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The Earth &r Life Science or eB Series t s

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Weather

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Science activities for . 6 to 9 year olds o c . che e r o t r s super

Written by Judy Gabrovec. © Ready-Ed Publications - 2005. Published by Ready-Ed Publications (2005) P.O. Box 276 Greenwood Perth W.A. 6024 Email: info@readyed.com.au Website: www.readyed.com.au COPYRIGHT NOTICE Permission is granted for the purchaser to photocopy sufficient copies for non-commercial educational purposes. However, this permission is not transferable and applies only to the purchasing individual or institution.

ISBN 1 86397 341 9


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. te o c Acknowledgements: . c e Photo images used herein were obtained from IMSI’s Masterclips/MasterPhotos h r e o t r collection, 1895 Francisco Blvd, s East San CA 94901-5506 USA. s u er pRafael, The activities in this book refer to material from the document Science - a curriculum profile for Australian Schools (1994). This document is published by: Curriculum Corporation, St. Nicholas Place, 141 Rathdowne St, Carlton VIC, 3053 www.curriculum.edu.au/catalog/primary.htm

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Contents Teachers’ Notes ............................................................................. 4/5

“Using Information” Activity Pages Lesson Notes: P ages 7 to 12 .............................................................. 6 Pages Using Information: What Makes the W eather? ................................... 7/8 Weather?

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Using Information: W eather Forecasting ......................................... 9/10 Weather Using Information: Measuring the W eather ...................................... 11/12 Weather Lesson Notes: pages 14 to 21 ............................................................ 13 Using Information: W ater ............................................................. 14/15 Water

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Using Information: The W ater Cycle ............................................... 16/17 Water

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Using Information: The Wind ........................................................ 18/19 Using Information: The Sun ......................................................... 20/21

Lesson Notes: pages 23 to 30 ......................................................... 22

Using Information: Desert W eather .............................................. 23/24 Weather

Using Information: Arctic W eather ............................................... 25/26 Weather

Using Information: TTropical ropical R ain Forests ....................................... 27/28 Rain

Using Information: The Seasons ................................................. 29/30

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons General Activity Pages •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Lesson Notes: P ages 32, 33 ............................................................. 31 Pages

General: LLet’s et’s Make a Cloud! ........................................................... 32 General: Super Snow ...................................................................... 33

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Lesson Notes: P ages 35, 36 ............................................................ 34 Pages

General: Measuring the Wind 1 ......................................................... 35

General: Measuring the Wind 2 ......................................................... 36

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General: Wind P ower ....................................................................... 37 Power

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Lesson Notes: P ages 39, 40 ........................................................... 38 Pages

General: Hot and Cold ..................................................................... 39 General: W ater W ater W ater ............................................................ 40 Water Water Water Lesson Notes: P ages 42, 43 ............................................................. 41 Pages General: LLet’s et’s Make R ain! ................................................................ 42 Rain! General: R ainbows .......................................................................... 43 Rainbows

Answers Answers ........................................................................................ 44

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Teacher Information The Earth and Life Sciences Series is designed to provide teachers of children in the 6 - 9 age range with a set of materials that will give students a more rounded and scientific understanding of their world and their place in it. Student activities are directed towards meeting the requirements related to Science Education as set down in the document Science - A Curriculum Profile for Australian Schools (Curriculum Corporation, 1994). This book, Weather eather, relates in particular to the Earth and Beyond conceptual strand of Beyond, at Levels 1 and 2 as indicated in the Profile document. In addition the activities in the book enable children to utilize some cognitive processes which are incorporated in the Working Scientifically strand of the curriculum.

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These are:

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identifying, distinguishing, becoming aware of, observing;

describing, naming features, recording, describing change, describing how, listing; describing patterns, connecting, linking, classifying, sorting, organising.

Specific Outcomes Related to The Working Scientifically Strand Level 1 and Level 2 children working on activities in this book could be expected to realise these outcomes related to this strand:

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Specifically, students: Students investigate to answer questions about data, and reach and communicate conclusions.

Focus on problems in response to teacher generated questions or suggestions;

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Share observations;

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Identify some of the variables in a problem situation;

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Carry out sequential activities, and observe and describe their actions;

o c . Specific Outcomes Related to The Earth and Beyond Strand ch e r er o t s super Make simple non-standard measurements and records of data.

Level 1 and Level 2 children working on activities in this book could be expected to realise these outcomes related to this strand:

Students make observations about the weather and identify local environment factors that influence daily life; Students understand how changes in weather conditions relate to clothing they wear and activities they undertake.

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Structure of this Book Books in this series are divided into two sections - the section which includes the “Using Information” activity pages and that containing “General Activity” pages. Both sections include Teachers’ Notes which focus on aspects of subsequent activity pages such as:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S “Using Information” Section learning outcomes of the relevant pages;

materials required to complete the activity page;

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teaching suggestions for each page in the section.

age” - a set of All student activity pages in this section are preceded by an “Information P Page” notes that provides background knowledge to the activities presented on the worksheet. It is intended that these sheets are also photocopied for students and used by them as they attempt the activity page. It is envisaged that this approach will allow teachers to relate the class Science program to the Language program, through using these Information Pages as opportunities for Reading and Viewing activities. They are ideal for these purposes in that they require students to retell meanings and make simple interpretations for the purposes of completing the accompanying worksheets.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons The text in these pages may be at a slightly more difficult level than that presented on the •andf o rr evi e ur psome os ewords so l y• worksheets further assistance isw given p by defining key orn phrases. These

are underlined and link to the Explanations section at the base of the page, which contains further definitive statements and explanations about the text.

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It should be noted that not all the information that is required to complete worksheets is contained in these notes. In fact, children will benefit greatly from introductory discussions and idea sharing sessions about the worksheet in conjunction with the use of the Information Page.

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General Activities Section

The activity pages in this section (headed ACTIVITY PAGE) utilize traditional print related reference materials for children to complete the set tasks on the sheets. It would be useful for a collection of appropriate books and materials to be assembled before commencing the unit so these can be accessed and used with as little disruption as possible. It is imperative, too, that these sheets are discussed thoroughly before children are set to work.

