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Aussie Aussie Aussie

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For ages 10+

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The stories behind our most famous Aussie icons, with classroom activities to inspire the imagination.

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Written by Sandy Tasker. Illustrated by Melinda Brezmen. © 2003 Ready-Ed Publications Published by Ready-Ed Publications (2003) P.O. Box 276 Greenwood Perth W.A. 6024 Email: info@readyed.com.au Website: www.readyed.com.au COPYRIGHT NOTICE Permission is granted for the purchaser to photocopy sufficient copies for non-commercial educational purposes. However, this permission is not transferable and applies only to the purchasing individual or institution.

ISBN 1 86397 563 2


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Teachers’ Notes

Teacher Information Student Outcomes References

Perfect Places

Information Notes Activity Page Information Notes Activity Page Information Notes Activity Page Teaching Notes

Sydney Opera House 7 Souvenir for Sale 8 Great Barrier Reef 9 Wish You Were Here! 10 Uluru 11 You’re a Poet if You Show It! 12 Classroom Activities 13 - 14

Tasty Treats

Information Notes Activity Page Information Notes Information Notes Activity Page Information Notes Information Notes Information Notes Activity Page Teaching Notes

Vegemite® ® And the Winner Is … Lamingtons Meat Pies Don’t Forget The Sauce! Damper Billy Tea Anzac Biscuits Soldier On! Classroom Activities

15 16 17 17 18 19 19 19 20 21

Innovative Inventions

Information Notes Information Notes Information Notes Activity Page Activity Page Teaching Notes

Hills Hoist Polymer Banknotes The Boomerang Interview with Mr Hill Sales Are Booming Classroom Activities

22 22 22 23 24 25

Information Notes Activity Page Information Notes Information Notes Activity Page Teaching Notes

Surf Lifesaving What a Hero! Royal Flying Doctor Service School of the Air This is Our School Classroom Activities

26 27 28 29 30 31

Information Notes Activity Page Information/Activity Information Notes Activity Page Teaching Notes

Thongs The Thongofile The Holden Ute Big Things Where the Big Things Are Classroom Activities

32 33 34 35 36 37

Information Notes Activity Page Information/Activity Teaching Notes

Waltzing Matilda Read All About It Aussie Slang Classroom Activities

38 39 40 41

G’day Hollywood!

Information Notes Activity Page

Australians and the Silver Screen 42 Australians and the Silver Screen 43

The Australian Flag

Information Notes Activity Page Activity Page Activity Page

The Australian Flag Your Flag OZCross OZCross Clues

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Contents

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Outstanding Objects

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f or r evi ew pur posesonl y• Original Organisations

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Teachers’ Notes

Teacher Information Australian people know that there is more to our great country than the “Crocodile Man”. There are many other icons, in the form of perfect places, tasty treats, innovative inventions, original organizations, outstanding objects and wacky words that we ourselves strongly associate with the “Land Down Under”.

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With the laid-back Aussie sense of humour comes the ability for us to step back and smile, or even laugh at ourselves and embrace these icons as symbols to be proud of and traditions to uphold. No study on Australia would be complete without an insight into the unique images, many of which this book introduces in an informative and enjoyable way.

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Factual and historical information, a wide range of interactive lesson ideas, and photocopiable activity sheets suitable for a wide range of abilities are presented in this book for upper primary students. Information sheets are designed for both teachers and students as background knowledge, providing a springboard for cross-curricular activities that encourage students to DISCUSS, DESIGN, WRITE and INVESTIGATE based on their experiences and understanding. The following areas are focused on in this book: Perfect Places: The Sydney Opera House, The Great Barrier Reef, Uluru Tasty Treats: Vegemite®, Lamingtons, Damper, Billy Tea, ANZAC biscuits

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Outstanding• Objects: Thongs, Ute, Things f or r eHolden vi e wBigp ur posesonl y• Innovative Inventions: Hills Hoist, Polymer banknotes, Boomerang

Original Organisations: Surf Lifesaving, Royal Flying Doctor Service, School of the Air Wacky Words: Waltzing Matilda, Aussie Slang And of course … The Australian Flag

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G’day Hollywood!: A Brief History of Australians and the Silver Screen

Activities are linked to National Outcomes, mainly in the areas of Society and Environment, English and Technology, although several activities also focus on the Arts, Technology and Enterprise and Science. Activities in this book can be given to students as a whole class, or to individuals as an extension or enrichment program. Pages listing activities are suitable to give to independent students who may wish to select their own activities, as well as being useful for teachers as a ready-made list of ideas that range from five-minute discussions to projects that can last the duration of a term.

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In addition to the references used to compile the information in this book, websites are suggested for students to view for further research, or for teachers to locate more ideas for classroom activities. Many of the websites listed as references within the text can also be useful sources of research for students. At the time of publication, all websites were accessible. Should changes be made to these addresses, students and teachers can visit the site below and click on the page number for an updated web site.

www.readyed.com.au/urls/ozseries/aussie.htm 4

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Teachers’ Notes

Learning Outcomes The student information in this book, as well as many listed activities, can be linked to the following Strands of Society and Environment, from the National Curriculum: Time, Continuity and Change: Describes specific events and outlines the historical development of many cultural icons in Australia.

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Place and Space: Relates Australian icons to their role in local environments, including the importance of respecting and preserving sacred indigenous sites and fragile natural ecosystems. Culture: Explores traditions, symbols and objects in relation to their strong association with Australian culture.

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Resources: Links the availability of Australian resources with the subsequent emergence of cultural icons.

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Investigation, Communication and Participation: Provides springboards for research and locally relevant investigations. The table below provides links to Strands in various Learning Areas of the National Curriculum, along with specific outcomes developed for this publication. Activity

Learning Area Technology

Strand

Outcome

Design, Make & Appraise

Design a product and outline marketing strategies for its sale.

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Souvenir for Sale

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Wish you were here

English

Writing

Use research-based reading to develop a piece of writing for a selected audience and purpose.

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You’re a Poet If you Show it

English

Writing

Use a provided format to express creative ideas, experimenting with vocabulary and imagery.

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And the Winner is

Technology

Information

Evaluate and use aspects of information required for promotional campaigns.

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Don’t Forget The Sauce!

English

Writing

Use conventions of English to develop a written procedure for a specific audience.

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Soldier On!

Technology

Design, Make & Appraise

Identify needs of target audience and develop a plan for an appropriate product.

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Interview with Mr Hill

English/ Society & Environment

Writing/Time, Continuity & Change

Identify and use conventions of speech to convey appropriate responses to interview questions, reporting a historical event from a particular point of view.

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Sales are Booming

Society & Environment

Resources

Examine a range of perspectives when deciding on the use of resources and production of a particular item.

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What a Hero!

English/Technology

Writing/Design, Make & Appraise

Design the media, format and text for an award, based on provided information.

Technology

Information

Use symbolic representation to convey information about an organisation.

English

Writing

Identify and use appropriate language and ideas to create humorous responses for a written profile.

12 Two Becomes One

Technology

Design Materials

Analyse the properties of two products in view of creating a combined product.

13 Where the Big Things Are

Society & Environment

Resources Place & Space

Use knowledge of locally produced resources to match tourist attractions to Australian locations.

14 Read All About It

Society & Environment

Time, Continuity & Change

Use knowledge of a historical event to create a written piece in news format.

15 ‘Ava Go at These

English

Speaking & Listening

Examine and interpret features and patterns of colloquial language.

16 G’day Hollywood!

Technology

Design

Use ideas cultivated from research and past learning to design appropriate costumes to represent human Australian icons.

17 Your Flag

Society & Environment

Culture

Identify cultural symbols related to national and state flags of Australia.

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10 This is Our School 11 The Thongofile

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Teachers’ Notes

References The following documents were referred to when linking activities to National Outcome Strands: Studies of Society and Environment – A curriculum profile for Australian schools: Curriculum Corporation St Nicholas Place, 141 Rathdowne St, Carlton, Victoria, 3053 (Document is © Curriculum Corporation, 1994)

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Technology – A curriculum profile for Australian schools: Curriculum Corporation St Nicholas Place, 141 Rathdowne St, Carlton, Victoria, 3053 (Document is © Curriculum Corporation, 1994)

Internet References

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English – A curriculum profile for Australian schools: Curriculum Corporation St Nicholas Place, 141 Rathdowne St, Carlton, Victoria, 3053 (Document is © Curriculum Corporation, 1994)

A variety of Internet references are used throughout this book, and are cited as sources within the relevant text. Included below is a list of the main Internet references. If the website is a general one, a search may be required to locate the specific topic, or simply look under the appropriate sections.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Sydney Opera House: www.sydneyoperahouse.com f o rr evi ewandp ur posesonl y• Great Barrier• Reef: www.reefed.edu.au www.lonelyplanet.com

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Uluru: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uluru Vegemite®: http://www.vegemite.com.au/vegemite/page?PagecRef=1 .taste.com.au/recipes/3352/lamingtons Lamingtons: http://www http://www.taste.com.au/recipes/3352/lamingtons .alldownunder .com/oz-u/food-recipes/meat -pies.htm Meat Pies: http://www http://www.alldownunder .alldownunder.com/oz-u/food-recipes/meat .com/oz-u/food-recipes/meat-pies.htm Billy Tea: www.twinings.com and www.tea.org.au .com/oz-u/food-recipes/index.html ANZAC Biscuits: http://alldownunder http://alldownunder.com/oz-u/food-recipes/index.html Hills Hoist: www.inventors.about.com, www.hills.com.au and www.nationaltrustsa.org.au Polymer Banknotes: www.questacon.edu.au Boomerangs: www.davroboomerangs.com, www.boomerang.org.au Surf Lifesaving: http://slsa.asn.au Royal Flying Doctor Service: www.rfds.org.au School of the Air: www.questacon.edu.au .souvenirsaustralia.com/webcontent26.htm Thongs: http://www http://www.souvenirsaustralia.com/webcontent26.htm Holden Ute: www.autoweb.com.au .souvenirsaustralia.com/webcontent4.htm Big Things: http://www http://www.souvenirsaustralia.com/webcontent4.htm .com/oz-u/songs/waltzing-matilda-2.htm Waltzing Matilda: http://alldownunder http://alldownunder.com/oz-u/songs/waltzing-matilda-2.htm Aussie Slang: www.aussieslang.com Australian Film : www.ironoutlaw.com

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Perfect Places

Sydney Opera House Q:

What is large, white and spiky, was designed by someone from Denmark, built out of something from Sweden, and took fifteen years to complete in Australia?

