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For Ages 10+

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Reduce, Reuse, © ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Recycle •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• e

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Addressing environmental concerns in the community. . t o c . che e r o t r s super

Written by Tracy Hill. Illustrated by Melinda Parker. © Ready-Ed Publications - 2003. Published by Ready-Ed Publications (2003) P.O. Box 276 Greenwood Perth W.A. 6024 Email: info@readyed.com.au Website: www.readyed.com.au COPYRIGHT NOTICE Permission is granted for the purchaser to photocopy sufficient copies for non-commercial educational purposes. However, this permission is not transferable and applies only to the purchasing individual or institution.

ISBN 1 86397 539 X


Introduction The state of the environment has become a major concern for the world as a whole. As we continue to grow in population more environmental hazards require our attention. Waste is a major concern for many countries, where communities are facing the dilemma of running out of areas to dump waste. The importance of finding a new way of doing things is becoming apparent. Recycling is one way in which all individuals can help the environment by reducing waste or using it more efficiently. Recycling is becoming a widespread community activity, and is one way to provide a sustainable ecology for future generations to live in. This book introduces students to the idea of recycling. It covers the history, the who, what, where, when and how of recycling and the processes which are involved. It also contains sections on the way we usually dispose of waste, the environmental effects of this disposal and the environmental organisations which help to keep the earth green.

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Information Pages

Pictures and Diagrams

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These pages provide valuable information for teachers to use in the classroom. They include background information, fact and figures on recycling and tips on how to dispose of waste in the most efficient manner. They can be used as a teacher’s reference for use in class discussion, or used by students for researchbased tasks. These diagrams and pictures link information to show the recycling processes as well as some environmental impacts of waste. They provide information for students and are useful tools in developing understanding on the subject matter. Websites

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A range of web sites have been provided, designed both for children to participate in Internet based activities about waste and recycling, and for reference sources if any additional information is required by teachers or students. Student Activities

The activities provided in this book promote both education and creativity. Through these activities students are required to think about waste and how they as individuals can make a difference. The activities cover key learning areas such as Mathematics, English, Science, Technology, Social Studies and The Arts.

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The activities are targeted for middle primary school children and are made up of craft activities, problem solving, mini-experiments, comprehension and evaluations. Some activities have specific answers which have been provided for teacher information in the answer section of the book. Other activities are open-ended and encourage a variety of responses, which provides an opportunity for class discussion.

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The craft activities provide students with the opportunity to use creative skills to make trash into treasure. It helps to alter the perception of rubbish as waste, and opens their mind to the idea of finding alternate uses for products. Curriculum Links

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The activities in this book are linked to achievement objectives and strands for the various learning areas of the New Zealand curriculum.

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Contents What Is Recycling? Let’s Recycle Recycling At Home Milk Carton Seedlings Why Recycle? Recycling In Order History Of Recycling Recycling Words Classroom Quiz Recycling Tips Paper Mache Pencil Jars Into The Land The Natural Water Cycle (1) The Natural Water Cycle (2) Reading Tables Into The Water Plays And Drama Waterway Health Check Into The Air Grassy Eggheads Cost of Waste - 1 Cost of Waste - 2 Canteen Waste Things Which Can Be Recycled Seed Jewellery Recycling Newsprint Paper Pulp Cards Paper And Cardboard Recycling Recycling Keywords Litter Hunt Green Waste Family Recycling PET Plastic Changing Shapes Bird Feeders HDPE Plastic How Does Rubbish Degrade? Litterless Lunch Recycling Glass Which Bin? Musical Trash Liquid Paperboard Cartons Home Survey Aluminium Cans Adding Letters Changing Forms Steel Cans Metal Mania Pencil Holder Environmental Groups - 1 Environmental Groups - 2 Recycling Projects

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2 4 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 59

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Introduction Curriculum Links Information P age: Page: Activity Sheet 1: Activity Sheet 2: Activity Sheet 3: Information P age: Page: Activity Sheet 4: Information P age: Page: Activity Sheet 5: Activity Sheet 6: Information P age: Page: Activity Sheet 7: Information P age: Page: Activity Sheet 8: Activity Sheet 9: Information P age: Page: Activity Sheet 10: Activity Sheet 11: Information P age: Page: Activity Sheet 12: Information P age: Page: Information P age: Page: Activity Sheet 13: Activity Sheet 14: Activity Sheet 15: age: Information P Page: Activity Sheet 16: Information P age: Page: Activity Sheet 17: Activity Sheet 18: Information P age: Page: Activity Sheet 19: Information P age: Page: Activity Sheet 20: Activity Sheet 21: Information P age: Page: Activity Sheet 22: Activity Sheet 23: Information P age: Page: Activity Sheet 24: Activity Sheet 25: Information P age: Page: Activity Sheet 26: Information P age: Page: Activity Sheet 27: Activity Sheet 28: Information P age: Page: Activity Sheet 29: Activity Sheet 30: Information P age: Page: Activity Sheet 31: Activity Sheet 32: Answers

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Curriculum Links Activity

Learning Area

Strand

Related Achievement Objective

1. Let’s Recycle (p. 8)

English/The Arts

Visual Arts: Communicating & Interpreting

Students will be able to project a viewpoint through a poster, which will reflect their values about recycling, and bring greater understanding of the process.

2. Recycling At Home (p. 9)

Social Studies

Place and Environment

Students analyse ways they contribute at home to sustaining the environment. They suggest strategies to further sustain natural resources and preserve and conserve the natural environment.

3. Milk Carton Seedlings (p. 10)

Science

Making Sense of Planet Earth and Beyond

Students will learn an alternative use for a waste product. They will be able to simulate a living environment and produce an effective way to minimise water consumption.

Maths

Statistics

Students will interpret and summarise data displayed in a chart. Using the data they will answer questions relating to the data. As an extension they can use the same formula to collect and organise data relating to their own environment.

5. Recycling Words (p. 14)

6. Classroom Quiz (p. 15)

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Health & P.E.

Written Language: This activity provides students with the ability to follow Reading instructions to complete a task. They are able to use pictures to provide clues to words and match appropriately. It also gives them the opportunity to reflect on information just learned. Personal Health and Physical Development

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4. Recycling In Order (p. 12)

This activity helps students identify ways they can reduce waste. It shows what their current habits are and what they could change to create a better environment. By having this information they can make long and shortterm goals to reduce their waste.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Visual Arts:

In this activity students are able to use co-ordination

8. The Natural Water Cycle-1 (p. 19)

Science

Making Sense of the Physical World

Through an experiment students investigate the effect of chemicals in the ground created by waste. They are given the opportunity to hypothesise their results as well as record actual results. At the end of the lesson they can participate in a class discussion to answer two subject questions.

9. The Natural Water Cycle-2 Reading Tables (p. 20)

Maths

Measurement

Students will collect and record data for their experiment. They will measure time in relation to various items. They will represent this data in two different forms and answer questions relating to their findings.

The Arts

Drama: Developing ideas in the arts

Students will create a story which will be later played out in the classroom situation. Through planning a storyline, students will be able to communicate their story to a wider audience using a different medium. Through this process the audience can decide on what meaning was achieved by the play and the actors can evaluate whether or not they were effective in sharing an idea with their targeted audience.

11. Waterway Health Check (p. 23)

Social Studies

Place and Environment

tudents develop an understanding of the components of both natural and man made environments. They will recognise the consequences of human activity on the environment and the importance of caring for the natural environment and its features.

12. Grassy Eggheads (p. 25)

Science

Understanding the Living World

Students will consider the effects of physical conditions and whether in different environments living things give the same growth result or change. In this activity students will be gaining an understanding of the reuse of waste materials, and how we can reuse things to make new things.

10.Plays And Drama (p. 22)

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Developing and skills to create a recycled product. Through this process practical knowledge they are able to see how an art form can be created from in the arts a product that would normally be considered as trash.

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The Arts

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7. Paper Mache Pencil Jars (p. 17)

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Curriculum Links Activity

Learning Area

Strand

Related Achievement Objective

13. Canteen Waste (p. 28)

Maths

Statistics and Measurement

Students will investigate the idea of changing the way we do things. Is it cost effective to minimise waste? They are required to complete a number pattern and record results. Students will use calculators or pencil and paper to work out results to plot on a graph and then view them from a different perspective.

14. Things Which Can Be Recycled (p. 29)

English

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16. Paper Pulp Cards (p. 32)

The Arts and Craft

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English

Writing Using the design process students create a visual Visual Arts: artwork from something normally thrown away. This Communicating & piece requires the students to decide on colour and layout Interpreting of their necklace and then follow a process to fulfil their plan. Visual Arts: Developing ideas in the arts

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15. Seed Jewellery (p. 30)

17. Recycling Keywords (p. 34)

Written Language: Students are required to correctly label pictures with Reading words provided. When completed, students group their words into a new list group. As a result of doing this Visual Language: they will understand words can be part of a large group Viewing (garbage) and smaller groups (recyclable and nonrecyclable).

Students will use a number of recyclable products to produce a card which can be given to a friend or family. Through this process they will understand how waste can be reused to create something new.