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Lesson Notes Pages 7 to 12 Content Area(s): earth science

Learning Outcomes:

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Materials Required: Information Page pencil or pen

Time:

approximately 20-35 minutes.

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In this section students: identify why weather is important to people. discover the four components of weather. investigate weather symbols. design their own weather symbols. identify different weather instruments.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Weather is very important to us because it can change many things about our lives -

Background Information: Pages 7/8: What Makes The Weather

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the clothes we wear, the way we travel, the way we spend our leisure time and even whether or not we can work. Sometimes the weather can be so bad that people’s lives are in danger. Weather is made up of four things: temperature, air pressure, movement and moisture. Air pressure is the weight of the air on the earth. The wind direction is always measured by the direction the wind is coming from.

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Pages 9/10: Weather Forecasting and Pages 11/12: Measuring the Weather

Meteorologists study the weather using a range of instruments ranging from simple thermometers to sophisticated satellite image scanners and radar. Weather forecasting is important to people because bad weather conditions can cause harm to people, plants and animals through storms, hurricanes, snowfalls, blizzards and other severe weather patterns. Weather forecasting and reporting can help people prepare for bad weather conditions. Weather patterns are recorded using symbols that can show air pressure (isobars), cold and warm fronts, wind strength and direction, cloud cover and the likelihood of rain or snow.

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Name: ............................

Using Information

What Mak es The W eather? Makes Weather?

The weather is simply the condition of the air around you. Weather is very important to people because it can affect many things in our lives - the clothes we wear, the way we travel, the way we spend our leisure time and even whether or not we can work. Sometimes the weather can be so bad that people’s lives are in danger. Weather is also very important to plants and animals. Crops and food can be destroyed and the lives of animals lost because of bad weather. Weather is made up of four things - temperature, air pressure, movement and moisture.

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r o e t s Bo r e p o u k Temperature S Air Pressure

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The temperature is how hot or cold the air feels. In summer temperatures are quite high and in winter they are very low.

Air pressure is the weight of the air on the earth. A high pressure is formed when the air is pushing down a lot. A high pressure usually brings fair weather. A low pressure is formed when the air is only pushing down a little. A low pressure usually brings bad weather.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Humidity and Moisture •f or r evi ew pur posesonl y• Movement

Movement describes how fast the wind is blowing and in what direction.

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Explanations

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Humidity is how much water is in the air. The amount of humidity and moisture affects the conditions of the air and the amount decides whether or not it will rain, hail or snow. Condition: The conditions describe what the air is like. The air may be described as windy, raining or fine. Crops: Crops are grown by farmers to produce food for people. Sometimes very bad weather conditions can destroy a whole crop. Direction: The direction of the wind is always where the wind is coming from and not which direction it is headed in. Some sports such as wind surfing or yachting depend on the direction of the wind. Leisure: Leisure time is the time people have to do things like going on picnics and playing sport. It is when people have spare time after work and chores are done.

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Name: ............................

Using Information

What Mak es The W eather? Makes Weather? Use the Information Page on What Makes The Weather? to help you complete this page.

Give five reasons why weather is so important to people. 1. ...............................................................................

r o e t s B r e oo 3. ............................................................................... p u k S 4. ............................................................................... 5. ...............................................................................

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2. ...............................................................................

Name and explain the four things that make up the weather?

1. _______________________ - .............................................................

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 2. _______________________ - ............................................................. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• ..............................................................................................................

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3. _______________________ - ............................................................ ..............................................................................................................

. te o .............................................................................................................. c . che e Weather All Ar ound Around r o t r Describe the weather arounds you s uper

4. _______________________ - ............................................................

right now.

.................................................... .................................................... .................................................... In the box draw an activity that you could do outside in this weather. Page 8

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Name: ............................

Using Information

Weather FForecasting orecasting

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The weather can change from day to day. This is because the layer of air which surrounds the earth is always moving. As it moves, the weather changes. The weather may be hot or cold, windy or calm, cloudy or clear. There may be rain, snow, sleet, hail or the day could be completely dry. Changes in the weather can be predicted by studying the temperature, the air pressure, the movement of the air and the amount of moisture around. People who study the weather are called meteorologists. The patterns of the weather can be recorded using symbols. This is called weather forecasting. The study, forecasting and reporting of weather is very important. Bad weather conditions can cause harm to people, plants and animals through storms, hurricanes, snowfalls, blizzards and other severe weather patterns. Weather forecasting and reporting can help people prepare for bad weather conditions.

Explanations

Layer of Air: The layer of air which surrounds the earth is called the atmosphere. Predicted: A prediction is a guess about what might happen. You can predict if it is going to rain or if a storm is coming. Recorded using symbols: The symbols used are usually pictures and easy to work out. Here are some examples of weather symbols.

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Severe weather patterns: Severe weather patterns can cause natural disasters like floods, mudslides and avalanches. Sleet: Sleet is small grains of ice that have partially melted.

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Name: ............................

Using Information

Weather FForecasting orecasting Use the Information Page on Weather Forecasting to help you complete this page.

What do meteorologists do? ............................................................. ..............................................................................................................

r o e t s Bo............................. r e Why is weather forecasting important to people? p ok u .............................................................................................................. S

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.............................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................. Weather patterns are recorded using symbols. What do you think these symbols mean?

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Windy

Cloudy

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Design your own symbols for these weather conditions.

Thunder and lightning

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Hurricane

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Name: ............................

Using Information

Measuring the W eather Weather

Many different instruments are used to measure the weather.

Thermometer A thermometer measures the temperature. Most thermometers have mercury inside which expands when heated.

Barometer

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A barometer measures changes in air pressure. Meteorologists can use a barometer to predict changes in the weather.

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Weather balloons are released into the atmosphere. They carry instruments that measure the temperature, pressure, and humidity of the air.

A rain gauge measures how much rain has fallen. Rainfall is usually measured in centimetres.

Weather Satellites

Satellites carry television cameras that take pictures of the earth. The pictures show the pattern of clouds above the earth and large areas of snow and ice on the ground. Meteorologists use the photographs to spot hurricanes and other dangerous storms. Satellites can also measure temperature, humidity and wind direction and speed.