A:

The Sydney Opera House! Jorn Utzon was selected as the winner in January, 1957. The building of the Opera House began in 1958, however problems in raising funds and confirming design solutions for the roof structure, slowed progress considerably.

led to Utzon’s resignation in 1966.

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Early colonial settlements grew into a thriving population and the need for a performing arts centre in Sydney increased until, in 1954, a committee decided upon Bennelong Point as the best of 30 possible sites. It was advised that an international competition would settle the design of the building.

The remainder of the building was overseen by a panel of architects known as Hall, Todd and Littlemore. After 15 years of building, the first public Sydney Opera House performance was in 1973, the same year that the Opera House was opened by Queen Elizabeth II. Utzon’s name did not appear on the plaque on the entry to the building.

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The site of the Sydney Opera House was once the dwelling area for Aboriginal Australians for at least 20 000 years before European settlement. Bennelong Point, where the Opera House is now situated, was named after an Aboriginal man who was captured by Governor Phillip. Bennelong moved into a hut on this point in 1790, which the local Aboriginals later used as a social centre.

Changes needed to be made to Utzon’s original designs, which were thought to be impractical. It was Utzon himself that finally solved the dilemma as to how the shells of the roof would be made. However, the problems were far from over and disagreements The world of performing arts in about payment and design issues Australia was spurred on by the completion of the Opera House. Further work on the building continued into the 1980s and 1990s, with the aim of maintaining both the visual appeal of the building as a major tourist attraction and to utilise its functional purpose as a performing arts centre.

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From over 200 entries by international architects, a design by Danish architect

Fun Facts:

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Sydney Opera House includes the following: • The Opera Theatre, seating 1547. • The Drama Theatre, seating 544. • The Concert Hall, seating 398. • The Playhouse, seating 398. • The Studio, seating between 220 and 324, 5 rehearsal studios, 60 dressing rooms, five restaurants, six theatre bars and five foyer and lounge areas. How many times over could the students from your school fit into the seating space in the Opera House? The Opera House has 2 200 doors and its roof contains 1.056 million white and cream Swedish-made tiles. The Sydney Opera House is open for almost 16 hours a day, every day of the year except Christmas Day and Good Friday. (Source: www.sydneyoperahouse.com) Ready-Ed Publications

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Perfect Places

Name: ...................................................................................

Souvenir for Sale! Design a souvenir in the shape of, or featuring the design of the Opera House, for international tourists. For example, a hat with a “pointy roof” or a sugar bowl with an Opera House lid. Try to make it as unique as possible – no snow-domes please!

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What will your souvenir be? ________________________________

What will it be made from (materials)? ___________________________________________________

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Who will buy your souvenir (target audience)? ____________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ Draw your souvenir here. Label the parts and colour in:

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Think of a catchy name for your souvenir:

How much will it sell for? _____________________________________________________________ What will you do to promote your souvenir to tourists visiting Sydney gift shops?

__________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________

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Write a letter to a new Sydney gift shop at the airport, promoting your souvenir and asking them to sell it for you.

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Perfect Places

Great Barrier Reef “It’s big, it’s alive … and it’s coming to a coast near you!” (Source: www.gbr.wwf.org.au)

temperature balance;

Although it is one of the major tourist attractions in Australia, drawing an enormous amount of local and international visitors each year, t h e

* Coastal developments for tourism and industry mean that much of the natural coastline could be lost as land is cleared and restructured for building sites.

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In addition to these man-made threats, a natural enemy of the Great Barrier Reef, the Crown of Thorns Starfish, can break out and destroy the coral on which the reef ecosystem depends.

(Source:www.lonelyplanet.com)

The reefs are made up of creatures called polyps, which join together and develop a hard shell in a range of shapes and colours. Algae create the variety of colours in the coral, with dead coral being white.

(Source: www.gbr.wwf.org.au)

Great Barrier Reef continues to be under threat of destruction by the following:

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The Great Barrier Reef is considered one of the world’s natural wonders. It is the biggest structure on earth made by living organisms and stretches along the coast of Queensland. It is so large that it can be seen from space! Some parts comprise continual reef, whereas other sections are broken up. In fact, there are over 2900 individual reefs to be found. Hundreds of islands are also found in the Great Barrier Reef area.

The Reef has almost changed the course of history in Australia – Captain Cook’s ship, the Endeavour hit the reef, but managed to continue, instead of being hindered on its journey.

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* Prawn trawling, which destroys the seafloor and entangles turtles; * Pollution, such as chemicals and oil spills, which disrupt the ecosystem and poison wildlife;

* Global warming, which can cause coral to self-destruct (known as bleaching), as it depends on a delicate

Today, as well as being a major tourist attraction, the Great Barrier Reef is the subject of environmental conservation initiatives and a source of education for many Australians who wish to preserve this natural wonder.

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The Great Barrier Reef is a precious natural habitat for a richly diverse marine ecosystem. It is the largest green turtle breeding area in the world and contains at least 1500 species of fish, 350 types of hard coral and 5000 types of molluscs.

(Source: www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au)

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xtra E www.reefed.edu.au is a great site prepared by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park

Authority. This attractive site contains a vast array of activity ideas and information for students. Ready-Ed Publications

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Perfect Places

Name: ...................................................................................

Wish You Were Here! Design a postcard for the Great Barrier Reef. You will need to do a bit of research to find out about a creature or a special part of the reef. All good postcards have a sentence or two describing the photograph on the front.

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Front: Draw a picture of a creature found on the Great Barrier Reef, or a certain part of the reef that interests you.

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The picture on the front shows: ___________________________

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Back: Write a fact or two about the picture you have drawn on the front.

Design a special ‘reef’ stamp.

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___________________________________________

Address:

___________________________________________

_________________

___________________________________________

_________________

___________________________________________

_____________

Best wishes from _________________________________

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Make sure your message tells someone all about the things you have learned and the things you have done at the Great Barrier Reef.

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Perfect Places

Uluru Although Aboriginal people may have lived in the area for over 10 000 years, Europeans first explored Uluru in the 1870’s, when Ernest Giles became the first European to climb the rock. Another explorer who also sighted the rock named it “Ayers” after the chief Secretary of South Australia at the time.

locals - have held the title to Uluru since 1985, but have allowed the National Parks and Wildlife Service to continue their operations there. Uluru is a sacred site for the Aboriginal people and many rock paintings can be found on the site.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S In 1958, Ayers Rock and the nearby land formation known as the Olgas were combined to form a National Park. The traditional owners - the indigenous

Today, the rock can still be climbed, although the traditional owners have asked that visitors respect their culture and not choose to climb it. It is up to the individual to make the choice.

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Uluru is a huge rock, or monolith, 348 metres high, with a circumference of 9.4 km, and is situated 465 km south west of Alice Springs in the Northern Territory. Although some scientists disagree, the most common theory about the origin of Uluru is that it is the tilted remains of ocean sediment laid down 600 million years ago. Underneath its red iron oxide coating, the rock is actually grey in colour. The surrounding countryside is a harsh desert landscape with temperatures that can range from –8º Celsius at night-time in winter and 47º Celsius during the day in summer.

(Source: www.walkabout.com.au)

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• Of the 400,000 visitors who come to Uluru each year, only 10% now choose to climb it. • One current estimate is that at least one person a month dies from climbing the rock, either by falling off the edge or as a result of a heart attack. • The best times to see the rock are sunrise and sunset, when the rock appears to change colour, creating a spectacular and beautiful display (Source: www.walkabout.com.au ).

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Perfect Places

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You’re a Poet if You Show It! Write a sensory poem about Uluru at sunrise, using the following format; (there is an example given for each line):

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I see . . . a sleeping giant, curled up on the landscape, covered in a fine red blanket; I smell . . .the ancient breeze of a thousand lives, settling in the morning dew; I hear . . . the silent awe of the crowds, watching the sunrise over the red earth; I taste . . . the crisp, salty bacon, fried over a bush campfire at dawn and sprinkled with dust; I feel . . . the smooth surface of the rock, gently moulded by winds and the hands of the past.