Written Language: Students will reflect on learned information to solve the Reading missing word sentences. Through this process teachers can evaluate a child’s knowledge of the subject. An extension of this activity is finding an alternative word to suit.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Materials

Health

Healthy Communities and Environments

19. Family Recycling (p. 37)

Social Studies

Resources and Economic Activities

Students understand that all people have needs and wants. By striving to meet these needs and wants pressure is put on available resources. Through looking at rubbish students can understand how their needs are satisfied and can construct ways to reduce waste while still fulfilling needs.

20. Changing Shapes (p. 39)

Science

Making Sense of Physical/Material Worlds

Students will understand that an object can change its form through the transfer of energy. They will learn that when objects change shape their weight can also be affected.

21. Bird Feeders (p. 40)

Social Studies

Social Organisation

Students will understand they can play a role in the sustainability of food chains. Through researching wildlife in their area, they can make an informed decision about the best food source for a particular animal.

22. How Does Rubbish Degrade? (p. 42)

Social Studies

Time, Continuity and Change

Students observe and describe changes to materials due to corrosion and decomposition. Through this activity they will understand how some materials breakdown easily in landfills, while others may take much longer to be affected by nature’s own decomposition. Through this activity students can understand some of the long and short-term effects of rubbish in landfills.

23. Litterless Lunch (p. 43)

Health and P.E.

Healthy Communities and Environments

Students will identify a means for creating a healthier lifestyle through lowering our rubbish disposal. By identifying key items in their school lunch they are able to make an informed decision on ways to decrease their own rubbish items.

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Students use their understanding of different materials to select, collect and sort materials. They use appropriate health safety measures when handling materials and disposing of them. Through investigation they find out information which is then presented in a different form. Through analysis they form judgements on this information and make decisions in regard to it.

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18. Litter Hunt (p. 35)

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Curriculum Links Learning Area

Strand

Related Achievement Objective

24. Which Bin? (p. 45)

Science

Making Sense of the Material World

Students sort and classify objects into those which can be recycled and those which cannot. This activity should be a key for teachers to know how much students have learned so far.

25. Musical Trash (p. 46)

The Arts

Music

Students will create musical instruments from trash. They can use their own creative skills to decorate each piece individually.

26. Home Survey (p. 48)

Science

Making Sense of the Nature of Science and its Relationship to Technology

Students use information gathered from home to evaluate of their homes in the recycling loop. Through this information they can suggest ways in which their house could increase its support of recycling practices. They consider actions needed to take to make their home more environmentally responsible.

27. Adding Letters (p. 50)

Mathematics

Number

Students use their knowledge of English to calculate the sum of each of the words provided. In this activity they are required to first work out the sum itself and then add that sum to complete the answer.

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28. Changing Forms (p. 51)

Science

Making Sense of the Material World

Students understand that when raw materials are processed they are able to form new materials. When these new materials are reused they can also form a new material or an alternate use. Through this activity students will understand how industry can maximise the use of raw materials by creating everyday products from recycled materials.

29. Metal Mania (p. 53)

Science

Making Sense of the Material World

Through investigation students understand that metal is comprised of different qualities. Although some metals may look similar, they are not all made of the same materials. Students can make assumptions on particular items of choice and guess whether they are made from steel or not. When they have tested the item with a magnet they will be able to see if they were correct or not.

Technology and Society

Students learn ways in which they can be innovative in the way they think about waste. The English project can be a fundraiser for the school with objects being sold or put on display. Students can take this activity to the next level, whereby they suggest a way of marketing the new product.

Reading; Writing; Speaking

This activity enables students to first research a topic, find information, answer questions and then create a topic of their own. They use creative skills to find a way to present this information to an audience

30. Pencil Holder (p. 54)

Technology

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31. Environmental Groups (p. 55) 32. Recycling Projects 1. Mini-worm farm (p. 57) 2. Vegetable Paper (p. 57, 58)

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Science

All strands

Students will build a mini worm farm. Through this activity they are able to study a living organism and understand that the state of the organism’s environment determines its survival. Students are able to create their own paper from something we would normally eat or put in compost. Through this process they will understand the many uses of products.

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Information Page

What is Recycling? Recycling is the process of turning waste products into usable products. Recycling can be divided into three categories: > Reduce

• It takes 95% less energy to produce a recycled aluminium can than to produce one from raw materials.

> Reuse

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Involves the use of energy saving products to reduce energy and water usage. As a household this can be as simple as using low-flow shower heads and energy-saving light bulbs. Shoppers should buy products packaged in recycled material or materials which can be recycled. Look for the recycling logo. At the industry level recycling can involve using recyclable materials to make new ones, instead of making products from raw materials.

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Facts and Figures

• Six recycled sheets of newsprint uses as much energy as making one new sheet from scratch.

•i Recycled © ReadyEdPubl i cat o ns steel cans can be turned inton railway tracks, •f orr evi ew pur poseso l y•

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cars, fridges and new steel cans.

• Plastic milk containers can be turned into mobile garbage bins. For each 140L bin, 125 milk containers are used.

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Repairing or finding another use for a product if it is broken. At home we could repair our broken appliances rather than buy new ones, use rechargeable batteries, and use our old newspapers to mulch the garden. Try to use things more than once. • Envelopes can be reused by sticking a blank label over the written address. • Plastic shopping bags can be used repeatedly or alternatively try a cloth/woven shopping bag. • Use both sides of paper before discarding it. Rather than throwing away used paper why not try making your own.

o c . c e > Recycle her r o • For every tonne of t s s r u e p The collection and sorting of waste products and the recycled paper we process of manufacturing them into a product which can be resold. For example, used milk cartons are processed into top quality office paper. Useful Internet site: www.ollierecycles.com.au

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save fifteen average size trees from being felled.

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Activity 1

Let’s Recycle ß Design a poster which will encourage people to recycle. Create a clever heading or slogan which people will remember. Use these keyword cut outs to stick onto your poster.

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in here.

it.

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r o e t s Bo r e Put Don’t p o Recycle u k rubbish throw S these.

Close the . t e loop.

Save the o planet. c .

Don’t make a pigsty.

We can do it.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Reduce Reuse Recycle •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Activity 2

Recycling At Home ß At home there are many ways we can recycle. Using the three R’s, list some ways you Reduce, Reuse and Recycle at your home. Draw a picture in each box of one of these ways.

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2. Reuse

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1. Reduce

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3. Recycle

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Useful Internet Site: www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/caer/ce/eek/earth/recycle/ Ready-Ed Publications

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Activity 3

Milk Carton Seedlings What you need: • 1 x empty cardboard milk carton • 2 x cups of potting mix • 1 x packet of seeds • some water and masking tape • an empty 1.25 L soft drink bottle

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Method 1. Rinse out the empty milk carton, cut off the top and half fill with potting mix. 2. Sprinkle a few seeds in the container and press them in with your fingers. 3. Water in the seeds. 4. Place the empty soft drink bottle over the milk carton and squash it to fit around the carton. 5. Use the masking tape to seal around the milk carton and soft drink bottle . 6. Put in a sunny position. After four weeks remove the plastic bottle and plant the cardboard milk container in the garden.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Why were milk cartons used to grow seeds plastic seedling •f or r ev i ew pu r pin,oinstead sesofo nl y •

R Put your recycling cap on and answer these questions about the project: 1.

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trays?

2. What will happen to the milk carton after it is planted in the garden?

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4. Which category of Reduce, Reuse or Recycle does this project come under and why?

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Information Page

Why Recycle? Did You Know? • Australians generate 800 kg of waste per person per year.

• Steel takes 75% less energy r o e t s B r to produce from recycled e o materials. p ok u • Paper takes 99% less water S and 40% less energy to

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Recycling is not a profitable process for either households or industry. Other than the “Cash for Cans” scheme, neither group is paid to do it, yet it is widely practised simply for the good of the earth. When landfill space starts to run out, other solutions to waste disposal need to be promoted. Councils face a number of hurdles when a landfill space becomes full. If space is still available, finding a new site is the first step, a process opposed by most neighbourhoods. When a new site is eventually approved the costs to set it up are ver y expensive. Another alternative is shipping one town’s rubbish to another town, although this is also an expensive and undesirable option. It is at this point that the merits of recycling become clearer.

produce from recycled materials.

• If left to nature, plastic bags take 10 - 20 years to break down, soft drink cans take 500 years and plastic bottles last indefinitely.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Did you know it is cheaper for a manufacturing plant to make recycled packaging than make packaging from raw materials? When products are made from recycled materials it saves energy, air emissions and resources. For example the production of 400 reams of recycled paper saves 278 000L of water and 2 tonnes of greenhouse gas (enough to fill two houses), not to mention the trees which are saved.

The extraction of raw materials from the ground is like major surgery for the earth. This process damages natural homes for many forms of wildlife. Products which are made from recycled material lessens the impact of extracting and transporting new materials. We share the earth with many living creatures and therefore it is vital we sustain our environment for present and future generations.

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Environmental Impact

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Useful Internet Site: www.ecorecycle.vic.gov.au/aboutus/infosheet_3rs.asp Ready-Ed Publications

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Activity 4

Recycling In Order

1. Food Waste

2. Paper Waste

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ß The boxes below show four types of waste that is discarded from a typical household in one day. Assume that the amount of pictures for each category represents the amount that each household discards.

4. Non-recyclable Waste

3. Green Waste

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o c . c e hitems r How many non-recyclable are thrown out? t er o s super How many green waste items are thrown out?

Which product is thrown out the least?