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Explanations

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Atmosphere: The atmosphere is the layer of air that surrounds the earth. Barometer: You can make your own barometer with an empty jar, a balloon, a rubber band, a drinking straw and some cardboard. Here’s how: 1. Stretch the balloon over the top of the jar and fasten with the rubber band. 2. Tape one end of the straw to the middle of the balloon. Cut the other end of the straw to make a point. 3. Tape a piece of cardboard to the jar. Mark where the end of the straw points. 4. If the straw moves up, it is showing a high pressure and the weather should be fine. 5. If the straw moves down, it shows a low pressure and the weather should be cloudy. Mercury: Mercury is a metal that is sometimes called quicksilver. It is a liquid. Hurricane: A severe tropical cyclone which usually starts in tropical ocean regions normally involves heavy rains and very strong winds. Sometimes the winds reach speeds of up to 120 kilometres per hour. Rain gauge: It is very easy to make your own rain gauge from an empty plastic bottle and use it to measure how much rain falls each day.

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Satellites: Satellites are sent up into space and they orbit or go around the earth. You can see the satellite pictures that are sent to earth on the television forecasts. © Ready-Ed Publications

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Using Information

Measuring the W eather Weather Use the Information Page on Measuring the Weather to help you complete this page.

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Look at the weather instruments below. Label each one and describe what it measures.

Name: .......................................... Name: ............................................

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pu r posesonl y• .................................................... .......................................................

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What does it measure? ................ What does it measure?...................

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Name: .......................................... Name: ........................................... What does it measure? ................ What does it measure?.................. .................................................... Page 12

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Lesson Notes Pages 14 to 21 Content Area(s): earth science

Learning Outcomes:

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Materials Required: Information Pages pencil or pen

Time:

approximately 20-35 minutes.

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In this section students: explore the properties of water. label a diagram of the water cycle. investigate wind and its properties. describe the different instruments that measure wind. discover why the sun is so important to the earth.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Water in the air exists in three forms - water vapour, cloud droplets and liquid rain

Background Information:

Pages 14/15: Water and Pages 16/17: The Water Cycle

drops. Pages 18/19: The Wind

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Pages 20/21: The Sun

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Wind is moving air that blows because air is always moving from high pressure to low pressure areas. An anemometer measures how hard the wind blows and is sometimes called a wind gauge. A meteorologist is a person who studies and forecasts the weather. A wind vane measures the direction of the wind. Another instrument that also measures the wind direction is a wind sock. The direction of the wind is always measured from where the wind comes from and not the direction it is blowing to.

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The energy from the sun helps plants grow, affects the winds, ocean currents and the water cycle. It also heats up the earth. Different parts of the earth heat up differently because of the distance from the sun, the type of surface and the concentration of the sun’s rays on the earth. A simple experiment to discover which type of surface in your school yard absorbs the most heat would be to place identical glass containers with a small amount of water in them at different locations around the school. The one with the most water evaporated absorbs the most heat.

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Name: ............................

Using Information

Water

The atmosphere has a lot of water in it. The amount of water in the air is called humidity. Water in the air comes in three ways - water vapour, cloud droplets and liquid rain drops.

Water Vapour

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Water vapour is water in the air in the form of gas. When the air is warm it can hold a lot of water vapour.

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Liquid Rain Drops

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When the air cools high in the sky, water vapour changes to liquid water. The liquid water is so small and light that the droplets float in the air. When large groups of the liquid water or droplets come together they form a cloud. Each cloud is made up of millions of water droplets.

When the cloud cools down, the water droplets join together and form larger drops. They become heavy and fall to the ground as liquid rain drops. Sometimes snow or sleet may fall to the ground instead of rain. This depends on the temperature of the air.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f or r e ew pur p osesonl y• Atmosphere: The layer ofv airi that surrounds the earth. Explanations

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Fall to the ground: When the rain drops become heavier, the earth’s gravity pulls them towards the earth. Liquid rain drops: Liquid rain drops are also called precipitation. Sleet: Sleet starts out as rain but freezes on the way to earth. This happens if the temperature between the cloud and the earth is below freezing. Temperature of the air: If the temperature of the air is below freezing (0°C) snow may form. If the temperature is above freezing, it will rain.

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Name: ............................

Using Information

Water Use the Information Page on Water to help you complete this page.

Describe the three different ways that water exists in the air. 1. _______________________ - .......................................

r o e t s Bo r e 2. _______________________ - ....................................... p ok u ........................................................................................ S

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3. _______________________ - ............................................................. .............................................................................................................. Draw a rainbow scene.

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Draw lines to match the words to their correct meaning.

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precipitation sleet

atmosphere freezing point

layer of air that surrounds the earth

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amount of water in the air

humidity

pull to the earth

vapour

rain

gravity

rain that freezes on the way to the earth

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Name: ............................

Using Information

The W ater Cycle Water

The water cycle is the story of how water is continually being dried up by the sun. The water cycle is happening all the time and it never ends.

Step One The sun dries up water from all the water sources on earth - rivers, lakes, swimming pools and even from the leaves of plants. The sun dries up a lot of the water from oceans because they are the biggest bodies of water on earth. The warmth of the sun changes the water into an invisible gas called water vapour.

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Step Two

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Step Three

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The water vapour rises into the air. Because the air is cool, the water vapour changes to tiny droplets of floating water. Millions of droplets of tiny floating water crowd together to form a cloud.

Step Four

The clouds are blown over the sea towards land and are forced higher into the sky. It gets colder the higher the clouds go.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Because• it is cold, tiny water in the join f o rthe r e vdroplets i ewofp ur p oclouds ses otogether nl yand •fall Step Five

to the ground as rain.

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When the water reaches the earth it soaks into the soil, collects in puddles, or falls into streams and rivers. A lot of this water flows into the ocean where the sun will warm it up again. It changes into water vapour that floats up into the air to make a cloud. The water cycle that never ends has started again.

o c . ch e Continually: Continually means that something happens all the time. r e o Dried up by the sun: When ther sun dries upe water, itt is called evaporation. s su r p Fall to the ground as rain: Sometimes snow or sleet falls to the ground instead

of rain. Flows into the ocean: It is not only the water from the oceans that is dried up by the sun. Water all over the earth is dried up by the sun and forms part of the water cycle. Invisible: If something is invisible it means that it cannot be seen.

