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Acknowledgements i. i-stock Photos.

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Copyright Notice

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ii.

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Title: Writer’s Workshop © 2013 Ready-Ed Publications Printed in Australia Author: David Holmsen

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front cover www.istock.com/kristian sekulic page 9 © www.istock.com/Jani Bryson page 10 © www.istock.com/Svyatoslav Lypynskyy page 11 © www.istock.com/julien Tromeur page 16 © www.istock.com/kali9 page 17 © www.istock.com/Entienou page 31© www.istock.com/Igor Stepovik page 32© www.istock.com/hh5800 page 34© www.istock.com/Steve Debenport page 45© www.istock.com/Leah-Anne Thompson page 45© www.istock.com/Rhienna Cutler page 50© www.istock.com/Rainer Plendl page 55© www.istock.com/nicolas hansen page 56© www.istock.com/Csaba Peterdi page 57© www.istock.com/Leah-Anne Thompson


Contents Teachers' Notes Australian Curriculum Links

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Section 1: What Is Writer's Workshop? Writer’s Workshop – An Overview

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Setting Up And Running Writer's Workshop

10-11

Writing Survey

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Section 2: How Is Writer's Workshop Structured? The Structure Of Writer's Workshop 1. The Mini-Lesson 2. Checking The Status 3. Hot Penning

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Writer’s Workshop Versus Traditional Writing Methods

14 15-17 18 19-25 26-28 29-30 31-33 34 35 36-41 42-43 44-49 50-51 52 53-55 56-60

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4.i Collect Seeds 4.ii Plan Text Types And Genres Text Type Frameworks 4.iii First Copy 4.iv Edit And Revise 4.v Proofread 4.vi Publish

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Hot Penning Lucky Dip Writing Cards • f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 4. Writing Time

o c . ch 5. Reflecting And Sharing e r er o t s super Conferencing

Section 3: Assessment And Resources Ways Of Assessing Students' Work Resources And Materials Needed

62 63-64

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Teachers’ Notes

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This book provides a step-by-step guide for teachers who wish to implement an effective writing program using the Writer’s Workshop framework. This framework involves five steps entitled: Mini-Lessons, Checking The Status, Hot Penning, Writing Time, and Reflection And Sharing. Writer’s Workshop sessions must be predictable to be successful. Following the above format will help facilitators of the program build confidence in their students and reduce failure caused by self-doubt that we hear through, “I don’t know what to write about”, “My writing is not good enough”, “I have no real reason to write”.

Writer's Workshop encourages teachers to shy away from the dictatorial constraints found in traditional writing models and instead, create an environment that respects and treats students, not as young children, but as budding authors. Writer’s Workshop grants students autonomy over their writing, to do things like choose what they want to write about and choose if and when they want to publish. Story completion is not mandatory in Writer’s Workshop and starting at any point in the framework is acceptable. This open approach to writing mimics what real writers do naturally. Students then have authentic reasons to write, and will enjoy doing so - many perhaps, for the first time.

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Your first Writer’s Workshop lessons should be centred on the structure of the lessons. Developing better writers takes time, so patience is a necessary component in its implementation. Once you and the students are comfortable and settled with the process, you will begin to notice a significant rise in their interest in writing and the quality of their work. All age and grade levels can benefit from the Writer’s Workshop philosophy and structure. Specific Mini-Lessons are tied to age appropriate standards and outcomes. Differentiation takes place naturally as students work independently. Even the youngest of writers can find authenticity in their writing.

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Teachers are encouraged to read through the entire book first to give themselves a holistic view of what’s involved in setting up and managing Writer’s Workshop.

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Australian Curriculum Links

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Year 3 Literature • Create imaginative texts based on characters, settings and events from students’ own and other cultures using visual features, for example perspective, distance and angle (ACELT1601) • Identify the audience and purpose of imaginative, informative and persuasive texts (ACELY1678) Literacy • Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive texts demonstrating increasing control over text structures and language features and selecting print, and multimodal elements appropriate to the audience and purpose (ACELY1682) • Reread and edit texts for meaning, appropriate structure, grammatical choices and punctuation (ACELY1683) • Use software including word processing programs with growing speed and efficiency to construct and edit texts featuring visual, print and audio elements (ACELY1685)

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Year 4 Literature • Discuss how authors and illustrators make stories exciting, moving and absorbing and hold readers’ interest by using various techniques, for example character development and plot tension (ACELT1605) • Create literary texts that explore students’ own experiences and imagining (ACELT1607) • Create literary texts by developing storylines, characters and settings (ACELT1794) Literacy • Identify characteristic features used in imaginative, informative and persuasive texts to meet the purpose of the text (ACELY1690) • Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive texts containing key information and supporting details for a widening range of audiences, demonstrating increasing control over text structures and language features (ACELY1694) • Reread and edit for meaning by adding, deleting or moving words or word groups to improve content and structure (ACELY1695) • Use a range of software including word processing programs to construct, edit and publish written text, and select, edit and place visual, print and audio elements (ACELY1697)

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Year 5 Literacy • Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive print and multimodal texts, choosing text structures, language features, images and sound appropriate to purpose and audience (ACELY1704) • Reread and edit student’s own and others’ work using agreed criteria for text structures and language features (ACELY1705) • Use a range of software including word processing programs with fluency to construct, edit and publish written text, and select, edit and place visual, print and audio elements (ACELY1707)

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Year 6 Literacy • Plan, draft and publish imaginative, informative and persuasive texts, choosing and experimenting with text structures, language features, images and digital resources appropriate to purpose and audience (ACELY1714) • Reread and edit students’ own and others’ work using agreed criteria and explaining editing choices (ACELY1715) • Use a range of software, including word processing programs, learning new functions as required to create texts (ACELY1717) • Discuss how authors and illustrators make stories exciting, moving and absorbing and hold readers’ interest by using various techniques, for example character development and plot tension (ACELT1605)

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Section 1: •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• What Is Writer's Workshop?

o c . che e r o t r s super © www.istock.com/Jani Bryson

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Section 1: What Is Writer’s Workshop?

