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Book 1 . t e

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Revised and Updated

Written and revised by Jane Bourke. © Ready-Ed Publications 2006. Originally published by Ready-Ed Publications (2000) P.O. Box 276 Greenwood Perth W.A. 6024 Email: info@readyed.com.au Website: www.readyed.com.au

COPYRIGHT NOTICE Permission is granted for the purchaser to photocopy sufficient copies for non-commercial educational purposes. However, this permission is not transferable and applies only to the purchasing individual or institution.

ISBN 1 87526 846 4


Using this Book This book is intended to provide starting points for student research into the areas of natural disasters. It explores recent natural disasters concerned with geological changes as well as examining some of the most devastating disasters in history.

Glossary

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Use the glossary on page 38 to write definitions for related words and terms. Students can be given this sheet prior to starting their research so that they can complete it as they go along. These words can later be used to make word search puzzles to swap with friends, acrostic poems or to enhance creative writing on this theme.

The Internet is undoubtedly one of the most useful current sources for obtaining up-to-the-minute information. Information usually appears on the Internet before newspapers and television and can be updated very quickly. It also helps to develop students’ research skills as they retrieve information on disasters in history. At the time of publishing, the website addresses were accessible. Students can easily reach the nominated sites via the Ready-Ed website by visiting the address below. Any future changes will also be posted on our website as they occur at:

www.readyed.com.au/urls/disasters © Read yEdPubl i cat i ons Research for Students •f orr evi ewTips pu r p osesonl y• Getting Started

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Taking Notes

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Make sure you understand exactly what it is you need to do. Ask questions of your teacher or . parent if necessary. Write down any questions or areas of information that you think you need to research. Make yourself a timetable – it may avoid a last minute rush! Keep a record of the references that you use. E.g. (Title) “Great Earthquakes in History” Pages 24-49, (Author) I.M. Shaiken Shaiken. Read (or view or listen to ) the relevant parts of your references. On second reading write down some key words and phrases. Then close the book and write out your notes in your own words. Refer to key words for ideas and correct spelling. Organise your notes into sections or under headings. Include a contents page and reference list. Write definitions on the Disaster Glossary page (see page 38) as you find the meanings in your research. Review – check that you have covered all that was required.

o c . che e r o t r s super Presentation

Usually your teacher will suggest the presentation format, i.e. a chart, booklet, oral presentation etc., but often you may need to decide this yourself. Remember that the appearance of your work is important. Try to relate the handwriting and design to the theme of your work. Consider the neatness and effectiveness of your titles, handwriting, pictures, diagrams and borders. Page 2

World Disasters Series – Book 1


Using This Book ............................................................... 2 Background Information .................................................. 4 Finding Out About Disasters ............................................ 5 Background Information: Disaster Watch ........................ 6 Disaster Watch ................................................................. 7 Composition of the Earth ................................................. 8 A Model of the Earth ......................................................... 9 Background Information: The Plate Theory ................... 10 The Plate Theory ............................................................ 11 Continental Drift .............................................................. 12 Pangaea – Changes over Time ..................................... 13 Background Information: Earthquakes ......................... 14 Earthquakes................................................................... 15 Background Information: Earthquakes in History .......... 16 Earthquakes in History ................................................... 17 Background Information: 20th Century Earthquakes .... 18 Recent Earthquake Disasters ......................................... 19 Background Information: Prediction of Earthquakes .... 20 Prediction of Earthquakes .............................................. 21 Background Information: Landslides and Avalanches .. 22 Landslides and Avalanches ........................................... 23 Australian Earthquakes ................................................. 24 Preventing a Disaster ..................................................... 25 Background Information: Tsunamis .............................. 26 Tsunamis ........................................................................ 27 Background Information: Recent Tsunamis................... 28 Tsunamis in History ........................................................ 29 Asian Tsunami Disaster ................................................. 30 Preparing for a Tsunami ................................................. 31 Background Information: Volcanoes ............................. 32 Volcanoes ....................................................................... 33 Volcanic Activity .............................................................. 34 The Ring of Fire .............................................................. 35 Volcanoes and Mythology .............................................. 36 A Volcanic Eruption ........................................................ 37 Disaster Glossary ........................................................... 38 Emergency! .................................................................... 39 Useful Websites .............................................................. 40

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Contents

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World Disasters Series – Book 1

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Background Information:

Disasters

Some examples of man-made r o e t s B r disasters include: e oo p u k S

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Some examples of natural disasters include:

Aviation disasters Crashes, explosions, ground collisions.

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A disaster is a large scale, uncontrollable catastrophe that can cause human loss, suffering, displacement and chaos, both economic and social. Disasters have been occurring since the beginning of time and are categorised as either natural or manmade. Other disasters, known as personal disasters, usually cause pain and suffering and/or loss to individuals.

Nuclear disasters Contamination, explosions (Chernobyl). Maritime disasters Shipwrecks, collisions, oil spills. Chemical disasters Oil spills, gas leaks.

© ReadyEdP ubl i cat i ons Other man-made disasters Train collisions and derailing, bus • f o r r e v i e w p u r posesonl y• collisions, building collapse, bridge Geological events

Weather related disasters Tropical cyclones, lightning, tornadoes, hurricanes, drought and floods.

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collapse, disease outbreak.

Some examples of personal disasters include:

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Earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, fires, avalanches and landslides.

Death of a family member, home burning down, theft of personal belongings, car accident, disease.

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World Disasters Series – Book 1


Finding Out About Disasters Disasters happen around the world at any time of the day or night. Some disasters include: zfloods, zcyclones, zfires, zearthquakes ... Continue this list adding as many different types of disasters as you can think of.

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__________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

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Discuss your list with your partner.

In your own words make up a definition of what constitutes a disaster. ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons _________________________________________________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Explain the difference between a natural disaster and a man-made disaster disaster.

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_________________________________________________________________________________ Organise the types of disasters from your list at the top of the page under these headings:

Natural Disasters

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Man-Made Disasters

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You, or someone you know, may have experienced a personal disaster. Provide a brief outline of it. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ World Disasters Series – Book 1

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Background Information:

Disaster Watch: across South and Southeast Asia. The areas affected included parts of Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, and Thailand. At least 275 000 people died with thousands of others missing.

Local disasters are more likely to be reported in local newspapers, while national and international disasters are more likely to be found in national newspapers. A large local disaster such as a tropical cyclone or flood destroying a town, is likely to be reported internationally depending on the amount of devastation the disaster causes.

In Taiwan, September, 1999, an earthquake measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale killed at least 1720 people and trapped 3000 in the rubble of collapsed buildings. Approximately 2000 aftershocks were felt, some as strong as 6.8 on the Richter scale.