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Name: ............................

Using Information

The W ater Cycle Water Use the Information Page on The Water Cycle to help you complete this page.

Fill in the words to tell the story of the water cycle. 1. The ...................... dries up ......................... from lakes and oceans.

r o e t s B r e oo ...................................... p u k 3. The dropletsS crowd together and form a ........................................... 4. The wind blows the ........................ towards the land.

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2. The cool air changes the water vapour into tiny droplets of floating

5. The tiny droplets join together and fall to the .................................... 6. The rain soaks into the ground and collects in..................................

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Use the Information Page to help you label the diagram of the water •below. f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• cycle 1. ...........................

7. The ............................................ that never ends has started again.

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4. ...........................

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Name: ............................

Using Information

The Wind What is Wind? Wind is moving air. If there wasn't any wind there would be little or no change in our day-to-day weather.

Why Does The Wind Blow? Wind blows because air is always moving from high pressure to low pressure areas. A high pressure forms in cool air because the air pushes down hard on the earth. A low pressure forms in warm air which only pushes lightly on the earth. The air moves from the high pressure to the low pressure and this moving air is the wind.

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Wind Speed S

Winds can vary from a gentle breeze to a gale force wind which can damage property and buildings.

Wind Direction

The direction of the wind is always the direction that the wind is coming from and not the direction that the wind is blowing to.

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Measuring the Wind

A weather vane or wind sock can tell us which direction the wind is blowing. A wind sock can also show the strength of the wind. An instrument used by meteorologists to measure how hard the wind is blowing is called an anemometer.

Explanations

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Anemometer: An anemometer is sometimes called a wind gauge. Meteorologists: Meteorologists are people who study the weather and make weather forecasts. Moving air: The air always moves horizontally or parallel to the ground. Moving from high to low pressure: The air moves from high to low pressure because it tries to make the air pressure equal.

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Name: ............................

Using Information

The W ind Wind Use the Information Page on The Wind to help you complete this page.

What is wind and why does it blow? ........................................................................

r o e t s Bo r e ........................................................................ p ok u Draw a windy scene below showing the S wind coming from the east.

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Find out what these weather words mean.

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anemometer - ...................................................................................... ..............................................................................................................

. te o .............................................................................................................. c . che e wind vane - ........................................................................................... r o t r s super .............................................................................................................. meteorologist -.....................................................................................

wind sock - ........................................................................................... .............................................................................................................. wind direction - .................................................................................... .............................................................................................................. © Ready-Ed Publications

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Name: ............................

Using Information

The Sun

The sun is very important to the earth. The energy from the sun helps plants grow and affects the winds, ocean currents and the water cycle. It also heats up the earth. Some parts of the earth heat up more than others. There are different reasons why this happens.

Distance from the Sun Some parts of the world, like the North Pole and the Antarctic are further away from the sun so they are cold. The area around the middle of the earth is the hottest part because it is closest to the sun.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u The Shape of the Earth S

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The Earth's Surface

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The round shape of the earth is even more important than the earth's distance from the sun. The sun's rays aren't as strong at the two poles because they are less concentrated. This means the surface of the earth does not heat up at the poles. Most of the sun's rays fall on the centre area of the earth. This means the area around the centre of the earth is the hottest.

The earth has many different types of surfaces like deserts, oceans, forests, plains, mountains and areas made up of only ice. These different surfaces absorb different amounts of the sun's energy. This means that different surfaces have different temperatures.

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Explanations

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Area around the middle of the earth: The imaginary line around the middle of the earth is called the equator. Antarctica: Antarctica (the Antarctic) is an icy continent that lies in the most southern part of the world and covers the South Pole. It is the fifth largest continent in the world.

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Name: ............................

Using Information

The Sun Use the Information Page on The Sun to help you complete this page.

Give five reasons why the sun is important to the earth. ..............................................................

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u ............................................................................................................... S ............................................................................................................... ..............................................................

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Why do different parts of the world heat up differently?

1. ............................................................................................................ 2. ............................................................................................................

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Look at the diagram below. Use the words below to label it. •sun, f or r evi ew pur posesonl y• sun’s rays, equator, North Pole, South Pole

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....................... ........................ Colour the areas of the world which you think are the coldest in blue. Colour the hottest area in red. © Ready-Ed Publications

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Lesson Notes Pages 23 to 30 Content Area(s): earth science

Learning Outcomes:

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Materials Required: Information pages pencil or pen

Time:

approximately 20-35 minutes.

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In this section students: investigate the features of a desert. investigate Arctic weather. investigate tropical rain forests. discover why there are different seasons. gather facts about the different seasons.

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Background Information: Page 23/24: Desert Weather

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Page 25/26: Arctic Weather

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Some deserts are hot and some are cold, depending on what part of the world they are in. Some are rocky or sandy or covered in stones. Some have very little plant life and others are covered in dry-looking plants. The hottest deserts are close to the middle of the earth (equator) where the sun’s rays are strongest and most concentrated. Even in the driest desert there is water trapped underground. If this water comes to the surface through a crack in a rock, it is called an oasis.

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In much of the Arctic the earth, ice and rock are frozen solid permanently. The solid mass is called permafrost. It is covered with a layer of ice and snow which melts in summer. In winter the permafrost can be up to 300 metres deep. In summer, it thaws and can be 0.6 to 2 metres. The sun gives off less heat at the Arctic circle than at the equator because the sun’s rays are less concentrated. Antarctica would experience similar weather conditions while the area around the centre of the earth would experience the hottest weather.

Pages 27/28: Tropical Rain Forests and Pages 29/30: The Seasons

Refer to Answer Page.

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Name: ............................

Using Information

Desert W eather Weather

Deserts cover about a fifth of the earth's land.

What is a Desert? The one thing that makes an area of land a desert is a very low rainfall. Sometimes a desert may not get any rainfall for years.

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How Hot is a Desert?