Writer’s Workshop Versus Traditional Writing Methods

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Traditional Approach teacher orientated

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Writer’s Workshop is inherently different from a traditional writing lesson that might be more familiar to you. Traditional models of teaching writing have limitations, and do not give students an authentic reason to write. Traditional models of teaching writing ask students to write on artificially created scenarios and expect students to complete a piece of writing by the end of the lesson or even worse - finish it for homework. Developing writing behaviours, strategies and processes are largely ignored in the clamber to get students to produce a polished piece of writing to be assessed. Writing traditionally is a linear experience, where the teacher controls everything, including the order, purpose and goal. Writing ceases to become personal or worthwhile in such a model. Writer’s Workshop offers immediate relief from this tired and largely inefficient model.

Writer’s Workshop student centred

©R ea dy EdPu bl i cat i ons lack of real choice allows genuine choice unlimited time to write •f ortime r erestrictions vi ew pur p osesonl y• naturally authentic

final product assessed

writing process is celebrated

emphasis on publishing

predictable lesson structure

less differential

writers are celebrated

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Section 1: What Is Writer’s Workshop?

Writer’s Workshop – An Overview

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Writer’s Workshop is a natural, on-going writing process. It allows students to feel comfortable in the writing cycle by giving them the authority to make decisions about their own work. There are two essential parts of a Writer’s Workshop lesson. The first is teaching an explicit skill (such as grammar, punctuation, spelling or writing craft) and the second is sustained writing. Using this format and provided with the right structure and support, students become the central focus of the lesson. Developing writing behaviours, strategies and processes is the ‘king’ in Writer’s Workshop. Students are not told what to write or how much to write, rather, they are invited to write about what currently interests them.

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Students are not told what tob write or how much to ©CRHeady E d P u l i c a t i o n s O I C E write, rather, they are •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• invited to write about what currently interests them. Writer’s Workshop gives students choice and control over their work. Students take greater risks with their writing when they have control over it and have the confidence to experiment with different text types, by writing poetry, informative and explanatory texts. Some students might even try to write a chapter story or develop a fictional series.

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The structure of Writer’s Workshop arms students with the tools that they need to become competent and confident writers in a supportive and collaborative environment. Improving student independence and confidence is one of the main goals of Writer’s Workshop. Writer’s Workshop helps students to feel comfortable and familiar with the purpose and outcome of their writing – it represents a different way of thinking about the approach to the teaching of writing. You will find it an intensive and rewarding experience for you and the students.

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Section 1: What Is Writer’s Workshop?

Setting Up And Running Writer’s Workshop PROVIDED IN THIS BOOK IS EVERYTHING THAT YOU WILL NEED TO KNOW ABOUT SETTING UP AND RUNNING WRITER’S WORKSHOP IN A RELATIVELY SHORT TIME FRAME.

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Key points to setting up an effective Writer’s Workshop

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a good understanding of different text types; how to edit, revise and proofread their own work; how to be independent spellers - by using a dictionary.

 There should be plenty of wall posters displayed prominently around the room (see page 25), text type templates (see page 35-41), atlases, dictionaries and other useful resources for the students to refer to.

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 Make students feel that their writing is valued. Regularly ask students to read their work out to the class and to each other. Regular teacher and peer conferencing adds to this sense of value.

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 At the heart of Writer’s Workshop is the aim to empower students to make decisions about their writing. Give them choices such as: what and when to write; how often to re-write something; what characters to include; what parts of the story to leave out; what to edit and to develop further. Once students have been given genuine choices they will develop an authentic voice.

 Model good writing and give students the tools that they need to become better writers. Read a variety of fiction and non-fiction texts to the students. Select texts and passages from well-known authors. Teachers should also be writing along with the students during Hot Penning sessions (see page 19). Constantly promote writing as a meaningful and valuable way of communicating.

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 Spend time teaching students: » » »

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 Write daily. In Writer’s Workshop, some students will write more, some less, but given time they should all find comfort in working at their own rhythm and pace. To become better at writing, students need regular, predictable writing experiences. It is recommended that you spend at least three lessons a week lasting at least 50 minutes each on Writer's Workshop. This may sound onerous, but this will dissipate once you begin to integrate other English strands within the Writer’s Workshop structure. You might look for some flexibility in achieving this amount of writing if you consider ad hoc ‘Hot Penning’ sessions (page 19) and include stand-alone Mini-Lessons (page 15) as part of your writing regime.

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Section 1: What Is Writer’s Workshop?

 Goal setting is an important part of Writer’s Workshop. When students are about to return to their seats ask them to verbalise what they are planning to do with their writing time. In the role of a facilitator, goals are continuously set, monitored and revised in consultation with the student. On page 12 is a Writing Survey sample that will help students set meaningful goals by reflecting on their respective strengths and weaknesses.