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On 17 August, 1999, an earthquake registering 7.4 on the Richter scale devastated the city of Izmit and the surrounding areas in Turkey. Approximately 16 000 people were killed, 27 500 were injured and more than 54 000 buildings were destroyed. Over 1000 aftershocks were felt in the area.

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People find out about disasters through a variety of media. Television and radio channels present news broadcasts, while the Internet is also a good source for up-to-the-minute information. Newspapers provide articles, pictures and other information although it is sometimes easier to find more recent information via the television and Internet, as newspapers cannot be updated once they are printed.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

In August, 2005, Hurricane Katrina devastated the gulf coast of the United States over a 160 km region. The storm surge caused severe and catastrophic damage in the states of Mississippi, Louisiana and Florida. At least 1,830 people lost their lives and many cities were 80% flooded and left without power for several days. The disaster has cost over $US 81 billion and has been the most damaging and expensive natural disaster in the history of the United States.

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The tsunami in Papua New Guinea that occurred on July 17, 1998 resulted in the deaths of approximately 5000 people.

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On December 26, 2004, an undersea earthquake took place in the Indian Ocean off the west coast of Sumatra in Indonesia. The earthquake registered a massive 9.3 on the Richter scale and triggered a series of devastating tsunamis that spread throughout the region, killing large numbers of people living in coastal communities

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The canyoning disaster in Switzerland, which claimed the lives of 21 young adventurers, occurred on July 27, 1999.

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Examples of recent international disasters (both natural and manmade) include:

The train crash in West Bengal, India which left hundreds dead when two trains crashed in a head on collision on August 2, 1999.

The Thredbo landslide in which 18 people lost their lives (July 30, 1997). The collapse of the Maccabiah bridge in Israel where four people were killed (July 14, 1997). The TWA Flight 800 explosion July 17, 1996 which killed 230 people. The volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 19, 1991 eruption affected more than 249 000 families or about 1.18 million people, including 847 deaths, 184 injuries and 23 missing.

World Disasters Series – Book 1


Disaster Watch Over the next few weeks collect information on any disasters that happen around the world. Create a wall chart or collect the articles in a scrap book. Use newspapers, magazines and the Internet as sources of information. Record each disaster in the table below and classify it according to its location. Make a tally of the newspaper articles related to each disaster.

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Tally

National

Tally

International

Tally

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Local

What type of disaster was most frequently reported? _____________________________

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Why do you think this was the case? __________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons On the world map below use different colours to show the different types of disasters. 12 123 12 12 • f o r r e v i e w p u r p o s e s o n l y• 12 123 12 12 Volcano __________ Cyclone 12 123 12 12__________ _________________________________________________________________________

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123Flood

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12Earthquake

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Which of these disasters do you consider to be the most devastating? ______________ Give reasons for your answer. ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ World Disasters Series – Book 1

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Composition of the Earth In order to understand what causes earthquakes and volcanoes it helps to know a little about the composition of the earth.

Information The earth is made up of four layers. • The surface of the earth is covered by a layer of rocks and soil called the crust. The crust covers the continents, forming the mountains and valleys, including underneath the oceans and seas. This outside layer is very thin compared to the core and the mantle.

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• The earth’s core consists of two layers under the mantle.

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• Underneath the crust is a thick layer of hotter, heavier rocks called the mantle. Parts of this layer are so hot that rocks have melted. This molten rock, called magma, sometimes comes to the surface of the earth as a volcano.

• The inner core is a solid ball of hot metal made up of mainly iron and nickel.

• Around the inner core is the much thicker outer core consisting of extremely hot liquid iron and nickel. Underline the key words and phrases presented in the information above. Use this information to label the diagram of the earth’s composition below.

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Shade the diagram to show the different layers which form the earth. Label these layers.

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World Disasters Series – Book 1


A Model of the Earth Make a model of the earth. You will need four different colours of modelling clay or Plasticine for this activity. Each colour will represent a layer of the earth.

Step 1: Inner core

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Make the inner core (a ball) about 2 cm in diameter.

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Step 2: Outer core

With a different colour of clay, roll out a thick layer. Place the inner core into the middle and pull the second layer around the inner core. Compare the thickness to that of the inner core.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Step 3: Mantle

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Repeat Step 2 using a third colour.

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o c . che e r o t r s s r u e p Step 4: Crust

The outer layer must be rolled very thin to represent the crust. When complete cut with a knife to see the cross section.

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Background Information:

The Plate Theory The earth’s crust is a layer of rocks and soil. The thickness of the crust varies from 30 kilometres thick beneath the mountains to about 6 kilometres thick under the oceans.

active areas where the earth’s surface is more frequently affected by earthquakes and volcanoes are situated along the plate boundaries.

Plate tectonics is the theory that the earth’s outer layer is made up of a number of plates which have slowly moved throughout the earth’s history. This theory explains why the earth has mountain ranges and volcanoes. It also explains why similar animals live on continents that are far apart as it assumes that these continents were once very close together.

Convergent: Plates collide as they meet, which results in earthquakes deep in the earth as the two plates rub up against each other. Volcanoes form as magma rises from the melted slab. The Himalayan mountains occur on a convergent boundary.

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r o e t s r There areB three types of e o p o Plate Tectonics u boundaries: k S

Divergent: These occur mostly on ocean floors. In this type of boundary the plates are moving away from each other. Magma from the mantle rises up to the surface to cool and solidify, forming new parts of the earth’s crust. This takes place at the boundary of oceanic plates and forms new sea floor which is known as “sea-floor spreading”. Volcanoes which have gentle eruptions can also form under the sea and are known as submarine volcanoes.

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Transform: The plates slide horizontally against each other and this is where powerful earthquakes can form. For example, devastating earthquakes have occurred in California along parts of a transform plate boundary known as the San Andreas Fault.

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It is not known for certain why the continents have drifted apart although scientists have come up with many theories. One of the reasons may be the build up of heat within the earth’s mantle which pushes the plates, just as heat rises in a room. Another theory is that gravity is pulling the ocean floors. The movements of the plates have produced the earth’s major features such as mountain ranges, mid-ocean ridges, ocean trenches and large faults. Stable areas with few or no earthquakes or volcanoes, lie in the middle of a plate while Page 10

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It is thought that approximately 225 million years ago, all the world’s major continents formed one giant supercontinent called Pangaea. This continent then began to split apart about 200 million years ago, to form two subcontinents known as Gondwanaland and Laurasia. Oceans filled the areas between the continents and they continued to drift apart until they reached the positions that they are in today. You may not feel it, but the continents are still drifting apart!