I see ________________________________________

I smell __________________________________________ I hear __________________________________________ I taste

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In a small group, choose one line from each person to create a group poem. It does not matter if there are repeated “senses” in the poem. Use twigs as tapping sticks and other items found around the school grounds to make natural percussion instruments and use them to accompany your group’s recital to the class.

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Perfect Places

Classroom Activities Discuss:

Read the history on the Sydney Opera House website. Should Utzon’s name have appeared on the plaque that commemorated other builders and designers? Why? Why not? What do you think the reaction of a city would be today if a building took 15 years to be completed. What might happen? How could problems like this be avoided?

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Should tourism continue at the Great Barrier Reef? Consider issues such as human waste, rubbish, anchors destroying the reef surface, fishing, how people learn about the reef, the money from tourism and what can be done with it, rules and restrictions that can be imposed.

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Would you climb Uluru? Why? Why not? Try to convince a classmate with the opposite view from you. Create a tally and compare results. Do you think results might be different in another state or another country? Do you think climbing should be stopped altogether?

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When Utzon first produced his design, it was considered innovative and very different to anything seen before. Design a performing arts building for your city or town (a place where theatre, opera, musical events and other performances can be held). Try to create a shape that reflects the culture or landscape of the area, and make your design as unique and interesting as possible.

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Design an eco-friendly tourist attraction for the Great Barrier Reef, such as a floating restaurant. Draw and label solutions to pollution issues such as waste disposal, fishing restrictions, rules for reef walking, safety and warning signs, etc. Create a reef diorama in a shoebox, or a classroom mural made from recycled items and beach debris. Make signboards for tourists outlining the native history of the site. Using a simple black outline of Uluru on an A3 piece of paper, colour in the rock and surrounds at a certain time of day or during certain weather conditions. Post these up on the classroom wall so that it shows the many faces of Uluru. Create Aboriginal paintings on brown paper or flat pieces of bark, using small sticks dipped in natural colours of brown, ochre, black, white and yellow.

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Perfect Places

Classroom Activities Write:

Do you remember the opening ceremony of the Olympics or another international sporting event? Write the program for an Australian opening ceremony for an international event. What will you include to show what Australia is really about?

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Choose your favourite Australian musician or actor. Write the diary entry on the day they are to begin a season performing at the Opera House. Write a poem about Australia that could appear on a plaque in the foyer of the Opera House.

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You have been asked to represent the “Future of Australia” at a special Opera House performance for overseas visitors. Prepare a short speech on “What it means to be Australian”, including your hopes for the future of our country. Write a humorous story about “A Runaway Mouse in the Opera House”.

Make a fact card about a sea creature that lives on the Great Barrier Reef. Include a picture on the front and display in the classroom.

Write a letter to a company that disposes of chemical waste into the sea along the Queensland coast. Include facts that you know about the destruction of the Great Barrier Reef as well as some strong arguments that appeal to the emotions of the company and perhaps even some solutions or alternatives to their waste disposal.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Investigate:

Learn about Aboriginal Dreamtime stories. Visit www.dreamtime.net.au for information on indigenous Australians and some examples of dreamtime stories. Write a story of your own.

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Check out the Opera House website (www.sydneyoperahouse.com) and select a performance for you and your family to see at the Opera House. Write an imaginary email to the booking centre for your tickets. What information will you need to include in your request? Find out about other famous buildings in each city of Australia. Draw the buildings onto a map of Australia, so that tourists can decide which ones they would like to see.

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Keep a tropical fish tank in the classroom. Roster students to care for the tank, and make notes on changes, behaviour patterns of fish, water temperature and chemical balances in the tank.

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The educational website, www.reefed.edu.au has some great ideas, such as experimenting with “oil spills” in a model of a reef, and recreating a reef ecosystem using a ball of string to link reef life that depends on one another for survival.

What would it be like to learn without a written language? Spend a day in the classroom, doing all activities by “hands on” experiences, or by sharing pictures. Finish the day off by sitting in a circle and sharing a favourite memory or story. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of having no written language and communicating through pictures and stories like the Aboriginal people. Are there any sacred Aboriginal sites near your city/town? Research the area and visit on an excursion. If possible, invite a local Aboriginal person who can tell the class about the area from an indigenous perspective.

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Tasty Treats

Vegemite

®

In 1994, a large bus was converted into a toaster on wheels and used for promotion of a certain Australian breakfast spread. What else could this be but Vegemite®?

In 1928, Vegemite® was renamed “Parwill” to compete with the English spread “Marmite”. However this was not a successful venture, and the original name was re-established.

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The history of Vegemite® is about as rich and unique as the spread itself. Details of the information below can be found on the fantastic, colourful Vegemite® site, www.vegemite.com.au. Dr Cyril P. Callister at the Fred Walker Cheese Company invented Vegemite® in 1922. The spread was made from brewer’s yeast and was contained in an amber glass jar. In 1923, a competition was run to name this delicious new spread. The prize for the name Vegemite ® was fifty pounds, but the name of the winning contestant has since been lost.

The “Happy Little Vegemite®” song was first heard on the radio in 1954, and appeared on television in 1956. This jingle has been reintroduced several times, and is one of the most memorable tunes in Australian advertising today. Another advertising slogan that became popular in the 1970s was “Pass the Vegemite® please mum” (ask your parents if they remember this one).

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Medical Association as nutritionally balanced and rich in Vitamin B.

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In 1926, the company became known as the Kraft Walker Cheese Company. Over the next decade, competitions and promotions boosted the sales of Vegemite®, and the famous s p r e a d accompanied troops to the battle lines in World War II. By this stage, Vegemite ® had b e e n endorsed by the British

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In April 1984, a 115 g jar of Vegemite® was the first product to be electronically scanned at a supermarket checkout in Australia. The price was 66 cents. Find out how much it is now, to get an idea of price inflation!

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Australian pantries today. The original recipe for Vegemite®, which has remained virtually unchanged, is rich in the vitamin B complex, is fat free and low in kilojoules. (Source: www.vegemite.com.au)

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Tasty Treats

Name: ...................................................................................

And the Winner Is ... A new Australian breakfast cereal has just been invented. Made with tasty, healthy ingredients, it’s sure to be popular with Aussies of all ages. The cereal company wants Australian school children to help with its advertising and is running a competition to name the cereal and design the package. Enter the competition by filling out the form below. Good Luck!

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Our new cereal is a delicious combination of grains, dried fruits and nuts, and tastes great served with fresh milk as part of a healthy breakfast.

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What will you name the cereal? ______________________________________________

Draw your design for the cereal box:

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Write a slogan or jingle for the new cereal: ___________________________________

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_________________________________________________________________________

The prize is $1000 spending money. What would you like to spend this money on? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Write your name and address below, and send this entry form to: Gellog’s Cereals, 150 North Street, Breakfastown, 8960. Your name: _______________________________________________________________ Your address: _____________________________________________________________

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Tasty Treats

Aussie Tucker (1) Lamingtons How to serve your guests sponge cake that has gone stale: 1. Cut it up into squares.

3. Sprinkle desiccated coconut on all sides.

It is believed that lamingtons were invented in the late 1800s in the Queensland Government House kitchen when stale sponge cake was covered in chocolate and desiccated coconut to “freshen it up”. One source claims that the lamington is named after Lady Lamington, the wife of a Queensland Governor.

like the lamington. Apparently, Lord Lamington did not think that much of the dessert, calling them “woolly biscuits”. OR The lamington was invented in Scotland by a sheep shearer’s wife for a group of travelling sheep shearers.

(Source: www.whatscookingamerica.net)

In any case, the lamington has become such a popular Australian tradition that it remains one of the m o s t common fund-raisers for schools and community groups, in what is known as the “Lamington Drive”.

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Teac he r

OR In New Zealand, the cake is sometimes known as Leamington or Leemington – the names of towns.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S The lamington was named after Lord Lamington (not his wife), because he wore a hat that looked

2. Coat it with a tasty chocolate icing.

4. Give it a new name so that it looks like you had planned it all along.

Another site has given a few other alternatives for the origins of the humble lamington:

(Source:www.inmamaskitchen.com)

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Meat Pies

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Nowadays, the sponge is not © ReadyEdPubl i ca t i o slight and fluffy stale, but n stays underneath the chocolatey coating. •f orr evi ew pur poses onl y•

Where would the squeeze pack of sauce be without its inseparable mate – the meat pie?

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The meat pie is well known as the warm snack found in most Australian canteens and scoffed down whilst watching Australian Rules football games.

