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Acknowledgements i. Clip art images have been obtained from Microsoft Design Gallery Live and are used under the terms of the End User License Agreement for Microsoft Word 2000. Please refer to www.microsoft.com/permission.

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Title: Teaching Critical Reading © 2016 Ready-Ed Publications Printed in Australia Author: Leonie Westenberg Illustrator: Alison Mutton

Copyright Notice

The purchasing educational institution and its staff have the right to make copies of the whole or part of this book, beyond their rights under the Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act), provided that: 1.

The number of copies does not exceed the number reasonably required by the educational institution to satisfy its teaching purposes;

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Copies are made only by reprographic means (photocopying), not by electronic/digital means, and not stored or transmitted;

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Copies are not sold or lent;

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Every copy made clearly shows the footnote, ‘Ready-Ed Publications’.

educational institution (or the body that administers it) has given a remuneration notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL) under Act. For details of the CAL licence for educational institutions contact: Copyright Agency Limited Level 19, 157 Liverpool Street Sydney NSW 2000 Telephone: (02) 9394 7600 Facsimile: (02) 9394 7601 E-mail: info@copyright.com.au

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The Act allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of the pages of this book, whichever is the greater, to be reproduced and/or communicated by any educational institution for its educational purposes provided that

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Except as otherwise permitted by this blackline master licence or under the Act (for example, any fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review) no part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, communicated or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission. All inquiries should be made to the publisher at the address below.

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d.net Published by: Ready-Ed Publications PO Box 276 Greenwood WA 6024 www.readyed.net info@readyed.com.au

ISBN: 978 1 86397 968 9 2

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Any copying of this book by an educational institution or its staff outside of this blackline master licence may fall within the educational statutory licence under the Act.

Reproduction and Communication by others


Contents 4-5 5-6

Section 1: Reading Biographies A Biography Summarising Language And Effects 1 Language And Effects 2 Structure Of A Biography Making Comparisons 1 Making Comparisons 2 Analysing Events In A Biography

7 8-9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

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Teachers’ Notes v8.1 Curriculum Links

Section 2: Reading Narratives A Narrative Making Connections Monitoring Comprehension Inferences And Predictions Values And Beliefs Main Ideas

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A Greek Myth Visualisation 1 Visualisation 2 Important Ideas 1 Important Ideas 2 The Unknown Reader Positioning What’s The Text’s Problem?

26-27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

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Section 4: Reading Non-Fiction A News Report Opinion Piece Drawing Comparisons 1 Drawing Comparisons 2 Drawing Comparisons 3 Objective And Subjective Language Identifying Bias Analysing Images Who Is Biased? What’s Your Opinion? Answers

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Teachers’ Notes To be able to think critically is essential for students in our contemporary society which exposes them to a multitude of sources, including technology, print and visual texts. The Australian curriculum identifies Critical and Creative Thinking as a General Capability, signifying that the skill of critical thinking should be developed across all curriculum areas and at all curriculum levels. This book is written with the intent to facilitate the growth of critical reading and thinking skills through a variety of texts, to allow learners to ‘develop capability in critical and creative thinking as they learn to generate and evaluate knowledge, clarify concepts and ideas, seek possibilities, consider alternatives and solve problems’ (Australian Curriculum v8.1, Overview Critical and Creative Thinking, General Capabilities, 2015).

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Section 1: Reading Biographies

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Critical reading and thinking requires engaged learners who think broadly and deeply. Critical reading and thinking uses skills, behaviours and dispositions such as reason, logic, resourcefulness, discussion, debate, analysis, summation, imagination and innovation. This book provides texts and activities that develop these skills, using content and experiences that are applicable for learning at school and in lives beyond school. Some activity sheets suggest an Extra Activity that includes research, use of ICT, small group and partner based learning tasks with differentiation for diverse learners.

This section centres on a biography of Edith Cowan - a pioneer woman in the Western Australian Parliament. This section could be introduced with a discussion on famous Australian women and on women in Australian politics. It has links with the Humanities and Social Sciences Level 6: Description of  ‘Australia in the past and present and its connections with a diverse world’ (Australian Curriculum v8.1, HASS Overview, 2015). It asks the inquiry question: How have key figures, events and values shaped Australian society, its system of government and citizenship?, and develops critical thinking and reading skills through summation, analysis of language and structure of texts, comparison and contrast and understanding of cause and effect.

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Section 2: Reading Narratives

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This section is built on a narrative of contemporary realistic fiction. This section is relevant to other in-depth reading and discussion of fiction in the classroom. It has links with the Health and Physical Education Level 5/6 Description of students developing ‘knowledge, understanding and skills to create opportunities and take action to enhance their own and others' health, wellbeing, safety and physical activity participation’ (Australian Curriculum v8.1, H&PE Overview, 2015). It develops students’ skills to manage conflicting emotions, to understand their physical and social changes and examine the changing nature of their relationships with learning experiences involving making connections through the use of inferences and predictions while encouraging students to discuss and examine personal, family and community values and beliefs.

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This section is built on a re-telling of an ancient Greek myth that fosters discussion on ethical decision-making. This section can be introduced via discussions on change, with links to the Level 6: Science curriculum and can form part of a unit on stories and storytelling in Australian society and in other cultures. It has links with the General Capability of Ethical Understanding in assisting students to build ‘a strong personal and socially oriented ethical outlook that helps them to manage context, conflict and uncertainty, and to develop an awareness of the influence that their values and behaviours have on others’ (Australian Curriculum v8.1, GC: Ethical Understanding, Overview, 2015). It enables students to develop ethical understanding as they read and analyse a Greek myth to explore ethical issues through interactions with others and the discussion of ideas. Learning experiences include use of visualisation and graphic organisers to develop critical reading in understanding conflict and developing their personal opinion.

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Section 4: Reading Non-Fiction In this section students read, discuss and analyse a news report. This section is ideal for use in class discussions on current issues in the news, and for a discussion on change relevant to the Level 6 Science curriculum. On completion of this section, students could be involved in creating and publishing a class newspaper, news report or blog/vlog. This section has links with the General Capability ICT which requires ‘students learn to use ICT in effective and appropriate ways in order to access, create and communicate information and ideas, in collaborative work’ (Australian Curriculum v8.1, GC: ICT, Overview, 2015). Students develop skills in ICT while analysing the provided news reports for information and meaning.

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Also in this section students will read an opinion piece that presents a different viewpoint on the issue to that expressed in the news report. This task is ideal for use in class discussions on current issues in the news, and for a discussion on government processes and systems in the Level 6 HASS curriculum. On completion of this section, students could be involved in creating op-eds for a classroom newspaper or blog/vlog. Students will develop critical reading and thinking skills while analysing this opinion piece and investigating the use of statistics and intentional/unintentional bias.

V8.1 Curriculum Links

Understand how authors often innovate on text structures and play with language features to achieve aesthetic, humourous and persuasive purposes and effects (ACELA1518) Elaborations • exploring a range of everyday, community, literary and informative texts discussing elements of text structure and language features and comparing the overall structure and effect of authors’ choices in two or more texts

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Understand that cohesive links can be made in texts by omitting or replacing words

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(ACELA1520) Elaborations • noting how a general word is often used for a more specific word already mentioned, for example ‘Look at those apples. Can I have one?’ • recognising how cohesion can be developed through repeating key words or by using synonyms or antonyms • observing how relationships between concepts can be represented visually through similarity, contrast, juxtaposition, repetition, class-subclass diagrams, part-whole diagrams, cause-andeffect figures, visual continuities and discontinuities

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Identify and explain how analytical images like figure, tables, diagrams, maps and graphs contribute to our understanding of verbal information in factual and persuasive texts (ACELA1524) Elaborations • observing how sequential events can be represented visually by a series of images, including comic-strips, timelines, photo stories, procedure diagrams and flowcharts, life-cycle diagrams, and the flow of images in picture books. • observing how concepts, information and relationships can be represented visually through such images as tables, maps, graphs, diagrams and icons Make connections between students’ own experiences and those of characters and events represented in texts drawn from different historical, social and cultural contexts (ACELT1613) Elaboration • recognising the influence our different historical, social and cultural experiences may have on the meaning we make from the text and the attitudes we may develop towards characters, actions and events 5


Identify the relationship between words, sounds, imagery and language patterns in narratives and poetry such as ballads, limericks and free verse (ACELT1617) Elaboration • identifying how language choice and imagery build emotional connection and engagement with the story or theme Analyse how text structures and language features work together to meet the purpose of a text (ACELY1711) Elaboration • comparing the structures and features of different texts, including print and digital sources on similar topics, and evaluating which features best aid navigation and clear communication about the topic

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Select, navigate and read texts for a range of purposes, applying appropriate text processing strategies and interpreting structural features, for example table of contents, glossary, chapters, headings and subheadings (ACELY1712) Elaborations • bringing subject and technical vocabulary and concept knowledge to new reading tasks, selecting, evaluating and using texts for their pertinence to the task and the accuracy of their information. • using word identification, self-monitoring and self-correcting strategies

Use interaction skills, varying conventions of spoken interactions such as voice, volume, tone, pitch and pace, according to group size, formality of interaction and needs and expertise of the audience (ACELY1816) Elaboration • participating in pair, group, class, school and community speaking and listening situations, including informal conversations, discussions, debates and presentations

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Use comprehension strategies to interpret and analyse information and ideas, comparing content from a variety of textual sources including media and digital texts (ACELY1713) Elaborations • asking and answering questions • finding the main idea of a text • summarising a text or part of a text • making connections between information in print and images • using prior knowledge and textual information to make inferences and predictions • making connections between the text and students’ own experience or other texts • finding specific literal information Analyse strategies authors use to influence readers (ACELY1801) Elaboration • identify how authors use language to position the reader and give reasons.