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» Collaborate with the students to help create the Writer’s Workshop rules. » Ask students what they think about their writing (Writing Survey page 12).

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Tips!

Getting students on board is key to running an effective Writer’s or e Workshop. st

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» Invite students to make useful posters about writing.

» Ask the Principal (and other teachers) to join you for a Hot Penning session (see page 19). » Make each writing session as rewarding and as fun as you can.

» Let the students read and discuss their work with each other as often as possible. » Empower writers with genuine options and choice.

Invite an author to talk to the class about writing. ©»» R eadyEdPubl i cat i ons Recognise the students publicly by handing out Weekly Merit Cards to ther best workers. •f or ev i ew pur posesonl y• » Be excited and enthusiastic and your students will be too!

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Helping students to understand the importance of writing is key to setting up an effective Writer’s Workshop.

WRITING WELL IS A DIFFICULT SKILL TO MASTER. HOWEVER, IT’S NO DIFFERENT TO LEARNING ANY OTHER

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SKILL, IN THAT, IF YOU PRACTISE IT ENOUGH, IMPROVEMENT IS INEVITABLE. WRITING DOES WONDERS…

» writing improves the way in which we communicate with each other;

» writing is a great way to develop creativity, perspective and tolerance;

» writing is a great ‘jumping off point’ for classroom discussions on a range of diverse topics;

» writing is a great way to promote reading;

» writing improves memory retention – we remember more of what we write than what we say. Writing slows down our thinking so that we can articulate our ideas and points;

» writing is a great way to assess spelling, reading, writing and handwriting;

» writing helps us to make sense of our thoughts and feelings.

» writing improves spelling, grammar and punctuation;

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Writing Survey Name:_________________________________

Date:______________

I am _____years old.

MARK EACH LINE TO SHOW YOUR RESPONSE.

I write at home.

b.

I write at school.

c.

I like to read.

d.

I am good at spelling.

e.

Never

Occasionally

Daily

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I am good at punctuation. I am good at revision.

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I am good at editing.

h.

I am good at proofreading.

i.

I like writing.

Never

Occasionally

Daily

Never

Occasionally

Daily

Never

Occasionally

Daily

Never

Occasionally

Daily

Never

Occasionally

Never

Occasionally

Never

Occasionally

Never

Occasionally

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Daily Daily Daily Daily

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons I like to write poems. •my f o rr evi ew pur posesonl y• I like to read stories aloud.

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I like to write non-fiction pieces.

n.

I am good at writing.

I like to write stories.

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Occasionally

Never

Occasionally

Daily

Never

Occasionally

Daily

Never

Occasionally

Daily

Never

Occasionally

Daily

Answer these questions.

1. What do you enjoy most about writing?

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_______________________________________________________________________________ 2. What do you find most difficult about writing?

_______________________________________________________________________________ 3. When you think about writing, what is an area that you would like most help with? _______________________________________________________________________________ 4. What are two simple goals (Goals for Growth) that you would like to set yourself that will help you improve your writing? _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 12


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Section 2:bl © Ready EdPu i cat i ons •f orr e vi ewIsp ur posesonl y• How Writer's Workshop Structured?

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Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

The Structure Of Writer’s Workshop Writer’s Workshop is structured around the explicit teaching of writing skills, immediately followed by a period of sustained writing. The lessons follow a specific progression with variable timings between each, which can be modified depending on the ages and needs of the students.

1

r o e t s B r 5-15 minutes Mini-Lesson e o p ok u S

2

Checking The Status

1-2 minutes

Revise writing skills and set goals and tasks for the lesson.

3

Hot Penning

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Explicitly teach a useful writing skill including writing genres, grammar, punctuation and proofreading.

5-15 minutes

This is sustained writing including conference time. The writing process can be seen as a cycle. Students are free to choose their own writing topic.

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Reflection And Sharing

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An uninterrupted, sustained writing period. © ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 10-40 4 •f orr evi e w pur pos esminutes onl y• Writing Time

5-10 minutes

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This structure allows you to establish a predictable routine. Students will feel better about writing sessions because they know what is going to happen each time. This helps build confidence. It’s important to keep in mind that when writing, there are a number of skills that come together at the same time, such as: sequencing, spelling, creativity and text structure. The structure of Writer’s Workshop allows these elements to be better taught. Through the Mini-Lesson and conferencing, the teacher can act more as a facilitator rather than someone who is the central part of the lesson and the only source of information for students. Making the most of these ‘teachable moments’ individualises the lesson and differentiates between each student so that teachers can cater for individual needs.

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Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

The Mini-Lesson

1

5-15 minutes

Key Points

4

Mini-Lesson Checking The Status Hot Penning Writing Time

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Reflection And Sharing

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3

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A Mini-Lesson commences with the students huddled close together near the teacher, preferably on a mat or on the floor. At this point the teacher explicitly explains a writing skill. This should take no longer than 5-15 minutes. What you teach depends on the needs of the writers which you have gained an understanding of, from your observations, formal assessments and curriculum requirements. Some of the skills that you might cover include strategies such as: spelling, word usage, characteristics of a genre, qualities of good writing and the Writer’s Workshop process.