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The delicious treat of meat and gravy inside a pastry casing is not complete without the accompaniment of the good old “tomato sauce” in the squeeze pack. Every Australian pie-lover will give you their own special method of eating the pie. Sauce applications include sauce on top, under the lid, on the meat or on the side for dipping bits of pastry into. Then comes the large range of ways that the pie can actually be eaten: by biting into it while and risking spillage, by removing the lid and spooning the meat out, making a hole and sucking the contents out or, for the more sophisticated pie-eater (if there is, in fact such a person), with a knife and fork (preferably plastic). Many country towns will claim that their bakery makes “the best meat pies”, a mouth-watering challenge for any traveller wishing to put them to the test.One well-known manufacturer of pies in Australia, bakes more than 50,000 pies per hour, in order to keep up with some 250 million pies consumed by Aussies each year!! .alldownunder .com/oz-u/food-recipes/meat -pies.htm (Source: http://www http://www.alldownunder .alldownunder.com/oz-u/food-recipes/meat .com/oz-u/food-recipes/meat-pies.htm -pies.htm)

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Tasty Treats

Name: ...................................................................................

Don’t Forget The Sauce! Make an instruction booklet for a tourist on “How to Eat a Meat Pie”. Make a cover page, write the instructions with diagrams, cut each square out and place in order. Staple together at the side.

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By Aussie Pie Expert

..................................

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How to Eat a Meat Pie...

1. ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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5. ________________________________

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Tasty Treats

Aussie Tucker (2) Damper (In your lunchtime hamper) Known across Australia as the typical “swagman’s meal”, a very early form of damper was cooked by the Aboriginal people who ground seeds into flour, added water, and cooked the mixture in coals. (Source: www.inmamaskitchen.com)

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Damper was a very convenient food for travellers or people in isolated areas, as it is made from a small group of ingredients that kept well and were readily available. Originally damper was made with plain flour or flour mixed with a rising agent such as baking powder. Later, self-raising flours were used in many versions of this simple bush food. (Source: http://users.chariot.net.au)

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There are endless variations of the traditional damper recipe, however, most sources contain recipes similar to the one below. Perhaps your class could decide on a range of variations in quantities, and have a class “bake-off” to decide on the best recipe.

Self-raising flour (2 – 3 cups); A pinch of salt; A pinch of sugar; 1 cup of water or milk (or half of each); between 1 teaspoon and 3 tablespoons of butter. X

Make a small fire in a safe area, supervised by adults. Wait until the fire dies down and the coals are only barely glowing.

Y

Mix dry ingredients in a bowl, then add water/milk and butter gradually so that the mixture is soft but not sticky. Knead into a firm dough.

Z

Flatten the dough and place the damper carefully over the coals.

[

Use some tongs or sticks to turn the damper over in about 5 minutes.

\

Wait another 5 minutes then test. When the crust is brown and the damper makes a hollow noise when tapped, it is ready. Cool a bit, then serve with butter, golden syrup or another great Aussie topping!

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Billy Tea (Ready to swing it? One, Two, Three!)

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Early settlers in Australia drank tea often, as it was one of the first regular consumables to be imported. The billy – a metal can with a wire handle, is the well-known portable bushman’s form of the kettle. Traditionally, the billy is filled with water and hung over a campfire. A handful of tea leaves is thrown in, and sometimes some eucalyptus leaves as well for that real bush flavour. When the water boils, the billy is swung around in a circle with a straight arm – a task that requires a careful and smooth action to get the leaves to settle at the bottom of the billy, whilst avoiding the risk of splattering boiling water on everyone in the near vicinity.

o c . che e r Anzac Biscuits o t r s super

A safer way of achieving the same result is to tap the side of the billy a few times, and pour carefully. The traditional way to enjoy billy tea is straight, with no milk and sugar, as the roaming swagmen did not always have access to such luxuries. (Source: www.twinings.com and www.tea.org.au)

ANZAC biscuits were made during World War I, and sent to Australian and New Zealand soldiers overseas. The biscuits were made to travel well, as food being shipped over to the soldiers often took two months or more to reach their destination. The recipe contained rolled oats, sugar, plain flour, coconut, golden syrup, bicarbonate of soda, and water. The ingredient that bound the biscuits was the golden syrup, as eggs were hard to come by during the war. The ANZAC biscuits were placed in airtight containers such as Billy Tea tins to ensure that they stayed fresh and crispy. These famous, tasty biscuits are often made now, especially on ANZAC Day, or to .com/oz-u/food-recipes/ raise funds for war veterans. (Source: alldownunder alldownunder.com/oz-u/food-recipes/ index.html)

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Tasty Treats

Name: ...................................................................................

Soldier On! Make an Aussie food pack for armed forces or volunteer aid workers of today serving overseas. Include foods that keep well, are typically Australian and will give a quick energy boost. You might like to design packaging or wrapping that makes the food easy to store and easy to eat.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Here are a few examples to get you started:

“Just add water” DAMPER PACKS

Indivi sachet dual Vegem s of ite®

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List all of the Aussie foods that you can think of (this can be done as a group brainstorm).

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us lypt ed a c Eu avour gs fl a ba te

Choose 3 - 6 of the ones that you think would be suitable and draw them below.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons _______________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• _______________________________ _______________________________

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Draw the foods inside wrapping or packaging that makes them easy to store, carry and eat.

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Draw all of the foods in the attractive and functional “foods from Oz” container.

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Tasty Treats

Classroom Activities Discuss:

What traditional foods are cooked in your classmate’s households? Are any of them international foods from the country of parents? Are certain foods cooked on certain nights, e.g. Sunday roast, Friday night BBQ?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Why are foods such an important part of a country’s tradition? Create a class brainstorm on all of the reasons why traditional foods can mean so much to a country, e.g. celebrations, religious festivals, bringing family together, creating an export industry, etc.

Teac he r

Design/Create:

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In a group, think of as many reasons as you can for damper being “the best bush food there is” (hint: think of transportability, cost, ingredients, environmental reasons, preparation factors and versatility).

Create a menu item for an “Aussie Bush Café” Café”. Include a description of the food and its ingredients along with a picture. Form a small group and make up a menu booklet with the final copies of your menu items. Decide on a new name for your group’s restaurant. Write a script and perform a television advertisement for your restaurant. Will you be targeting your restaurant and its food at tourists, adults, children and/or backpackers?

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Design an environmentally friendly package for an Aussie meat pie. Will it be made out of •f omaterials rr eorv i e wa package pur pcan os sonl y• biodegradable will it be that bee re-used?

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Write:

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Design the perfect Aussie lunch box. Interview classmates to find out what they eat for lunch (when it is brought from home) so that you can include the right sized sections. Make a 3-D version out of cardboard, and include a fun design on the outside.

Write a letter to your favourite Australian food company, asking for information on the history of the food, and any other resources that the company may make for school students.

. t Investigate: e

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Make damper with your class (see recipe in this book), and then experiment with a variety of additional ingredients, such as sultanas, mixed peel, currants, chocolate chips, chopped ham or cheese. Have a “damper” picnic and share your creations with your classmates. Tally up the favourite dampers in your class. Create a bar graph. Does your class prefer sweet or savoury ingredients? .pavlova.co.nz/history .htm Investigate the history of pavlova. Some sites to visit include www www.pavlova.co.nz/history .pavlova.co.nz/history.htm .inmamaskitchen.com and www www.inmamaskitchen.com .inmamaskitchen.com. Discover the long-standing controversy between Australia and New Zealand as to the origins of the pavlova, and make your own mind up!

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Innovative Inventions

Clever Aussies Hills Hoist One source claims that the only thing left standing and working in a home devastated by Cyclone Tracy in Darwin, 1974, was a Hills Hoist clothesline.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

A man named Lance Hill returned from the war in 1945, and his wife wanted a better clothes line than the one she had, so Lance developed the Hills Hoist, a rotary clothesline that could be lowered and raised. The idea quickly caught on, and soon, salvage army trucks were needed to keep up with the deliveries. In 1948, the Hills Hoist cost 11 pounds, which was twice the average weekly wage.

Polymer Banknotes Beating the crooks with plastic!

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(Source: http://inventors.about.com, www.hills.com.au and www.nationaltrustsa.org.au).

As advances in technology were made, it became easier for the everyday person to print or copy a paper money note. To combat the rising threat of counterfeit notes, the Reserve Bank of Australia developed notes made out of a substance called polymer. The polymer notes have a clear window incorporating a design, which makes it very difficult to produce a counterfeit. These notes can still be easily printed and last about four times longer than paper notes. They stay clean, go easily though machines that process money, and can be recycled into other plastic goods.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Polymer notes are now being printed by a division of the Reserve Bank for other countries, including Papua New Guinea, Western Samoa, Indonesia, Kuwait and Singapore. (Source: www.questacon.edu.au )

The Boomerang

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Joe Timbrey, an expert boomerang thrower from Botany Bay, performed in front of the Queen in WaggaWagga in 1954. He had ten boomerangs in the air at once, and could even catch them with his feet!

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Although widely considered an Australian icon, it is hard to really say who invented the boomerang or where it was invented, and it depends on how a boomerang is actually defined. The non-returning boomerang, used for hunting, is also called a Kylie (not a famous pop singer). These banana-shaped sticks have been dated back in many countries, including Australia. The curved shape of these sticks made them travel further through the air, and they were most commonly used for battles or in hunting.