To find out more about plate tectonics visit the following websites. library.advanced.org/17701/high/tectonics/ index.html www.platetectonics.com www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/ plates1.html

World Disasters Series – Book 1


The Plate Theory Using an atlas or the Internet, locate information about the tectonic plates of the earth’s crust.

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Research the names of the plates and locate them on the map below. Draw in arrows to show the direction in which the plates are moving.

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Find answers to these:

At what speed are the plates moving? _______________________________________________

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There are three types of boundaries at which these plates meet. Name and briefly describe these boundaries.

• _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ • _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ • _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

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Continental Drift Information Earthquakes and volcanoes are mainly caused by movements of the plates and continents. Scientists believe that until about 200 million years ago the earth’s surface consisted of one large land mass called Pangaea. Pangaea was constantly moving and gradually began to split up, with the pieces drifting apart very slowly. It formed two supercontinents known as Gondwanaland and Laurasia. Gondwanaland included the land areas that now make up South America, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica. Laurasia included the land area of North America, Europe and Asia.

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Over 100 million years ago the seven continents emerged. Even today the continents are still moving at about the rate that the average fingernail grows. This phenomenon is known as the “Theory of Continental Drift”.

The diagrams below show how Pangaea has broken apart to form the continents. Label the land masses in each diagram.

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Conduct research on the earth as it existed about 100 million years ago. Include information under the following headings.

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•Climatic conditions: ____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ •Plant life: _____________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ •Animal life: ____________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ Page 12

World Disasters Series – Book 1


Pangaea – Changes Over Time Study maps showing how the continents have moved from forming Pangaea to the seven continents that exist today. These maps can usually be found in an atlas, on the Internet or the World Book (the CD ROM of the World Book has an excellent animation showing exactly how the continents have moved).

Complete the following:

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Name the continent which has moved least as a result of continental drift. _____________________________________________________________________________

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Name the continent which has moved the greatest distance to reach its present position.

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Name the continent which has moved from a warm or hot climate to a very cold one.

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Name the continents which have remained in cold climatic areas.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr e vi emove? wp ur posesonl y• In which direction did Australia _____________________________________________

In which direction did the United Kingdom move? ___________________________________

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Study the map below and draw changes to the continents as you think they might appear 100 million years from now now,, based on what you know about continental drift.

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World Disasters Series – Book 1

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Background Information:

Earthquakes rock to break and snap into a new position, which results in an earthquake.

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Earthquakes are among the most powerful events on Earth and their results can be devastating. A severe earthquake may release energy 10 000 times as great as that of the first atomic bomb. Rock movements during an earthquake can make rivers change their course. Earthquakes can trigger landslides that cause great damage and loss of life. Large earthquakes beneath the ocean can create a series of huge, destructive waves called tsunamis that flood coasts for many kilometres. The Asian Tsunami in 2004 was caused by a massive undersea earthquake.

Earthquakes start deep in the ground at the focus or hypocentre of the quake. This can be about 70 kilometres below the earth’s surface. The epicentre of the earthquake is the surface of the earth directly above the hypocentre, which is usually the strongest part of the quake.

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Earthquakes are caused by rocks under stress. The earth’s plates are constantly moving by either moving apart, sliding past one another or colliding. Depending on the stress involved, the rocks may adjust by folding, or a fracture may occur.

Earthquake intensity is measured using the Richter scale, developed by an American seismologist, Charles F. Richter. This scale measures the ground motion caused by an earthquake. Most earthquakes measure less than 7.0 on the Richter scale. Anything greater than 7.0 has the potential to cause widespread damage. The largest earthquake ever recorded on the Richter scale measured 9.5. It occurred in 1960 on the coast of Chile in South America.

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The force of an earthquake depends on how deep the rocks break and how far apart they shift. Strong earthquakes have been known to shake the ground violently over a great distance while other earthquakes can be nothing more than a small vibration. These are usually known as tremors.

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For more on earthquakes and the Richter scale see the notes on Page 20 or visit the websites below.

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As many as 40 000-50 000 minor earthquakes occur each year, with a major earthquake occurring approximately once every two years. About 40 medium-sized earthquakes occur annually.

Earthquakes usually occur along fault lines. One of the most famous fault lines is the San Andreas Fault in California. Faults occur in weak areas of the earth’s rock and stresses can cause the large sections of

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Check Out:

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www.dkonline.com/science/private/ earthquest/contents/hall2.html www.fema.gov/kids/quake.htm

www.gigglepotz.com/krc_earthq.htm www.abag.ca.gov/bayarea/eqmaps/kids.html www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0763387.html library.christchurch.org.nz/Kids/NZDisasters/ Earthquakes.asp

World Disasters Series – Book 1


Earthquakes This map shows the earthquake zones of the world.

Key Fault lines

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Quake zones

Using the map, and the information from the previous pages, answer the following questions. The location of the earthquake belts show that most earthquakes occur:

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons • ___________________________________________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• • ___________________________________________________________________________

Is Australia considered to be in an earthquake prone area? __________________________

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Give reasons for your conclusion. _______________________________________________

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____________________________________________________________________________

Is New Zealand considered to be in an earthquake prone area? ______________________

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Give reasons for your conclusion. _______________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

Name two countries most likely to be affected by earthquakes in: •Asia

•South America

•North America

•Europe

•Africa

____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Name a country (other than your own) where you would like to live. Why? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ World Disasters Series – Book 1

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Background Information:

Earthquakes in History Here is a timeline of historical earthquakes. Please note that the magnitude or force of each earthquake is not known, as the Richter scale was not used to record the force of earthquakes until 1935. 365 A.D.

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Crete, an island in the Eastern Mediterranean, suffered the effects of an earthquake which killed about 50 000 people.

476

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526

About 250 000 people were killed when an earthquake destroyed the Turkish city of Antioch.

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1556

The worst earthquake death toll in history was recorded when 830 000 people were killed in an earthquake in Northern China.

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1692

In Jamaica, the city of Port Royal was destroyed by an earthquake.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 1775 The Lisbon (Portugal) earthquake in 1775 was massive. It was followed byi three after p shocks, fires, ands ae tsunami with the death •f or r e v e w u r p o s o n l y • toll rising to 60 000 people.

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1783

In Calabria, Italy, an earthquake killed over 30 000 people and completely destroyed 181 villages.

1811

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An earthquake destroyed the city of Rome.

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In New Madrid (Missouri), an unusually large intraplate earthquake occurred. The town was getting ready for Christmas on December 16 when it struck. It was so massive it rang church bells in Washington, almost 1050 kilometres away. To date it has been the worst earthquake to hit North America. the earthquake, whose magnitude is estimated to be about 8 on the Richter scale, was the first of a series of earthquakes that devastated the area. Another great earthquake occurred on January 23, 1812, and a third, the strongest yet, on February 7 of that year.