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Analyse and evaluate similarities and differences in texts on similar topics, themes or plots (ACELT1614) Elaboration • exploring texts on a similar topic by authors with very different styles, for example comparing fantasy quest novels or realistic novels on a specific theme, identifying differences in the use of narrator, narrative structure and voice and language style and register Understand the uses of objective and subjective language and bias (ACELA1517) Elaboration • differentiating between reporting the facts (for example in a news story) and providing a commentary (for example in an editorial) Compare texts including media texts that represent ideas and events in different ways, explaining the effects of the different approches (ACELA1517) Elaboration • identifying and exploring news reports of the same event, and discuss the language choices and point of view of the writers 6


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Reading Su Biographies

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A Biography

 A biography is an account of somebody’s life, written by another person. It is informative. Read the biography below about Edith Cowan written by Leonie Westenberg. When you have finished reading the text, complete the activity pages that follow.

A Tireless Woman

by Leonie Westenberg

She wiped her hands nervously on her dress. Having removed her gloves, she realised just how sweaty were her palms. This was a big day. A big day for her. A big day for women. A big day for the Child Protection Society. She was the first woman elected into Parliament in Australia . . .

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Have you ever looked at a $50 note? Have you ever seen the picture of the woman on the back? That’s Edith Cowan - the first woman elected into Australian Parliament. The year? 1921.

Edith Cowan was 59 years of age when she was elected into the Western Australian Parliament. When elected she said, “I stand here today, being in the unique position of the first woman in Australian Parliament. I know many people think perhaps that it was not the wisest thing to do to send a woman into Parliament, and perhaps I should remind Honourable members that one of the reasons why women and men also considered it advisable, is because men need a reminder sometimes from women beside them that will make them realise all that can be done for the race and for the home.”

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons f o rr easvai ewMember pur p osesOne on y• Cowan faced • some obstacles female of Parliament. ofl these obstacles

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came in the form of a newspaper article, written by a male journalist, who criticised Cowan for neglecting her home and family. However, Edith Cowan’s husband, James Cowan, whom she had married at the age of 18, was a strong supporter of his wife’s career. As Master of the Supreme Court himself, he saw the need to encourage women to enter all professions in life and worked to have his wife elected.

Once an MP, Edith Cowan fought for the right for women to enter all professions. In doing this, she was opposed by Charles Latham, another Member of Parliament. Unlike

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Curriculum Link: Select, navigate and read texts for a range of purposes, applying appropriate text processing strategies and interpreting structural features, for example table of contents, glossary, chapters, headings and subheadings (ACELY1712)


Edith Cowan, who had been involved in volunteer work in societies for the protection of women and children and had seen first-hand some of the difficulties faced by women with no money, and had witnessed children forced into the workforce at an early age, Charles Latham had experienced a more privileged life. He was considered a conservative who wanted to make sure that the social aspects of life, including the role of women at home rather than in the workforce, were not radically changed. Cowan’s different upbringing, in an often troubled home rather than a wealthier established home, gave her different insights into the legal status of women. She argued with Charles Latham, claiming that if women could do housework then they were fit and able to take on other work. In reply, Latham said, “You would not suggest a man do that sort of thing (housework)?” To which Cowan replied, “Why not? They are as capable as we.”

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While Cowan was an MP, the then Railway Minister, William Hill, put in place a tax of one shilling (equivalent to $5.00 in today’s currency) for every pram on a tram or other means of public transport. As a mother of five, Cowan knew the difficulty of travelling, even for a day out in the city, with several children. She also knew that a tax on prams would be something poorer mothers could not afford. Soon after entering Parliament, Cowan opposed the ‘pram tax’ and had it successfully removed. Through her husband’s work in the court, Cowan witnessed how women and children suffered when their husbands/fathers were in gaol. She set up charities and volunteered in organisations to help these women and this became the driving force of her work in Parliament - to improve the financial and professional lives of women and of families. She also argued for a maternity and child endowment - money given to help expectant mothers and families with young children.

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The Children’s Protection Society that Cowan set up has now become our Children’s Court. Having seen families suffer and children turn to crime to help their families, Cowan made sure that children were not tried as adults but treated differently and with more compassion and care in court. Cowan’s husband James worked alongside his wife in helping the poor and needy. James Cowan was a quietly spoken man but was not afraid of hard work. Edith Cowan was known for her sense of humour and her ability to speak well in public. She was a more social person than her husband. The two worked well together.

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more than 40 different volunteer organisations, working strongly to improve life for all families. As you now know, she is remembered today on our $50 note and has had a university named after her (ECU). That woman who nervously wiped her hands when being sworn into Parliament as our first female representative is our example still today of how care and compassion can work in government.

Curriculum Link: Select, navigate and read texts for a range of purposes, applying appropriate text processing strategies and interpreting structural features, for example table of contents, glossary, chapters, headings and subheadings (ACELY1712)

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Summarising  After reading the biography entitled A Tireless Woman, complete this activity sheet. One way to understand a text is to summarise. How do we summarise? We write down the most important ideas from the text. We ignore what we think is less important information. We organise the information in a way that has meaning for us. Summarising helps us to take the text and to simplify it - to help clarify the big picture of the text.

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 When you summarise, remember to quote (use exact words) from the text.

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2. One important idea presented in the text about Edith Cowan is:

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1. In a nutshell, A Tireless Woman is about:

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3. A second important idea presented in the text about Edith Cowan is: __________________________________________________________________________

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. te o __________________________________________________________________________ c . che e r __________________________________________________________________________ o r st suto e r 5. If I had to write one sentence about the textp tell a friend, it would be: 4. I believe that this text is important because:

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Extra Activity Write a list of the main “idea words” (important words) from the biography on the back of this sheet. Can you find ten to twenty words?

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Curriculum Link: Use comprehension strategies to interpret and analyse information and ideas, comparing content from a variety of textual sources including media and digital texts (ACELY1713) Elaboration: Summarising a text or part of a text.


Language And Effects 1  After reading the biography entitled A Tireless Woman, complete this activity sheet. Looking at the type of language used by a writer is important in helping us to understand biographies like A Tireless Woman. Think about the language used in the text – is there: descriptive language (nouns, adjectives), technical language (language which relates to a particular topic - politics for instance), or figurative language (similes, metaphors, personification)? Do we know why this language has been used?

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Type of Language used

e.g. “unique woman” (adjective)

e.g. positions the reader to see Cowan as one of a kind, extraordinary.

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(how it positions us to see Edith Cowan)

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(quote from the text)

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Curriculum Link: Analyse strategies authors use to influence readers (ACELY1801) Elaboration: Identify how authors use language to position the reader and give reasons.

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Language And Effects 2  After reading the biography entitled A Tireless Woman, complete this activity sheet. Language is important in helping us to think about our learning. What language is used in the text A Tireless Woman? Can you see any repetition, synonyms, antonyms and/or specific language? Do you know the meaning of this language (why it has been used)? Writing down key words used in texts helps understanding.

KEY WORDS

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 Re-read A Tireless Woman and try to identify specific types of language used. If there are any words used that you don’t know the meaning of, check their meanings using a dictionary. 1. Specific language is language which replaces general terms. Instead of “cut” for example, “slice “ or “dice” can be used. Can you find any specific language in the text?

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2. Repetition of certain words can help to reinforce a main idea. Choose two words that are repeated a lot. What ideas do they reinforce?

1st word: __________________________________________________________________

2nd word:_ ________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 3. Synonyms are words similar in meaning. • f o r r e v i ew pur posesonl y• What synonyms are used in the text?

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4. Antonyms are words dissimilar in meaning. What antonyms are used in the text?

5. In pairs look at the antonyms that you’ve both written down. Discuss how the antonyms help to develop two opposite characters. 12

Curriculum Link: Understand that cohesive links can be made in texts by omitting or replacing words (ACELA1520) Elaborations: Noting how a general word is often used for a more specific word already mentioned, for example ‘Look at those apples. Can I have one?’; Recognising how cohesion can be developed through repeating key words or by using synonyms or antonyms.


Structure Of A Biography  After reading the biography entitled A Tireless Woman, complete this activity sheet. Using graphic organisers can help us to comprehend a text. We can use charts and graphs and diagrams to help us to create a visual text and organise information. Think about a graph in a Maths book for example. Sometimes, creating a visual text while we read can help us to organise a text and understand it better. Story maps are one example of graphic organisers. They can help to better show the structure of a text.

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Introduction to Cowan

Achievement 1

Obstacle 1

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 Complete the story map for the text A Tireless Woman. Draw or write dot points in each box below. This story map will help you to understand the structure of biographies in general as well as the specific structure of A Tireless Woman.

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Supporter - James Cowan

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 Now look back at your story map. Can you better understand the structure of a biography? Pair up and explain this structure to a friend. Try to identify this structure in another biography. Curriculum Link: Identify and explain how analytical images like figures, diagrams, maps and graphs contribute to our understanding of information in factual and persuasive texts (ACELA1524) Elaboration: Observing how sequential events can be represented visually by a series of images, including comic strips, timelines, photo stories, procedure diagrams and flow charts, life-cycle diagrams and the flow of images in picture books.

