word Match

Join each sentence to its correct ending. Rocks under the earth

no warning.

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An earthquake gives

cause great damage.

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An earthquake can

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Each

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r o e t s Bo r e p o u k Big shock waves travel more than 500 000 earthquakes. S

across the earth.

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Learning Objective The students will correctly match the beginning of a sentence to its correct ending.

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Teachers’ Notes

Monitoring Earthquakes Seismometers measure vibrations in the earth’s crust as before an earthquake small tremors may occur known as a foreshocks. These can give warning of an ensuing earthquake. A seismometer is a very sensitive instrument and measures all the tremors on the earth’s surface. It will measure or record any slight tremor or strain of rocks in the ground at a specific location. These movements can range in size from a metre or so, over a period of 12 hours in response to the gravitational pull of the moon, to motions of only a few millimeters over a period of seconds, as during an earthquake or explosion.

Seismometer

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Earthquake Wave Motion

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A seismometer is connected to a seismograph which then shows the recordings as a graph.

As an earthquake wave moves from A to B (as in the diagram below), it also moves up and down. This causes cracks to appear in the surface (as it moves upwards) and then a collapse in the surface as the wave passes by.

Earthquake Wave Motion

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Cracks appear

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Cracks appear

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Surface material crushed © ReadyEdP ubl i cat i ons •f orr e vi ew pur posesonl y•B Earthquake’s direction

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Cracks close

Earthquake Damage

Most damage occurs to buildings made of stone. Leaking gas and oil caused by an earthquake will often lead to fires which will exacerbate the damage. The Lisbon earthquake of 1755 caused huge damage to the city, started fires and resulted in huge tsunamis. About 60 000 people were killed. It has been calculated that the Mexico earthquake of 1985, was equal to 1000 atomic bombs as large as the one that destroyed Hiroshima in 1945. (Continued next page ...) Page 42

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Teachers’ Notes

Earthquake Damage (cont.) The San Francisco earthquake of 1989 caused damage to over a million square kilometres of land. The damage to buildings and roads was estimated to be in excess of $6000 million dollars. 63 people were killed and 4000 injured. In 1995, a Japanese earthquake in Kobe killed over 5000 people and injured 25 000 others. This was caused by a fault that had not moved for 1000 years and was thought to be safe.

Earthquake Rescue

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Preparing For Earthquakes

Around the world various measures have been put in place in preparation for earthquakes. Children in Japan practise earthquake drills, just as we may have a fire drill. There are trained disaster teams ready to commence work in an emergency, and supplies of food and blankets are held in readiness. The streets in San Francisco, USA, have been widened to help prevent the spread of fire and also to allow emergency teams to have space between the rubble for easier access when rescuing people.

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Rescue can be difficult if entry to the area is obstructed by destroyed roads, bridges or tunnels. After an earthquake strikes, homeless people must be provided with shelter, blankets and food. Trained sniffer dogs are sometimes sent to find survivors under the rubble.

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withstand earthquakes. They are low, with strengthened foundations and upper walls and beams that are very firmly fixed to withstand the swaying earthquake waves that cause most of the damage.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Many homes in earthquake prone areas are built specially to Scales For Measuring Earthquakes

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The Richter Scale uses a scale of 1 to 10. It is based on the energy released from an earthquake shock, calculated from seismograph readings.

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Both the Alaskan earthquake of 1964 and the Chilean earthquake of 1960 registered 8.9 on the Richter Scale. This is the highest reading ever recorded. A 7 is considered to be a major earthquake. The Newcastle earthquake of 1989 registered 5.6. The people of Newcastle weren’t prepared for the earthquake that struck them on 28th December, 1989. Collapsing walls caused most of the twelve deaths. The Mercalli Scale uses a scale from 1 to 12. This was invented in 1902 and modified in 1931, so that it can apply to damage in modern cities. One of the biggest dangers of earthquakes in Australia is that people don’t expect them to happen. Western Australia’s Meckering earthquake, 1968, was powerful enough to move railway lines sideways, break apart roads and lift the ground up to three metres in some places.

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Name:____________________

Technology and Enterprise

Designing a Survival Kit There has been a terrible earthquake and many people are without their basic needs. Design a survival kit that will enable a person to survive for three days.

2. What would you include in your survival kit?

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r o e t s B r e oo What are a person’s basic needs? p u k S

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Why did you choose these things?

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Learning Objective The students will design a basic survival kit demonstrating their awareness of the basic needs a person requires to survive.

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Name:____________________

Technology and Enterprise

Designing an Emergency Shelter Can you design an emergency shelter for victims of an earthquake? must be made out of paper, tape and straws only, (so it lightweight). must have two rooms with a door between them. must have a door going outside.

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My Design

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1. It is 2. It 3. It

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Learning Objectives • The students will design an emergency shelter by drawing a design and listing the materials required. • The students will create the design according to the three specifications listed.