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An Oasis in the Desert

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A desert can be very hot because it absorbs more of the sun's heat than other areas on earth. If a desert is close to the middle of the earth where the sun's rays are strongest, it can be even hotter (100°C). At night the temperatures in the desert can be very cold. Some deserts have mild winters, but others can have freezing temperatures and snow.

Even in the driest desert there is water trapped underground. If this water comes to the surface through a crack in a rock, it is called an oasis. Because of the water, an oasis has fertile soil where plants and crops can grow. Sometimes people who live in a desert area dig wells through the rocks to the water so an oasis forms.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Fertile soil: •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Fertile soil is very good for growing crops and plants. Explanations

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Mild winters: A mild winter is one that does not have really cold temperatures. Sun's rays: The sun's rays are strongest around the middle of the earth because they are most concentrated there. Very low rainfall: A desert has less twenty five centimetres of rain a year.

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Name: ............................

Using Information

Desert W eather Weather Use the Information Page on Desert Weather to help you complete this page.

There are many different types of desert. List some words to describe deserts. .................................

r o e t s B r e oo ................................. p u k S ................................. ................................. .................................

Find answers to these questions.

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1. How much rainfall does a desert area average per year? ..................

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 2. In what part of the world are the hottest deserts found? .................... •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• ...............................................................................................................

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3. Why are the deserts in this part of the world so hot? .........................

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............................................................................................................... 4. What is an oasis? Draw an oasis in the box.

. t o An oasis e is ... ............................................................ c . che e r o ............................................................ t r s super ............................................................ ............................................................ ............................................................ ............................................................ Page 24

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Name: ............................

Using Information

Ar ctic W eather Arctic Weather

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Explanations

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The Arctic Circle is the area around the North Pole. In much of the Arctic the earth, ice and rock are frozen solid permanently. The solid mass is called permafrost. It is covered with a layer of ice and snow which melts in summer. In winter the permafrost can be up to 300 metres deep. In summer, it partly thaws and can be 0.6 to 2 metres. In winter, the temperature averages about 34°C. There is very little heat from the sun's rays. The sun never shines on much of the Arctic during the winter months. The hottest summer temperatures are in the inland areas of Siberia, Alaska and Canada. Summer temperatures average around 16°C. Much of the Arctic lands have no snow and ice in summer because the sun shines for at least part of day. However, the sun does not give off much heat because of the slant of the sun's rays. The Arctic Circle has very little rainfall. The entire rainfall for the year might only be 15 to 25 centimetres. Some deserts have more rain than this. Much of the Arctic is foggy in summer.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Foggy: Fog is a collection of tiny water droplets. They are similar to clouds except they touch the ground. Permanently: This means that the ice and rock are frozen solid all the time. They never thaw or melt. Slant of the sun's rays: The suns rays strike at a great slant at the North Pole and they give off less heat than the rays that strike the earth further south. Thaws: If something thaws it means that it melts.

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Name: ............................

Using Information

Ar ctic W eather Arctic Weather Use the Information Page on Arctic Weather to help you complete this page.

The Arctic Circle is made up of permafrost. Find out these facts about permafrost. 1. What is permafrost? ..........................................................................

r o e t s Bo r e p ok 2. How deep is the permafrost in winter? .............................................. u S 3. What happens to the permafrost in summer? ...................................

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4. How deep is the permafrost in summer? .......................................... Look at the diagrams below of how the sun’s rays hit the earth. Mark the Arctic Circle on both of the diagrams.

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o c . Use the diagrams to answer these questions. ch e r o t Why does the sun give off e lessr heat at the Arctic Circle than s at the equator? super

.............................................................................................................. ..............................................................................

What other area of the world would have similar weather conditions to the Arctic Circle? ................................................................. Page 26

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Name: ............................

Using Information

Tropical R ain FForests orests Rain

A tropic is a hot, wet region that makes a wide belt around the centre of the earth. The rainfall in the tropics is very high and it is always hot. The temperature falls between 23°C and 27°C and it is the same for winter and summer. In this belt, there are many tropical rain forests. Rain forests cover about 7% of the earth's surface. Tropical rain forests stay green all year. Because of the warm, moist climate, rain forest plants also grow very fast.

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok A rain forest has different layers of plant growth: u S The First Layer

Taller than all the other plants in the forests are giant trees called emergent trees, which grow to heights of 35 to 80 metres. They have small leaves, umbrellashaped crowns and tall slender trunks.

The Second Layer

The next layer, the canopy, is like a thick green carpet. This is formed by flattopped trees, 20 to 35 metres above the ground.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Below the small trees usually do s not grow ton heights of more •canopy f orare r e vi e wthat pu r po e so l y• The Third Layer

than 5 metres or so, and a shorter layer of very young canopy trees and shrubs.

The Forest Floor

Explanations

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Seedlings, herbs and ferns grow on the forest floor. There is not much vegetation on the forest floor because of a lack of light.

7% of the earth’s surface: Even though rain forests only cover a small amount of the earth’s surface, they contain more than half the world’s species of plants and animals. Different layers of plant growth: The different layers of plant growth are a result of the amount of sunlight that gets through to each layer. Lack of light: Plants need sunlight to make energy to grow. Wide belt around the centre of the earth: This belt follows the equator.

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Name: ............................

Using Information

Tropical R ain FForests orests Rain Use the Information Page on Tropical Rain Forests to help you complete this page.

Read about rain forests and answer the following. 1. Where are rain forests found? ...........................................................

r o e t s Bo r e 3. Find out three facts about rain forests. p ok u .......................................................................................................... S

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2. How much of the earth is covered by rain forests? ...........................

.......................................................................................................... ..........................................................................................................

Look at the information on the rain forest. Draw a diagram of a rain forest below and in the boxes write brief descriptions of your picture.

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Second Layer

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First Layer

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Third Layer

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Name: ............................

Using Information

The Seasons

There are four seasons in the year - summer, autumn, winter and spring. The seasons happen because the earth moves in a circle around the sun. The earth takes a year to move around the sun. Each season is three months long.

Why The Seasons Change The sun's strongest rays shine on different parts of the earth as it goes around. If the North Pole is tilting towards the sun it is summer in the top half of the world and winter in the bottom half of the world. If the South Pole is tilted towards the sun it is winter in the top half of the world and summer in the bottom half of the world.

r o e t s Bo r e What Happens inp Summer? ok u S

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What Happens in Autumn?