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Making Comparisons 1  After reading the biography entitled A Tireless Woman, complete this activity sheet. Graphic organisers can help readers make meaning of texts by showing differences and relationships in texts. Sometimes a graphic organiser can help a reader compare and contrast ideas or the people in a text. They can help readers answer questions like, “How are the people the same?” and “How are the people different?”

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Edith Cowan & James Cowan

One way in which they are similar:

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 Look at the people pictured below from the text A Tireless Woman. Complete the graphic organisers to compare and contrast.

One way in which they are different:

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______________________ ______________________ •f orr evi ew pu r posesonl y• ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

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One way in which they are similar:

______________________ ______________________ ______________________ 14

One way in which they are different:

______________________ ______________________ ______________________

Curriculum Link: Identify and explain how analytical images like figure, tables, diagrams, maps and graphs contribute to our understanding of information in factual and persuasive texts (ACELA1524) Elaboration: Observing how concepts, information and relationships can be represented visually through such images as tables, maps, graphs, diagrams and icons.


Making Comparisons 2  After reading the biography entitled A Tireless Woman, complete this activity sheet. Graphic organisers can help readers make meaning of texts by showing differences and relationships in texts. Sometimes a graphic organiser can help a reader compare and contrast ideas or the people in a text. They can help readers answer questions like, “How are the people the same?” and “How are the people different?”

or eBo st r e p ok u S Edith Cowan & William Hill

One way in which they are similar:

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 Look at the people pictured below from the text A Tireless Woman. Complete the graphic organiser to compare and contrast.

One way in which they are different:

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 Use your graphic organisers on this page and on the previous page, to answer the questions below. 1. In many text types, there are heroes and villains. Who do you think you are positioned to see as heroic in the text?

. te o c Why? Think about what makes a hero._ _________________________________________ . che e r __________________________________________________________________________ o r st super __________________________________________________________________________

2. Who do you think we are positioned to see as the antagonists in the text?

__________________________________________________________________________ Why? Think about what makes a character unlikable._ _____________________________

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Extra Activity Imagine that the life of Edith Cowan is going to be the subject of a film. Create a promotional movie poster which celebrates the achievements of Edith Cowan. Depict her as heroic in your poster. Curriculum Link: Using comprehension strategies to interpret and analyse information and ideas (ACELY1713) Elaboration: Using prior knowledge and textual information to make inferences and predictions.

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Analysing Events In A Biography  After reading the biography entitled A Tireless Woman, complete this activity sheet. Graphic organisers can help us to see the cause and effect of events that take place in a text. They can help the reader to answer questions like, “What caused this event to happen?” and “What is the effect of this event happening?” Answering these questions helps us to see the consequences of events and actions in the text.

Cause Effect

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 Complete the graphic organisers below to help you to show and understand cause and effect.

Cause

Why did this event happen?

Effect

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Event 1: ________________________________ What was the result of this event happening?

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Event 2: _______________________________

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Why did this event happen?

What was the result of this event happening?

Extra Activity In groups of three, brainstorm some other female figures in Australian history who have achieved great things. Choose one of these figures and write down what obstacles she faced. Share your information with the class. 16

Curriculum Link: Understand that cohesive links can be made in texts by omitting or replacing words (ACELA1520) Elaborations: Observing how relationships between concepts can be represented visually through similarity, contrast, juxtaposition, repetition, class-subclass diagrams, part-whole diagrams, cause-and-effect figures, visual continuities and discontinuities.


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Reading Su Narratives

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A Narrative  A narrative is a fictional text because it is an imaginative story designed to entertain a reader. Read the narrative below, then complete the activity pages that follow.

The Plan

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Sarah had seen the woman with her small grey dog many times before. Her heart sank. Her mother didn’t trust her. When was she ever going to be allowed to walk home from school alone?

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Sarah caught the tennis ball and tossed it forward, bouncing it off the wall. It was at this moment that she noticed the older woman nearby - the one with the small grey dog. It was a light and bright, warm, Friday afternoon, caught in the space between the end of spring and the start of summer. It should have been a practice afternoon - an afternoon of tennis lessons. At the last moment though, Brett, her coach, had cancelled the lesson. And now she was at a loose end, volleying balls against the brick wall that divided the courts from the park and playground.

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The woman’s name was Vivien. Her black hair was pulled back like a nurse’s. She wore a sweatshirt, track pants and sneakers. She looked like a housewife. But Sarah knew the truth. She was a nanny from that expensive nanny and babysitting agency. The one her mother used when plans changed, so that Sarah would not be alone in the house until her mother returned home from work. “When you need someone, call an angel”, went the agency slogan. But this nanny did not look like an angel.

Vivien had been sent by the agency before. She was reliable. She was experienced. She was now known by both Sarah and her mother. Her references were clear, but she was no fun. And Sarah was too old for a nanny! “Seriously, mum,” Sarah muttered angrily when she spotted her.

o c . che Sarah grabbed her ball.r e Vivien walked over to o t r s s r au bench, pulling her dog behind her. The dog e p looked as annoyed as Sarah. It clearly did not

want to be there. “Join the club,” thought Sarah starring straight back at the dog. Vivien sat down. Sarah pretended not to notice. Instead, she kept on volleying the ball against the wall. Throw, splat, bounce, catch, return. Almost a full ten minutes passed. She glanced over to the park bench. Yes, Vivien was still there.

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Curriculum Link: Select, navigate and read texts for a range of purposes, applying appropriate text processing strategies and interpreting structural features, for example table of contents, glossary, chapters, headings and subheadings (ACELY1712)


Sarah nabbed the tennis ball for the last time, picked up her jumper from the ground, tied the jumper around her waist by its arms and approached Vivien. “You will wreck your jumper if you tie it around your waist like that Sarah,” Vivien smiled. “Hand it to me and I’ll carry it for you.” “No, thanks.” Sarah knew that she was being rude but she couldn’t help herself. Not only was she not allowed to walk home by herself but now she had to have her jumper carried? No way.

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It had only been two weeks since Vivien had last been here, babysitting Sarah. This had forced Sarah to do a search on the internet about child safety laws. Okay, as a kid under twelve and with a single mum who often worked long hours in the office, she couldn’t really stay at home for hours on end by herself. But she had also investigated safe routes home. Surely her mum could let her walk home and let herself in? Vivien could be there, organising dinner or a snack or something. Then at least Sarah would not be so embarrassed if she saw any of her friends on her way home with Vivien escorting her. Vivien the Boring Babysitter. Vivien got up from the bench. She smiled. Beamed even. “What was up?” Sarah wondered. “Listen, Sarah,” she began. “Why should I?” grumbled Sarah rebelliously. “I know it’s a pain having a nanny. Especially a middle-aged nanny like me.” Here Vivien grinned. “I know it’s not fun. But how about we cut a deal?” “Um..” Sarah stalled for some time. She wondered what was coming next. “Look, there is no catch. Not really. Let me talk.” Sarah was aware of the time. She knew they had to start walking soon, before any of the kids from the basketball court finished practice and came by. She started walking. Vivien and the dog hurried to keep up. “Like it or not your mother sometimes has to work late. Like it or not, she cares for you and wants you to be safe. Like it or not, she wants to use a nanny service that has a good reputation. And, like it or not, I need the money and am available.” Vivien paused. She stopped for a breath. Sarah kept on walking. “Stop!” The command shot through the air. Sarah turned around in disbelief. Nannies weren’t supposed to raise their voices were they? Vivien was taking deep breaths. Trying to smile. Looking at Sarah with serious eyes. “I have a plan. We make a list of things you like to do, Friday Fun we can call it. Go for ice creams, download a movie, make a favourite for dinner, play Candy Crush. Your choice. And every two weeks, when I am here on a Friday, you choose at least one thing from the list.” Vivien hesitated.

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o c . che e r o r st su er Sarah bit her lip. She felt mean. And yet p she was too old for a babysitter. Wasn’t she? Maybe she could do a deal. A list of favourite things. And, as part of the deal, she could walk home by herself, to be greeted at the door by Vivien. Maybe. “Well,” began Sarah......

Curriculum Link: Select, navigate and read texts for a range of purposes, applying appropriate text processing strategies and interpreting structural features, for example table of contents, glossary, chapters, headings and subheadings (ACELY1712)

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Making Connections  After reading the narrative entitled The Plan, complete this activity sheet.

What Do I Understand? This is like that other movie we saw ...

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 Answer the questions below to make connections.

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How do you understand texts? One way is to make connections. We can make connections with other texts. We can make connections with things that we have done, things we have seen, places we have been, things we remember. Have you ever watched a movie and thought, “This is like another movie that I’ve seen before”? That’s making a connection! Have you ever read a story and said, “If I were the person in the story I would ...”? That’s making a connection! Connections help us to understand what we have read.

1. The Plan reminds me of another story: _________________________________________

because___________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________

________________________________________________

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3. If I was the character Sarah in the story The Plan I would:

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2. The main character Sarah in The Plan is like another character in a story: __________________________

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_ . t e o ________________________________________________ _ c . cheI’ve experienced: r e 4. The story reminds me of something o t r s s r u e p __________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

Extra Activities • Now try making the above connections using a visual text that you have seen, like a movie or an animation. • Writing can help your reading. Write an ending to the story The Plan. 20

Curriculum Link: Make connections between students’ own experiences and those of characters and events represented in texts drawn from different historical, social and cultural contexts (ACELT1613) Elaborations: Recognising the influence our different historical, social and cultural experiences may have on the meaning we make from the text and the attitudes we may develop towards characters, actions and events.