Extension Collect, organise and record data of your own classroom wastebasket. Page 12

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Information Page

History of Recycling Old Product

The first Australians, the Aborigines, produced very little rubbish as they relied upon the environment for their survival and continuity. All organic waste, like food waste, simply rotted away. All that remains from these times are bones, shells and stone tools.

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New Product

collections began in Melbourne with newspapers collected by horse and cart. The newspapers were shredded and used as packaging material. Kerbside recycling schemes of recyclable rubbish collection was introduced in 1980-90. A national Kerbside Recycling Strategy was introduced in 1992 by the Australian and New Zealand Conser vation Council, which included recycling targets for packaging industries. Today most communities have some form of recycling project in their area. Kerbside collections, “Cash for Cans” and “Cards 4 Planet Ark” are projects which require community involvement and demonstrate the growing awareness for our need to recycle.

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Every Year Australians Recycle ...

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Early European settlers had limited access to resources and therefore it was vital they reused, refilled and recycled things. Bottles for milk, beer and other drinks were refilled, and food scraps were fed to animals or composted on the garden. Clothes were passed down and broken products were repaired.

• the equivalent of 1 billion newspapers;

o c . As time progressed lifestyles became c • the equivalent of 425 million e hamount r more convenient and the of er o PET soft drink bottles; t s super waste discarded increased. Takeaway • 1.6 billion aluminium cans; food and disposable products like tissues, became more available and the cost of replacing rather than repairing became cheaper. Society began to change and people became less concerned about replacement of items. In the 1920s waste paper Ready-Ed Publications

• 1.46 million tonnes of paper and paper packaging;

• 1.4 billion glass bottles; • 237 million HDPE milk containers; • 120 million juice cartons.

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Activity 5

Recycling W ords Words ß The pictures below show several items that can be recycled. Draw lines to match the names of the recyclable items to the pictures.

Glass

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Tyres

Paper

Plastic

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Cardboard •f orr evi ew pu r posesonl y•

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ß Using the three R’s – Reduce, Reuse, Recycle – write a way each item shown can be recycled.

o c . che e r o t r s s r u e p ß Draw a picture of something you have recycled today.

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Activity 6

Classroom Quiz ß You will need to be in groups of four or five for this quiz. Use one sheet to record group answers. Put a tick () for each “Always”; a cross () for each “Never”; and a question mark for each “Sometimes”. Activity Always Sometimes Never

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 2. I use both sides of paper. 3. I use a handkerchief instead of tissues. 4. I use reusable containers when bringing my lunch to school.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons I bring empty containers to •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• school to use for art and craft.

ß From the answers above, how many people …

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Buy lunch from the canteen everyday?

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1. I buy my lunch from the canteen.

o c . che e r o t r Always use handkerchiefs? s super Never use tissues?

Sometimes use reusable containers for their lunch?

ß As a class, brainstorm ways in which you could reduce the amount of waste you create. Ready-Ed Publications

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Information Page

Recycling TTips ips ß Listed below are products which can be recycled, together with tips for clever recycling.

Newsprint

• Make sure cans are empty. • Paint cans: brush excess paint onto sheets of newspaper, let dry and put in the garbage. • Leave the top off paint cans to make sure residual paint is dry before putting in recycling bin. • Wash out steel food cans, put lids inside and press sides together. Alternate uses: • Empty steel cans can be painted and used for plant pot plants. Make sure some holes are punched in the bottom to let excess water out.

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Glass Bottles

• Only recycle glass bottles and jars, not drinking glasses, ceramics or ovenproof glass. • Remove lids from bottles. • Rinse bottles and jars out. • Don’t put any broken glass in the recycling bin. Wrap in newspaper and put in the garbage. Alternate uses: • Empty bottles and jars can be refilled with preserves or jams. • They can be decorated with glass paint and used as vases or storage containers.

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• Keep dry. • Tie newspapers up with natural twine. Alternate uses: • Unrecycled paper can be used for wrapping food scraps, making compost, lighting fires or mopping up spills.

Steel Cans

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pu r posesonl y• Plastic

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• Take lids off containers. • Rinse out any leftover liquid. • Put separately in recycling bin, not into plastic bags. Alternate uses: • Empty bottles can be used as mini greenhouses. Cut off narrow end and place over seedlings. • They can also be used as bird feeders, with a string tied on to attach the feeder to the tree.

o c . c e her r Milk and Juice Cartons o t s super • Rinse out containers. • Squash down flat to reduce space. Alternate uses: • Can be used to plant seedlings to protect them from weeds. • Great for art and craft projects. • Paint or decorate and use to store pencils or pens on your desk. Page 16

Aluminium Cans

• Rinse and remove tabs. • Squash to reduce size. • Donate tab tops to one of the various charities which collect these. Ready-Ed Publications


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Activity 7

Paper Mache Pencil Jars What you will need: • eggplant or capsicum • acrylic paint - purple, red, green, white • newspaper • Vaseline • PVA glue • craft knife

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

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the vegetable from its mould. Tear newspaper into strips (about 6mm - 1.5cm wide and 5cm long). In a bowl mix 3 parts PVA glue to 1 part water and stir until smooth. Dip the newspaper into the glue and smooth it onto the vegetable. Only cover the first ¾ of the vegetable as the top is not needed. Continue applying the strips of paper, placing each layer in a different direction. Apply 10 layers, and then leave to dry overnight. Use of a hair dryer can speed up the drying process. Carefully pull apart and gently remove the vegetable. The leftover vegetable can be put into compost after being washed. Paint with white paint and leave to dry. Apply two coats of the correct colour paint to the outside. Paint the stalk green. The finished product can be sprayed or painted with varnish as protection.

ß Draw a picture of your finished pencil holder.

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok Method: u 1. Choose a firm vegetable which is a good solid shape. S 2. Smear with Vaseline. This acts as a releasing agent which helps to remove

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Information Page

Into The Land Nature has recycled waste for millions of years, but as populations have grown so too has the amount of waste we discard. The environment is finding it harder to decompose the waste at the same rate it is being dumped.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Garbage truck collects your rubbish.

The Cycle Of Landfills

Rubbish is taken to the landfill.

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The new area is made into a recreation ground.

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The rubbish is squashed so the truck can hold large amounts of rubbish.

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The rubbish is emptied onto a tipping face and compacted with a compactor.

It is then covered by soil and grass is grown on it.

covered in soil.

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can wash away, and the waste can decompose.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons The top is made into p •f orr ev i ew ur posesonl y• a mound so rain The rubbish is

What happens underground? Biodegradable products like vegetables and fruit peel, food and paper rot and are broken down by bacteria. Manufactured materials like iron, steel and plastic do not break down. Iron and steel will eventually rust and break into pieces but things like plastic never break down. Some wastes that are discarded can produce some dangerous chemicals when broken down, which can be washed into water supplies by rain. When the water evaporates it causes the chemical to evaporate, producing acid rain. Acid rain damages buildings, cars and houses.

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Did You Know? Australians throw out around 4-5 kg of waste per person per week. That is the same as a large size bag of potatoes. Imagine lining up 52 bags of potatoes ... The cost to dispose of this waste is around $28 per person per year. Page 18

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Activity 8

The Natural W ater Cycle (1) Water

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Questions What do you think is going to happen?

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Things you will need: • 2 x empty glass jars with lids • sand • dry soil • some small white pebbles or stones • seedlings • 2 x small bottle caps to fit in jars • 1 cm graph paper • water • vinegar solution (one part vinegar to one part water) How to set up the investigation: 1. Fill the jars with pebbles, then add the sand and the soil. Add a few drops of water to each. 2. Plant the seedlings in the soil and lightly water. 3. Mark one bottle cap as “Jar 1” and fill with water. Mark the other as “Jar 2” and fill with the weak vinegar solution. Put the bottle caps in the jars. 4. Put the lids on the jars and place in a sunny position.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Do you think the vinegar solution will affect the plant? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Outcomes What happened to the plant in the jar with the vinegar solution?

What happened to the lid filled with water? Did it refill or just evaporate?

o c . chWhat e What is your conclusion? have you learned fromr this experiment? er o st super

Class Discussion This experiment was about acid rain. What kinds of materials do you think would cause harmful chemicals when broken down? What would be a better way of disposing of these materials? Ready-Ed Publications

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Activity 9

The Natural W ater Cycle (2): Reading TTables ables Water ß Observe the seedlings you planted in the first part of this investigation. At the end of each week record answers to the following questions. Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 1. What colour is the precipitation in Jar 1?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 3. What colour are leaves on the plant in Jar 2?

4. What colour is the water in the bottle cap in Jar 2? 5. What colour are the leaves of the plant in Jar 1?

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2. What colour is the precipitation in Jar 2?

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •1cm f ograph rr e vi e ur pose on y• ß Use the paper tow showp your findings. Sets it out asl below:

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a. Use the heading “Concentration of Colouring” to record the length of time it took to show effects from the vinegar solution. b. Mark out 3 equal spaces on the vertical axis. Label the bottom mark “unchanged”, the middle/second mark label “starting to change”, and label the third mark “changed colour”. c. Along the horizontal axis mark for each week you recorded information. d. Use a different colour to represent each jar.

o c . ß Answer these questions: che e r o t r su 1. How long did it take for the plant inp Jare 2r tos start going brown? 2. What part of the plant was affected first?