» Stick as close to the time allocation of 5-15 minutes as possible, as the rest of the lesson should be spent on actual writing, rather than on the teacher talking. Many teachers confess that they are sometimes guilty of monopolising the lesson.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f or r evi ew pur posesonl y• » Successful Mini-Lessons are geared towards the needs of

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the students. For example, if you have noticed that many students are not effectively paragraphing, you could model what a paragraph is and how to use it. You could reinforce the skill taught with a worksheet. When you are satisfied that the students are better able to use paragraphing, they can return to their seats and commence writing.

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» Mini-Lessons can be as sophisticated or as simple as they need to be. You could for example, reinforce the need for capitals in one session and then have a guest writer in the next. You might show a DVD on story structure and then use the computer lab to show students how to publish their work on-line. Mini-Lessons should also include the actual Writer’s Workshop procedures and management. These need to be explicitly taught. » Only introduce one writing skill at a time. Explicitly state your teaching point before the Mini-Lesson and get the students to repeat and explain to a peer exactly what it is that they have learnt at the conclusion. Keep the Mini-Lessons simple, to the point and restrict them to one concept at a time.

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Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

The Mini-Lesson Key Points

» Ultimately, Mini-Lessons should teach the students how to be independent writers who take ownership for what they produce. Use your Mini-Lessons to help students choose the best writing topics; edit and revise; access and use resources such as dictionaries and text type templates. These are all useful skills that teach students to be independent.

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» It’s not necessary to have a Mini-Lesson each time you have a Writer’s Workshop lesson. Mini-Lessons are held when needed. It may be that you conduct a Mini-Lesson later in the lesson with a small group who need additional support, or you may conduct one at the commencement of the lesson, with the whole class.

» Students are not obligated to immediately implement the MiniLesson strategy just taught. It may be that a student is working on something else and is eager to continue with that. What you can do, is remind students that they should use the skills taught at the next opportunity. If we accept that Writer’s Workshop is only authentic when writers have control over their writing, then we must allow students the right to decide what they want to write and when.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons » If you need to teach a specific writing type such as a procedure, •f othen rr vi e ur psayowithin ses on l y• ite should bew donep in context, a science lesson

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if it relates to collating information about an experiment you are doing. Writing should always have a purpose and students should know why and for whom they are writing.

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simple, to the point and restrict them to one concept at a time.

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Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

The Mini-Lesson TOPICS THAT YOU MIGHT COVER IN THE MINI-LESSONS AND/ OR AT SOME STAGE IN YOUR WRITING SESSIONS, EITHER AS A CLASS, GROUP OR INDIVIDUALLY ARE LISTED BELOW.

Topics

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Strategies And Processes That Writers Use (How To Work)  What is good writing?  What do good writers do?  What is the writing cycle?  How do I find ideas?  How do I plan?  What is Hot Penning and how does it work?  What are teacher-student conferences?  How do I read accurately?  How do I edit my work?  How do I revise my work?  How do I proofread my work?  How do I self-assess my work?  How do I peer-conference?  How do I publish my work?

           

What is the subject? What are simple and complex sentences? How do I use apostrophes? When do I use full stops? When do I capitalise? What is direct speech? What is indirect speech? What is past and present tense? What are conjunctions? What is subject-verb agreement? When do I paragraph? How do I use commas?

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Writer’s Workshop Skills (Writer’s Workshop Procedures And Organisation)  What is Writer’s Workshop?  When do I write?  Where do I write? (E.g. Seed Book  How can I best manage my time?  What equipment and materials do I need?  What is academically honest?

Authors' And Illustrators' Craft (Characteristics Of A Genre)  What are the characteristics of procedural texts?  What are the characteristics of informative texts?  What are the characteristics of explanatory texts?  What are the characteristics of expository texts?  What are the characteristics of narratives?  What are the characteristics of reports?  What are the characteristics of recounts?  What text type should I use?  How do I use effective vocabulary?  How do I tighten up my writing?  How do I add and delete details in my writing?  How do I make my writing logical?  How do I show and not tell in narratives?  How do I build strong characters in narratives?  How do I develop strong plots in narratives?  How do I use sizzling starts in narratives?  How do I use the senses in narratives?  How do I create atmosphere in narratives?

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Writing Skills (Grammar, Punctuation, Spelling)  How do I approach a word that I don’t know?  How can I use a dictionary effectively?  How do I use the thesaurus effectively?  What are run-on sentences?  What is a noun?  When do I use pronouns?  When do I use adjectives?  What are verbs?  When do I use adverbs?  What is a preposition?

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Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

Checking The Status

2

1-2 minutes

Immediately after the Mini-Lesson, check the status of your students to establish:

1

Mini-Lesson Checking The Status Hot Penning Writing Time

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where students are up to in the writing process;

2

how much students have understood during the Mini-Lesson.

3

4

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This is called Checking The Status. You are essentially using 5 Reflection And Sharing this part of the lesson to show students how to manage their time and make use of the skills that they have been explicitly taught. To do this, invite students to sit knee-to-knee with someone sitting closest to them and have them explain to each other what they have just learnt. Students can then talk for a few moments more about what they will start doing next when they return to their seats. This is another great way for students to share what they are doing. You can then ask them to state to you what writing piece they are currently working on.

Check where Checking The Status places the onus for learning back on students are the students, all the while teaching the art of becoming up to in© the Re better writers. This process allows students toi make a d y E d P u b l i c a t ons decisions about what they are going to do next, giving writing process. them an increased sense of control over their writing.