Monitoring Comprehension  After reading the narrative entitled The Plan, complete this activity sheet.

Checking For Understanding Sometimes, if we ask questions when reading or viewing a text, we can check our understanding. We can ask questions like:

What seems clear?

What is not clear?

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If we ask ourselves these questions, we can build our understanding. Questions and sharing our questions and answers with others help us to understand.

Question 1

Answer:

Why did:

Question 2

Answer:

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 Create questions about the story The Plan with your partner. Talk and write down your questions below together with your answers to the questions.

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Should there:

Answer:

Question 3

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Question 4 I’m not sure:

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How did:

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Question 5 Any other question:

Extra Activity Share your questions and answers with another pair or with the class. Are any questions the same? Are there any that are different? Curriculum Link: Use comprehension strategies to interpret and analyse information and ideas, comparing content from a variety of textual sources including media and digital texts (ACELY1713) Elaboration: Asking and answering questions.

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Inferences And Predictions  After reading the narrative entitled The Plan, complete this activity sheet. As we read, we often make predictions about what the story might be about or what might happen. The title can help us to predict how a text might develop. Information within a text can hint at the resolution of a text or future events. Thinking about how a text might develop means that we are making inferences and predictions. When a writer drops hints and clues about how a text will be resolved it is known as foreshadowing.

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1. Think about the title The Plan and look at its accompanying illustrations. What did you first think the text would be about? What made you think this? I thought that The Plan would be about: __________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

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2. What would be another suitable title for this story that links to the events? What makes you think this?

I think another suitable title could be: ____________________________________________

because___________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons • f orr ev i ew pur posesonl y• An example of foreshadowing is:________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

3. Give an example of foreshadowing in the text.

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4. Is the story different, so far, from what you expected when you first read the title? The story is the same as/different from my expectations:_____________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

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. te o __________________________________________________________________________ c . che e r __________________________________________________________________________ o r st super 6. How do you think this conflict will be resolved? 5. What is the conflict in the story?

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

Extra Activity Ask yourself the same questions about a movie that you have viewed. Write and share your responses.

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Curriculum Link: Use comprehension strategies to interpret and analyse information and ideas, comparing content from a variety of textual sources including media and digital texts (ACELY1713) Elaborations: Making connections between information in print and images; Using prior knowledge and textual information to make inferences and predictions.


Values And Beliefs  After reading the narrative entitled The Plan, complete this activity sheet.

Think about your beliefs and values before you read a text.

Sometimes a text can challenge your beliefs and values. It may make you reflect and possibly change what you believe and what you value.

Beliefs

Values

Sarah values: r o e t s B r e oo p k Su

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 Think about what is important to Sarah in The Plan. Read the story again. As you read, put an X next to any phrases, sentences or paragraphs that show you what Sarah values (what is important to Sarah). Make a list.

 Now return to the story. Put an X, in a different coloured pen, next to any phrases, sentences, paragraphs that challenge your values. Maybe you agree with Sarah, maybe you disagree. Perhaps something makes you react strongly with a Yes! Or with a powerful – No! Look at where you placed these Xs. What challenged you? What made you agree or disagree with Sarah’s thoughts, actions and/or words?

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 1. Which character has similar values and beliefs to you –  Sarah or  Vivien? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

because___________________________________________________________________

because___________________________________________________________________

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2. Which character has different values to you –  Sarah or  Vivien? 3. My values were challenged when:

. te o 4. My values were mirrored/reinforced when: c . che e __________________________________________________________________________ r o t ris u per 5. This story reminded me that whats important is:s

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

6. I reacted strongly when:

__________________________________________________________________________

Extra Activities • Writing can help with your reading. Re-write the story, so that one of the characters or both show different values. Publish this on your class blog or website, if available. • Complete a storyboard of your rewritten story. Share this with a small group. Curriculum Link: Use comprehension strategies to interpret and analyse information and ideas, comparing content from a variety of textual sources including media and digital texts (ACELY1713) Elaboration: Making connections between the text and students’ own experience or other texts.

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Main Ideas  After reading the narrative entitled The Plan, complete this activity sheet. 1. Complete the table to show what the main ideas are in The Plan and what details, words or descriptions in the text present these main ideas. Main Ideas

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“Surely her mum could let her walk home and let herself in?”

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e.g. independence

Details/Words/Descriptions That Present Ideas

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Extra Activity Literal questions are different from inferential questions. Literal questions are questions that we can answer by locating the exact information in the text and not having to infer meaning. Write out five literal questions for your friend to answer. Your questions must relate to the story The Plan. Were your friend’s answers correct? 24

Curriculum Link: Use comprehension strategies to interpret and analyse information and ideas, comparing content from a variety of textual sources including media and digital texts (ACELY1713) Elaborations: Finding the main idea of a text. Finding specific literal information.


or e st Bo r • Section 3 • e p o

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A Greek Myth  Greek myths were created by ancient Greeks a long time ago and have been passed on from generation to generation. Greek myths can explain the ancient Greeks’ beliefs, their gods, heroes and origins of the world. Read the Greek myth below, then complete the activity sheets which follow.

Daedalus and Icarus retold by Leonie Westernberg

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Daedalus (Ded-a-lus) stared at the blue sky. The sun was warm on his back. Crete was a beautiful island, with its rocky landscape, mild weather and inviting waters. Yet Crete was not his home. He and his son Icarus (Ick-ar-us), were prisoners on Crete - forced to remain there by the king, King Minos (My-nos), to serve a prison sentence. Daedalus longed for Greece, his home. So how did he become a prisoner in Crete? This is the story…

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Daedalus was a fine architect. In Greece, he had designed many beautiful buildings. He had been invited to Crete as a guest of King Minos, to build a maze or labyrinth (lab-er-inth) for the King’s pet. And a very strange pet it was! A minotaur (min-oh-tore)! A horrible monster, with the head of a bull on a human body. Yet, King Minos deeply loved his pet and so Daedalus came to Crete to build the maze. He brought his son Icarus with him for a holiday.

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One day, a group of Greek children came to Crete and captured King Minos’ daughter - a young girl full of beauty. And, horror of horrors, the Greeks had managed to find their way through the labyrinth and kill the King’s beloved pet - his minotaur.

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Daedalus built a magnificent maze, complex and appealing. He was full of pride and secretly thought of himself as holding god-like status. Icarus enjoyed swimming and playing with the other children on the island of Crete. He enjoyed doing what he wanted, when he wanted. King Minos was happy with the maze; the minotaur was safe and happy too. So, Daedalus decided to stay awhile in Crete for an extended holiday. Little did he know that it was to become his prison!

. te o The King believed that Daedalus had helped the Greeks c . cwas through the maze. Daedalus innocent, but the King ignorede h r e o Daedalus’ cries of innocence. King Minos, in his anger, s refused t r supe r to believe Daedalus and planned a punishment for what he believed was Daedalus’ crime. The punishment became imprisonment; Daedalus and his son Icarus were forced to remain on the island of Crete as prisoners.

Daedalus longed for home and spent many hours plotting an escape. Then, one day in the sun, Daedalus watched the birds fly away, “I wish I was like those birds, easily able to escape the prison of Crete,” he said. And then the idea came to him! Wings! He and Icarus could make wings and learn to fly like the birds. He knew he was talented, he knew he could defy nature. The father and son collected many bird feathers. Over time, they gathered enough to 26

Curriculum Link: Select, navigate and read texts for a range of purposes, applying appropriate text processing strategies and interpreting structural features, for example table of contents, glossary, chapters, headings and subheadings (ACELY1712)


construct wings. They made light-framed wings for their arms, gluing the feathers together with wax. The day of their planned escape came. Daedalus warned Icarus to fly low, away from the hot sun. Father and son ran together, leaping off the rocky cliff in sync. They flapped their wings. They curved their arms. They were flying! The clear blue sea sparkled beneath them. The piercing blue sky was all around them. The sun warmed their bodies. “Fly low, fly low, Icarus,” repeated Daedalus Icarus grinned and shook his head. Enchanted by the glorious feeling of flight, he was tempted to soar and imitate the birds.

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Ignoring his father’s warning, Icarus flew high, straight towards the sun. As he travelled closer and closer to the heat of the sun, the wax on Icarus’ wings began to melt. Frantically, Icarus attempted to flap his wings faster and move away from the sun. But it was too late. The remaining wax melted and Icarus fell into the sea. Daedalus, though full of sorrow, could do nothing to save Icarus. He flew on, regretting the day that he had agreed to come to Crete and work for King Minos.

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The story of Icarus has been told and re-told, as part of legendary Greek myths. It is often said that there is a lesson to be learned from this story. A lesson involving pride and temptation, humility and punishment. And – it’s an interesting story, too! Curriculum Link: Select, navigate and read texts for a range of purposes, applying appropriate text processing strategies and interpreting structural features, for example table of contents, glossary, chapters, headings and subheadings (ACELY1712)

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Visualisation 1  After reading the Greek myth entitled Daedalus and Icarus complete this activity sheet. We can build a picture of the text that we are reading in our minds. This means that we are creating mental pictures. When we form mental pictures while we read, we are visualising. Visualisation helps make a story more personal for us. It also helps us to remember more and remember well. Our mental images change as we read. Visualisation is like building a personal road map – we create pictures of what we hear, smell, touch, and see in the story.

I hear ... I see ... I feel ...

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I smell ...

Visualisation Chart

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 Complete the Visualisation Chart below. Use words, dot points, sentences or pictures to describe the images that you see as you are reading the myth.

What do you see?