3. Which item (water, precipitation, leaves, etc.) didn’t change colour at all?

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Information Page

Into The W ater Water

One way that waste is disposed of is by dumping it into the ocean. Waste dumped this way was once thought of as safe as people considered the volume of seawater to be large enough to dilute waste to an acceptable level. However, as populations grew, nature couldn’t break down the waste at the same rate as it was being dumped. Wastewater from showers, baths and sinks, material from industrial processes, and sewage and ash from incinerators and ships were all pumped into the ocean. Other waste was created by rainwater absorbed through soil, or as runoff from streets, fields and buildings. It is now known that waste material can build up to unsafe levels, making the contaminated water a health hazard. This can also contaminate wildlife and ocean creatures, including fish.

Different marine animals are sensitive to changes in physical conditions. If a change occurs as a result of pollutants in the water, the ocean life is affected. As the concentration of waste is absorbed by the oceans and wildlife, it eventually becomes a part of human systems as well. Its effects on the food chain has caused humans to become aware of the dangers of ocean dumping. Strict regulations now apply to ocean waste. Commonwealth laws were introduced to control dumping at sea and reduce and manage the impact on the marine environment. The Environment Protection (Sea Dumping) Act, 1981, prohibits ocean disposal of waste materials considered harmful to marine life and regulates permitted dumping of waste at sea. New technology is reducing the volumes of waste produced and other alternatives are being used.

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Waste In The Food Chain

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Water waste pipe

Rain

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Methane gas Waste enters the water

Dump waste

Humans eat fish

Fish eats micro organisms

Humans catch fish

Useful Internet Site: www.gould.edu.au/wastewise/kids/intro.htm Ready-Ed Publications

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Activity 10

Plays And Drama ß Write a story pretending you are an ocean creature who has had waste dumped into your home. Use the template below to help in your planning. What creature are you?

r o What has been dumped into your e t s B r e parto of the ocean? p ok u S

What does it smell like?

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What did your home look like before waste was dumped?

How does it make you feel?

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr e vi ew pur posesonl y• What are you going to do now?

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(For the Teacher) Class Extension Get the children to work in groups to decide which story they like the best. Let them act their story out for the rest of the class. Page 22

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Activity 11

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Waterway 1

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Waterw ay Health Check aterway

Waterway 2 Waterway 1

1. How many pipes or drains can you see?

Waterway 2

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

2. How many insects can you see?

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4. What colour do you think the water will be? Colour the water in each picture that colour.

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5. What do you think the water will smell like?

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3. Count how many pieces of litter there are.

o c . e 6. Which waterwayc doh you think is the healthiest? Give both a score out of r e o 10, with 10 being excellent, 0 being veryr r st s upepoor. 7. Which waterway would you prefer to live near?

Class Extension An excursion to a local waterway could be organised, with the same score sheet being used to evaluate environmental impact. Ready-Ed Publications

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Information Page

Into The Air

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S electrostatic precipitation

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Sometimes garbage is burned before it is put into landfills. This is usually done in an incineration plant on land, but sometime ships also incinerate waste and dispose of it in the ocean. Incineration reduces space taken up in landfills but it also produces harmful gases, which are released into the air. As rubbish is burnt it creates pollution which is harmful to the environment. This pollution is made up of harmful gases such as nitrous oxide and sulphur dioxide. When these gases are released into the air, acid rain can occur. The ash from incinerators can also be harmful due to the high concentrations of lead and cadmium and must be carefully handled.

steam

crane

smoke stack

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• scrubber

boiler

truck

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furnace dirty water

ash storage

conveyor

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waste pit

o c . che e r o t Some communities utilise incineration as a means for generating electricity. r s s r u e p Some of these incinerators have giant sponges in their chimney stacks called “scrubbers”. These sponges absorb some of the waste gas as a liquid, which is then disposed of as slurry. Although the emissions into the air are reduced, this toxic liquid is released into ground water or the soil, thus polluting them instead of the air. On the positive side, the burning of rubbish to create energy reduces the amount of fossil fuels used, which would also produce a waste problem. Incineration is actually considered the safest method for disposing of waste, but reduction of waste is a better alternative. Page 24

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Activity 12

Grassy Eggheads Things you will need: • 2 x empty egg shells, washed • paint and paintbrushes • varnish • grass seeds • kitchen paper and soil • empty egg carton

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok What to do: u 1. Place one of the washed egg shells in an empty egg carton and paint a S funny face on it. When it is dry, put a coat of varnish on it to protect your

artwork. 2. Fold some kitchen paper/absorbent paper to make a thick pad. This will be where your seeds grow. Place the paper pad in the bottom of one of the eggshells and sprinkle some cress seeds on it. Add a little water. 3. Put some soil in the other eggshell. Sprinkle some seeds on the soil and water. 4. Put your eggheads in a sunny position, checking each day that the paper/ soil is still damp. After a few days the seeds will start to grow and your egghead will have a head of hair.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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ß Which egghead grew the tallest - the one in the soil or the paper pad?

. teDraw a picture of your favourite egghead here.o c . che e r o t r s super

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Cost of W aste - 1 Waste

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The Greenhouse Effect

Heat from sun

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Environmental Cost Nature has always been very good at looking after itself. Different cycles ensured waste from one part of the environment became raw materials for another. However, as populations increased, the balance maintained in the environment was threatened. Today, we are using resources and producing waste faster than nature can recycle them. As a result we are facing environmental problems. > The greenhouse effect describes the rise in the earth’s temperature. This natural process occurs because certain gases in the atmosphere such as water vapour, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane, trap energy from the sun in the same way in which a greenhouse acts. Without these gases (known as greenhouse gases), heat would escape back into space and the earth’s average temperature would be about 30 degrees cooler. The major environmental concern with the greenhouse effect is that humans have increased the burning of fossil fuels, resulting in a build-up of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This build-up has led to an increase in temperatures (global warming), changing the planet’s climate in the process. The roof is like the atmosphere of the earth.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Hotter inside as hot •f o rr evi e w pur posesonl y• air is trapped.

Acid Rain

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> Acid rain is caused by dangerous chemical emissions which are both leaked into water supplies and evaporated into the air. These emissions are toxic and become concentrated in the rainfall. When rain falls it contains chemicals which eventually disintegrate buildings, cars and plants.

o c . che e r o t r s super rain clouds

evaporation of gas into air

emissions

rain contains toxins

landfill

leak of gases into water way

kills off plants & damages buildings

These are just two of the environmental concerns affecting us as a result of poor waste disposal habits. Page 26

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Cost of W aste - 2 Waste Human Cost You would think that when something was thrown away, that was the end of it. However poor waste management affects human health, not only directly through air emissions and pollution, but also indirectly through the food chain. When waste enters the water supply either through ocean dumping or via seeping gas through underground landfills, it affects all living things.

man dumps waste

fish eat contaminated micro organisms

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waste leaked into ocean

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WASTE ENTERING THE FOOD CHAIN

contamination occurs

man eats fish

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons man catches •f orr evi ew pur poseson l y •fish

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In addition to the food chain, air emissions are also dangerous to the health of humans. SPMs or “suspended particle matter” enters the air through fumes, smoke or dust. Incinerators, industrial processing and vehicles cause these emissions. These particles contain toxic chemicals such as arsenic, benzene, cadmium and lead, which are hazardous when inhaled by humans. Economic Costs Health care and the cleanup of damaged environments are the unforeseen costs of waste. Although the initial set up costs of cleaner technology are high, the money saved in the long run is worth the outlay. When countries run out of room for disposing of waste, some pay other countries to dispose of their waste for them. On top of disposal costs are transport costs and environmental costs if a leakage should occur. Waste prevention is cheaper than finding ways of safely disposing of waste, which is why “Reduce” is the first of the three R’s of recycling.

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Activity 13

Canteen W aste Waste A school canteen is thinking of using reusable plastic cups instead of disposable polystyrene cups. They need to put a report to the school board on why this will be better for the school. Below is the information the canteen has worked out on the costs involved with both types of cups. Graph the information on graph paper.

r o e t s Bo$15.00 $15.00 r $15.00 $15.00 e p $60.00 $60.00 o Polystyrene cups u $60.00 $60.00 $60.00 k Sis not a running total. Add up each week with the ß Each weekly total Week 1

Week 3

Week 4

Week 5

$200.00

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Plastic cups

Week 2

ß Answer these questions. 1. Which type of cup works out to be cheaper in Week 1? 2. 3.

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previous costing to get a running total. Create a graph as shown below: Graph: On the horizontal axis of your graph put the title “Costs by Week”. Mark five equal points and align each with the corresponding week. On the vertical axis mark from $0 to $300. Use a different colour for each type of cup.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Which type of cup works out to be cheaper in Week 5? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• At which point will the cups be at equal cost to each other?

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4. In which week do plastic cups begin to be a cheaper option than polystyrene?

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5. Using the same pattern as above, continue the costing for another five weeks. Add the total cost at the end of the term (Week 1-10). What is the difference in cost between using plastic as opposed to polystyrene? What is the saving?

o c . che e r Total: _____________ Difference: ____________ Saving: ____________ o t r s super Week 6

Week 7

Week 8

Week 9

Week 10

Plastic cups Polystyrene cups Class Discussion What are other ways waste could be minimised in the canteen. Do you think this would be cost efficient and why? Page 28

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Activity 14

Things Which Can Be Recycled ß Use the words below to identify the objects in the rubbish dump. Colour each word a different colour, then colour the object in the picture the same colour.