Checking The Status

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» Checking The Status is like settling the students in the barrier before a horse race. It re-focuses their energy and thoughts towards the next part of the lesson.

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» From Checking The Status you will get a better sense of where the class, as a whole, is up to. You can see how many students are at each stage of the writing cycle. You can also use this information to help form conference groups. So for example, you might like to see all the students who are up to the planning stage of their writing. You might like to create a wall chart with indicators against each part of the writing process. Students can self-manage this by moving the indicator as they work through the writing process. » Use Checking The Status time to revise management skills, such as what to do if you don’t know a word, or don’t have an eraser or where to find paper and so on. » Aim to check the status of your writers at least once a week.

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Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

Hot Penning

3

5-15 minutes

Key Points

4

Mini-Lesson Checking The Status Hot Penning Writing Time

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Reflection And Sharing

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Hot Penning

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Following Checking The Status, students move back to their seats to commence Hot Penning. Hot Penning is a sustained, uninterrupted writing period when the whole class writes continuously, in silence. The students write at their own level and on something that interests them. Hot Penning is an effective way to promote sustained writing. It gets the students immediately settled and writing.

» Hot Penning is flexible enough it can be done at anytime during the day. You’ll find that some times work better than others and this depends on timetabling and curriculum commitments. Implement some Hot Penning at the beginning of a writing lesson (best time), straight after lunch, at the start of the day, at the end of the day as a filler, or anytime when you have a spare 10 minutes or so. There is a good case to substitute Drop Everything And Read (D.E.A.R.) time for Hot Penning as it’s a more encompassing learning experience involving reading, writing, spelling, and silent reading.

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» Hot Penning can last anywhere between 5 to 20 minutes. You know that students are in the ‘zone’ when they are feverishly writing in silence, eyes are fixed to their papers and minds are in overdrive with ideas and things to write about. When the silence is broken and Hot Penning has ended, the regular writing lesson can You know that students commence. Regular writing are in the ‘zone’ when lessons include movement around the class, peer discussion they are feverishly and teacher conferencing. If writing in silence. you are doing these things, you are no longer Hot Penning.

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» Ideally students should be writing for a purpose every day in one form or another. Hot Penning can be used to fill in the gaps of the day so at least some sort of meaningful writing has taken place. You will find that if you have set up an enjoyable and positive routine, students will develop a more natural desire to improve the quality and quantity of their writing. 19


Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

A CRUCIAL PART OF HOT PENNING IS THAT WRITERS SHOULD REMAIN IN THEIR SEATS. SOME STUDENTS MIGHT SUDDENLY FIND THEMSELVES WITH NOTHING TO WRITE ABOUT OR COMPLAIN ABOUT A BROKEN PENCIL ETC. MANAGE THIS BY ESTABLISHING RULES TO AVOID THESE SORTS OF DISTRACTIONS. THOSE FAMILIAR WITH D.E.A.R. TIME WILL SEE ITS PARALLELS WITH HOT PENNING.

Suggested Rules or e st

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Bo r e p ok u S that you need before you start.” “Get all the equipment

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Give students time to organise themselves. This means that they should have at their desks all the things that they need to work for a sustained period such as: a pencil, an eraser, sharpener, dictionary, adequate paper and of course a comfortable place in which to work. If students suddenly need an item half way through Hot Penning, they will have to do without it even if it means that they stop writing.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons in r onee spot the entirep time.” •“Stay f or vi ew ur posesonl y•

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We need to establish in students a sense of self-discipline and purpose towards writing. Students who don’t want to work will find excuses to get out of their seats. Be as firm as you can by insisting that they remain in their seats, even if it means that they stop writing. Any movement around the class will reduce the integrity of the lesson. For example, students should not expect to be allowed to go to the toilet, walk around the classroom, find a dictionary on the other side of the classroom, ask someone for an eraser or pencil or even approach the teacher for help. We can teach students to sit for a sustained period provided that the teacher sets up and enforces expectations. If you allow exceptions, more will follow, risking compromise.

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“Write quietly, uninterrupted and by yourself.” Hot Penning is an individual activity. Students should focus on their own writing and sit somewhere that will give them the greatest opportunity to avoid distractions. They should write quietly and uninterrupted.

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Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

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Suggested Rules r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S “Choose your own topic.”

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It’s important that students are given the freedom to write and to enjoy the experience. Give students the option to write about anything that interests them. Most likely though, they will continue with something that they have already begun. But if not, they might: keep an on-going diary, write about something that is coming up like a birthday, write a narrative, poem or another text type such as an informative or explanatory text. They could write a letter to an editor or a letter to their grandma. Some students will not find it as easy as others to simply pick a topic and start writing. If they are keen to write, but don’t know where to start, suggest students refer to their Seed Book (see pages 31-32) or select a Hot Penning Lucky Dip Writing Card (see pages 26-28). Photocopy these cards and laminate them, if you are able to. Store them safely in an attractive box for students to pick from before they commence Hot Penning.

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“Do your best with spelling, grammar, punctuation and neatness.”

o c . It was a c e her r dark, mizerable o t s uper night … s

The purpose of writing is to communicate. To be an effective writer, conventions of English should be observed and upheld as often as possible. Having said this, don’t worry the students to the point that they end up reluctant or hesitant writers. What’s most important is that they write. We can remind them that they should do their best and take as much care and pride as they can by revising and editing their own work.