What do you smell?

e.g. I see the King’s red face and steam coming from his ears.

e.g. I smell Icarus’ burning wings.

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What do you hear?

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What do you feel?

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Extra Activity Share your chart with the class. Discuss similarities and differences.

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Curriculum Link: Identify the relationship between words, sounds, imagery and language patterns in narratives and poetry such as ballads, limericks and free verse (ACELT1617) Elaboration: Identifying how language choice and imagery build emotional connection and engagement with the story or theme.


Visualisation 2  After reading the Greek myth entitled Daedalus and Icarus complete this activity sheet. As we read, the images in our minds change. Sometimes, our ideas about words affect our mental images. These ideas are known as connotations. Thinking about the vocabulary that is used in a text and our mental images can build our understanding of the text. This helps us to think about how we make meaning.

or eBo st r e p ok u S List of Words

e.g. inviting waters

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 Make a list of words and phrases from the text that create images.

 Choose four words/phrases from the list. Write each one at the top of each cloud below. Now draw and write what you see when you think of these words.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons A• turquoise/blue pool of water f orr e vi e w pur posesonl y• e.g. inviting waters

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transparent water - can see fish and rocks below the surface on the sand

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flat water - no ripples

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Extra Activity Find somebody who wrote down one of the same words/phrases as you. Are your mental images the same? Curriculum Link: Identify the relationship between words, sounds, imagery and language patterns in narratives and poetry such as ballads, limericks and free verse (ACELT1617) Elaboration: Identifying how language choice and imagery build emotional connection and engagement with the story or theme.

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Important Ideas 1  After reading the Greek myth entitled Daedalus and Icarus complete this activity sheet. When we read we are provided with lots of information. Sometimes it seems like we receive too much information at once! When we read, we should decide what information is the most important and what is less important. This will help us to determine what the main ideas are in a text. Examples of main ideas in Cinderella, for example, are jealousy and justice.

or eBo st r e p ok u SThe Main Ideas

Main Idea: e.g. injustice

2

Quotation/s:

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 Try to identify three main ideas in Daedalus and Icarus. Quote from the text to show how these ideas are presented.

Main Idea:

Quotation/s:

“Daedalus was innocent, but the King ignored Daedalus’ cries of innocence … and planned a punishment.”

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Main Idea:

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Main Idea:

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Extra Activity Are the main ideas in Daedalus and Icarus the same as the main ideas in any other text that you know? Make a list of these texts. 30

Curriculum Link: Use comprehension strategies to interpret and analyse information and ideas, comparing content from a variety of textual sources including media and digital texts (ACELY1713) Elaboration: Finding the main idea of a text.


Important Ideas 2  After reading the Greek myth entitled Daedalus and Icarus complete this activity sheet. We can explain the main ideas in a text without using quotations from the text. Look at this example below:

Idea

Explanation

Injustice

King Minos wrongly accuses Daedalus of helping the Greeks to steal his daughter and kill the minotaur.

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 Now complete your own Idea-Explanation sheet on the text. Use your ideas on the previous page if you wish.

Idea

Explanation

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Find books in the library or websites about the Greek myth Daedalus and Icarus. Try to find a visual representation of this story. How does it compare to the written text? What is your opinion of the visual text? What reasons can you give for your opinion? Curriculum Link: Use comprehension strategies to interpret and analyse information and ideas, comparing content from a variety of textual sources including media and digital texts (ACELY1713) Elaboration: Finding the main idea of a text.

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The Unknown  After reading the Greek myth entitled Daedalus and Icarus complete this activity sheet. When we read, certain events may not be fully explained. There might be a lot of things that happen that we are left wondering about. After we have read a text, we might still ask ourselves: “Why did this happen?”, “What happened next?”, “What happened before?”, “Are there similar people and events today?” What did you wonder about after you read Daedalus and Icarus? What did your partner wonder about?

or eBo st r e p ok u S I WONDER ...

What happened to King Minos’ daughter?

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 In pairs, complete the Wonder Chart below. Look at the sample wonder question. Write down your own wonder questions.

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Extra Activity Answer one of the Wonder Questions above with your partner. Do you both agree with the answer?

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Curriculum Links: Use interaction skills, varying conventions of spoken interactions such as voice, volume, tone, pitch and pace, according to group size, formality of interaction and needs and expertise of the audience (ACELY1816) Elaboration: Participating in pair, group, class, school and community speaking and listening situations, including informal conversations, discussions, debates and presentations.


Reader Positioning  After reading the Greek myth entitled Daedalus and Icarus complete this activity sheet. When we read, we form opinions about the characters. We form these opinions because of reader positioning. Reader positioning means the writer uses language to make us see characters as possibly greedy, proud, cruel, selfish and/or kind for example. Some examples of the types of language that the writer might use to position the reader are: descriptive language, metaphors, similes, verbs, adverbs, nouns, synonyms and antonyms.

or eBo st r e p ok u S Your Opinion

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 Think about the Greek myth Daedalus and Icarus. Write your opinion of each character below and say how language has positioned you to feel this way.

Character

Opinion

Language Used

The King

E.g. Cruel, rash, jumps to conclusions, powerful, a bad listener.

E.g The verbs “ignored” and “refused” show he didn’t give Daesalus a chance to prove his innocence. The nouns “punishment” and “King” show that he has power.

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Icarus

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Daedalus

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The Greeks

The King’s daughter Curriculum Link: Analyse strategies authors use to influence readers (ACELY18011) Elaboration: Identify how authors use language to position the reader and give reasons.

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What’s The Text’s Problem?  After reading the Greek myth entitled Daedalus and Icarus complete this activity sheet.

Texts Have Problems

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• In texts, characters often experience a problem. • In texts, events often cause a problem. • We can think about what events caused the problem and the effect that the problem had on the characters in the text. • What problems did you notice in the myth Daedalus and Icarus? • Were they caused by people or by events? • We can also think about how the problem is solved, then we can deepen our understanding and response to the text.

or eBo st r e p ok u S Problem Chart

1

What is a problem in the text?

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What caused the problem?

3

What was the effect of the problem?

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 In pairs, complete the chart. It will help you to identify the problems in the myth, the effects on the characters because of these problems and the solutions of these problems.

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o c . che e r o r st su r e p How was this problem resolved? 4 Extra IDEA

In small groups, role play the problem and solution. Could the problem be solved in another way?

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Curriculum Links: Use interaction skills, varying conventions of spoken interactions such as voice, volume, tone, pitch and pace, according to group size, formality of interaction and needs and expertise of the audience (ACELY1816) Elaboration: Participating in pair, group, class, school and community speaking and listening situations, including informal conversations, discussions, debates and presentations.


or e st Bo r • Section 4 • e p o

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Reading Su Non-Fiction k

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A News Report  News reports are non-fiction. They aim to present their information as factual. Read the news report then complete the activity pages which follow.

Volcano Set To Erupt Story by Jade Jenkins, the Sydney Morning Report’s journalist on site in Japan. Friday, 28th November.

expected that the crater will not provide a major threat, since, according to the Tokyo VAAC, “activity generally calms down, and the emissions usually become strong steaming rather than continual full-blown magma emissions.”

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KYUSHU, JAPAN: There were continuous ash emissions from the Kyushu volcano in Japan yesterday, with an ash plume rising to an altitude of 3 km! The Kyushu volcano has been the site of intense activity in recent days, with Japanese authorities advising caution for both tourists and residents.

If wind activity increases, ash-rich emissions will spread to more heavily populated areas, posing potential health issues for those with respiratory problems such as asthma.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pu r posesonl y• People are warned to be aware, but not

to panic. “We are proud of our record of observations and notifications”, said a spokesperson in Tokyo. Although 17 of our volcanoes have been recorded as being in eruption, throughout our long history, a background check shows that we are well-prepared for evacuations onto other islands, such as Shikoku and Honshu, if necessary.”

Japan has over 100 volcanoes, more than almost any other country in the world. It alone accounts for 10% of all active volcanoes worldwide. In fact, Japan forms Hokkaido part of the so-called ‘Pacific Ring of Fire’, the area of volcanic activity caused by the reduction in the Pacific plates beneath the earth and ocean. This involves continental and ocean Munakata plates below the earth’s Nagasaki Shikoku Oita surface. Kyushu Kagoshima

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Recent footage released has revealed white-hot fountains arising from the crater, signifying that new magma has arrived there. “The magma is rich in ashes. This confirms that a new magma eruption has occurred at the site,” established a scientist from the Tokyo VAAC (Volcano Ash Advisory Centre).

o c . Certainly, current messages che e r to the public have been o r st super mild in tone, advising tourists and residents

Miyazaki

Map of Japan

Honshu

to avoid the crater and surrounding area. Health warnings have yet to be released for sufferers of respiratory disorders, though it is considered wise to have medications and other treatments to hand.

Curriculum Link: Select, navigate and read texts for a range of purposes, applying appropriate text processing strategies and interpreting structural features, for example table of contents, glossary, chapters, headings and subheadings (ACELY1712)


Opinion Piece  Opinion pieces, or ‘op-eds,’ are articles through which the writer expresses his/her personal opinion. Often, this is controversial or is meant to provoke discussion and debate about a particular issue or item of news. After you have read the news report Volcano Set to Erupt, read the opinion piece below.

The Truth Behind Kyushu Volcanic Activity By Noa Saito, a concerned citizen. Originally published on her blog Seeking Truth. Friday, 28th November.