Can

Battery Light bulb

r o eBPlastic bag Paper Tyres st r

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oo k

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Book

Bottle

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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ß Which of these things can be recycled?

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Activity 15

Seed Jewellery Create your own funky jewellery from something you may normally throw away … seeds!

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What you will need: • Some dried out seeds (sunflower and pumpkin seeds are good); • Fishing line; • Poster paint and paintbrushes; • Clear nail polish or a spray on clear varnish; • A large needle and strong thread; • Old newspaper; • Glue.

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What to do: 1. Arrange the seeds on pieces of newspaper ready for painting. 2. Using the paint and brush, paint the seeds on one side. Allow to dry. 3. Repeat this process, painting the other sides of the seeds. You may like to use a different colour. 4. Varnish the seeds on both sides, again allowing one side to dry before you coat the other side. 5. Cut a 40 cm piece of fishing line and thread it through the needle. 6. Tie a knot at the end of the fishing line. Make the knot about 3 cm from the end of the line. Be careful to make sure the other end of the fishing line doesn’t slip out of the eye of the needle as you go. 7. To thread the needle through the seeds you will need to make a small hole in the centre of each seed using either a drawing pin or thin nail. 8. One by one, thread the needle through the seeds. If you have used more than one colour for your seeds, make sure you follow a pattern when you thread the seeds. 9. When all seeds are on, tie a knot at the end of the fishing line. Be sure to tie it so that the seeds are fairly secure and not too loose. 10. Tie the ends together to make a chain.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . c e hfinished r ß Draw a picture of your necklace. er o t s super

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Recycling Newsprint

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Recycling Newsprint New papers are printed.

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deinked fibres are put through a final screen in which glue and broken fibres are removed.

Papers are fed into a hydrapulper with water and mixed to a porridge like consistency. This is called slurry.

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The recycled pulp is mixed with virgin pulp to be remanufactured into newsprint.

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Old newspapers are put out for kerbside collection.

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Newsprint is one of the most recycled products in Australia. In fact the rate for recycling has increased from 28% to 68% in the last 11 years. So what actually happens to newspaper once the recycling mill receives it?

The mixture is aerated. The waste particles form surface foam, which is then removed.

The slurry is screened and cleaned twice to remove staples, Slurry is glass, stones, poured into a etc. floatation cell and soap is added to remove ink.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Did You Know? Over 440,000 tonnes of newspapers were recycled last year in Australia. It saves around 83% of electricity to make paper from recycled material than from virgin pulp. Recycled newsprint can be made into kitty litter, house insulation, egg cartons, cardboard packaging, sound proofing material, toilet tissue and compost and mulch. The types of paper which can be recycled are computer, photocopy, writing, plain, plain paper fax, manila folders, envelopes, Ready-Ed Publications

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No part of this process creates unused waste. The Albury Newspaper Recycling Mill, for example, applies all of its treated wastewater to trees which are grown to be cut down to make paper. The process of using wastewater in this way almost eliminates it being dumped into rivers. 15% of the residue is mixed with other waste residue and made into soil conditioner. newspaper, cardboard, magazines, phonebooks and note paper. Paper which has come into contact with food should not be put out for recycling. Neither should waxed paper, carbon paper, gummed labels, thermal fax paper or paper for sanitary or hygiene purposes, like tissues. For more information go to the Publishers National Environmental Bureau web page at www.pneb.com.au. A nine-minute video on recycling newspaper is available to borrow. Page 31


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Activity 16

Paper Pulp Cards

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What is needed • Paper mache pulp • Newspaper • Stiff card (an old cereal box will be great) • Acrylic paints • Chocolate mould (can be any shape) • Scraps of thin cord or wide string • PVA glue • Washing detergent • Scissors, pencil • Brushes

Days 1/2 Making the paper mache pulp 1. Tear paper into pieces around 2.5cm square and soak overnight in a bowl of water. 2. Day 2: Add enough water to mash the paper, until it reaches a porridgelike consistency. 3. Strain the mixture to remove excess water by squeezing the pulp with the hands. 4. Mix in PVA glue using 15g (tablespoon) of glue per 250g (1 cup) of pulp. 5. Rub the inside of the moulds with washing up liquid to stop the mixture sticking. 6. Press the paper pulp into each mould, smooth the edges and leave to dry for a couple of days.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Day 3 Making the card 1. Tap out the paper mache shapes. 2. Apply two coats of paint and allow to dry. 3. Using the cardboard, cut out a square of card larger than the mould shape and paint it in a colour of choice. 4. Glue a length of cord or string in a circle or square shape, larger than the mould shape. 5. Stick the painted mould shape to the card using PVA glue. 6. Write a message on the inside, or type one on the computer and cut out and paste to the inside of the card. Page 32

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Paper and Cardboard Recycling Did you know that 1.63 million tonnes of paper and cardboard gets recycled each year? Private households contribute around 20% of this figure through kerbside collections. The rest comes from supermarkets, shops, factories, printers, carton manufacturers and government offices. This is what the paper and cardboard recycling process looks like:

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The Paper Making Process

Repulping involves mixing the paper to be recycled with water so it breaks down into individual fibres.

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Residuals, including solids and dissolved materials are disposed of in landfill.

Sorting into papers of different types.

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r o e t s Bo r e ok * Sup Collection from households factories, printers and offices.

The pulp is cleaned to remove contaminating materials such as plastics, staples, paperclips and latex.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• The paper is deinked using caustic soda, soap and detergents as well as calcium chloride, frothing agents and bleaching agents.

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The paper is refined using a chemical treatment. This makes the paper stronger.

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Paper is made into first, second or third grade paper.

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Not all paper can be recycled. For example, paper in books, files from government offices and corporations, and paper used in plasterboard for house construction are all types of paper that cannot be recycled. Paper which has come into contact with food, as well as tissues also cannot be recycled. When paper is recycled it is made into varying grades of paper, the lowest of which is newsprint. Newspapers are used to make recycled newsprint when mixed with other virgin material. Packaging paper is the next grade. Printing and writing paper can only use other printing and writing paper to make new high-grade paper. In Australia, we produce cardboard, packaging, newsprint, plasterboard, a range of industrial papers, tissues and a number of printing and writing papers. Other than being recycled into a new product, paper can also be recycled and used as fuel, insulation for houses, building materials such as doors, furniture and walls, potting mix for gardens and insulation for cars and shoes. Ready-Ed Publications

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Activity 17

Recycling KKeeywords ß Complete the sentences below by inserting words from the lists.

resources

water

energy

r o e t soil conditioner s Bo mulch r e p kitty litter ok paper newspapers u S waterways home

trees

compost

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increased

Last year Australia recycled over 1 billion ________________. Up to 40% of this recycled content goes into making new newsprint.

Recycling paper saves ______________ and __________________. In fact it

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons residue from some ______________ isr mixed and •f or r evi ewmills pu powith sewood sowaste nl y •made takes six times less energy to make paper from recycled materials. The ink

into ___________________________.

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Treated________________ is applied to ____________________ that are grown to make paper. This virtually eliminates wastewater going into the __________________.

. te o 28% to 68%. Other uses for old newspapers include __________________, c . c e r house insulation and eggh cartons. Old newspapers can also be used around er o t s s uper the ________________. It can be used to light fires, mop up spills, wrap food From 1992 to 2003 the recycling rate for newsprint ________________ from

scraps and make ________________ and ________________. Extension Use a thesaurus to select an alternative word for each keyword above. Does it still have the same meaning? Is it easy to follow and understand? Page 34

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Activity 18

Litter Hunt What you will need • Rubber gloves • Litter count chart

• Bin/bag for collecting rubbish • Plastic sheet to sort litter.

Here’s what to do

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Day 1

Paper

Cardboard

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Total

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Cartons Glass

Day 2

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(Note: This litter hunt will take 5 days. Start on Monday and spend 10 minutes each day collecting rubbish. Repeat for the rest of the week.) In pairs, walk around the school grounds and pick up any litter that you find. Your teacher will tell you what part of the school to go to. Make sure you are wearing gloves at all times and do not pick up anything that looks suspicious. If you are unsure ask your teacher. When you have finished, lay out the plastic sheet and place your litter onto it. Group items according to the type of material. Count items and record your results below.

Plastic

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ß Use a bar graph on a sheet of graph paper to show your results. Answer the questions below. Which item was found the most?

o c . c e r Which item was found h thee least? o t r s super Where, in the school grounds, was most of the rubbish found? ____________ What do you think would stop people from littering? _____________________ Design a poster to put in trouble areas to encourage people to put their rubbish in the bins provided. Perhaps your school has recycling bins as well as rubbish bins, so your poster could include items which can go in the recycling bin.

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Green W aste Waste Green waste is made up of garden waste, food scraps and wood waste. All green waste can be composted, yet around 54% of all rubbish sent to landfills consists of green waste. Households can recycle their organic waste, such as food scraps and garden clippings, at home by using a composting heap or worm farm. In fact anything which was once alive can be put into a worm farm. Things like meat and vegetable scraps, material, string, paper, garden clippings, leaves and fruit scraps can all be composted.

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The benefit of recycling organic waste is that it can be used to improve infertile soils. Compost added to soil can greatly improve soil affected by erosion, salinity and over farming.