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Name:____________________

Technology and Enterprise

Appraisal - Shelter Design Yes

No

Did I only use paper, tape and straws to make my shelter?

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the rooms?

Does my shelter have a door going outside? What could I do to improve my design?

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r o e t s Bo r Does my shelter have two rooms? e p ok u Does my shelterS have a door between

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Learning Objective The students will appraise the completed design and construction of the emergency shelter.

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Name:____________________

Earthquake Maze

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Help this boy find his family. An earthquake has occurred.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Draw your own maze below. o Swap with a partner.

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Learning Objective The students will complete a maze, to reunite a child with his family after a ‘disaster’.

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Teachers’ Notes

Predicting Eruptions and Earthquakes Many changes will occur in a volcano, often just before it erupts. Volcanoes are monitored constantly and carefully. There are observatories built close to important volcanoes around the world for this purpose. Many areas have emergency strategies in place. For example, Naples in the south of Italy, has a practice evacuation of the town every six months, in case of a volcanic eruption of Mount Vesuvius.

Minor earthquakes

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Gases in the airS Teac he r

The rock under the volcano is forced apart by magma filling the area. Seismometers are the sensitive machines used to measure the vibrations that these earth tremors cause. Scientists can work out where earthquakes are occurring and how close the magma is to the surface.

The volcano changes shape

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As magma rises up to the surface, gases are released into the air. These levels of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and hydrochloric acid may increase before an eruption.

As magma fills the chambers within a volcano the sides will begin to swell. This is measured with an instrument known as a tiltmeter. Lasers are also sometimes used.

Water temperature

The temperature of the water in crater lakes may increase substantially before an eruption, as the magma comes closer to the surface.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Vulcanologists •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• These are scientists who study volcanoes. They must wear special heat-resistant (usually metalThey carefully monitor volcanoes for any change in activity.

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coated) clothing and asbestos gloves, but their work is still extremely dangerous. They lower probes into volcanoes to take lava and gas samples.

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Name:____________________

Predicting Eruptions and Earthquakes

Use your dictionary to help you define the following terms. tiltmeter:

seismometer:

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Teac he r

vulcanologist:

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observatory:© Re adyEdPubl i cat i ons

•f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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laser: List three things that may occur when a volcano is about to erupt.

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3. Learning Objective The students will be able to define five geological terms and list three changes that may occur in a volcano before an eruption.

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Teachers’ Notes

Tsunamis The word ‘tsunami’ comes from the Japanese, meaning ‘harbour’ and ‘wave’. Many tsunamis have struck the Japanese coast. A tsunami must not be confused with tidal waves as it has nothing to do with tides. Tidal waves are produced by the gravitational attraction of the sun and the moon on the oceans. A tsunami is usually part of a series of smaller waves that are caused by earthquakes, underwater volcanic activity or underwater landslides. It can travel across the oceans at speeds of up to 800 kph and reach heights of 30 metres. The height a tsunami has reached is known as the run-up and is determined by the height of seaweed found in trees on the land.

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Tsunamis affecting Hawaii can originate from as far away as Alaska, Japan or South America.

An earthquake causes the sea bed to rise, resulting in a tsunami.

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Teac he r

Generally, in the ocean, tsunamis are only a metre high, and there may be more than 100 kilometres between each wave. As these waves come towards land where there are shelving beaches and narrow inlets of land, the water towers into a huge wave.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Earthquake

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Tsunami safety rules (Hawaii)

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Some signs of an approaching tsunami might be the disappearance of water which exposes the ocean floor and reefs, the disappearance of reefs or parts of islands due to flooding by the tsunami, or the sight of a large wave approaching the shoreline.

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* A tsunami can move faster than a person can run. * Never stay to watch a tsunami. * In tsunami prone areas a siren will sound to warn you. * If you feel the earth shake, move to higher ground - a tsunami may be on its way.

Historic tsunamis

The 1883 eruption of Krakatoa, Indonesia caused a massive tsunami. The waves killed over 36 000 people living on Sumatra and Java. In 1892 a tsunami struck Japan, sweeping away about 10 000 houses and killing some 27 000 people. The Alaskan earthquake of 1964 caused huge tsunamis. Huge ships were swept ashore. In 1975 a large earthquake shook Hawaii causing a giant tsunami that washed people, trees and rocks into a crack 6 metres deep. This was followed by a second wave that was about 15 metres high and travelled inland for nearly 100 metres. Some people died and there was great damage caused. In 1994 the islands of Indonesia were hit by a series of tsunamis that swamped fields and villages.

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Tsunami Dot-To-Dot

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Name:____________________

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Learning Objective The students will correctly complete a dot-to-dot demonstrating an ability to count in order, to 57.