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1812

The city of Caracas in Venezuela was destroyed by an earthquake.

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1868

An earthquake resulted in a tsunami on the coast of Peru. The tsunami reached points 4.5 kilometres inland.

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Earthquakes in History Over the centuries many people have been killed and great damage has been caused by earthquakes. Research to find the most severe earthquakes which occurred around the world prior to this century century.. Record your findings on the table below below.. Place

Details

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Make a general statement about the location of the earthquakes recorded above.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons ______________________________________________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• ______________________________________________________________________________

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Select one of the earthquakes above to research. Present information under the following headings:

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Damage: _____________________________________________________________________

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Immediate effects on the people: _________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Long term effects: ______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ World Disasters Series – Book 1

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Background Information:

Major Earthquakes in the 20th Century Kangra, India Reaching 8.3 on the Richter scale, this devastating earthquake claimed 357 000 lives.

1997

1906

San Francisco The aftermath, rather that the actual earthquake, which measured 8.3, caused most of the 700 deaths, while leaving the city in ruins.

1997

Northern Afghanistan In May, with a magnitude of 7.1, an earthquake and aftershocks killed an estimated 5000 and injured at least 1500. A quake occurring earlier that year on February 4 in the same area, killed approximately 2300 people.

1999

Western Colombia, 1124 people were killed and 4000 injured in a strong earthquake in and around the city of Armenia, measuring 6.0. About 250 000 people were left homeless and the city was plagued by looting and violence among desperate survivors.

1985

1988

1989

1990

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Anchorage, Alaska An earthquake measuring 8.5 caused the deaths of 114 people. The effects of the earthquake were felt over an area of 830 000 square kilometres. Mexico City 7000 people were killed when an earthquake measuring 8.1 devastated the city.

Turkey © ReadyEd1999 Pub l i c a t i on15s On August 17, approximately 400 people were killed when an earthquake struck the city of Izmit in Turkey. Thousands •Angeles f orr evi ew pur pindustrial ose sonl y• Los were left injured and homeless and several Armenia, Between 25 000-45 000 people were killed when an 6.9 strong earthquake occurred.

Even though only 67 people were killed, this earthquake caused widespread damage. It measured 7.1 on the Richter scale.

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Iran In Northwest Iran, an earthquake measuring 7.7 caused the deaths of 40 000 people.

1992

Flores, Indonesia 2500 people died as the result of an earthquake, measuring 7.5 on the Richter scale, occurring on the island of Flores.

1993

India In southwestern India, an earthquake occurred in which 13 000 people were killed. It measured 6.4 on the Richter scale.

1994

Northridge, California In January, 61 people died when a 6.7 scale earthquake hit the area.

1995

Kobe, Japan A devastating earthquake of 7.2 magnitude hit Kobe causing the deaths of about 1800 people.

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aftershocks occurred. Shortly after, on September 7, a quake measuring 5.9, caused the deaths of 97 people in Athens, Greece.

1999

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1964

Northeastern Iran A severe earthquake measuring 7.1 on the Richter scale left more than 1500 people dead and at least 4460 injured.

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1905

Taiwan In September, a quake registering 7.6 on the Richter scale struck the Nantou and Taichung counties of Taiwan. The earthquakes caused $US 3.2 billion worth of damage, with approximately 1720 people losing their lives.

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Sumatra, Indonesia A massive undersea earthquake measuring 9.0 on the Richter scale, devastated the Asian region. Over 275 000 people were killed by the tsunamis that were caused by this earthquake. The magnitude of the earthquake was originally recorded as 9.0 on the Richter scale, but has been upgraded to between 9.1 and 9.3.


Recent Earthquake Disasters Some of the most severe earthquakes this century are listed on the table below. Research one of these or another of your choice. Date

Place

1906

U.S.

1920

China,

1923

San Francisco

Date

Place

1985

Mexico, Mexico City

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U.S.S.R. Kamchatka

1992

Indonesia,

1938

Indonesia, Bandu Sea Floor

1994

U.S.

1950

India,

1995

Japan, Kobe

1952

Japan,

1997

Northeastern Iran

1952

U.S.S.R. Kamchatka

1997

Northern Afghanistan

1960

Southern Chile

1999

Turkey

1964

Southern Alaska

1999

Greece, Athens

Assam

Pacific Ocean Floor

Flores

Northridge, California

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Present your research under the following headings in the format (e.g. booklet, chart) suggested by your teacher teacher.. Make short notes in the spaces provided.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Earthquake: Date: •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Damage ___________________________________________

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Searching for victims ________________________________

__________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

Aid and reconstruction _______________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ World Disasters Series – Book 1

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Background Information:

Prediction of Earthquakes How does the Richter scale work?

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A seismograph can be compared to a pendulum that records the shaking of the earth. The results of a seismograph are called seismograms and these were originally produced using ink pens on paper or beams of light on photographic paper. Now most seismograms are created digitally using computers.

Scientists measure earthquakes in two way – magnitude and intensity. Magnitude is a measure of the amount of energy released during a quake and is measured using the Richter scale. The Richter scale is a standard scale used to compare earthquakes. It is a logarithmic scale, meaning that the numbers on the scale measure factors of 10. So, for example, an earthquake that measures 4.0 on the Richter scale is 10 times larger than one that measures 3.0. On the Richter scale, anything below 2.0 is undetectable to a normal person and is called a microquake. Microquakes occur constantly. Moderate earthquakes measure below 6.0 or so on the Richter scale. Above 6.0 are earthquakes that can cause significant damage. The earthquake that caused the destructive Asian tsunamis in 2004 measured 9.0 on the Richter scale. This figure was later changed to 9.3. No earthquake has ever measured (been recorded) over 9.6 on the Richter scale.

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Scientists, called seismologists, can determine the location and intensity of earthquakes. Instruments, called seismographs, detect and record the movement of seismic waves and ground motion during an earthquake. Scientists also use seismographs to hunt for oil, study the earth’s interior, and find the thickness of glaciers.