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Brown organic waste can be turned into mulch for the garden. Mulching the garden reduces water evaporation and saves about 75% of required watering. It also stops weeds invading the garden. For a country facing lower water levels each year and with a focus on water consumption reduction, mulching seems like an effective way to help prevent both water usage and waste.

Governments are currently investigating the idea of implementing efficient green waste recycling programmes. Several councils and government bodies are focusing on reducing green waste in landfills by up to 50%. Trials are being conducted in many areas of Australia to determine the economic effects of this type of recycling.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons How can • youf help ate home? o rr vi ew pur posesonl y•

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1. Only dish up as much as you can eat. If you are still hungry when finished you can go back for seconds. 2. If you have a dog or chickens, feed food scraps to them rather than putting them into the bin. 3. Make a compost garden or worm farm for your backyard. Worm farms can be kept on patios if you live in an apartment block. 4. Put lawn clippings on the garden for mulching. 5. If you have a mulching machine, shred sticks and leaves and put on the garden for mulch. 6. If you don’t have a compost bin or worm farm, food and vegetable scraps can be dug into the garden and will decompose. 7. Produce more food at home, as takeaway and convenience food uses a lot of packaging. 8. Grow your own vegetables and flowers. 9. Reduce the amount of disposable materials you use. Try using handkerchiefs, cloth nappies and towelling face washers instead of tissues, disposable nappies and paper napkins. 10. Use the stalks and skins of vegetables and fruit to boil and make paper.

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Activity 19

Family Recycling

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ß Draw each member of your family in the house outline below.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Count how many members there are. Individuals produce around 4kg of •f orUsing r ev i e w pu r p os eswould onl yfamily • waste each week. this amount, how much waste your produce each week?

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_______________ x _______________ = _______________ 4 kg

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Using your answer from above how much waste would your household produce in a year?

. tof rubbish does your house produce? o ß What kind e c . How could your c family reduce the waste it creates? Complete the table. e her r o st sup Waste items produced How each be reduced? r ecould _______________ x _______________ = _______________ 365

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PET Plastic

Fibres are made into yarn, then woven into a fabric length; or made into fibrefill for furnishing products.

Plastic bottles collected from kerbside bins.

Bottles are sorted into clear and coloured.

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A whole range of plastic items can now be recycled. Plastics are usually sorted into two types of recyclable material: 1. PET plastic from soft drink bottles and food containers. 2. HDPE plastic mainly from milk bottles and plastic orange juice containers. PET plastic bottles are usually recycled into new PET soft drink containers. They are also used to make sleeping bag stuffing and warm clothing. Currently Australia recycles around 18 000 tonnes of PET plastic into new soft drink containers and exports 6000 tonnes overseas to be made into other products.

Bottles are baled by recycling centres or exported overseas.

PET Plastic © ReadyEd Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Bottles are debaled and sorted, then granulated (cut into small pieces) before cleaning.

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Granulated plastic is washed and rinsed, then dried and put into pellets.

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At other plants the recycled PET resin is melted and made into fine fibres by putting it through a device like a showerhead. At some plants the recycled resin is mixed with virgin resin to produce new PET bottles.

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Recycling Tips • Don’t forget to take the lids off plastic bottles before putting them into your recycling bin. • Don’t put plastics into plastic bags as it contaminates them. • Wash out containers to remove any leftover drink or foodstuffs. Page 38

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Activity 20

Changing Shapes ß Collect the following items below and record on the table how they can change shapes. Answer the questions beneath the table. Can it How does it change? change i.e. squashing, melting shape? Y/N Plastic bottle

Teac he r

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Piece of paper Milk carton Steel can

Dried leaves

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Aluminium can

What is the Does it still difference in weigh the size? same?

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ß Use your observations to answer these questions:

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Water

1. Does ice weigh more than water? Assume that you have the same amount of water needed to make one ice cube.

. te o c 2. Aluminium and steel cans and plastic can all be melted . to create new c e he r products. Do you think these items weigh more when they are in solid or o t r s super liquid form?

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________

3. Paper and milk cartons are shredded and soaked in water during the recycling process. Do you think they are heavier when they are wet or dry? ______________________________________ Ready-Ed Publications

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Activity 21

Bird Feeders ß Find out what kinds of birds live in your local area and what foods they like to eat. It will help to know what time of the year they live in your area and when they leave for warmer weather.

> Plastic Bird Feeder

Teac he r

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

What you will need: • 2 x plastic bottles • string • stick • birdseed • water

What to do: 1. Cut the top 1/3 off the plastic bottles. 2. Carefully pierce two holes on each side of the bottles for the stick and two holes closer to the top for the string. 3. Insert the stick for a perch for the bird. 4. Thread the string through the other two holes, tying a knot at each end to hold it in place. 5. Fill one bottle with seed. 6. Half fill the other bottle with water, keeping the level below the perch.

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What you will need: • 1 x small steel can, with lid or top removed. • birdseed • bowl • egg • honey • water • string (suitable for use in cooking) • spoon • long piece of wire

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Draw your creation.

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> Hanging Bird Feeder

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What to do:

1. Mix the birdseed, egg, honey and water together to make a crumbly mixture. 2. Tie the string to the wire and place the pencil across the top of the can so that the string falls into the middle of the empty can. 3. Empty the birdseed mixture into the can and press down firmly. 4. Cook in the oven at 200o for 20 minutes, then turn off oven and leave to cool. Hang in a tree for the birds to feast on. Page 40

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HDPE Plastic

r o e t s Bo r e ok (p u S Recycling HDPE

HDPE are baled by processing plants and chopped into flakes.

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Clean flakes are pelletised and packed into reusable bags and delivered to manufacturers.

Used HDPE plastic collected by kerbside collection trucks.

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HDPE stands for High Density Poly Ethylene. This type of plastic is used for milk containers, some juice bottles and detergent containers. HDPE plastic is opaque, not clear like PET. It is also less flexible. All materials used to make plastic milk containers are fully recyclable.

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Water is reused to wash other batches.

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Flakes are washed to remove contaminants.

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Granulated plastic is washed and rinsed, then dried and put into pellets.

o c . c e her r Recycled HDPE is turned into mobile garbage bins, gardening products, pipes, o t s s r u e p crates, pallets, detergent and oil bottles, protective strips on underground cable and sheets of protective packaging used in transporting automotive parts. Some of our HDPE is exported to China, which recycles it into supermarket and garbage bags. It is also used for mugs, plates, colanders and soap holders.

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Activity 22

Ho w Does Rubbish Degrade? How What you will need: • 6 glass jars and lids • water • jar contents 1. Vegetable/fruit peel 2. Paper/cardboard 3. Plastic bag cut into small pieces 4. Milk/juice carton cut into small pieces 5. Pencil shavings 6. Aluminium can ring pulls

1

2

3

Put a different item in each jar and label. Leave the jars for two weeks.

In the boxes below record what the matter looked like over the two week period. Week 1

4

5

6

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Half fill the glass jars with water.

Week 2

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Vegetable/ fruit peel

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Plastic

Cartons

Pencil shavings

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Paper/ cardboard

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Aluminium Which item decomposed the most? Which item/s didn’t change much at all? Page 42

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Activity 23

Litterless Lunch

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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ß In the first lunchbox draw what you normally bring to school for lunch. How many pieces of rubbish do you make?

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ß In this lunchbox draw a “litterless lunch”. Discuss what you could do with each bit of waste (e.g. fruit skins, drink container) to reduce, reuse or recycle.

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Recycling Glass

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Bottles are palletised and wrapped, ready for despatch.

Used glass bottles are collected from house kerbside.

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Approximately 1.4 billion glass bottles were recycled in Australia last year. These bottles were turned back into new glass bottles as well as being used for road fill and for sandblasting buildings. Recycling glass saves energy, reduces the use of natural resources, reduces emissions, extends furnace life and is a positive action for the environment. Glass is one material where the first two Rs, “Reduce” and “Reuse” have been used as alternatives to recycling. Over the years, glass has been “light weighted”, which means the product still performs its purpose but doesn’t need as much material to make. Light weighting reduces the amount of materials used in manufacture as well as the amount of energy required for transportation. In South Australia some glass bottles can be reused. These bottles are made heavier to withstand washing and return trips.

Bottles are sorted into clear, green and brown bottles.

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Contaminants are removed and glass is crushed. This is called cullet.

New bottles are cooled.

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The batch is heated and shaped using compressed air.

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Tips for recycling glass • Remove caps and lids. • Rinse out. • Don’t put broken glass to be recycled. • Don’t put light bulbs, laboratory or medical glass, window glass, mirrors, vases or ceramics into recycling bins. Page 44

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Activity 24

Which Bin?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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ß Below are two bins. Colour one lid blue – this will be the recycling bin. Colour the other lid green – this will be the garbage bin.

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ß Cut each picture out and paste it on the correct rubbish bin. Draw other items in the bins if you have room.

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Activity 25

Musical TTrash rash ß Choose one of the items below and make your own classroom trash band.

> Drums

What you will need: • large steel can (like a baby formula or large Milo tin) • big rubber band • string • plastic bag • paint • glue • pencils

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

> Tapping Stick

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What to do: 1. Cut the plastic bag into a circle larger than the diameter of the steel can. You might like to use two bags for extra strength. 2. Use the rubber band to fix the plastic circle across the open end of the can. 3. Decorate with paint and finish off with string, creating a zigzag pattern around the edge of your drum. Use the pencils as your drumsticks.