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Indeed, a local official is quoted, in the ‘Sydney Morning Reporter’, as saying that there is little reason for concern. The official further reassures us that Japan’s so-called amazing track record shows that we are well prepared for emergencies such as ‘health warnings and evacuations’.

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Recent volcanic activity in Kyushu has caused the transmission of volcanic ash throughout our city. People can be seen in the streets, shopping and attempting to go about their daily business, while wearing surgical masks to prevent ingestion of the ash. Yet, our government officials tell us not to worry.

Well-prepared? For medical emergencies? I doubt it. In a recent article in the online journal PubMed, a journal on public medicine, researchers noted that Japan’s general hospital system was not adequate for large scale emergencies. If the volcanic activity suddenly increases and people suffer breathing difficulties and other related illnesses, there will be little room for them to receive medical care in our local hospitals. The hospitals are already crowded, with nurses and doctors being run off their feet.

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Evacuation plans in Japan are also sadly lacking. During the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, it was not the government’s evacuation plans that maintained peace and order in chaos. No, it was the character of we, the law-abiding citizens of Japan. We maintained civilisation in the midst of chaos and rapidly thrown together evacuation plans. The government should thank us, not try to treat us like children with empty comments on supposed excellent track records for well-prepared emergency plans.

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What is the truth behind the Kyushu volcanic activity?

The truth is that our government is, sadly, unprepared for large scale emergencies. The truth, also, is that our government is trying to boost our economy through tourism and so it doesn’t want to discourage tourists from coming to Japan, or from cancelling their trips because of volcanic activity. The real truth is that we need to trust ourselves and our local communities to stockpile medication and provide safe exits for local families. The real truth is that our good characters as faithful citizens of Japan are our strongest asset. If we band together we can help each other in the shadow of risk from volcanic activity. And not rely on our poor, ineffective national emergency plans. It is we locals who will suffer if we do not take power and responsibility into local hands. That’s the real truth. Let’s take action and prepare ourselves now. Curriculum Link: Select, navigate and read texts for a range of purposes, applying appropriate text processing strategies and interpreting structural features, for example table of contents, glossary, chapters, headings and subheadings (ACELY1712)

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Drawing Comparisons 1  After reading the news report entitled Volcano Set To Erupt and the opinion piece entitled The Truth Behind Kyushu Volcanic Activity complete this activity sheet.

Opinion Pieces provide commentaries on an event. News reports aim to report the facts of an event.

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What is the story about?

News Report

Opinion Piece

Volcano Set To Erupt

The Truth Behind Kyushu Volcanic Activity

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 Let’s try analysing the news report Volcano Set To Erupt and the opinion piece The Truth Behind Kyushu Volcanic Activity by completing the table.

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Is the tone formal or informal? Give examples.

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Does the text use statistics? Give examples.

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What is the writer’s opinion of the Japanese government?

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Does it use any technical language? Give examples.

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Curriculum Link: Analyse and evaluate similarities and differences in texts on similar topics, themes or plots (ACELT1614) Elaboration: Exploring texts on a similar topic by authors with very different styles, for example comparing fantasy quest novels or realistic novels on a specific theme, identifying differences in the use of narrator, narrative structure and voice and language style and register.


Drawing Comparisons 2  Identify seven similarities between the news report and the opinion piece. You might look at the structure, subject, tone, vocabulary, visuals, etc.

Similarity 2:

opinion piece

Volcano Set To Erupt

The Truth Behind Kyushu Volcanic Activity

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Similarity 1:

News Report

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Similarity 6: Similarity 7: Curriculum Link: Analyse and evaluate similarities and differences in texts on similar topics, themes or plots (ACELT1614) Elaboration: Exploring texts on a similar topic by authors with very different styles, for example comparing fantasy quest novels or realistic novels on a specific theme, identifying differences in the use of narrator, narrative structure and voice and language style and register.

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Drawing Comparisons 3  Identify seven differences between the news report and the opinion piece. You might look at the structure, subject, tone, vocabulary, visuals, etc.

Difference 2:

opinion piece

Volcano Set To Erupt

The Truth Behind Kyushu Volcanic Activity

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Difference 1:

News Report

Difference © ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 3:

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Difference 4: Difference 5:

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Difference 6: Difference 7: 40

Curriculum Link: Analyse and evaluate similarities and differences in texts on similar topics, themes or plots (ACELT1614) Elaboration: Exploring texts on a similar topic by authors with very different styles, for example comparing fantasy quest novels or realistic novels on a specific theme, identifying differences in the use of narrator, narrative structure and voice and language style and register.


Objective And Subjective Language  In the news report Volcano Set To Erupt, the writer (Jade Jenkins) wants to sound as objective (unbiased) as possible. To do this she uses objective language (“facts”) rather than subjective language (“opinions”).  The writer of the opinion piece The Truth Behind Kyushu Volcanic Activity uses lots of subjective language (“opinions”) but also includes some objective language, to make her text look believable.  Give examples of objective and subjective language used in both texts. Write in the table below.

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opinion piece

Volcano Set To Erupt

The Truth Behind Kyushu Volcanic Activity

e.g. “With an ash plume rising to an altitude of 3km!” (objective)

e.g. “Well-prepared? For medical emergencies? I doubt it.” (subjective)

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 Which text do you trust more? Why?

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___________________________________________________________________________ Curriculum Link: Analyse and evaluate similarities and differences in texts on similar topics, themes or plots (ACELT1614) Elaboration: Exploring texts on a similar topic by authors with very different styles, for example comparing fantasy quest novels or realistic novels on a specific theme, identifying differences in the use of narrator, narrative structure and voice and language style and register.

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Identifying Bias  Read the opinion piece The Truth Behind Kyushu Volcanic Activity, then complete this activity sheet. When you read, there are some questions you can ask yourself to help you identify bias. For example, you can ask: “Where did the author get this information?” Sometimes the answer to this question can help you figure out how the article might be biased. Three possible sources of bias are:

A

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The writer has received or provided incomplete information.

The writer is trying to influence or convince the reader by use of words and persuasive techniques.

The writer’s past experience is influencing his or her thinking.

Point 1

Bias

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 Write three points the writer has made concerning what she considers to be the truth behind Kyushu volcanic activity. Next to each point, state which type of bias is demonstrated, from the list above.

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Point 2

Bias

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Point 3

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Extra Activity Research your local council or state emergency plans. You can find this information on government websites. Do you think it is an effective plan? Write an opinion piece on the plan, expressing your point of view. 42

Curriculum Link: Understand the uses of objective and subjective language and bias (ACELA1517). Elaborations: Differentiating between reporting the facts (for example in a news story) and providing a commentary (for example in an editorial). Analyse strategies authors use to influence readers (ACELY1801). Elaboration: Identify how authors use language to position the reader and give reasons.


Analysing Images  The news report Volcano Set To Erupt includes a map of the island of Kyushu. We can analyse the map to help us critically view the author’s argument. It is helpful to learn how to analyse and interpret information that is represented in graphs, charts, tables, diagrams, and maps. The information often adds to our understanding of the text. We can learn to breakdown graphics in information texts and maps in a step-by-step process.

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1. View the graphic. What type of graphic are you analysing? _ ____________________________________

2. What information is the visual providing? List three pieces of information.

Honshu

_ __________________________________ Munakata

Shikoku © ReadyEdPubl i cat i o n s Kyushu _ __________________________________ o •f orr evi ew pur p sesonl y•

_ __________________________________

Nagasaki

Kagoshima

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Hokkaido

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Map of Japan

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3. The writer argues that the government is well-prepared to evacuate people from Kyushu to other islands of Japan, such as Shikoku and Honshu, in emergency situations. Look at the map. Look at where the islands are situated. How close are they? Do you think that they are easily accessible?

. t e o __________________________________________________________________________ c . che e _________________________________________________________________________ r o r st suprepresent er 4. Can you think of a different way to visually the information on the map? Explain

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why this visual representation might be effective in representing the information.

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Extra Activity Do some research to find other maps of Kyushu that show the information differently, for example, railway lines or road maps. With your partner, compare the information on these maps. Curriculum Link: Identify and explain how analytical images like figures, tables, diagrams, maps and graphs contribute to our understanding of verbal information in factual and persuasive texts (ACELA1524). Elaboration: Observing how concepts, information and relationships can be represented visually through such images as tables, maps, graphs, diagrams, and icons.

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Who Is Biased?  Re-read the news report Volcano Set To Erupt and the op-ed The Truth Behind Kyushu Volcanic Activity, then complete this activity page.

Sometimes people use bias on purpose in writing.

For example, if you want to persuade someone to agree with your point of view, you can include information that supports your position and leave out other information which doesn’t support your point. This is intentional bias or selection of detail. Another kind of bias is unintentional. It occurs in writing when a person tries to be accurate but does not have sufficient information and has not carried out adequate research.

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Can you find any bias in the news report? Think about use of information, identification of sources, word usage, and inclusion of “facts”.

1. What type of bias is this (intentional or unintentional)?_________________________ 2. Why do you think this? Use examples from the text to support your answer.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• ______________________________________________________________________

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Bias in the op-ed

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3. What is the effect of this bias? For example, does it persuade? Does it cause you to question the information? Explain why.

Identify the bias in the op-ed. Think about use of information, identification of sources, word usage, and inclusion of facts.

. te o c 2. Why do you think this? Use examples from the text to support your answer. . c e her r ______________________________________________________________________ o t s super ______________________________________________________________________ 1. What type of bias is this (intentional or unintentional)?_________________________

3. What is the effect of this bias? For example, does it persuade? Does it cause you to question the information? Explain why.