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The returning boomerang is mainly found in Australia, hence the belief that this is where it originated. The first settlers thought that the boomerang was a type of “wooden sword”, until around 1802, when a journal entry of a French surveyor and engineer described his observations of a boomerang being thrown. Before European settlement, the term “boomerang” did not exist at all, as each tribe or group of Aboriginals called it by their own name. Sources say that these returning boomerangs were used as toys and for sport (and still are today) as well as a digging and cooking tool; or tapped together as a musical instrument. They were less reliable for hunting than the non-returning sticks, but may still have been used in some areas. Ceremonial boomerangs were painted with the designs that are seen today on many boomerangs that are sold as genuine artefacts or as souvenirs. As well as the traditional material of wood, boomerangs are today made out of plastic, paper and many other materials, and they come in a range of shapes and sizes. (www .davroboomerangs.com) (www.davroboomerangs.com) (Sources: www.boomerang.org.au and www.vcnet.com)

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Name: ...................................................................................

Innovative Inventions

Interview with Mr Hill Imagine that you are Mr Hill, and you are being interviewed a year after the Hills Hoist has gone into production. Write Mr Hill’s answers to these questions: Interviewer: Mr Hill, your clothesline sales are doing very well - congratulations! Did you expect your invention to be so successful?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Mr Hill:_______________________________________________________________________

Interviewer: Tell us the story of how you got the idea in the first place.

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Teac he r

_____________________________________________________________________________

Mr Hill:________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

Interviewer: How does your wife feel about your invention being so popular?

Mr Hill:______________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Interviewer: Do you have any suggestions as to how people should hang their clothes on •f o rr eseparate vi ew u r po sefrom so l y • the Hills Hoist? Should they colourp and whites, or hang the n inside to the ____________________________________________________________________________

outside?

Mr Hill:_______________________________________________________________________

Interviewer: Do you have any other inventions in your mind?

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Mr Hill:_______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Interviewer: What would you say if I told you that in 54 years time – the year 2000, your invention will be displayed as a costume at the opening of the Olympic Games in Sydney? Mr Hill:_______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Write one more question and answer: Interviewer: ___________________________________________________________________ Mr Hill:________________________________________________________________________

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Innovative Inventions

Name: ...................................................................................

Sales are Booming In Stores Today – The Boomerama!! “A new kind of plastic boomerang has just been released. It is fun, fast and it really works. It has even been known to catch small birds in flight and still return! It’s made of bright, colourful plastic and if it is ever lost, the Boomerama does not break down easily – so it lasts and lasts until it is found again. The old Aboriginal patterns have been changed and updated to suit today’s modern Aussie kid. This true Aussie icon is bound to be a winner with children and tourists alike.”

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

FOR:

A young child

FOR:

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Using the announcement above, write a list of arguments for or against this new toy from the point of view of these four groups of people:

A souvenir salesperson

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AGAINST:

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An Aboriginal artist and craftsperson

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AGAINST

An environmental officer

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Choose one of four people above and write a letter to the manufacturer of the Boomerama, either congratulating them, or asking them to change their product. Include at least four valid points to convince them of your opinion.

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Innovative Inventions

Classroom Activities Discuss: What should happen if two people think of the same idea for an invention at the same time? The Aboriginal people used the boomerang for a variety of jobs. As a class, brainstorm as many uses for a boomerang as you can think of.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Design/Create:

Teac he r

Choose a simple invention, such as the esky, the Hills Hoist, the fly swat, etc. and think of your own unique addition to it. Draw a picture of your updated invention.

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In a group, create a poster-sized flow-chart depicting the travels of a $5 note. Make its journey as interesting as possible – being used at the school canteen, a funfair, a hospital florist shop, and a pet store, and find some interesting things that it can purchase. Don’t forget to use it as change, so that it keeps moving from person to person.

Create posters to show the background and achievements of the people that feature on Australian $5, $10, $20, $50 and $100 notes.

Write:

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Many Australian children have memories of injuries or unhappy parents as a result of swinging or evi ewa listp r p os nl ycould •be given on the • Hillsf Hoist. In ar group, develop ofu “safe uses” fore thes Hillso Hoist, that

Write a funny story about an invention that goes wrong. Does it turn out to work well as something else? What happens to the inventor?

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Investigate:

Find out about other Aussie inventions. A few of them are: the bionic ear, the “black box” which records flight information in case of air disasters and the dual–flush toilet. Visit websites such as http:// inventors.about.com (search for “Australian inventors” which will link you to a range of sites) which will help your research. Write a onepage report on your favourite Aussie invention.

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to the marketing group of Hills, e.g. covering with material and using as a sunshade, decorating with lights and tinsel at Christmas time, hanging a sheet from to use as a curtain for backyard play performances, etc.

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Make a class timeline for all of the inventions that have been researched. Design a mural that goes round the classroom with pictures of inventions at each date. Do a “Hills Hoist” audit. Survey the students in your class to find out who has a Hills Hoist or a similar rotary clothes line in their back yard. What other types of clothes lines are there? Create a graph to show your findings. Contact another class in a school that is situated in an older or a newer area. Compare results. Ready-Ed Publications

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Original Organisations

Surf Lifesaving was provided. Eventually, this organisation grew into the Surf Lifesaving Association of

swimmers banded together to protect the swimmers, culminating in the formation of the New South Wales Surf Bathing Association in 1907 where funding and support

Australia.

linking hands, were replaced by the introduction of ropes attached to heavy belts. In 1938, 300 swimmers were rescued from a series of freak waves that came up onto Bondi Beach, a tribute to the dedication and skill of the surf lifesavers. Over the years, there have been over 440 000 rescues recorded by Surf Lifesaving Australia.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

The sun has gone down – and the surf’s up! Until 1902, it was illegal in Australia to bathe during daylight hours as it was considered improper. Males and females were allowed to bathe separately, but only during the early morning or late evening. In September, 1902, a man named William Gocher began a new wave in surf bathing when he disobeyed the laws and ventured into the waters at Manly Beach in the middle of the day. Soon, bathing during the day was quite acceptable and the increased numbers of bathers resulted in the rise in the dangers of swimming in the open surf.

The distinctive red and yellow cap worn by surf lifesavers show that they are a volunteer who holds a Bronze Medallion (from the age of 15) or a Surf Rescue Certificate (from the age of 13, this is for probationary surf lifesavers). Volunteers are trained in surf awareness, survival, patrol and rescue and emergency care. Like holders of a First Aid certificate, a knowledge of the body and how it works is important. (Source: http://slsa.asn.au)

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Early rescue methods, such as forming a human chain by

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Australia, which changed its •off orr ev i ew posesonl y• Small groups experienced name in 1991p to u Surfr Lifesaving

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Name: ...................................................................................

Original Organisations

What a Hero!

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

Design an award for a Surf Lifesaver who carried out a very special and brave rescue. It can be a certificate, a medal or any other award you wish, as long as it has a space to write the name of the person and the deed that they performed.

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Where and how will the award be presented? ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Ready-Ed Publications

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Original Organisations

Royal Flying Doctor Service what was then a small bush airline known as the Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Service or QANTAS. At least four lives were saved in that first experimental year, but this was enough for the operation to survive and grow over the years.

numbered. The number of outback bases grew, and the service became granted the name, Royal Flying Doctor Service, by the Queen in 1955. Advances have been made over the years, and telephone and video-conferencing technology are taking over from radio as the main form of communication. As well as doctors, medical specialists, dentists and other health professionals are being flown to provide services to remote areas.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Radio communication was initially one area of difficulty in remote areas. As time passed, developments were made so that Morse code using the Tr e a g e r

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Teac he r

The Royal Flying Doctor Service was established in 1928 by Reverend John Flynn, who was an outback missionary from 1911. Flynn saw the impact that distance and isolation had on the people who lived in inland Australia, and began to establish bush hospitals in some of these areas. He realised that this was only a small part of the solution, a fact that came to the attention of the whole nation in 1917 when a stockman named Jimmy Darcy was injured in a fall near Halls Creek in W e s t e r n Australia. Darcy was then transported to Halls Creek, where the local postmaster performed surgery on Darcy by receiving instructions via Morse code from Perth. Unfortunately Jimmy Darcy died following the surgery, and the need for doctors in the outback was seen more than ever.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Even today, the• pilots and •f orr evi e w p u r p o s e s o n l y pedal wireless was replaced doctors in the service have to

o c . che e r o t r s super

Flynn started to think of some solutions, when he received a letter from a medical student at war, Lieutenant Clifford Peel, who wrote of his ideas on combining aviation with medicine. Although Peel was sadly killed during the war, his vision began to be realised as Flynn started raising funds for a flying doctor service. By 1928, there were finally enough funds to begin an experimental service with an aircraft from

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face challenging situations, landing on rarely used airstrips lit by headlights or kerosene flares, and encountering unpredictable weather conditions. The service operates from 20 bases and runs 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, with medical help never more than two hours away. Although the service receives support from the government, it still relies heavily on fundraising and the support of volunteers to sustain it.