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What you will need: • metal bottle caps • long stick • nails and hammer • paint What to do: 1. Paint your stick, using as many different colours as you like. 2. Carefully nail the metal bottle caps loosely to the stick. 3. Tap the stick gently on the ground to create the music.

. t o What you will e need: c . • 2 x empty plastic bottles c e r • 2 x old magazines h e o t r s super • tape > Maracas

• paint (either acrylic paint or poster paint mixed with PVA glue) • rice or dried beans

What to do: 1. Decorate your plastic bottles with paint or the PVA mixture. 2. Fill with rice or dried beans. 3. Roll up the old magazines tightly to resemble sticks and attach to the bottles with tape. Page 46

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Information Page

Liquid Paperboard Cartons

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Manufactured into new products, e.g. office paper.

Used and rinsed cartons collected from kerbside bins.

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Teac he r

Liquid paperboard cartons have been used for a number of years. These cartons are used to package foods like cream, custard, gravy, soup, milk and detergents. To make the cartons suitable for holding liquids they are covered in a thin layer of LDPE (low density polyethylene). There are two types of cartons: Gable top: These are typically goods which need to be refrigerated. The cardboard for the cartons is made up of three layers – a layer of thin plastic, a layer of cardboard, and another layer of thin plastic. Aseptic bricks: These are typically long life products, like long life milk. These are made of five layers – three layers of plastic, one of foil and one of cardboard. These products do not need to be refrigerated before opening.

Taken to a recycling centre where they are sorted.

© ReadyEdPLiquid ubl i cat i ons Recycling (•f Paperboard Cartons orr evi e w pur posesonl y•

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Hydropulper turns cartons into paper pulp.

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Paper pulp fed into a giant paper making machine.

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Bundled up and taken to recycling paper mill. (E.g. Amcor)

Old milk and juice cartons can be made into office paper. In fact, a one-litre milk carton can make five sheets of photocopy paper. Other cartons are mixed with green waste to make fuel briquettes. Vineyards and Planet Ark use the cartons for planting seedlings. This protects seedlings from weather and pests. Tips for recycling • Wash out cartons before putting in your recycling bins. • For those areas where kerbside collections do not take cartons, special location bins have usually been set up. Check with your council. Ready-Ed Publications

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Activity 26

Home Surve Surveyy ß Which room in your house do you think creates the most rubbish? Use the sheet below to record the amount of waste created in each room. Use bin size as your unit of measure for “Total Amount”, e.g. half a bin, full bin. Kitchen

Bathroom

Office

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Type of rubbish, S

Bedroom

which goes to landfill.

Total amount of rubbish for room.

Which room makes the most rubbish?

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Type of rubbish, which could be recycled.

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How many people use each room? Kitchen: ______________________

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •makes f orthe r e vi e w pur posesonl y• Which room least rubbish?

Bathroom: ______________________

Bedroom: _______________________ . te reuse or recycle in each of these rooms? o How could you reduce, c . che e Kitchen: r o t r s super Office: ________________________

Bathroom:

Bedroom:

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Aluminium Cans Did you know that producing 20 cans from recycled materials uses the same energy as making 1 new can from raw materials? Aluminium cans are one of the most recycled products thrown away, although they are one of the few recyclable products which consumers can actually be paid to recycle. It is estimated that if all the cans thrown away every year were recycled, by taking them to a “Cash for Cans” depot, people would be able to collect over $15 million.

.

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Recycling Aluminium

Cans are fed into a storage hopper.

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Cans are weighed and put over a magnetic separator to remove any steel.

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Recycled aluminium is turned into other recycled aluminium products.

Cans are collected at either the kerbside or at a “Cash for Cans” depot.

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are• bailed •f orr evi ew pur posesoCans nl y

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The bails are left for 10 - 15 days to remove moisture.

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Bails are fed into a rotary furnace. They are melted and poured into 10 tonne blocks.

into 15 kg blocks and loaded onto pallets.

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turned into aluminium sheet coils at a rolling mill.

o c . A single can is able c to be recycled about six times before it evaporates in the e h r melting process. This makes it one of the most valuable drink containers on the e o t r s s r market. Recycling one aluminium u canp saves enough energy to keep a light bulb e alight for up to twelve hours. Tips for recycling • All aluminium can be recycled, including foil and foil products. • Rinse cans and foil. • Crush to reduce volume. • Put into your recycling bin or take into “Cash for Cans” depots. Useful Internet Site: www.planetark.org Ready-Ed Publications

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Activity 27

Adding Letters ß Use the key below to calculate the “value” of the recycling words in the list. Vowels (a, e, i, o, u) = 10 each Consonants (all other letters) = 15 each

2. Repair:

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r o e t s Bo r Example e Recycle: 15 + p 10 + 15 + 15 + 15 + 15 + 10 o = 95 points u k S 1. Reuse: _______________________________________ = ___________ _______________________________________ = ___________

3. Compost: _______________________________________ = ___________ 4. Return:

_______________________________________ = ___________

5. Reduce:

_______________________________________ = ___________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f o rr evi ew pur poseson y• Sorting: _______________________________________ =l ___________

6. Collection: _______________________________________ = ___________ 7.

8. Environment: ______________________________________ = ___________

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ß Now make up three of your own. 1.

2.

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3.

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Activity 28

Changing Forms

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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ß Use the pictures on the left and match them to a product on the right. The items on the left are products made with raw materials. The products on the right are items which are made from recyclable materials. For example, “paper” can be matched to “newspaper” because recycled paper can be reused to produce newspaper.

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ß Select four different items which can be recycled. Suggest products they could be recycled into. 1. 2.

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3. 4.

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ß Draw a picture of something you could make by using recyclable products.

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Information Page

Steel Cans Steel is one of the most recyclable materials in both the home and industry. It can be used an unlimited amount of times and can be turned into any new steel product. Over 640 million steel cans are recycled every year in Australia, although almost 2 /3 of all steel cans used are still going to landfill. Steel cans might be used for packaging pet food, coffee, aerosols and paint. Bottle tops and jam jar lids are also steel and can be recycled with other steel products.

Teac he r

MRF’s separate cans from other recyclables using a powerful magnet.

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Taken to be sorted at a Materials Recovery Facility.

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New products for consumers to buy are manufactured.

Cans are collected from kerbside collection service.

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r o e t s B r e oo ( up k S Steel Recycling Process

Cans are baled and compressed and transported to nearest steelworks.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr e vi ew pur posesonl y• Steel is added

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Cans can be recycled into all sorts of new things – refrigerators, bridges, railway tracks, car doors and even new cars. Recycling steel saves not only valuable resources like ore but also saves energy. In fact making new cans from recycled cans saves about 75% of the energy needed to produce the same can from raw materials. This saving in energy also helps to cut down greenhouse gas emissions. Recycling tips 1. Rinse the empty cans in old washing up water.

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Tin coating is removed.

to furnace to be remelted.

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Steel is remelted into new steel products.

2. Squash the can to reduce space – the more a truck can fit into it, the better the cost of transport, i.e. transporting more for less. 3. Aerosol cans should not be squashed, just remove the lid. 4. Paint cans should have excess paint wiped out with newspaper and then left with the lid off for a few days to dry out the can. Do not recycle gas cylinders, fire extinguishers or shock absorbers as these are dangerous for people involved in the recycling process.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Useful Internet Site: www.steelcans.com.au Page 52

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Activity 29

Metal Mania ß Use the table below to classify each item according to whether or not it contains metal. Use a magnet to find out – if it sticks to the item, the item contains steel, if it doesn’t stick the item is not made from steel. Made with steel

Not made with steel

r o e t s B r e oo Paperclip p u k Lead pencilS

1. Soft drink can 2.

4. Food can

5. Steel wool dishcloth 6. Jam jar lid

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7. Zipper 8.

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3.

10. Foil tray

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Are all metal things made from steel?

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9. Metal spoon

ß Draw some other things you think are made of steel. Use items in your classroom.

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ß Now use the magnet to test the items. Were you right? Ready-Ed Publications

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Activity 30

What you will need: • washed steel can • hammer • paint

• water • nail • varnish

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

What to do: 1. Fill the empty can with water and put it in the freezer overnight. Work out a pattern you would like to punch out on the front. Keep it simple, a star, flower, sun, moon, etc.

Pencil Holder

Day 2 1. Tape your design into the middle of the can and, using a hammer and nail, follow the pattern to punch out holes in the can. The ice will stop the can from denting. 2. When you have finished leave the can in a sunny location to melt the ice. Tip the water into your school garden and leave the can to dry.

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Day 3 1. Paint the outside of the can with a white undercoat and then decorate as you like. 2. Apply a couple of coats of varnish to protect your fantastic pencil holder.