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Summer is the warmest season of the year. The sun can be very strong in summer and it is important to protect yourself from the sun's rays by wearing sun screen and a hat. In the top part of the world the summer months are June, July and August. In the bottom half of the world the summer months are December, January and February.

In autumn the weather is not as hot as summer. The days are warm and the nights are cool. As winter approaches the air becomes colder. Some trees lose their leaves in autumn and the land is dry after the hot summer. In the top half of the world autumn is in September, October and November. In the bottom half of the world the autumn months are March, April and May.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Winter is• the f coldest season of thew year.p Many areas of s thee world have very cold o r r e v i e u r p o s o n l y • conditions. Ponds and lakes turn to ice and snow falls from the sky. In cold weather, What Happens in Winter?

What Happens in Spring?

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people wear thick clothes to keep warm. Animals that live in very cold areas grow thick fur to keep out the cold. Some animals hide away in their warm burrows for the winter. Some birds fly away to warm countries and return when the weather warms up. Spring is the season between winter and summer. The top half of the world has spring in March, April, May. In the bottom half of the world spring weather begins about September and ends in November. The days of spring are warmer than winter days. Snow that has fallen during the winter months melt. Flowers bloom and animals leave their winter sleeping places. The days of spring have more hours of daylight and become warmer as summer approaches.

Explanations

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Bottom half of the world: The bottom half of the world is called the Southern Hemisphere. Top half of the world: The top half of the world is called the Northern Hemisphere. Earth moves in a circle around the sun: The movement of the earth around the sun is called rotation. Fly away: When birds fly to warmer countries in winter it is called migration. Hide away: When animals hide away in burrows or caves for the winter they are hibernating. © Ready-Ed Publications

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Name: ............................

Using Information

The Seasons Use the Information Page on The Seasons to help you complete this page.

This diagram shows the earth in two different positions as it rotates around the sun.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

Show which part of the earth is having winter and which part is having summer for each position.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Summer ................................................................. •- f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Describe what happens in:

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Autumn -.................................................................................................

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........................................................................................ Spring - .......................................................................... ........................................................................................ ............................................................................................................... Page 30

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Lesson Notes Pages 32, 33 Content Area(s): earth science

Learning Outcomes:

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Teac he r

Materials Required: pencil or pen, experiment materials as stated on activity pages.

Time:

approximately 20-35 minutes.

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In this section students: conduct a simple experiment to show how a cloud forms. discuss the results of the experiment. explain the formation of a cloud in their own words. explore the insulating properties of snow through a simple experiment. discover how much space snow takes up compared to water.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •isf or r e einvisible wp u r pwater os esThe on l y • Water found in the airv asi an gas called vapour. cloud is formed

Background Information: Page 32: Let’s Make a Cloud

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Page 33: Super Snow

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in the experiment because as the air inside the jar rises and is cooled by the ice, the water vapour it contains condenses into droplets. The droplets join together with other droplets to form the cloud. The temperature at which this happens is called dew point. When the air temperature falls below freezing, rain clouds produce snow instead of rain. If the temperature stays below freezing all the way to the ground, snow falls. If the temperature doesn’t stay below freezing, the snow turns to rain before it lands on the earth. When snow falls to the ground it acts like a blanket. It stops heat escaping and keeps the soil from freezing. When snow melts, it takes up less room than water because fallen snow is much lighter and less dense than water. The reason is that there is a lot of air between the flakes so when it melts the volume of the resulting water is less than the frozen snow.

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Name: ............................

Activity Page

Let’s Mak Makee A Cloud! It is easy to make a cloud with the right equipment. Here’s how: $ a large glass jar

You will need:

r o e t s Bo r $ some ice and some e hot water p ok u S Here’s what to do:

1. Pour about 2.5 centimetres of water into the jar.

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$ small metal baking tray

2. Place some ice cubes in the baking tray and put the tray on top of the jar.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Draw a diagram of your experiment. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

3. A cloud will form in the bottle.

o c . che e r o t r s su r pe Class Discussion: Why did the cloud form?

In your own words explain why the cloud formed. . ............................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... Page 32

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Name: ............................

Activity Page

Super Snow Snow forms high up in the air. It is made up of tiny crystals that join together to make snowflakes that fall to the ground. Do these experiments to find out about snow.

r o e t s Bo r e ok some snow orp frost from the freezer u S Here’s what to do:

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2 small trays of soil

You will need:

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Make sure each tray has the same amount of soil in it.

Cover one tray of soil with a thick layer of snow or frost.

Put the two trays in a freezer overnight. Check them next day.

Which tray of soil was the most frozen? Explain why. ................... ......................................................................................................

How much space does snow take up?

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You will need:

two glasses exactly the same size

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© R e a d y E d P u b l i c a t i o n s ...................................................................................................... •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• ......................................................................................................

o c . c e he r Fill one glass up with water and the othero one up with snow t r s s per or frost from the freezer. u snow or frost from the freezer

Here’s what to do:

Wait for the snow to melt. What happens? Explain. ............................................................... ...................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................... © Ready-Ed Publications

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Lesson Notes Pages 35, 36, 37 Content Area(s): earth science

Learning Outcomes:

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Teac he r

Materials Required: pencil or pen, experiment materials as stated on activity pages.

Time:

approximately 20-35 minutes.

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In this section students: make a simple instrument to measure the speed of the wind. use the instrument to record the wind speed over a number of days. construct a simple weather vane to measure wind direction. use the weather vane to record the wind direction over a number of days. investigate how the wind can be put to work. construct a simple machine that is powered by the wind.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Background Information: Page 35: Measuring the Wind 1

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The pressure of the air on the earth’s surface is different in different places. The differences in pressure causes the movement of air or winds. If a pressure difference exists, air moves from the higher pressure to the lower pressure area, in order to even out the pressure. If the high pressure centre is close to a low pressure centre, the movement from the high pressure to the low pressure is faster and the winds will move faster. The larger the pressure difference the stronger the winds are. Instruments such as anemometers or wind gauges are used to measure the speed and strength of the wind.