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Extra Activity Have a debate in your small group on the topic: The news report is more accurate than the opinion piece. Use your arguments above to help you plan your arguments. 44

Curriculum Link: Compare texts including media texts that represent ideas and events in different ways, explaining the effects of the different approaches (ACELY1708). Elaboration: Identifying and exploring news reports of the same event, and discuss the language choices and point of view of the writers.


What’s Your Opinion? The editorial page of a newspaper is a good place to find biased writing. Editors try to persuade readers.  Read an editorial in a local newspaper, online or in print. Identify the bias in the editorial. Then read the editorial to your class, and discuss any bias you find in it.

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1. What is your opinion? _ ______________________________________________________

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2. Do you agree or disagree with the editorial? Why? _ _______________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

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3. Do you need to research the event or issue to discover more information that will help you form your opinion? __________________________________________________________________________

 After your discussion and research, write your own opinion piece on the same topic as the editorial. Remember to use persuasive language.

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Extra Activity Have a class competition to share your opinion pieces. Vote for the three most persuasive texts. Curriculum Link: Compare texts including media texts that represent ideas and events in different ways, explaining the effects of the different approaches (ACELY1708). Elaboration: Identifying and exploring news reports of the same event, and discuss the language choices and point of view of the writers.

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Answers are repeated a lot? What ideas do they reinforce? “first” (that Cowan made history), woman (her gender made her unique as a member in parliament), women (she did much to support women throughout her parliamentary career), etc. 3. Synonyms are words similar in meaning. What synonyms are used in the text? criticised-opposed; support-encourage; experienced-involved; troubles-difficulties, etc. 4. Antonyms are words dissimilar in meaning. What antonyms are used in the text? troubled-privileged; compassion and care – lack of support; quietly spoken – spoke well in public; quiet-social. 5. Students might note that the antonyms help to develop the opposing qualities of Edith and James; Edith and Charles Latham; Edith and William Hill.

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Sample answers. Answers may vary. Page 10, Summarising 1. A Tireless Woman is about: Edith Cowan, the first woman in Australian Parliament, who made important contributions to the welfare of women and children in society. 2. One important idea presented in the text about Edith Cowan is: her work in the Child Protection Society, to prevent children from being sent to gaol. 3. A second important idea presented in the text about Edith Cowan is: the important contribution that Edith Cowan made in fighting prejudice towards women when she became the first woman in Parliament in Western Australia. 4. I believe that this text is important because: it provides important information concerning the history of Australia, including the rights of women and children and Edith Cowan’s role in Parliament. 5. If I had to write one sentence about the text to tell a friend, it would be: This text is a biography that describes the life and achievements of Edith Cowan - the first woman to enter Parliament in Australia.

13, Structure Of A Biography © ReadyEdPage P u bl i cat i ons Introduction to Cowan: A summary of her achievement - first woman to enter Parliament •f orr evi ew pu pos eso nl • her as inr Western Australia in 1921 -y introduces

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Page 12, Language And Effects 2 1. Specific language is language which replaces general terms. Instead of “cut” for example, “slice “ or “dice” can be used. Can you find any specific language in the text?: “witnessed” instead of saw; “needy, troubled” instead of poor, etc. 2. Repetition of certain words can help to reinforce a main idea. What words 46

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Page 11, Language And Effects 1 Students will select different types of language. They should understand that overall, language is used in the text to persuade readers to see Cowan in a positive light - as compassionate, selfless, intelligent, courageous, a great orator and a creator of change. It is also used to develop other characters in the text.

an important historical figure - know she is on the $50 note. Achievement 1: First woman elected into Parliament in Australia. Obstacle 1: Newspaper article written by a male journalist who criticises her for neglecting home and family. Obstacle 2: Charles Latham - fellow politician wanted to make sure Cowan made no changes to women’s roles in society. Achievement 2: Removing the Pram Tax. Achievement 3: Setting up the Child Protection Society. Supporter - James Cowan: married to Edith Cowan, a judge in the court and a strong supporter of Edith Cowan’s work. They worked well together. Legacy: Our Children’s Court today, on the $50 note, ECU university. Page 14, Making Comparisons 1 Edith Cowan & James Cowan


One way in which they are similar: Both supporters of women, children and families. One way in which they are different: Edith Cowan was very social and enjoyed public speaking while James was quieter and less social. Edith Cowan & Charles Latham One way in which they are similar: Both members of the West Australian Parliament. One way in which they are different: Edith Cowan came from a troubled family that suffered financial difficulties while Charles Latham‘s background was more privileged.

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Page 20, Making Connections 1. The Plan reminds me of another story: Students should select a familiar story and find links with characters, events, language, plot, etc. 2. The main character Sarah in The Plan is like another character in a story: Students should select a familiar story and make links with behaviour, events, language, description, etc. 3. If I was the character Sarah in the story The Plan I would: Discuss options and negotiate with Vivien/be more polite/ agree to Vivien’s plan/talk to my mother, etc. 4. The story reminds me of something I’ve experienced: Students relate an experience from their lives to the text. Maybe they can think about how they get home from school - their care arrangements.

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PAge 15, Making Comparisons 2 Edith Cowan & William Hill One way in which they are similar: Both members of Parliament who were concerned about public transport. One way in which they are different: Edith Cowan disagreed with the Railway Minister concerning the Pram Tax. 1. Who do you think you are positioned to see as heroic in the text? Edith Cowan. Why? The biography is about Edith Cowan so the author presents her and her achievements in a positive way, she rises above all the obstacles that come in her way - she is triumphant. 2. Who do you think we are positioned to see as the antagonists in the text? Charles Latham and William Hill. 3. Why? Latham: The text contrasts his more privileged/wealthier background with the less financially rich background of Edith Cowan to represent his lack of sympathy for and understanding of women’s lives and the role of women in government. Hill: The text shows that he is more concerned with raising money than with the welfare of children and mothers.

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able to travel without an added tax and the significance of the role of mothers was recognised in Parliament. Event 2: The introduction of the Child Protection Society. Cause: Why did this event happen? Cowan witnessed how women and children suffered when a husband/father was in gaol. Effect: What was the result of this event happening? The Children’s Protection Society that Cowan set up has now become our Children’s Court. Having seen families suffer and children turn to crime to help their families, Cowan made sure that children were not tried as adults but treated differently and with compassion and care in court.

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Page 16, Analysing Events In A Biography Event 1: Removal of the Pram Tax. Cause: Why did this event happen? Edith Cowan had been a mother herself and knew of the difficulties mothers experienced when travelling with children - she fought for the removal of the Pram Tax. Effect: What was the result of this event happening? Mothers and children were

Page 21, Monitoring Comprehension Question 1: Why did: e.g. Sarah not want a babysitter, Sarah’s mother not let her walk home? Question 2: Should there: e.g. be a discussion with Sarah and her mother and Vivien? Question 3: How did: e.g. Sarah get to the park and tennis courts on her own? Question 4: I’m not sure: e.g. if Sarah will compromise with Vivien.

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2.

3.

to do the right thing, I feel safe when I obey my parents, I prefer to be dependent on an adult for some things, I like to plan fun things to do. Which character has different values to you – Sarah or Vivien? Sarah because I am not conscious of what my peers think of me, I don’t think being cared for is embarrassing, I like being dependent on adults. Vivien I value independence. My values were challenged when: e.g. Sarah was rude to Vivien; Vivien yelled at Sarah; Sarah refused to walk home with Vivien, etc. (Answers will vary depending on students’ values.) My values were mirrored/reinforced when: e.g. Vivien smiled and was polite, Sarah listened and seemed willing to discuss things with Vivien, etc. (Answers will vary depending on students’ values.) This story reminded me that what is important is: listening to others, talking, negotiating, safety, obedience, independence (answers will vary). I reacted strongly when: e.g. Sarah walked away, Vivien yelled, etc.

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Page 22, Inferences And Predictions 1. Think about the title of The Plan and look at the accompanying illustrations. What did you first think the text would be about? What made you think this? I thought that The Plan would be about: Students answers will vary, e.g. A plan concerning school/a tennis competition/mother and daughter coming up with a plan to win a tennis match. 2. What would be another suitable title for this story that links to the events? What makes you think this? I think another suitable title could be: e.g. The Problem With The Babysitter because the story describes Sarah and her poor relationship with her babysitter, Vivien. 3. Give an example of foreshadowing in the text. An example of foreshadowing is: “Sarah had seen the woman with the small grey dog many times before. Her heart sank.” This foreshadows that Vivien is unwanted. 4. Is the story different, so far, from what you expected when you first read the title? Answers will vary. 5. What is the conflict in the story? The conflict is between Sarah and the babysitter. Sarah thinks that she is too old for a babysitter but the babysitter must escort her home. 6. How do you think this conflict will be resolved? Sarah and Vivien might compromise and come up with a plan to suit them both/resolve the conflict.

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Page 28, Visualisation 1 What do you see? I see a flat, calm, transparent body of water in Crete. What do you smell? Glue used to construct the wings. What do you hear? The laughter of the children playing in Crete. What do you feel? I feel the warmth of the sun on Daedalus’ back.

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Page 23, Values And Beliefs As you read, put an X next to any phrases, sentences or paragraphs that show you what Sarah values (what is important to Sarah). Make a list. Independence, not being embarrassed in front of her friends, being accepted by her friends, being trusted by her mum, growing up. 1. Which character has similar values and beliefs to you – Sarah because I want to be liked by my friends, I want to be trusted, I want to do things by myself to show I am grown up. Vivien because I like company, I like safety, I like to please my parents, I like

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Main Idea E.g. Rebellion. Details/Words/Descriptions That Present Ideas Sarah is unhappy when she sees Vivien, Sarah ignores Vivien, Sarah walks away from Vivien.