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by voice communication. The introduction of radio communication into many outback areas also addressed the social isolation that many felt, and women operating the radios also took advantage of “Galah” sessions, chatting with the neighbours over a hundred kilometres away. Medical chests were introduced in 1942. These identical chests, kept at outback stations, allowed patients to describe their symptoms over the radio or telephone, referring to a number on a picture of the human body. The doctor could then make a diagnosis and direct the patient to the correct medication, which was also

The founder of the RFDS, Reverend John Flynn, can be seen on the Australian Twenty Dollar note. (Source: www.rfds.org.au)

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Original Organisations

School of the Air The success of the Royal Flying Doctor Service brought with it another benefit. The isolated stations that had access to radio communication for the flying medical service were also able to be reached for education, and in 1950, the first lesson was broadcast. Teachers use high frequency radio to provide lessons to their students. This is combined with correspondence lessons mailed to the students, regular telephone calls, and new technologies such as email, video and the Internet. The schools are based in larger rural centres, such as Port Hedland, Alice Springs and Katherine.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Students of the Schools of the Air have to do some things differently to students in regular classrooms. Students need to be very organised and work can take about two weeks to get marked and returned to the students. Most students still spend about five hours a day, working from Monday to Friday, and are usually supervised by their parents. Only some of this time is spent actually on the radio with other students. Because of the social isolation, events such as school camps and sporting gettogethers are very important to these students. The School of the Air, also known as Distance Education School, now has over 1000 students in twelve schools that operate across Australia. Check out some of these web sites, which have their own history and information on how the school is run.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Port Augusta - http://www.oac.schools.sa.edu.au/ • f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• (Source: www.questacon.edu.au)

Check Out:

Katherine - www.schools.nt.edu.au/riverscluster/ksa/default.htm Port Hedland – www.porthedlandsota.wa.edu.au/

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Mount Isa – www.mtisasde.qld.edu.au/

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Alice Springs - http://www.assoa.nt.edu.au

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Name: ...................................................................................

Original Organisations

This is Our School Create a logo for a School of the Air. The logo should represent the local landscape or industry, as well as incorporating a school motto. Here are some ideas to get you started: Landscape: Coastal (beaches, reefs, shells, sea creatures); Northern Inland (red earth, rock formations, spinifex); Northern Coastal (tropical rainforest, plantations, crocodiles).

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Industry: Mining, fishing, grain farming, cattle or sheep, fruit plantations.

Teac he r

Motto: Usually one sentence about how the students should strive in their school work or aim to achieve as a person, e.g. “Aim for the stars”, or “Learning together across the kilometres”.

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Draw a draft version below, with a sentence or two describing your logo, then draw a final copy on a school t-shirt or flag.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Classroom Activities

Original Organisations

Discuss: Do you think surf lifesavers should be paid? Discuss the reasons why and why not with your class.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Discuss how technology has changed the School of the Air. What sorts of things exist now that would make a “virtual classroom” different to how it used to be? What would be some advantages and disadvantages of being a student in the School of the Air?

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Teac he r

Design

Design a one-page advertisement for the “Bush Telegraph” newspaper, asking for doctors to join the Royal Flying Doctor Service. Include some of the exciting aspects of being in the RFDS. Draw or paint an outback scene from a birds-eye view (like a RFDS pilot would see).

Write:

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Write a• story for a junior primary student (Year 1r –p 3) about ae beach rescue by surf• lifesavers or f o r r e v i e w p u o s s o n l y a bush rescue by the Royal Flying Doctor Service. Try to make the “emergency” as interesting The script for an interview between a reporter and a surf lifesaver who has just rescued a drowning child. Write down the questions that the reporter might ask and then the lifesaver’s answers. Swap your script with a partner and turn their script into a newspaper article.

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as possible – perhaps someone was swimming out to chase a runaway beach ball or fell off a camel in an outback bush race. Make the story into a booklet with illustrations and read to students in a buddy class.

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Write the dialogue between a radio operator and a person living in the outback. reporting a farming accident where someone has been injured.

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Make a list: Who was injured? What happened? Is the person calm or panicking? How does the radio operator help them?

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Write the dialogue between a radio operator and a person living in the outback.

Investigate:

What pieces of equipment to surf lifesavers use today? Draw pictures with a brief description underneath.

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Outstanding Objects

Thongs The image of an Australian pop singer, perched on a giant thong at the closing ceremony at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, reinforces this simple footwear as an Aussie icon – or is it?

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So why are thongs so strongly associated with Australia? Many would argue that the “laid-back” personalities of Australians, combined with the many beaches and warm climate, has made Australia a perfect breeding ground for this species of footwear.

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Thong–like footwear has been traced back to Nigerian Zulus and ancient Romans, as well as the Japanese. In fact, one of the first “thong sightings” in Australia was said to be in 1935, when a Sydney shoe-shop sold them as “Japanese Bath Slippers”. Great numbers of the thong were said to have been imported from Hong Kong and Japan in the 1960’s, although Dunlop produced over 500 000 thongs in 1961for Australian users. Another argument is that thongs were invented in New Zealand in 1957 when Maurice Yock invented the “Jandal”.

The thong, separated from its cousin, the sandal, by the distinctive V-shaped strap between the toes, has become somewhat of a fashion item in recent times. Thongs with flowers, jewels, sequins and chunky wedged soles are appearing on catwalks across the globe – and it raises the question: “When does it stop being a thong?”

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There are some interesting theories on thongs, such as “Why it is so hard to find left and right thongs washed up on the same beach?” One theory is that the opposite shape of the left and right thongs, plus the movement of the tides, causes the thongs to separate. If this theory is true, then left thongs should wash up on the east coast of Australia, whereas right thongs should land in countries such as Samoa in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.

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In 2002, the West Australian town, Carnarvon, celebrated the Year of the Outback with “The Great Aussie Thong Muster”, which involved a competition based on sending in thongs from across the country, with prizes for the thong that travelled the most distance, most unusual and the “lucky thong”. Do you own a pair of thongs? (Source: http://www.souvenirsaustralia.com/webcontent26.htm)

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Name: ...................................................................................

Outstanding Objects

The Thongofile Have you ever wanted to know what goes on in the secret life of the thong? Well, here’s your chance to get creative and let people know what things get up to when they are not flip – flopping their way to the beach. Remember – you are not you for this page – you are a PAIR OF THONGS!

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Describe your looks in a sentence or two: ______________________

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Describe your personality: ________________________________________________________

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Who do you belong to? ___________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________

How often do you get to go out? __________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons ________________________________________________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Where do you live when you are not being worn? ___________________________________ What kind of places do you usually go out to? ______________________________________

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________________________________________________________________________________ What kind of music do you like to listen to? ________________________________________ Describe your best memory as a thong: ____________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ Describe your worst experience as a thong? ________________________________________ If you could be any other kind of shoe, what would you be and why? _________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ What would you do if you ever got separated? _____________________________________ Ready-Ed Publications

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Outstanding Objects

Name: ...................................................................................

The Holden Ute In 2001, a much loved Aussie icon turned 50 - the Holden Ute

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Utility-style vehicles had been around in Australia since the mid - 1930's, when several manufacturers made the passenger car with a truck-based rear. In 1933, the Australian managing director of Ford was sent a letter from a farmer's wife asking for "a car that we can go to church in on Sunday and take the pigs to market on Monday". This reflected the harsh financial times of The Great Depression when bank managers would only lend money for vehicles that were considered worthy of contributing to work on the farm. A design was produced in 1934 by Ford with the front half of a sedan and the rear half of a light truck. There were many of these vehicles produced for the Second World War, for use in the armed forces. General Motors Holden worked at producing an "all-Australian" car after the war ended, and in 1951, the 50-2106 (FX) Coupe Utility was born. The Holden design differed from the original Ford utility in that the front and rear sections went together as a single unit, rather than the combination of a sedan and a truck. It quickly became popular as a vehicle that was affordable and durable, with good fuel economy, versatile terrain coverage and the ability to round up sheep! Before the end of the first year, there was a 70 000 strong waiting list for the Holden FX. This is the start of the true Aussie icon that is recognised today. (Source: http:// www.autoweb.com.au)

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The first utility vehicles were basically a combination of a car and a truck. Use your imagination to design another useful invention which is the combination of two things. For example, a bicycle and a billboard to make a “billcycle”, or a fly swat and a back scratcher to make the ultimate mosquito weapon.

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In the right the finished product.

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My Useful Invention is called a ______________________________ __________________________________________________________

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Outstanding Objects

Big Things

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It is believed there are more than 80 Big Things in Australia, most of them in rural Queensland and New South Wales. The Big Thing phenomenon began in Australia in 1963 when John Landi built the Big Banana on his banana plantation in Coffs Harbour, NSW. Along with this is a theme park based on the subject of ... wait for it … bananas!

An example of a non-edible Big Thing is the Big Guitar in Tamworth, NSW, paying tribute to the Australian home of Country Music. If you are a fan of country music, this is best visited when the Tamworth Country Music Festival. If not, visit any other time to avoid the crowds.

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Have you ever been in the family car on a holiday and stopped off to have a photo taken with a giant animal, fruit or something else that is at least three times as big as you? If you answered “yes”, then you have been lucky enough to encounter a “Big Thing”.

Bull, in Wauchope, NSW, is situated in a town that is more well-known for its theme park on wood chopping!

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons At the very least, the Big •f orr evi ew pur pose sonl y• Things of Australia certainly

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act as great stop off and rest points, photo opportunities and are good for a laugh. Many a postcard has been sent from the “Big Such-and Such”. At the best, they are a highly visible lesson in the vast range of produce that this land has to offer, as well as attracting tourists to the tiny towns that may otherwise be passed by.