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Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

Hot

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Suggested Rules r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Everyone in the room should write, including the teacher and any other parent helpers in the room at the time. Watching adults write creates role models for students. Ask selected adults or students to stand up at the conclusion of Hot Penning and share what they have been working on.

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“Everyone in the room must write.”

“No interruptions of any sort.”

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Place a ‘Do Not Disturb’ sign on your door. Re-read the rules of Hot Penning and remind Do Not students that they should have everything Disturb that they need with them before they start. Teach students strategies so that they know what they can do if they come across a bump in the road that stops them writing. For example, if they don’t know how to spell a word, tell them to have a guess. If they don’t have access to an eraser, tell them to cross out the mistake and move on, etc. Students must be able to solve their problems in their seats and without talking.

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AT THE CONCLUSION OF HOT PENNING, STUDENTS SHOULD CONTINUE TO WRITE BUT HAVE A RANGE OF OPTIONS SUCH AS MOVING AROUND THE CLASSROOM, TALKING TO OTHERS AND BEING CONFERENCED. IT IS DURING THIS TIME THAT THE TEACHER CONDUCTS ONE-ON-ONE CONFERENCES. A RECORD OF EACH CONFERENCE CAN BE KEPT FOR ASSESSMENT AND PUPIL FEEDBACK PURPOSES.

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Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured? DISPLAY HOT PENNING RULES AROUND THE CLASSROOM.

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Suggested Rules “Get all the equipment that you need before you start.”

r o e t s Bo r e p o u “Write quietly, uninterrupted and by yourself.” k S “Choose your own topic.”

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“Stay in one spot the entire time.”

“Do your best with spelling, grammar, punctuation and neatness.” “Everyone in the room must write.”

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Hot Penning » It gets students in the writing zone.

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© Read yEdPubl i cat i ons “No interruptions of any sort.” •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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» It gives the usually reluctant writers a kick start by providing them with support to get their mojo happening. » It has flexibility – stop or start whenever you want or need to. It can be done at anytime and in any place.

» All that’s needed is a humble piece of paper and a pencil and you’re in business. » Great modelling - all good writers do it. » Self-differentiation - anyone of any age or ability can join in.

THE NEXT THREE PAGES ARE PHOTOCOPIABLE. PAGES 24-25 ARE FOR YOU TO DISPLAY IN THE CLASSROOM. PAGES 26-28 ARE THE LUCKY DIP WRITING CARDS.

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Hot Penning! Below are some strategies to help you remain quiet and in your seat.

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handy on your desk.

 Broken pencil? Check your pencil case for a spare or use a pen or texta.

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r o e t s Bo r e  Not sure phow to spell a word? ok u Have Sa guess and keep a dictionary

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •Leave f orr vi e r po e so l y• ite and fiw x it p upu later ors cross itn out.

 Need an eraser?

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Sit quietly and wait until the end of Hot Penning. Don’t make this mistake twice.

. teout of ideas?  Run

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 Want to discuss an idea? Jot it down so that you don’t forget it and wait until the end of Hot Penning.

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Hot Penning Lucky Dip Writing Cards What if no-one in the world could read or speak? How would we communicate with each other?

What if your teacher turned into a fly? What would your school day be like?

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things as you can, e.g. dust, a leaf growing.

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A big bear is after you. Describe how you try to escape from it.

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Ask Homer Simpson five Report a detailed eyewitness questions. Don’t account ofe ans asteroid •f ormake r evi ew pu r pos onl y• them too easy for him! hitting the Earth’s surface.

What is the kindest act that you have ever seen?

What if there were eight days in the week? What would you do on the eighth day?

In your opinion, what would be the best job in the world?

Explain the three most important rules for cricket (or another selected sport or game).

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Hot Penning Lucky Dip Writing Cards

Do you think that students should be allowed to wear what they want to school?

Describe what it would be like to take off in a rocket heading for the Moon.

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company. Make a list of jobs that you think robots will be able to do in the future.

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Bender is a cartoon robot S who works for a delivery What if you invented a machine that changed the colour of anything you wanted?

Reversal. thes fairy © ReadyEdPu bl i cRe-write at i on What if you became the tale Little Red Riding Hood •f orr e vi ew pur p ose sRed on l y• world’s youngest astronaut? making Little Riding Hood

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the antagonist (bad guy).

Imagine if every day you forgot what you learned the day before?

What if people could fly? Describe a typical day.

Would you like to ride to school on a donkey? Explain the good and bad points.

What would you do if you were the Principal of your school for the day?

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Hot Penning Lucky Dip Writing Cards

What do you think it takes to be a good scientist? List up to six attributes.

Describe your ideal birthday party. What fun games and activities would you play? Who would you invite? What food and drinks would you have?

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to be a giant human-ape like creature living in the mountains of Nepal and Tibet. Recount the day that you meet him.

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S The Abominable Snowman is said What are five rules for safe camping?

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pu r po sothe nl y• Argue fors ore against inclusion

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How can you capture Santa Claus using a cat, a piece of string and a donkey?

The French Government has asked you to move the Eiffel Tower. What happens next?

There is a knock on the door. It’s your next door neighbour complaining that a pirate has buried some treasure in his back yard. What do you do next?

Describe what you look like to someone who has never seen you.