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rope over a table. By attaching a pen to the weight and taping a piece of paper to the table so that the pen can draw on the paper, you could record tremors in the earth's crust (earthquakes). If you used a roll of paper and a motor that slowly pulled the paper across the table, you would be able to record tremors over time. However, it would take a pretty large tremor for you to see anything. In a real seismograph, levers or electronics are used to magnify the signal so that very small tremors are detectable.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons A very simple version of a seismograph can f or ev i efrom wa pur posesonl y• be made• by hanging ar large weight

The intensity of an earthquake can vary from place to place. In most earthquakes, the intensity will be greater at the epicentre of the quake. Earthquake intensity is often measured using the Mercalli scale which was invented by an Italian geologist in 1902. This scale uses Roman Numerals to represent intensity. A scale of I is usually not felt but a scale of XII can mean total destruction of buildings.

o c . che e r o t r s super Check Out:

pubs.usgs.gov/gip/earthq1/predict.html www.kidscosmos.org/kid-stuff/kidsearthquakes.html Page 20

World Disasters Series – Book 1


Prediction of Earthquakes Scientists agree that at this stage it is not possible to accurately predict when an earthquake will strike. However, there are some patterns and early warnings which may be useful in predicting the possibility of an earthquake. Using encyclopedias, reference books and the Internet, compile a list of the warnings.

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• ______________________________________________________________________________ • ______________________________________________________________________________

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• ______________________________________________________________________________

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• ______________________________________________________________________________ • ______________________________________________________________________________ • ______________________________________________________________________________

Who are the people involved in monitoring geological changes? Find out what each of these people do.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons ________________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• ________________________________________________ Seismologist: __________________________________

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Geologist: _____________________________________

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_______________________________________________________________________________

What is a seismograph? Explain how it is used.

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

Visit this website to learn how to make your own seismograph!

cse.ssl.berkeley.edu/lessons/indiv/davis/hs/Seismograph.html World Disasters Series – Book 1

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Background Information:

Landslides and Avalanches Avalanches

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Landslides in History In 1840, an earthquake in Kashmir triggered a landslide on the Indus River and created a lake about 300 metres deep and 64 kilometres long.

An avalanche is a mass of snow that slides down a mountain slope. Many avalanches result from weather conditions that cause snow on a mountain slope to become unstable. Such disturbances as heavy winds, earth tremors and explosions can send the snow sliding down the mountain. It is also known that skiers have started many avalanches.

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A landslide is a mass of earth or rocks that slides down a slope. Two conditions are necessary for a landslide: a steep slope and a weakness in the solid rock beneath the surface of the slope. Earthquakes, volcanoes or heavy rains can trigger landslides. Erosion caused by rivers, waves, glaciers, or construction projects creates the steep slopes necessary for landslides.

Experts can often recognise the conditions that lead to avalanches by studying the terrain, snow, and weather in an area. To help control avalanches, they use explosives to reduce snow build-up. They also replant trees on slopes, and erect barriers.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur p osesonl y• Check Out:

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A huge volume of volcanic rock slid from Mount St. Helens into the North Fork Toutle River valley on May 18, 1980, when a massive volcanic landslide removed the volcano's entire north flank and sculpted a deep horseshoe shaped crater in its place.

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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ 1997_Thredbo_landslide – Thredbo

www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/avalanche/ – Nova

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In September 1996, at Gracetown in the south west of Western Australia, a landslide involving the collapse of a limestone cliff killed 9 people as they stood on a beach.

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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Landslide

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Landslides can be destructive. In 1903, a major landslide in the Canadian coalmining town of Frank, Alberta, buried part of the town and killed 70 people.

encyclopedia.kids.net.au/page/av/Avalanche www.avalanche-center.org/

World Disasters Series – Book 1


Landslides and Avalanches Use your library or the Internet to research landslides and avalanches. What is the main difference between an avalanche and a landslide? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

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Describe the two different types of landslides that can occur. ___________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

What things can trigger a landslide?

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______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

Find out about recent landslides and avalanches around the world using some of the websites on Page 22. Complete the table below. Location

Damage

Injuries/Deaths

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Geologists and other experts have taken measures to reduce the amount of landslides in some areas. Describe some of the action that has been taken. ____________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ World Disasters Series – Book 1

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Australian Earthquakes Information At 10.28am on December 28, 1989, a severe earthquake struck Newcastle, in New South Wales. It caused considerable damage to many buildings and services in the area. The earthquake measured approximately 5.6 on the Richter scale which is relatively small, however, the damage was widespread and 13 people were killed. Hundreds of others were injured and the total damage caused was more that A$4 billion. It was the first time that an earthquake had occurred in a heavily populated area of Australia.

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Compared to many countries Australia has experienced few severe earthquakes. Until the Newcastle earthquake in 1989, there were no recorded deaths as a result of earthquakes. Give two reasons why this might be:

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• _____________________________________________________________________________ • _____________________________________________________________________________

Complete the table below by listing the date and location of the most severe earthquakes in Australia’s history.

Date:

Location:

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At about 11:40pm on Wednesday, July 30, 1997, hundreds of tonnes of earth came away from a steep slope above the New South Wales ski resort of Thredbo.

Conduct some research into this disaster using magazines and the Internet to help you. Using another sheet of paper paper,, outline the events that occurred and describe the rescue mission that followed.

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World Disasters Series – Book 1


Preventing a Disaster There is not a lot we can do to prevent the occurrence of earthquakes and tsunamis. However, special measures can be taken to prevent the amount of damage that can occur. When earthquakes strike cities today the more modern buildings, including skyscrapers, suffer far less damage than the older buildings.

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Research some of the ways that buildings and structures have been made safer. _______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

List some of the regulations required by many governments in order to reduce earthquake damage to buildings and injuries to people. ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

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_______________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons “Rescue operations following a major earthquake disaster have changed in • f o r r e v i e w p u r p o s e s o n l y • some ways but not in others.” ______________________________________________________

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List the ways in which rescue operations have changed and the ways in which they have stayed the same. Remained the same

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Changes

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Make a list of five things you could do to prepare for an earthquake. • ___________________________________________________ • ___________________________________________________ • ___________________________________________________ • ___________________________________________________ • ___________________________________________________ What should you do while an earthquake is happening? __________________________________________________ World Disasters Series – Book 1

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Background Information:

Tsunamis A tsunami is a destructive wave that sweeps in from the ocean like a huge tide.

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Tsunamis are sometimes called tidal waves even though they are not actully caused by tides, or even by the wind. They are only ever caused by underwater disturbances such as earthquakes, landslides or volcanic eruptions. These disturbances cause the seabed to move very quickly, which shifts a large amount of water and disrupts the sea surface. A train of waves is set in motion travelling away from the source of disturbance and as the waves move, they grow larger.

Tsunamis caused by large storms at sea are called storm surges. The size of a storm surge depends on the wind speed, the duration of the storm, the ocean distance over which the wind blows, and the barometric pressure. Storm surges are especially destructive if they hit the shoreline during high tide.

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The name tsunami comes from a Japanese word for "harbour wave", reflecting the fact that harbours can concentrate the energy of a tsunami. They are caused by undersea earthquakes or by hurricanes, cyclones, or other large storms at sea.