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Page 29, Visualisation 2 Choose three words/phrases from your list above. Write each one in a cloud below. Now write down your ideas about these words and draw what you see when you think of


E.g. Rocky – brown, grey, sharp, steep, high. Page 30, Important Ideas 1 Imprisonment: “Forced to remain there by the king … to serve a prison sentence.” “Daedalus longed for home and spent many hours plotting an escape.” Disobedience: “Icarus … shook his head … ignoring his father’s warnings, Icarus flew high, straight towards the sun.”

Character: Icarus Opinion: Lawless; rebellious; disobedient; doesn't listen. Language Used: Idiom: “Icarus enjoyed doing what he wanted, when he wanted.” Verbs: Icarus grinned and shook his head … Ignoring his father’s warning. Character: The Greeks Opinion: Violent, untrustworthy. Language Used: Verbs: captured, kill.

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Character: The King’s daughter Opinion: victim, beautiful Noun: “beauty”. Verb: “captured”. Page 34, What's The Text's Problem? Problem Chart 1. What is a problem in the text? Daedalus and Icarus are trapped on the island of Crete. 2. What caused the problem? The Greeks came to the island, took the King’s daughter, found their way through the labyrinth and killed the King's minotaur. The king believed that the only way that the Greeks could have found their way through the maze was with the help of Daedalus. 3. What was the effect of the problem? Daedalus and Icarus became prisoners on the island of Crete. This made them long to return to their home. 4. How was this problem resolved? Daedalus and Icarus collected bird feathers and made wings for themselves. They flew off the island. Daedalus managed to get away but Icarus flew close to the sun and crashed into the sea.

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Page 31, Important Ideas 2 Main idea: Injustice Explanation: A group of Greek children came to Crete and captured King Minos’ daughter and managed to find their way through the labyrinth and kill the King’s beloved pet. The King believed that Daedalus had helped the Greeks through the maze. Daedalus was innocent, but the King ignored Daedalus’ cries of innocence and planned a punishment. Main Idea: Imprisonment Explanation: Daedalus and his son Icarus were forced to remain on the island of Crete as prisoners. Main idea: Disobedience Explanation: Daedalus warned Icarus to fly low, away from the hot sun. Ignoring his father’s warning, Icarus flew high, straight towards the sun. In the heat of the sun, the wax on Icarus’ wings began to melt. Icarus fell into the sea.

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“complex” and “appealing”.

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Page 32, The Unknown I WONDER ...how King Miros heard of Daedalus and his art; if King Miros ever found his daughter; how Daedalus and Icarus travelled to Crete; if King Miros discovered the truth about his minotaur; whether the people of Crete went to war with the people from Greece; if the conflict was resolved; if Daedalus made it home.

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Page 33, Reader Positioning Character : Daedalus Opinion: Intelligent, creative. Language Used : The adjective and noun “fine architect”; the adjectival phrase: “he had designed many beautiful buildings”; the description of the maze: “magnificent”,

Page 38, Drawing Comparisons 1 What is the news story about? Both stories are about the Kyushu volcanic eruption. What’s the writer’s opinion of the Japanese government? The news report does not criticise the government, rather it seems to support its opinions. The opinion piece, in contrast, criticises the government and claims that 49


prepared for medical emergencies. Difference 4: The news report uses more “facts”. E.g. “Pacific Plates beneath the earth and ocean”. The opinion piece uses more subjective language, “Well-prepared?’ … I doubt it.” Difference 5: The tone of the news report is more formal and detached, “It is considered wise to have medications and other treatment to hand.” The tone of the opinion piece is less formal and more critical, “nurses and doctors being run of their feet”. Difference 6: The news report does not include rhetorical questions. The opinion piece includes several rhetorical questions and addresses the reader, “What is the truth behind the Kyushu Volcanic activity?”; “let’s take action …” Difference 7: The news report does not criticise the Japanese government. The opinion piece is highly critical of the Japanese government claiming that the government is misleading the people.

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Page 39, Drawing Comparisons 2 Similarity 1: Both include visuals to support information. Similarity 2: Both report on the erupting volcano in Kyushu, Japan. Similarity 3: Both include quotations from “experts”, such as an official and a scientist. Similarity 4: Both agree that the volcano has released ash into the air. Similarity 5: Both agree that the Japanese government claim that the volcanic ash should not pose any major threat to citizens’ health. Similarity 6: Both are written at the same time and are current. Similarity 7: Both include a headline and a byline.

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the Japanese government is deceptive and misleading. Is the tone formal or informal? The tone used in the news report is more formal (“advising tourists and residents to avoid the crater and surrounding areas”). The tone in the opinion piece is more informal as it includes colloquial language, such as, “run off their feet”. Does the text use statistics? The news report uses several statistics (“10% of all active volcanoes”; “100 volcanoes”; “17 of our volcanoes”). The opinion piece does not use any statistics making it appear less factual. Does it use any technical language? The news report uses a lot of technical language, such as, “crater”, “plates”, “emissions”, “ash”, “plume”, altitude”, “magma”, “eruption”, “Pacific Ring Of Fire”, etc. In comparison the opinion piece uses very little.

Page 41, Objective And Subjective Language Students might say that they trust the news report more than the opinion piece because it has a more formal tone, includes more technical language, less colloquial language and includes statistics.

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Page 40, Drawing Comparisons 3 Difference 1: The news report includes statistics, e.g. “accounts for 10% of all active volcanoes”. The opinion piece does not include any statistics making it seem less factual. Difference 2: The news report supports the government’s claim that the volcanic ash is not a major threat to people’s lives. The opinion piece claims that the volcanic ash is dangerous and does pose a health risk. Difference 3: The news report agrees with the government that the Japanese hospitals are well-prepared for emergencies. The opinion piece claims that the hospitals are not well50

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Page 42, Identifying Bias Opinion Piece Point One: The government is not wellprepared for emergency. Bias: 1. The writer has received or provided incomplete information. 2. The writer is trying to influence or convince the reader by use of words and persuasive techniques. Point Two: The well-behaved citizens of Japan saved the people in the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake, not the government’s emergency plans. Bias: 2. The writer is trying to influence or convince the reader by use of words and persuasive techniques. 3.The writer’s past experience is influencing his or her thinking. Point Three: The government is not giving all the facts about the volcanic activity as it is


worried about losing tourists and affecting the economy. Bias: 1.The writer has received or provided incomplete information. 2.The writer is trying to influence or convince the reader by use of words and persuasive techniques

Bias in the op-ed: The op-ed is biased against the government. It includes the author’s opinions with reference to one article and one past event. What type of bias is this (intentional or unintentional)? Intentional, as the article is written to persuade. Why do you think this? Use examples from the text to support your answer. The author uses emotive language, rhetorical questions and quotes part of a source, “Well-prepared? For medical emergencies? I doubt it.”; “In a recent article in the online journal PubMed, a journal on public medicine, researchers noted that Japan’s general hospital system was not adequate for large scale emergencies. If the volcanic activity suddenly increases and people suffer breathing difficulties and other related illnesses, there will be little room for them to receive medical care in our local hospitals. The hospitals are already crowded, with nurses and doctors being run off their feet.” What is the effect of this bias? For example, does it persuade? Does it cause you to question the information? Explain why. The writer encourages us to think about an alternate viewpoint with her persuasive language. She also encourages further research to check her sources.

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Page 43, Analysing Images 1. A map of Kyushu, including some areas of other islands. 2. What information is the visual providing? List three pieces of information. * Important cities and towns on Kyushu. * Relationship of Kyushu to the ocean. * Relationship of Kyushu to other parts of Japan. 3. The map shows that the islands are detached by water so the evacuation would be difficult and expensive. Evacuating to surrounding cities may be easier. 4. Can you think of a different way to visually represent the information on the map? Explain why this visual representation might be effective in representing the information. Students could consider a table, showing the distance between the cities of Kyushu.

does it persuade? Does it cause you to question the information? Explain why. The information is presented as factual and persuades the reader to accept that the volcanic emissions are not troublesome.

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Page 44, Who Is Biased? Bias in the news report: The article shows that the effects of the Kyushu transmissions is minimal. It only uses one source for this information, the government body. What type of bias is this (intentional or unintentional)? Perhaps intentional, to support government concerns in avoiding conflict. Why do you think this? Use examples from the text to support your answer. The report uses the same source twice - “The magma is rich in ashes. This confirms that a new magma eruption has occurred at the site,” established a scientist from the Tokyo VAAC (Volcano Ash Advisory Centre)”; and “It is expected that the crater will not provide a major threat, since, according to the Tokyo VAAC, “activity generally calms down, and the emissions usually become strong steaming, rather than continual full-blown magma emissions.” What is the effect of this bias? For example,

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Page 45, What’s Your Opinion? Answers will vary but students should demonstrate 1.Evidence of research; 2.Use of persuasive language; 3.Coherent text using a paragraph structure such as TEEL – Topic sentence, Example, Explain, Linking sentence.

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Teaching Critical Reading  

Teaching Critical Reading is linked to the v8.1 Australian curriculum and is based around 5 different text types: biographies, narratives, G...

Teaching Critical Reading  

Teaching Critical Reading is linked to the v8.1 Australian curriculum and is based around 5 different text types: biographies, narratives, G...