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Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

Writing Time

4

10-40 minutes

4

Mini-Lesson Checking The Status Hot Penning Writing Time

5

Reflection And Sharing

1

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 2 3

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Writing Time is the allocated time in the lesson when students can concentrate on the process of writing. Writing is not a linear process, rather it follows a cycle. There is no start or end point - students can work on any part of the writing process in Writer’s Workshop. Students retain control over their writing by choosing where they want to be in the writing cycle. The teacher should pay attention to where each writer is up to in the writing process and help them work towards the next part of the cycle. If they have had enough of something, they can stop. If they wish to publish their work, they can. If their works needs a re-write, they can do this also.

Writing Time Consists Of Six Parts – Each Part Is 4.Writing Time © R e a d y E d P u b l i c a t i o n s Of Equal Importance

•f orr evi ew pur poses nl y • i. o Collect Seeds Pre-writing – what writers do before they write.

ii. Plan

PLAN

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Pre-writing – what writers do before they write.

iii. First Copy ii i . te vi iii o c . iv. Edit And Revise cvhe e iv r o t r s v. Proofread super

PUBLISH

FIRST COPY

Students begin to write.

On-going through every copy.

PROOFREAD

EDIT AND REVISE

Copy free from errors.

vi. Publish Final copy.

Writing is not a linear process, rather it follows a cycle. 29


Writing Time Consists Of Six Parts

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Each Part Is Of Equal Importance 30


Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

4.i

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ii. Plan

iii. First Copy iv. Edit And Revise v. Proofread

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Roald Dahl said it best, “When I get a good one … I quickly write it down so that I don’t forget it because it disappears otherwise, rather like a dream”. Students should have with them a dedicated note book (Seed Book) to jot down and develop ideas that come to them. As teachers of writers we have to show students how valuable and rich their lives really are. We can view the world as an endless source of ideas. Even an ordinary dull day is full of fantastic possible story starters. They will be thrilled with themselves when they are able to regularly come up with topics based on their own inspiration.

vi. Publish

Collect Seeds - what writers do before they write.

eadyEdPubl i cat i ons Key Points© R and themes. For example, give them a reason to write a poem,

» Inspire students by giving them background knowledge of topics

to ai family member, procedural text or expository text. Use •f orletter r e v e w p u r p o s e s o n l y • the current unit in science or history as a stimulus. Arm students with the skills to be able to effectively express their ideas.

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» Always allow students time to discuss, mull over and live in ‘dreamland’ in search of their next seed.

» Students may initially work with a partner to develop their ideas, taking it in turns to build each other’s thoughts into a tangible work piece.

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» Periodically generate a whole class list of ideas on butcher’s paper and pin up for students to refer to if they ever get stuck for an idea. » Use probing questioning techniques to stimulate ideas during conference time.

» Students might like to use a writing stimulus such as a Hot Penning Lucky Dip Writing Card to get them started (see pages 26-28).

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Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

» Collect a variety of interesting and stimulating objects to be placed in a ‘Seed Box’ and act as writing stimuli. Some possible items might include a lucky charm.

Key Points

» Display a picture as a stimulus and prompt discussion by asking: “What is happening?”, “What will happen next?”, “Where are they?”, “How are you connected with the photograph?” » A great modelling tool to use is to always think out loud at any stage of the writing process. Let the students hear what you are thinking. Use this opportunity to use writing terminology and common standards of writing practice. Invite students to similarly share their thoughts with the class.

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S How many times have we heard students frustratingly declare that they have

nothing to write about? These students can be taught the skill of idea collecting.

» Give students meaningful experiences beyond narratives so that they see how writing incorporates a range of genres such as: information reports, poems, explanations, procedures and so on. To test this, give students a writing stimulus (say a picture) and ask them to respond to it using different text types. Confident writers will be able to respond to the stimulus using a combination of text types.

» Issue each student with a Seed Book. A Seed Book is a place where ideas can be jotted down and then played with and eventually developed. Seed Books are low-risk and high comfort tools.

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» Collecting seeds involves thinking, dreaming and gathering. Allow students to discuss, chat, jot, scribble, draw, conference, daydream, read, etc. It’s time to allow imaginations to work overtime. Writing is just thinking on paper.

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» Give students physical experiences by stimulating their senses of smell, touch, sight and sound.

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» Students can carry their Seed Books with them everywhere – if not physically, then at least mentally. Every time they go somewhere, see or hear something, it provides them with an experience that might develop into written expression. » Each time that you introduce a topic, ask students what story or writing might come from it. Allow for discussion.

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» Read picture books and discuss themes. Ask students what writing ideas can come from the books. » Use the Hot Penning Lucky (see pages 26Dip Cards 28) for additional stimulus. » Google story starters for on-line fun programs to help generate story ideas.


Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

What can you write about if you get stuck for an idea?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Ask yourself…  What do you know lots about?  What do you enjoy most in the world?  Do you play sport? What and why?  What extra-curricular activities do you like to do?  What communities do you belong to?  Who are your cousins, brothers and sisters?  Who is your best friend? Why?  What do you like to collect?  Have you ever gone to the hospital? What happened?  Do you have a pet? If you could have any pet, what would it be?  Who is your favourite author and why?  Who do you admire and why?  What is something that you would like to share with someone from school?  What amazed/surprised/angered you today?  What is one of your best memories from last year?  What is one of your best memories so far this year?  What do you have on your mind that you would like to write about?