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1000 kilometres per hour in the open ocean. Most tsunamis go undetected at sea. However, a tsunami may form a wall of water more than 30 metres high when it approaches shallow water near shore.

Often before a tsunami hits, there is a giant vacuum effect, and water is sucked from harbours and beaches. People see the bare sea bottom littered with flopping fish and stranded boats. That is because waves are made out of crests, or high points, and troughs, or dips between crests. When a trough hits land first, the water level drops drastically. Usually another wave blasts ashore about fifteen minutes later with more waves following at this rate for the next two hours.

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Tsunamis caused by undersea earthquakes are called seismic sea waves. Scientists, using seismographs, can accurately predict when a tsunami will arrive at a given seacoast. When a seaquake occurs, seismographs pick up vibrations, called seismic waves, that travel outward in all directions from the quake's point of origin.

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About four out of five tsunamis happen within the "Ring of Fire", a zone of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions roughly matching the borders of the Pacific Ocean.

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Seismic waves can travel much faster than tsunamis. By comparing readings from seismographs in a number of locations, scientists can determine when and where the quake originated. The scientists then measure the distance from that point to a given coast and estimate the time a tsunami would reach that coast. The exact speed of a tsunami depends on the depth of water, but tsunamis travel anywhere between 500 Page 26

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The Asian Tsunami that occurred in December, 2004 was one of the most devastating disasters in history.

Check Out: www.geophys.washington.edu/tsunami/ intro.html – About Tsunamis news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/ 4154791.stm – Asian Tsunami Timeline

World Disasters Series – Book 1


Tsunamis Seismic sea waves are sometimes called “tsunamis”, “harbour waves” and “tidal waves”. The term “tidal wave” is incorrect. Outline why tidal wave is an inappropriate name. ___________________________________________________________________________

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___________________________________________________________________________ Tsunamis are caused by major disturbances. List three of these: • ______________________ • ______________________

• ______________________

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In your own words write a definition for tsunami.

___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

Most tsunamis go undetected at sea. While a tsunami may be travelling anywhere between 500 km/h and 1000 km/h it cannot be seen, for example, by a pilot flying overhead.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons _________________________________________________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Research to find out:

Why a tsunami cannot be seen as it travels through the ocean.

_________________________________________________________________________________ How the speed and wave height varies according to the depth of the ocean.

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_________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

How scientists are able to predict the arrival of a tsunami at a given place.

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_________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________

World Disasters Series – Book 1

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Background Information:

Recent Tsunamis Asian Tsunamis

Papua New Guinea

Hawaii

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The Asian Tsunamis – sometimes known as the Boxing Day Tsunamis – were caused by a huge undersea earthquake that took place off the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia on December 26, 2004. Widespread devastation occurred in India, Indonesia, Maldives, Malaysia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand. Some coutries in Africa, such as Somalia, even felt the effects of the tsunami. The disaster was one of the most deadliest catastophes of modern times, responsible for the loss of over 275 000 lives. Many holiday regions were affected and people from over 42 countries, including 26 people from Australia and 6 people from New Zealand, were killed.

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at half a billion dollars. Chile lies along a major earthquake belt and is frequently struck by earthquakes and tsunamis. A strong series of earthquakes, ending in one of the three largest quakes in the 20th century (magnitude 8.9), sunk approximately 500 kilometres of coastline into the sea, activated a volcano, devastated five areas (provinces) and caused massive tsunamis that killed between 1000-1500 people. On November 29, 1975, an earthquake occurred off the coast of the island of Hawaii. At least 32 campers were at Halape Beach Park when a tsunami struck. 19 of the campers suffered injuries and two people perished. The sound of falling rocks from a nearby cliff, along with earth movement, caused the campers to flee toward the ocean. The campers were then forced back to the cliff by rising ocean waters. The first wave to hit was 1.5 metres high. The second wave was 7.9 metres high and carried the campers into a ditch near the base of the cliff, where they remained until the ordeal ended.

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Aleutian Islands and Hawaii

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Two tsunamis occurred in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, in 1946 and 1957. The first tsunami caused $US 26 million worth of damage and 159 people were killed in the downtown area of Hilo in Hawaii. The second tsunami in 1957 did not result in any deaths but caused at least $US 5 million dollars worth of damage. In Hawaii, tsunamis have accounted for more lost lives than the total of all other local disasters.

In Flores, Indonesia, 1992, the small, densely populated village of Wuhring was destroyed when a magnitude 7.8 earthquake centred about 35 kilometres away caused a tsunami. The waves killed 87 people in Wuhring, and 1690 in all of Flores.

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Chile A major tsunami-forming earthquake occurred in Chile in 1960, triggering a Pacific-wide tsunami. Estimated deaths from the tsunami ranged from 490 to 2290 people, and damages were estimated

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Indonesia

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On July 17, 1998, a large earthquake struck the north central coast of Papua New Guinea. Following the earthquake a large tsunami also struck the region. Initial reports claimed that the wave was between 7 and 10 metres and that up to 3000 people were killed or missing. This seemed to be an unusually damaging tsunami given the size of the earthquake and is thought to have been the most devastating tsunami in the 20th century.

In 1991, a cyclone and tsunami struck Bangladesh and at least 138 000 people died. The disaster caused billions of dollars in damage to the country. Also in 1970, a tsunami in the Bay of Bengal in the Indian Ocean south of Bangladesh, caused the greatest sea flood disaster in history. Huge waves struck the coast of Bangladesh and killed approximately 266 000 people. The flood also destroyed the cattle, crops, and homes of millions of other victims.

World Disasters Series – Book 1


Tsunamis in History Records show that major tsunamis occur about once in every ten or twelve years. Most originate in the Pacific ocean. Explain why. ____________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

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Using an atlas and the information gathered from your research on tsunamis, circle the places which are most likely to experience tsunamis. •Rotterdam •Moscow

•New York

•Wellington

•Atlanta

•Rome

•Anchorage

•Yokohama

•Bali

•Port Moresby

•Canberra

•Pusan

•Manila

•San Francisco

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•Nairobi

•Tasmania

Tsunamis can cause immense destruction. Describe the damage caused by each tsunami below by providing notes for each heading.