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Following the Big Banana was a line of other Big Things springing up across the countryside, for example, the Big Pineapple, built in 1972 in Nambour, Qld, which is a huge colourful pineapple that has a spiral staircase inside leading up to a scenic viewing platform.

So why do Australians love to build these Big Things? Many believe that the Big Things are built to attract tourist attention, and to boast the local produce of small rural towns, or simply to draw passers-by to the roadhouses, cafes and petrol stations that house these quirky features.

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(Source: http:// members.ozemail.com.au/ ~arundell/bigthing.htm)

Take a tour of Big Things on one of these sites: www.alphalink.com.au/~richardb/page4.htm;

www.souvenirsaustralia.com/webcontent4.htm

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Outstanding Objects

Name: ...................................................................................

Where the Big Things Are

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See if you can use your wits to draw a line from each big thing to its home town. Some of them have been mentioned on the information page, but you might be able to guess some of the others based on the location or even the names of some products that you buy in the supermarket. Check the Big Things websites on page 35 to see if you were right.

•Daintree

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•Coffs Harbour •Tamworth

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Classroom Activities

Outstanding Objects

Discuss: When are thongs the best things to wear? When are they the worst things to wear? Fashion is now creating “thongs” in a large variety of colours, shapes and materials. When is a thong not a thong? As a class, create five rules that a thong must abide by to still be called a thong.

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What are other ways to attract tourists apart from Big Things? Consider the types of tourist attractions in your area. How successful are they?

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Design

Create a pair of “designer thongs”. Who is your “target market” – teenage girls, sportspeople, young children, business workers?

Design a television advertisement for promoting the latest ute to Australian workers and farmers. Make a storyboard (a series of 4 – 10 pictures in a sequence, with the dialogue written underneath to show what happens in the ad). Design a “Big Thing” for your suburb, town or city. The Big Thing should reflect something which is seen often or produced in the area. What features does this Big Thing have – can you walk inside it? Climb it? Is there a restaurant or souvenir shop inside? OR use your school logo to inspire the design for a Big Thing to stand outside your school.

Write:

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Write an internal monologue (like a diary of thoughts as they happen) for a pair of thongs. Who do they belong to? Where are they kept? When do they get put on? Where do they go? How are they treated? Does anything funny happen, like a dog trying to eat the thongs?

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Write a story about a person who has been living alone in the outback for ten years, when suddenly they stumble across a roadhouse with a Big Thing. What do they think? How do they react?

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Investigate:

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How strong are thongs? Bring in a variety of old, broken thongs. In small groups, design some experiments to test the strength of the thongs. Compare your results with those of your classmates.

Visit some of the Big Things websites. Can you find the biggest Big Thing? What is your favourite Big Thing? Survey classmates to find the most popular Big Thing.

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Wacky Words

Waltzing Matilda Q:

What was the name of the swagman in the song “Waltzing Matilda?

A:

Andy (“Andy sang as he watched and waited ‘til his billy boiled …”)

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The song, “Waltzing Matilda” was written by Banjo Paterson in January, 1895. Stories as to how the song was written vary, however one account reports that Paterson was staying at a friend’s station in central Queensland, when he first heard the term “waltzing matilda”. He later went for a walk with the station owner, when they came across the skin of a recently killed sheep. Four months earlier, a woolshed on the same station had been burned down by a group of shearers fighting for better wages. Inside the woolshed was a hundred sheep, and when the station owner and three police troopers pursued the shearers, one of them shot himself, presumably to avoid being caught.

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The station owner’s wife wrote the score (tune) for the song and it was sung for the Premier of Queensland in April 1895. The lyrics were revised a little over the years, but the basic story remains the same – a “swagman” (a man who drifted, from place to place, carrying his belongings in a cloth called a swag), who camped by a “billabong” (like a small lake), boiling his billy (probably to make himself a billy tea). A “jumbuck” (a sheep) came to drink at the billabong and the swagman saw it and put it in his “tuckerbag” (a bag that food was generally kept in). After all, a whole sheep would result in some pretty good tucker! The “squatter” (the person that had settled on the land and grazed the sheep) and the “troopers” (soldiers or police) came by and saw the swagman stealing the sheep. They pursued him, and he jumped into the billabong rather than being caught. The next line “and his ghost may be heard as you pass by that billabong …” implies that the swagman drowned when he jumped in to escape capture.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f or ev i ew pu r pQuite os es“matilda” onl yanother • name So what on earth does ther term “Waltzing Matilda” mean? simply, was for a swag, and to “waltz matilda” was to wander the roads with a swag on your back. (Source: http://www.anu.edu.au/people/Roger.Clarke)

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(Source: www.twinings.com and www.tea.org.au).

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Billy tea is quite a strong image in this well-loved Australian song by Banjo Patterson. The original lyrics of “… and he sang as he looked at his old billy boiling” were changed to “… and he sang as he watched and waited ‘til his billy boiled” along with some other minor changes, when the song was used by a company to advertise billy tea.

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Name: ...................................................................................

Read All About It You are the editor of an Australian newspaper in 1895, when the events that inspired “Waltzing Matlida” may have occurred. Design the front page of the newspaper, giving details of a story similar to the one in the song. You might like to include a main story, a “Wanted” poster of a man last seen diving into a billabong, and some other small features to add interest. Don’t forget headlines, pictures and captions.

The

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Include a headline here.

Draw a picture with a short caption.

January 16, 1895

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Think of a name for your newspaper.

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Wacky Words

Name: ...................................................................................

Aussie Slang How have youse been doing in this book’s activities? Dinkum?? Strewth! Well onya for doin’ such a beaut job! Aussie slang is spoken more by some than others. Some Aussie slang involves shortening words and then adding an “a” or an “ie” on the end – such as cuppa, Aussie, barbie, footy, etc.

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(Source: www.aussieslang.com/ )

Here are some examples:

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Australians also used to use rhyming slang quite a bit – this is less common now, but still a quaint Australian icon. The idea is to use two words, the second of which rhymes with the real word, in place of the real word.

Captain Cook: look (“Go and have a Captain Cook.”)

Frog and Toad: road (“Its time to hit the frog and toad.”)

Dog and Bone: phone (“He called her on the dog and bone.”)

“He called her on Steak and Kidney: Sydney (“She went to visit steak and kidney.”) the dog and© bone.” ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons

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Ava’ Go at These:

Try writing the meaning of these Aussie slang words: Battler: _______________________________

Bloke: _____________________________

Cobber: ______________________________

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Woop-Woop: __________________________

In a jiffy: ___________________________ You little ripper: _____________________

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Ankle-biter: _________________________

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What do you think is meant by an Aussie Salute?

a. The type of salute done by war veterans on ANZAC Day. b. Waving at someone as you pass by them in the bush. c. Brushing flies away from your face with your hand.

Draw a funny picture of your favourite slang word.

Make up your own Aussie-sounding slang for these words and phrases:

Vegemite® sandwich ________________________________ Early in the morning _________________________________ Listen carefully ______________________________________ A surf lifesaver ______________________________________ The Holden ute _____________________________________

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Classroom Activities Discuss:

Why do you think Australian slang is less common that it used to be? What other kinds of slang are taking over now?

Design:

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Write:

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Design a “modern day swag” for a person that will be walking and camping in the Australian bush for 6 weeks. What kinds of sections and features will the “swag” have in order to ensure survival.

Write the diary of the swagman in “Waltzing Matilda” in the days leading up to the billabong incident. Why did he steal the sheep? What sort of person was he? What were some of the other experiences he had? Was there another reason why he was on the run from the law?

In a small group, write down twenty words that describe Australia, then write a song or poem containing these words. Perform it for the class. Make up your own rhyming slang for some objects in the classroom. Try to make it humorous, e.g “Scary creature” – teacher; “Piece of pork” – chalk. Make a poster of your favourite and include a funny picture, your rhyming slang and the meaning.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Re-write the words to “Waltzing Matilda” so that a visitor from New York, USA, could •f or ev ewPairp r p ose so yversions • and understand what ther song isi about. upu with a partner, choose onen ofl the

Investigate:

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“rap” it to the rest of the class.

Ned Kelly was another outlaw as famous as the swagman in Waltzing Matilda. Research the story of Ned Kelly in a small group.

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Research the lyrics of other famous songs, such as “And the Band Played Waltzing Matilda”, “The Road to Gundagai” and “Bound for Botany Bay”. Write a paragraph on one of the songs, telling the “story” behind the lyrics.

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Wacky Words

Australians and The Silver Screen G’day Hollywood – A brief history of Australians and the silver screen ... Although Hollywood holds the reins of the film industry, Australia has well and truly made its mark on the silver screen, and not just as recently as you may imagine.

The circle was completed almost 100 years later when, in 2003, the new movie “Ned Kelly” premiered in Australia, starring many actors that have been successful at home and overseas, again portraying this outlaw as somewhat of a legend.

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In 1906, a black and white film called “The Story of the Kelly Gang” premiered in Melbourne in what was considered the world’s first feature-length narrative film. The movie, about an hour long, depicted the Kelly Gang as heroes. It toured Melbourne, Sydney and Adelaide, as well as being shown in New Zealand and England.