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Name:____________________

A

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Island Grid C

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As your teacher reads out these co-ordinates, plot them on the grid.

Points to. plot on the Island Grid t e o c . At B2 draw a palm tree. At D4 draw a e volcano. ch r e o t r s sup At E7 draw a rock. At e G7r draw a geyser. At G4 draw a crater. At D3 draw an earthquake crack. At A6 draw a tsunami. At E5 draw a palm tree. At B4 draw a house. At C2 draw a person. Learning Objectives • The students will draw in a series of pictures onto a grid, demonstrating an understanding of grid co-ordinates. • The students will demonstrate effective listening skills by completing the task correctly.

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Name:____________________

The Run Uphill

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1. Where did Jack live?

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Jack lived in Hawaii. He loved the beach. He liked to feel the sand in between his toes and he loved swimming in the sea. He looked over at his sister, Lucy, who was building a huge sandcastle. A cool wind blew softly. Suddenly he heard the loud wail of a siren and lots of people began yelling, “Run, run!” He looked up and there, in the distance, was a giant wave moving towards the shore. It was a tsunami and Jack knew what he had to do. He grabbed his sister’s hand and ran and ran. He could see the big hill just ahead and he knew that they would only be safe if they reached the top. They came closer and soon they were running as fast as they could, up to the top of the big hill. It was very hard work and he was so puffed out. His sister began to cry, but he knew they were safe when they © ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons reached the top at last. f or evi e wp ur p ses on l y• “Crash!”• The big r wave washed onto theo shore, right over the beach that they had been playing on. It had been a lucky escape and Jack’s quick thinking had saved their lives. Comprehension Questions

. teJack love? What did o c . c e What was the h name of Jack’s sister? or er st super

4. What was Lucy doing at the beach?

5. How did Jack know that a tsunami was coming? 6. Where did Jack run to? Learning Objective The students will read a story and complete a series of comprehension questions, demonstrating an understanding of the text read.

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Teachers’ Notes

Alphabet Letters for Bingo Activity

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A A A B B C C D E E E E F F G H o e t I I er Js Jr K B LoL M p ok u N O O O P P Q R S S S T T U U U V W X Y Z

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A D I M R W

Bingo instructions

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons The students then randomly place each p letter from that word somewhere on the grid (not • f o r r e v i e w u r p o s e s o n l y • together).

1. The teacher calls out a word and the students write it on their sheet at Number 1. 2. The teacher checks for correct spelling and the students correct their work. 3.

4. This continues until all ten words are read out, spelt correctly and each letter randomly placed on the grid.

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5. The teacher then calls out a letter that is drawn and the students colour in that square for one letter. 6. This continues until a student wins by colouring in a whole row either across or down.

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Samples of Bingo words

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Volcanoes: lava, crater, volcano, magma, vent, erupt, gas steam, ash, chamber.

Earthquakes: earthquake, wave, shock, tremor, earth, crust, rock, plate, damage, crack. Tsunamis: wave, ocean, harbour, coast, siren, height, speed, reef, danger, seaweed.

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Name:____________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Bingo

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te 1. ____________________ 2. ___________________ o c . c e her 4. ___________________ r 3. ____________________ o t s super 5. ____________________

6. ___________________

7. ____________________

8. ___________________

9. ____________________

10. ___________________

Learning Objectives • The students will play a game of Bingo by listening carefully to the teacher’s instructions. • The students will write the correct spelling of the words read aloud by the teacher.

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Name:____________________

Earthquake/Tsunami Word Sleuth E

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o c . Find these words in the sleuth. che e r o t r s shock su earthquake tsunami wave per ocean

fracture

epicentre

fault

zone

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Mercalli

scale

harbour

Learning Objective The students will complete a word sleuth, thus enhancing their reading skills and knowledge of terms relating to earthquakes and tsunamis.

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Name:____________________

Word Sorting

Write the words below into their correct box. Tsunamis

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Volcanoes

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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lava

wave

magma

vent

rock

ocean

hot

ash

coast

reef

water

sea

crater

seaweed

gas

Learning Objective The students will demonstrate effective reading skills and a simple knowledge of volcanoes and tsunamis by sorting 15 words into the correct box.

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Name:____________________

Tsunami Trivia

Circle and colour the correct answer in each line.

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Which travels about the same speed as a tsunami?

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Teac he r

A tsunami is caused by:

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What is the official tsunami warning sign?

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Learning Objective The students will demonstrate a basic knowledge of tsunamis by circling the correct answer on the worksheet.

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Answers Volcano Crossword - Page 26 1.

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Volcano Word Sleuth - Page 36

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Earthquake/Tsunami Word Sleuth Page 55

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The Volcano Theme Book  

The activities in The Volcano Theme Book have been devised to enhance and consolidate students' knowledge of this exciting phenomenon. Buy...

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