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Page 36: Measuring the Wind 2

The direction of the wind is determined by the direction the wind is coming from and not the direction it is blowing to. Instruments such as weather vanes and wind socks can measure the direction of the wind.

Page 37: Wind Power

Using the wind for power is a good idea because it does not cause pollution. In places that are very windy, wind farms are set up where a field full of windmills turn machinery which generates electricity.

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Name: ............................

Activity Page

Measuring the W ind 1 Wind You can make a simple instrument to measure the speed of the wind.

You will need: paper plate, wooden stick (about 30 cms long) adhesive tape, cotton reel, 4 paper cups (one has to be a different colour from the rest)

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r o e t s B r e Here’s what to do: o p o u k 1. Tape the cups evenly around the edge of the paper plate. The cups S should all face the same way.

2. Tape the cotton reel to the bottom of the plate. Push one end of the stick into the centre hole in the cotton reel and the other in the ground.

How to use the instrument:

The plates spin around as the cups catch the wind. If you count how many times the different coloured cup goes round in a minute, you can record the wind speed. Use this information to record the wind speed at different times every school day for a week.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur po sesonl y • Day 10 pm 1pm 3pm

o c . che e r o t r s su r pe........................ Which day had the highest wind speed? At what time did the highest wind speed happen? ........................................................................................ Which day had the lowest wind speed? .......................... ........................................................................................ © Ready-Ed Publications

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Name: ............................

Activity Page

Measuring the W ind 2 Wind You can find out which direction the wind is coming from by making a weather vane.

You will need:

r o e t s Bo r e p Here’s what to do: ok u S 1. Cut out a cardboard arrow and tape the top of the pen to the back

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cardboard, knitting needle, pen top adhesive tape, compass, paper

of the arrow.

2. Put the knitting needle into the pen top and make sure the arrow is able to move freely. 3. Mark the compass points on a square piece of paper.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 4. Place the paper on the ground and push •f orr evi ew ur p ose son y•sure thep knitting needle through it.l (Make

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the paper has been placed so the compass points on the paper are facing the right direction. You may need a compass to help.)

Record the wind direction at different times every school day for a week. (Remember, direction is shown by where the wind comes from.)

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Name: ............................

Activity Page

Wind PPower ower Pollution from power stations, factories and cars is harming the air that we breathe. Using wind power does not cause pollution. Make a windmill to show how the wind can be put to work.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S You will need:

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Here’s what to do:

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paper, scissors, 2 straws playdough, paper clip adhesive tape thread, button

1. Cut out a piece of paper about 10 cms square. Cut 5 cm slits from each corner of the square towards the centre of the square.

2. Fold every second corner towards the middle and glue them down.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

3. When the glue is dry, make a hole in the middle of the windmill. Push a straw through the hole and fasten it with playdough.

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4. Tape a paper clip to the end of the second straw so half of the paper clip is secured to the straw and half of it forms a loop. Push the bottom end of the windmill straw through the paper clip loop so the second straw forms a handle. 5. Tape some thread on the windmill straw close to the windmill end of the straw. Tie a button to the end of the thread.

o c 6. Hold the second and blow into the windmill. . cstraw e her r o st su What happens when you blow into windmill?.............................. er pthe .............................................................................................................. ..............................................................................................................

List some machines that are powered by the wind. .......................... .............................................................................................................. © Ready-Ed Publications

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Lesson Notes Pages 39, 40 Content Area(s): earth science

Learning Outcomes:

Teac he r

Materials Required: pencil or pen, experiment materials as stated on activity pages.

Time:

approximately 20-35 minutes.

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In this section students: conduct simple experiments. find out how a thermometer works. discuss the results of various experiments. discuss water in the air. explore the different forms of water.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Background Information: Page 39: Hot and Cold

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Most thermometers have liquid (usually mercury) inside them that expands as the air gets warmer. The hotter the temperature is, the higher the liquid rises and the temperature can be read on a scale. Other liquids such as alcohol and ether can also be used in thermometers. The first sealed thermometer was invented by Gabriel Fahrenheit, a German physicist who also developed the Fahrenheit scale. A Swedish astronomer, Anders Celsius developed the Celsius or centigrade scale. Other scales have been developed throughout the years but these are the two most commonly used ones.

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Page 40: Water, Water, Water

The amount of water in the air is known as the humidity and is measured using a barometer. Warm air can hold more moisture than cool air. When a can is taken out of the refrigerator, it cools the surrounding air. The cool air cannot hold as much water. The water vapour in the air condenses and the water droplets form on the side of the can proving that there was water in the air. Water exists in the atmosphere in three ways: water vapour which is an invisible gas; water droplets; or ice crystals. The water vapour is in the form of a gas, the water droplets are liquid and the ice crystals are solid.

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Name: ............................

Activity Page

Hot and Cold The temperature is how hot or cold the weather is. We measure the temperature with a thermometer, but how does a thermometer work? Do this experiment to find out.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Here’s what to do: You will need:

1. Fill the plastic bottle with water. Add some food dye.

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food dye, plastic bottle, straw, playdough, bowl of hot water, bowl of cold water

2. Put the straw in the bottle and seal with the playdough. This is your thermometer. 3. Stand the thermometer in the bowl of hot water. Describe what happens.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• .............................................................................................................. ..............................................................................................................

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4. Now stand the thermometer in cold water. What happens?..............

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Can you explain the results? ............................................... ................................................................................................ ................................................................................................ © Ready-Ed Publications

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Activity Page

Water ater ater ater,, W Water ater,, W Water Try these simple activities to show that there is water in the air. 1. After it has rained, measure the size of a puddle in the playground by drawing around it with chalk. Re-measure the puddle every hour to see how it has changed. (This activity will not work if it rains again.)

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r o e t s Bo r e What happens tou thep puddle? ................................. o k S ...............................................................................................................

Where does the water from the puddle go? ........................................... ...............................................................................................................

$$$

2. Leave a can of drink in a refrigerator overnight. Take the can out the next day.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •what f or r evi ew pur posesonl y• Describe happens. ........................................................................

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$$$ Solid, Liquid or Gas?