Aleutian Islands, Alaska (1957) Damage to property/buildings

Environmental damage

Injuries/deaths

Bangladesh (1991)

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Damage to property/buildings

Environmental damage

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Injuries/deaths

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Environmental damage

World Disasters Series – Book 1

Injuries/deaths

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Asian Tsunami Disaster On Boxing Day, 2004, a series of massive waves hit the coastal areas of India, Indonesia, Thailand and Sri Lanka, wiping out villages and killing thousands of people. Use the Internet to research this horrific disaster and write notes for each heading below. This website is a good starting point: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asian_tsunami

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Earthquake location - _______________________________________________________ Details of the tsunami waves - ________________________________________________

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__________________________________________________________________________

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Location of the tsunami - ____________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

Damage to villages - ________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Environmental damage - _______________ •f or r ev i ew pur posesonl y• _________________________________________

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Loss of lives/injuries - __________________________________________

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_____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

Rescue and clean-up operations - _________________________

_______________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _____________________________________________

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World Disasters Series – Book 1


Preparing for a Tsunami A strong earthquake felt in a low lying coastal area is a natural warning of possible, immediate danger. Not all large earthquakes cause tsunamis, but if the quake is located near or directly under the ocean, the probability of a tsunami increases. Make a list of ten things you could do to prepare for a tsunami.

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1 . ____________________________________________________________________________ 2 . _______________________________________________________

3 . _______________________________________________________

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4 . _______________________________________________________

5 . __________________________________________________________________ 6 . __________________________________________________________________ 7 . __________________________________________________________________ 8 . __________________________________________________________ 9 . __________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons After theu Tsunami •f orr evi e wp r posesonl y•

1 0 . ________________________________________________

Using the Internet, try to locate some before and after images of an area destroyed by a tsunami. Print them out and paste one pair of “before and after” below. Label the pictures.

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You might like to check out this website for satellite images of the Asian Tsunami: homepage.mac.com/demark/tsunami/

Also search for images of the: Scotch Cap Lighthouse, Hilo and Kamchatka Peninsula.

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World Disasters Series – Book 1

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Background Information:

Volcanoes A volcano is an opening in the earth's surface through which lava, hot gases, and rock fragments erupt. Volcanoes are formed when melted rock from deep within the earth blasts through the surface. Most volcanoes are mountains, particularly coneshaped ones, which were built up around the opening by lava and other materials thrown out during eruptions.

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Eruptions of volcanic mountains are spectacular sights. In some eruptions, huge fiery clouds rise over the mountain, and glowing rivers of lava flow down its sides. In other eruptions, red-hot ash and cinders shoot out the top, and large chunks of hot rock are blasted high into the air. Some eruptions are so violent they blow the mountain apart.

Composite volcanoes are formed when both lava and tephra erupt from a central vent. The materials pile up in alternate layers around the vent and form a towering, cone-shaped mountain. Composite volcanoes include Japan's beautiful Mount Fuji; Mayon Volcano in the Philippines; and Italy's Mount Vesuvius. In A.D. 79, Vesuvius erupted, burying the nearby towns of Pompeii, Herculaneum, and Stabiae under a mass of ashes, dust, and cinders. Mount St. Helens, which has erupted several times since 1980, is one of the most active composite volcanoes the world.

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Volcanoes occur all over the world, but particularly among the islands of the Pacific Ocean and around its coastlines – the “Ring of Fire”. It contains more than 300 active volcanoes, with at least one new volcano bursting into life every year. Most of these islands are the tops of volcanic mountains that have been built up from the ocean floor by repeated eruptions. Other eruptions occur along narrow cracks in the ocean floor. In such eruptions, lava flows away from the cracks, building up the sea floor.

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around the vent. The tephra, which is generally cinders, forms a cone-shaped mountain. The volcano Paricutin in western Mexico, is a well-known cinder cone. It began in 1943, when a crack opened in the ground of a cornfield. When the eruptions ended in 1952, the top of the cone was 410 metres above its base.

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Active volcanoes erupt constantly. The eruption is generally quiet but occasionally becomes violent. Stromboli, one of the Aeolian Islands of Italy, is one of the most active volcanoes on Earth. It has been in nearly continuous eruption for about 2000 years. Another active volcano is Mount Etna, which lies on the eastern coast of the island of Sicily. The first recorded eruption of Mount Etna occurred about 700 B.C. There have been at least 270 eruptions since then, some extremely violent.

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Volcanoes erupt when the earth’s plates float around on top of the mantle. Magma and other pieces of molten rock can sometimes force their way through the thinnest parts of the crust, where the plates meet, and pour out of the earth as lava. If there is already a volcano at the place where the hot rock forces through, then that volcano erupts. If the lava breaks through at a new place, a new volcano is formed.

Volcanic activity is classified as either active, dormant, intermittent or extinct. Some authorities only use two categories (active and extinct) while others use three (active, dormant and extinct).

o c . che e r o t r s super Types of Volcanoes: Sometimes an earthquake might trigger an eruption. This was thought to be the cause of the massive Mount St Helens eruption in 1980 in the United States.

Intermittent volcanoes erupt at fairly regular periods. Sometimes Mount Etna is referred to as an intermittent volcano. Other intermittent volcanoes include Mount Asama in Japan, New Zealand’s White Island and Hawaii's Hualalai.

Shield volcanoes are formed when a large amount of free-flowing lava spills from a vent and spreads widely. The lava gradually builds up a low, broad, dome-shaped mountain. The famous Mauna Loa in Hawaii is a shield volcano. Thousands of separate, overlapping lava flows, each less than 15 metres thick, formed Mauna Loa.

Dormant volcanoes have become inactive, but not for long enough to know whether they will erupt again. Lassen Peak in California, and Paricutin in Mexico are known as dormant volcanoes.

Cinder cones build up when mostly tephra (rock fragments) erupts from a vent and falls back to earth

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Extinct volcanoes have been inactive since the beginning of recorded history. Mount Richmond in Australia, Kohala in Hawaii and Mount Kenya in Kenya are classified as extinct volcanoes. It is unlikely that they will ever erupt again.

World Disasters Series – Book 1


Volcanoes Volcanoes occur at the opening of the earth’s crust. Molten rock – known as lava – as well as smoke, flames and gases, escape from the earth’s mantle when a volcano erupts. Volcanoes come in all shapes and sizes. Research the following types of volcanoes and give examples for each one.

Shield volcano

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___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Examples:

________________________________________________________________

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Cinder cone volcano

___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

Examples:

________________________________________________________________

Composite volcano

___________________________________________________________________________

©R eadyEdPubl i cat i ons ________________________________________________________________ •f orr evi e w pu r posesonl y• Famous Volcanoes

___________________________________________________________________________

Examples:

Research the famous volcanoes listed below. Briefly describe their formation and give details of their eruptions.

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You might like to check out the excellent V olcano W orld Volcano World website in your search. volcano.und.edu

Mt Vesuvius ______________________________________________________________

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________________________________________________________________________

Mt Fuji ___________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Mt St Helens _____________________________________

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Mt Ruapehu _____________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ World Disasters Series – Book 1

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Volcanic Activity Volcanoes can be classified into four categories. Define and give one example of each.