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Aussie icons have been cemented in the eyes of the filmgoer, through Australians on film. Who could forget “Crocodile Dundee”, who first graced the screens in 1986 with his dry Aussie wit, but lives on as one of the most strongly recognised stereotypes of those of us from “Down Under”, despite the fact that the closest most of us have come to a crocodile has been on the other side of a fence in a zoo. The Crocodile Dundee phenomenon prompted the owners of the Federal Hotel, where part of the movie was made, to change its name to the movie’s fictional pub name of The Walkabout Creek Hotel, and sell it for twice its. original price.

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Often when historical movies are made, smaller details are added to increase the appeal to the audience. A summary of Ned Kelly’s life can be found at www.abc.net.au/btn/ australians/nedkelly.htm. Make up your own mind as to whether you think Ned Kelly is a hero or a criminal.

Movies such as “Gallipoli” and “Babe” have taken filmgoers on journeys through realistic and gruesome battles of World War I to the charming farmlife complete with singing pigs, whilst a newer industry has begun booming with many “blockbuster” style movies being filmed on location in Australia, such as The Matrix and Mission Impossible 2.

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Australians and the Silver Screen You are a famous Australian costume designer designer, asked to work on the set of two different movies at the one time. Draw the costumes in the spaces below.

NED KELLY

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The first movie is the story of Ned Kelly. Do some research on the armour worn by the Kelly Gang (there is a very interesting description at [www.ironoutlaw.com] under Outlaw – Gang’s Armour).

The other movie you are working on is a comedy about a typical Aussie family. Your task is to create a character that you would like overseas moviegoers to see as the image of the modern Aussie. It can be a man, woman or child, and they can look like anything you think will represent our country in a true fashion.

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BORN-AND-BRED AUSSIE

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Make sure to include labels so that costume-makers know what materials to use. Remember that props, such as some “Aussie icons” can be included as part of the costume too. For example you might have a surf lifesaver with some rescue equipment, or a bush walker with some billy tea.

Extra

Draw your Born-and-Bred Aussie character doing something typically Australian on the set of your new movie. Write a brief outline underneath to give an idea of the scene for the scriptwriter.

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The Australian Flag

Classroom Activities And of course — The Australian Flag

In 1901, the six colonies of Australia united to become the “Commonwealth of Australia”. A competition

was held to decide on a new flag design, and of 30 000 entries, there were five or six very similar designs, which were used as the basis for the final design. The flag incorporates the Union Jack, which represents our links to British heritage, the Southern Cross star formation, which can be seen from the southern hemisphere, and the Federation Star or Commonwealth star, which originally had six points for the six merging colonies but later showed seven points, for the seven states and territories of the Commonwealth of Australia.

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There are many guidelines in the way the Australian flag is used and treated, including some of the points below:

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When flown, the Australian flag should always be higher than any other flag , or in a position showing its importance, such as first in a row, or in the centre of three flags.

The flag should be raised at dawn and lowered at dusk – not flown at night unless it is illuminated. The flag should never be flown upside down, or shown in an undignified way, including being covered by another image, such as in advertising.

A worn-out flag needs to be disposed of properly, such as cutting it up into small unrecognisable pieces. (Sources: www.itsanhonour.gov.au and www.flagsandpoles.com.au)

The Aboriginal Flag was first shown in 1971 on National Aborigines’ Day in Adelaide, and was legislated in 1995 by the Federal Government. The flag is made up of a black half, representing the Aboriginal people, a red half representing the earth and the yellow circle representing the sun.

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The Australian Flag

Name: ...................................................................................

Your Flag

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Write the name of the Australian state associated with these flags below: New South Wales South Australia Western Australia Tasmania Northern Territory Australian Capital Territory Queensland Victoria

For YOUR state or territory, write the meaning of the symbols on the flag. Visit http://www.csu.edu.au/ Click on the various state flags sections to help you with your answer, or use resources at your school.

australia/emblems.html

My state or territory is: ____________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

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The symbols on the flag are: ______________________________________________________

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These symbols mean: ____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

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_______________________________________________________________________________

With a partner, write as many places as you can that you have seen the Australian flag being flown: _________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ The American Flag is often called “The Stars and Stripes”. Think of a creative nickname for the Australian Flag, such as “Old Bluey”: ____________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

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Name: ...................................................................................

OZCross How much do you know about Aussie icons now? Test your skills in this crossword!

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OZCross Clues ACROSS

DOWN 1. The Big ___________ was the first Big Thing in Australia. 2. One threat to the Great Barrier Reef is the _________ of Thorns Starfish. 6. One kind of slang that Australians used to use a lot was _____________ slang. 8. The founder of the RFDS can be seen on the ___________ dollar note. 10. The swagman put the jumbuck in his ____________________. 11. A non-returning boomerang is sometimes called a __________. 12. Queen _____________ II opened Sydney Opera House. 14. The Great Barrier Reef is made up of creatures called ___________. 16. Sydney Opera House contains tiles made in _____________. 17. Damper is made by placing the dough into ________. 18. Waltzing Matilda was written by ___________ Patterson. 19. One of the best times to view Uluru is ______________. 20. Matilda was another name for a _________. 22. The Royal Flying Doctor Service was established by Reverend John ____________.

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3. Sydney Opera House is situated on Bennelong ______. 4. The Vegemite® logo is ____ and yellow. 5. Featured on the Australian flag is the Southern _____. 7. The word ____ is short for utility. 9. Vegemite® is known for being rich in _________ B. 13. Before 1902, it was __________ to bathe in daylight hours. 15. Traditional owners of Uluru ask that you don’t _______ the rock. 16. Most meat pies are eaten with tomato _________. 21. Our flag’s Commonwealth star has _______ points. 23. The Great Barrier Reef is situated along the coast of _________________. 24. A rising agent used in some dampers is baking __________. 25. ______________ banknotes were made to stop people making counterfeit money. 26. The Hills Hoist was invented by Lance ________. 27. The bush airline first used by flying doctors was ______________. 28. The ingredient that golden syrup replaces in ANZAC biscuits is _________.

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Answers Page 36 – Where the Big Things Are The Big Banana – Coffs Harbour, NSW ;The Giant Murray Cod – Swan Hill, Vic; The Big Guitar – Tamworth, NSW; The Giant Ned Kelly – Glenrowan, Vic; The Big Pineapple – Nambour, Qld; The Big Ram – Wagin, WA; The Big Barramundi – Daintree, QLD; The Big Orange – Berri, SA. Page 40 - Aussie Slang Ankle-biter: A small child; Battler: Someone who works hard but does not make a lot of money and finds it hard to get by; “The lotto was won by an Aussie battler.”; Bloke: A man, usually referred to in a positive way; “He’s a great bloke”; Cobber: Friend, mate; In a jiffy: In a moment, it won’t take long – “I’ll be there in a jiffy; Woop-Woop: A town or place that is far away; “She lives out at Woop-woop.”; You little ripper: Well done, thank you very much, you are great! What is meant by an “Aussie Salute”? C. Brushing flies away from your face with your hand.

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Page 45 - Your Flag The Union Jack represents the links to British colonisation. The Southern Cross is a well-recognised feature seen in the skies of the Southern Hemisphere. New South Wales – Union Jack and the Cross of St George with an eight-pointed star and a golden lion. Designed by James Barnet and Captain Francis Hixson, adopted 1876. South Australia – Union Jack and a white-backed magpie with the wings outstretched. Designed by Robert Craig, adopted 1904. Western Australia – Union Jack and the native black swan on a yellow disc, representing the Swan settlement. Adopted 1953. Tasmania – Union Jack with a red lion on a white background representing ties with England. Adopted 1875. Northern Territory – A Sturt Desert Rose (NT floral emblem) on an ochre background and the Southern Cross on a back background. Designed by Robert Ingpen. Adopted 1978. Australian Capital Territory – Canberra’ s city colours of blue and gold, incloprporating the arms of the city and the Southern Cross. Designed by Ivo Ostyn. Adopted 1993. Queensland – Union Jack with a Maltese Cross (origin uncertain) and a St Edwards crown (the crown of the current coronation of the reigning monarch, Queen Elizabeth II. Adopted 1953. Victoria – Union Jack with the southern cross under the St Edwards’ Crown. (see above) (Source: www.ausflag.com.au ) Some places where the Australian flag is flown: Examples – schools, parliament, Australian Embassies, International Embassies overseas, war memorials, some restaurants, shopping centres, people’s houses, International sports events such as the Olympics, Commonwealth Games, World Championships, sports centres and ovals, scout / guide halls, draped over coffins at some ceremonial funerals, flown many places on Australia Day, e.g. from a helicopter in the sky.

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Page 46 – OZCross Across: 3. Point 4. Red 5. Cross 7. Ute 9. Vitamin 13. Illegal 15. Climb 16. Tomato 21. Seven 23. Queensland 24. Soda 25. Polymer 26. Hill 27. Qantas 28. Egg

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Down: 1. Banana 2. Crown 6. Rhyming 8. Twenty 10. Tuckerbag 11. Kylie 12. Elizabeth 14. Polyps 16. Sweden 17. Coals 18. Banjo 19. Sunset 20. Swag 22. Flynn

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