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3. Is water a solid, liquid or gas? Do the following activity to find out.

o c . c this form, e.g. hard, ................................................................................ e her r o t swhat happens............. supe r Leave the container in the classroom. Describe Fill a container with ice. Brainstorm some words to describe water in

............................................................................................................... When the ice melts, put it in a kettle or a pot on a stove and boil it. What happens to the water? .................................................................. ............................................................................................................... Page 40

© Ready-Ed Publications


Lesson Notes Pages 42, 43 Content Area(s): earth science

Learning Outcomes:

Teac he r

Materials Required: pencil or pen, experiment materials as stated on activity pages.

Time:

approximately 20-35 minutes.

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

In this section students: conduct an experiment to make rain. experiment to form a rainbow. investigate the colours of a rainbow. explain the results of the experiments. label diagrams of the experiments. draw conclusions from the results of the experiment.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Water vapour that has been evaporated by the sun condenses on particles (specks

Background Information: Page 42: Let’s Make Rain

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of dust, smoke and salt from the sea). The tiny, lightweight water droplets form clouds. In warm clouds, the droplets bump together and form larger drops of water. They eventually become too heavy to stay up and the earth’s gravity pulls them to the ground. In the experiment the heated water evaporates, becoming water vapour. When it hits the cold saucepan, the water vapour condenses and forms rain.

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Rainbows appear when there is sun and rain at the same time and you are between the two with the sun at your back. The raindrops split the sun’s rays into bands of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. The colours of the rainbow are always the same and always occur in the same order. The shape of the rainbow is due to the way the light enters the raindrops and is refracted (bent) at certain angles. A rainbow would be seen as a complete circle if the earth’s surface was not there.

© Ready-Ed Publications

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Name: ............................

Activity Page

Let’s Mak ain! Makee R Rain! It is easy to be a rainmaker. Do the following experiment to find out how.

You will need:

$oven mitt

$kettle $ice cubes

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S $saucepan

Here’s what to do:

1. Boil the kettle.

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(Warning: Be very careful when doing this experiment because you will be using boiling water.)

2. Put the ice cubes in the saucepan. Put on the oven mitt.

3. Hold the saucepan over the steam coming out of the kettle. Answer these questions about the experiment:

What happened to the water when it was heated? ................................

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons ............................................................................................................... •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• What happened to the water vapour when it hit the cold saucepan?

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Find out what these weather words mean:

evaporation - ........................................................

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o c . condensation - ..................................................... che e r o t r s super .............................................................................. ..............................................................................

water vapour - ...................................................... .............................................................................. rain -...................................................................... .............................................................................. Page 42

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Name: ............................

Activity Page

Rainbows Rainbows form on a sunny day when there has been a shower of rain. It is the sunlight hitting the raindrops that make the colours of the rainbow.

You will need:

All you need to make a rainbow is a garden hose and some sunshine.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S and point the nozzle Turn on the hose Here’s what to do:

up high to form an arc of water. Make sure that you are standing with your back to the sun. Get a friend to look through the water spray. They should see a rainbow.

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(This experiment is best done in the morning or the afternoon when the sun is low in the sky.)

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1. What are the colours of the rainbow?

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2. Are they always the same? .................................................................

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(This ‘memory aid’ will help you remember: Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain under a rainbow sky.)

3. Draw a rainbow showing the colours in their right order.

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Answers Weather Forecasting (page 10) Meteorologists study the weather; Answers will vary; Symbols: thunderstorm; rain; clearing.

Water (page 15) See notes; Matching activity: Precipitation - rain, Sleet - rain that freezes on the way to the earth, Atmosphere layer of air that surrounds the earth, Freezing point - 0°C, Humidity - amount of water in the air, Vapour - gas, Gravity - pull to the earth.

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The Water Cycle (page 17)

1. Sun, water, 2. Water, 3. Cloud, 4. Clouds, 5. Ground, 6. Lakes, oceans and puddles, 7. Water cycle.

The Wind (page 19)

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The Sun (page 20) Check Information Page.

Desert Weather (page 24)

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Moving air caused by pressure changes. Meanings: Check Information Page.

1. Less than 25 cm; 2. Near the equator; 3. The sun’s rays are more concentrated near the equator. 4. Answers will vary.

Arctic Weather (page 26)

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1. The solid mass of permanently frozen earth, ice and rock is called permafrost; 2. Up to 300 metres deep in winter; 3. It partly thaws. 4. 0.6 to 2 metres deep in summer. The sun’s rays are less concentrated at the Arctic Circle; Antarctica (South Pole).

Tropical Rain Forest (page 28)

1. In the tropics close to the equator; 2. 7%; 3. Three facts: Tropical rain forests stay green all year. Because of the warm, moist climate, rainforest plants also grow very fast. A rainforest has different layers of plant growth.

The Seasons (page 30)

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Summer is the warmest season of the year. The sun can be very strong in summer and it is important to protect yourself from the sun’s rays by wearing sun screen and a hat. In the top part of the world the summer months are June, July and August. In the bottom half of the world the summer month’s are December, January and February. In autumn the weather is not as hot as summer. The days are warm and the nights are cool. As winter approaches the air becomes colder. Some trees lose their leaves in autumn and the land is dry after the hot summer. In the top half of the world autumn is in September, October and November. In the bottom half of the world the autumn month’s are March, April and May.

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Winter is the coldest season of the year. Many areas of the world have very cold conditions. Ponds and lakes turn to ice and snow falls from the sky. In cold weather, people wear thick clothes to keep warm. Animals that live in very cold areas grow thick fur to keep out the cold. Some animals hide away in their warm burrows for the winter. Some birds fly away to warm countries and return when the weather warms up. Spring is the season between winter and summer. The top half of the world has spring in March, April, May. In the bottom half of the world spring weather begins about September and ends in November. The days of spring are warmer than winter days. Snows that has fallen during the winter months melt. Flowers bloom and animals leave their winter sleeping places. The days of spring have more hours of daylight and become warmer as summer approaches.

Rainbows (page 43) Colours are: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. The order is always the same.

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Earth & Life Science Series: Weather  

The Earth and Life Science Series is designed to provide teachers of junior primary with a set of materials that will give students a more r...

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