Active volcanoes: ___________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

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Intermittent volcanoes: ____________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

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Dormant volcanoes: ________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

Extinct volcanoes: __________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Use colours to describe the volcanic activity. 1. Mt Etna 2. Mauna Loa • f or r evi e w- Dormant, pur p o seson l y • (e.g. Red - Active or Intermittent, Green Gold - Extinct) 3. Mt St Helens Show the location of the following volcanoes on the world map below.

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4. Mt Kenya 5. Mt Ruapehu 6. Mt Fuji 7. Mt Vesuvius 8. Kilimanjaro 9. White Island 10. Mt Gambier 11. Mt Pinatubo 12. Mt Batur 13. Aconcagua 14. Masaya 15. Popocatepetl 16. Furnace Peak 17. Mt Pelee 18. Paricutin 19. Mt Kilauea 20. Mt Surtsey 21. Mt Krakatoa 22. Stromboli 23. Cotopaxi 24. Mayon

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World Disasters Series – Book 1


The Ring Of Fire Most volcanoes are found along a belt, known as the Ring of Fire, which encircles the Pacific Ocean. It stretches from the tip of South America, up the west coast of South, Central and North America, along the Aleutian Islands, Japan, The Marianas, Philippines, along Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Tonga and ending at New Zealand. The web page below shows the Ring of Fire.

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Highlight the ring of fire on this map.

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pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/fire.html

Why are there so many volcanoes in the belt known as the Ring of Fire Fire?

______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons ______________________________________________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Compare the locations of volcanoes with the area where earthquakes occur. Describe what you found.

______________________________________________________________________________ Give an explanation for your findings.

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Some volcanoes, such as Stromboli, are not part of the Ring of Fire. How are these volcanoes thought to have formed?

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______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

Draw a diagram of a cross-section of an erupting volcano and label these parts: •crust •magma •mantle •lava •conduit •magma chamber •tephra World Disasters Series – Book 1

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Volcanoes and Mythology Volcanoes were named after the Roman god Vulcan. The Romans believed he lived under a volcanic island off the Italian coast which they named Vulcano. Research this ancient Roman god and what his role was. Include an illustration. _________________________________________

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_________________________________________ _________________________________________

_________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________

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Poseidon – God of Earthquakes: The ancient Greek god Poseidon was not only the god of the sea. He was also the god of horses and earthquakes. This god closely resembled the Roman god Neptune.

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Briefly retell a story about Poseidon by researching Greek mythology. _________________________________________

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_________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________

How does story this compare with scientific theories of today? _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Page 36

World Disasters Series – Book 1


A Volcanic Eruption Volcanoes can erupt with little warning. People who live near volcanoes are usually aware of this problem and are prepared to evacuate the area if needed. Why do you think people risk living in such areas? ____________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

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In some areas which are prone to volcanic eruptions, particularly Japan, steps have been taken to reduce the amount of damage that can be caused by eruptions. Outline some of these steps and include a diagram.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons ____________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• ____________________________________________

Imagine you are part of a television crew which has been sent to cover a volcanic disaster. Describe the scene of the eruption.

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What form of relief is needed by the people affected by a volcanic eruption?

______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ In June 1991, Mt Pinatubo in the Philippines erupted causing much damage. Check out this website for some fascinating images: park.org/Philippines/pinatubo/ World Disasters Series – Book 1

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Disaster Glossary In your research you will have come across many of the words below. Write definitions for them as you find them. aftershock: _________________________

microquake: ________________________

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cone: ______________________________

Richter scale: _______________________

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crater: _____________________________

Ring of Fire: _________________________

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earthquake: _________________________

San Andreas Fault: __________________

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Pangaea: __________________________

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conduit (volcano): ___________________

___________________________________ © ReadyEdPu bl i cat i ons epicentre: ___________________________ seismology: _________________________ • f orr evi ew pur pose sonl y• ___________________________________

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Gondwanaland: _____________________

seismic sea wave: ___________________

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Laurasia: ___________________________

storm surge: ________________________

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lava: _______________________________

tephra: _____________________________

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magma: ____________________________

tsunami: ___________________________

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mantle: _____________________________

volcano: ____________________________

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World Disasters Series – Book 1


Emergency! For each emergency situation below describe the actions you would take. 1 . You are on the 14th floor of a skyscraper when you feel tremors that you think could turn into an earthquake! Describe what you would do for the next three minutes.

5 . You live near a volcano that has not erupted in many years. You go walking one night and hear a very strange rumbling. What do you do?

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2 . You have been warned that the flood which struck three days earlier is moving towards your town and farm. Describe your actions over the two days before the flood arrives.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur oarese so y• 6p . You walking on n the l street when all of _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________

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3 . A cyclone has arrived as predicted. Describe the events and your feelings over the course of the cyclone.

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a sudden you feel an earth tremor. What precautions do you take?

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4 . You live by the beach and have been told that a massive earthquake under the sea has caused a tsunami several kilometres from the coast. It is expected to hit the coast in five hours. What do you do?

7 . A bushfire is threatening to wipe out your home. It is about a kilometre away. What measures do you take to reduce the risk of fire damage? _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________

_________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ World Disasters Series – Book 1

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Useful Websites Almanac of Disasters disasterium.com/ Environmental Web Directory – Disasters www.webdirectory.com/Disasters/

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FEMA for Kids www.fema.gov/kids/

Plate Tectonics www.cotf.edu/ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/plates1.html Plate Tectonics – A Science Odyssey www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/tectonics/# Ring of Fire pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/fire.html Natural Disasters – From the BBC www.bbc.co.uk/science/hottopics/naturaldisasters/

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Natural Disasters – Sites by Students library.advanced.org/10136/afront/front.htm library.thinkquest.org/16132/frames.html

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Latest Earthquake Information •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• quake.wr.usgs.gov/QUAKES/CURRENT/current.html

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A Survey of Great Tsunamis www.geophys.washington.edu/tsunami/general/historic/historic.html

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Tsunamis and Earthquakes – From the United State Geological Survey (USGS) walrus.wr.usgs.gov/tsunami/ Asian Tsunami - CNN Special www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2004/tsunami.disaster/

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Volcano World volcano.und.nodak.edu/ Volcanoes www.volcanoes.com

Pinatubo Volcano park.org/Philippines/pinatubo/ Hurricane Katrina Destruction www.katrinadestruction.com/ Avalanche! www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/avalanche/

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World Disasters Series – Book 1

World Disasters Series: Book 1  

This series is comprised of three books about tectonic, weather-related and man-made disasters. References to web site addresses have been i...

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