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Alternatives 1. Use some scrap paper to cover the can instead of paint. This can still be varnished for protection. 2. Use a can with a lid and punch holes in the top to insert your pencils. Extension Through innovation we can create opportunities for others and ourselves. Using the knowledge you have gained through this book, form yourselves into groups of four or five and suggest a way your school could profit from recycling. Here are some examples: selling products which have been remade into new products at a fete, an art show where admission is charged, etc. Calculate the cost of running such a function and the possible outcomes. Page 54

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Environmental Groups - 1 Planet Ark

Greenpeace This is an individual organization which began in Canada in 1971 and was formed in Australia in 1977. It relies on donations from individuals and does not accept funding from governments, corporations or political parties. It was founded by Paul Cole, Jim Bohlen, Irving Stowe, Patrick Moore and Bill Daniel. Its campaigns include:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Save The Oceans

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Teac he r

Planet Ark is an Australian not-for-profit organisation which was set up in 1991 by Pat Cash and Jon Dee. It is funded by sponsorship, sale of environmentally responsible products and government grants. It aims at educating through example ways that people can positively impact the environment on a daily basis. Some of the projects undertaken include: National Tree Day This is one day per year where thousands of ordinary people work together to plant native trees and shrubs all over Australia. Cards 4 Planet Ark Greeting cards and envelopes can be recycled through Coles and Australia Post. You can help the scheme by recycling cards and then buying the SAFE toilet tissue, which is produced as a result of the recycling. National Recycling Week This is one week per year where recycling is promoted widely. If you haven’t tried recycling before, this is a great time to start to help the environment. Website: www.planetark.com.au

This involves trying to stop overfishing, pirate fishing and commercial whaling. Eliminate Toxins

We can aid the environment in its repair by abolishing toxins and eliminating the dumping of waste in developing nations and their oceans.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Prevent Climate Change •f orr evi ew pur po seso nl • the This campaign aims toy promote Website: www.greenpeace.org.au

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replacement of fossil fuels with renewable energy resources like water and solar energy.

o c . che e r o t r s super Gould League

Gould League is a leading environmental organization which promotes and educates children, schools and the public and has been doing so for over 90 years. Through activities and resources, it hopes to educate the public on the impact of community actions on the environment. It relies on donations, government grants and the sale of educational products. Programmes it has established include: Waste Minimisation Waste wise school programmes aim to educate schools on minimising waste going to landfill. Sustainable School Programme Aims at providing schools with solutions which save them money and improves school grounds; encourages the school to become a model for other schools in sustainability. Website: www.gouldleague.org.au Ready-Ed Publications

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Activity 31

Environmental Groups - 2 ß Research an environmental organisation of your choice. Find out the answers to the questions below. 1. What is their name? 2. Who founded the organisation?

r o e t s Bo r e p o u k What do they stand for? S

3. How are they funded?

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4.

5. What programmes do they promote?

6. Draw their logo. You may like to print it out after viewing their web site. Paste it here.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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8. Do they have a motto? If so, what is it?

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9. Do they have a web site? What is the address?

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7. How does the community benefit from this organisation?

o c . e 10. Are there any fun c activities to play on their site? Give it a score out of ten. her r o st super ß Now create your own organisation. Follow the same procedure as before, answering the questions above. > Design a poster promoting your organisation; > Give a presentation to the class about recycling and what your organisation hopes to achieve; > Create badges which promote your organisation; > Create a certain colour ribbon for members to wear; > Make up a jingle to sing. Page 56

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Activity 32

Recycling Projects Mini Worm Farms

What you will need: • • •

an empty plastic soft drink bottle sticky tape straw

What to do:

• • •

some black garbage bags soil some earthworms

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

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1. Cut the top off your bottle and tape a piece of black plastic garbage bag so it covers the outside. Alternatively you could paint the outside black. (Worms like the dark as opposed to sunlight.) 2. Put a little soil in the bottom and then add your worms. 3. Add the straw which helps insulate moisture and keeps sunlight out. 4. Add a little water to keep worms moist, but not too much as you could drown them.

Vegetable Paper

Ingredients and Equipment

large bowl of vegetable peel large 20 L saucepan strainer 8-10 cups paper pulp baby bath or large plastic container blender mould and deckle absorbent towel large wood board flower press (optional)

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• • • • • • • • • •

Making paper pulp

Soak strips of paper in warm water. Use coloured napkins to add colour. Add a cup of water and a ¼ cup of the soaking paper to a blender. Blend until the mixture has a smooth porridge-like consistency. After each blend, pour pulp into a bucket to be used later. Continue until all soaked paper has been blended.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Your Say We used ____________________ type of paper to make our paper pulp. Our paper pulp is ____________________ colour. We used ____________________ to turn it into this colour. Ready-Ed Publications

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Activity 32

Vegetable Paper (cont.) Making vegetable pulp

r o Making the paper e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Mix four cups of paper pulp and four cups of vegetable pulp in a tub of water (filled to about 2/3). Mix well. Using a mould and deckle lower into the pulp. Tilt the mould horizontally facing away from you. Tilt the mould under the water until it is horizontal. Keeping it flat, bring it to the surface of the water. Before all the water drains, give it a gentle shake back and forth and side to side. Let the water drain for around thirty seconds and then remove the top frame. Each time a sheet is processed add 2 more cups each of pulp and vegetable pulp.

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Cut banana peel into 5cm pieces. Soak in warm water for one hour, or while making paper pulp. Put the banana peel into a 20L saucepan and fill with water. Boil for 1-2 hours, until the fibre is mushy. Allow the mixture to cool. When cooled empty into a strainer, and rinse until the water runs clear. Put pulp into a blender and fill with 2/3 water. Blend for around 30 seconds to split the fibres. Pour the pulp into a bucket and repeat until all peel is blended.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Place several layers of newspaper on your working surface and lay a folded towel on •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• the top of it. Place a piece of damp absorbent cloth on the towel. Turn the piece of Drying the paper

. te Pressing the paper

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damp paper out by standing the mould on its right hand edge and gently lowering it from left to right so that the paper is face down on the absorbent cloth. Starting at the left hand edge, lift the mould from the paper in one smooth movement. The square of paper remains on the cloth. Place another piece of damp absorbent cloth on the top of the paper, smoothing out any wrinkles with your fingers. Alternate paper and damp absorbent cloth until you have made as many sheets as you want. Make sure the paper squares are centred one above the other.

o c . Place all layers of paperc and absorbent cloth in the press and tighten the screws. e r Then leave the press on itsh side to drain for half an hour.o Unscrew the flower press e t r s s and separate the layers. Place each sheet of paper on its absorbent cloth on a up er

newspaper until dry. If a flower press is not available simply roll gently with a rolling pin increasing force each time until most of the moisture has been squeezed out.

Your Say Our paper looks _________________________. I am going to use my recycled paper for / to ___________________________________________________ . Page 58

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Answers Activity 2 Because of the varying answers to this question the answer is left to the teachers discretion. Activity 3 1. Milk cartons are recyclable and breakdown in the soil. They protect the seedling from weather and weeds. It is a way we can reduce our waste by reusing a product. 2. It will breakdown in the soil due to natural processes while protecting the seedling as it grows. 3. The plastic bottle protects the seedling from extreme weather and pests. This means we can grow the plants with limited use of chemicals. 4. This project can come under any of the three R’s: Reduce - we are reducing our waste going to landfill; Reuse - we are reusing a waste container; Recycle - we are finding another use for a waste product.

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Activity 5 Newspaper - kitty litter, mulch, new paper, toilet tissue. Vegetable scraps - pet food, compost, worm food, paper. Tin can - pencil holder, storage tin, craft . These answers are a guide only, the students can be as creative as they can. Activity 8 Outcomes 1. If done correctly the vinegar should make the leaves turn brown. 2. The lid filled with water should refill through condensation.

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Activity 4 1. Food waste 2. 3 3. 3 4. Paper

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Activity 14 Recyclable - can, book, bottle, paper, tyre Reused - Battery (if they are rechargeable), plastic bag

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Activity 13 1. Polystyrene cups 2. Plastic cups 3. Between Weeks 3 and 4 4. Week 5 5. Pattern should continue with $15.00 increments for plastic cups and $60.00 increments for polystyrene cups. The total cost for each: Plastic - $335 Polystyrene - $600 The total saving for using plastic would be $265.

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Activity 17 Newspapers, energy , resources, paper, soil conditioner, water, trees, waterways, increased, kitty litter, home, compost, mulch. Activity 20 Plastic bottle Al. cans Paper Milk carton Steel can Dried leaves Water

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Squash Squash Tear, Screw up, Soak Squash Squash Crumble, Soak Freeze, boil

Smaller Smaller Smaller Smaller Smaller Smaller Smaller & Larger

Yes Yes Yes & No - for soaking it would be heavier Yes Yes Yes & No - for soaking No - Lighter for gas & heavier for ice

1. Frozen water is heavier. 2. They weigh the same. 3. They are heavier when wet. Ready-Ed Publications

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Activity 24 Blue bin - paper, milk carton, glass bottle, aluminium can. Green bin - light bulb, battery, leaves (can be recycled in compost), pizza box. Activity 27 Reuse - 60, Repair - 75, Compost - 95, Return - 80, Reduce - 75, Collection - 130, Sorting - 95, Environment - 145, Resources - 115, Alternative - 140. Activity 28 Paper - tissues Plastic bottle - sleeping bag Milk carton - paper Newspaper - egg carton Juice container - garbage bin

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Activity 29 Not all metal things are made of steel; some are made from aluminium. Not made with steel: soft drink can; lead pencil; foil tray.

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Made with steel: paper clip; food can; steel wool dish cloth; jam jar lid; zipper; hair clip; metal spoon.

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Reduce Reuse Recycle