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Try one of these…  Write a summary of what you did yesterday.  Write a recount of what you have done today so far.  Make a list of five things that you have noticed today.  Make a list of five things that you have heard, felt, smelt or seen today.  Make a list of the places that you would like to visit.

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little germ, and that even doesn’t come easily.” Roald Dahl

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Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

Plan

4.ii

4.Writing Time

“Planning is thinking on paper.”

i. Collect Seeds

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S ii. Plan

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Once students have an idea that they think is worth developing, they can begin to plan. Planning is a very important part of the process and all good writers know how to plan well. Students should have a purpose for writing and be able to select the most efficient and effective way to express that purpose.

v. Proofread vi. Publish

Plan - what writers do before they write.

» Planning involves writing down what you want toi say.n Students © R e a d y E d P u b l i c a t o s may wish to sketch and draw as part of their planning. •f o r evi e wa peer pu r p os es o nl y• » r Conferencing with or the teacher helps the thought

Key Points

process. It gives students a great opportunity to bounce ideas around and explore new ideas to enhance the piece.

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» As students move around the writing cycle, remember to always refer them back to the planning process to highlight how it can help deliver better quality writing.

» Reinforce the message that they are making the choices and they get to decide the genre, format, style and length of their work.

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» Students can store their work in a special file or plan directly in their Seed Books (pages 31-32). » Teach students different writing genres to help them plan their work. They should have a good understanding of a range of text types. Have a well-stocked collection of text type templates available (see pages 35-41) for students to refer to. Keep building on these and hang up posters on writing types where you can (see page 35).

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Text Types And Genres r o e t s Bo r e p u S

 folklore

ok

 animal fiction

 ghost stories

 poems

 animal non-fiction

 historical texts

 recipes

 autobiographies

 'how to' books

 reports

 biographies

 humour

 recounts

 book reviews

 informative texts

 reviews

 plays

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 adventure stories

 interviews  short stories © R e a d y E d P u b l i c a t i ons  jokes and riddles  science fiction  cartoons f o rr evi ew pur poseso nl y•  journals songs • comic strips  brochures

 speeches

 discussions

 letters

 spy stories

 diaries

 lists

 editorials

 monologues

 T.V. and radio commercials

 essays

 mysteries

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 descriptions

 tall tales

o c .  explanationsc  news articles e her r brochures o  expositions  non-fi ction t s  travel super wanted ads  myths

 thank you notes  tongue twisters

 fables

 opinions

 fairy tales

 pamphlets

 fantasies

 persuasive pieces

 fiction

 picture books

 wanted posters

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Text type: explanatory text. An explanatory text is a series of logical steps explaining how something works or why something happens. Introduction: Start by clearly stating what you want to explain. Say what it is and what it is used for. _____________________________________________________________________________

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Sequence: The body of the text explains how something works or why something happens clearly and sequentially. Begin with a topic sentence for each paragraph and continue until each part has been fully explained. Cause and effect are explained in time order, e.g. firstly, then, next, after that, this causes, finally, etc. Use technical terms and action verbs such as: recycle, turn, press etc. You can use a labelled diagram, cross section, chart, illustration or a flow chart to support the explanation.

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_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Conclusion: Comment on what you have explained. _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 36


Text type: recount. A recount tells the reader about something that has happened. Orientation: State who the recount is about, where it happened and when it happened. Use the first person and the past tense. _____________________________________________________________________________

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Body Text: State what happened in order using time connectives, e.g. first, next, after, meanwhile, after that, finally, etc. Signal each new event with a new paragraph.

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_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Conclusion: Make a final statement about what people felt who were at the event. _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 37


Text type: exposition. An exposition attempts to persuade the reader to accept a presented point of view. Statement Of Position: Introduce the topic and necessary background information. Clearly state the problem and the viewpoint taken. _____________________________________________________________________________

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Body Text: Persuade the reader to adopt the point of view being presented through a series of logical arguments. Use a new paragraph and a topic sentence to introduce each point. Provide supporting reasons for your arguments.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons _____________________________________________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

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_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Conclusion: Summarise the main points and re-state the viewpoint presented, e.g. Therefore we/I believe … _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 38


Text type: procedure. A procedure provides its readers with a set of instructions to help them do something. Goal: Begin with a sentence which states the goal of the procedure, e.g. How to grow seeds. _____________________________________________________________________________

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_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

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Requirements: List the materials or equipment that is needed to successfully complete the procedure. _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Steps: List each step required to complete the procedure in order. You may include pictures, diagrams or labels. Each step should clearly explain what and how things needs to be done. Use verbs such as: sprinkle, place, add, etc.

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_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Conclusion: The conclusion should include a sentence about the final product - it could suggest a way to test whether the goal has been achieved. _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

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Text type: information report. An information report gives information about a specific subject. Introduction: Explain what the report is going to be about. _____________________________________________________________________________

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Body Text: Include a series of paragraphs about the subject. Each paragraph should have a topic sentence. _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

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_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Conclusion: This paragraph summarises the report.

_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

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Text type: narrative. A narrative is a fictional story and can cover a range of genres including traditional literature, sciencefiction, fantasy, adventure, humour and mystery. Sizzling Start: Start the story with an attention grabbing event. _____________________________________________________________________________

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_____________________________________________________________________________

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Backfill: The orientation should set the scene (when and where things will take place), introduce the characters and the complication (usually a problem which the main character faces). _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Rising Action: Includes a series of events which develops the complication. Start a new paragraph for each new event.

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_____________________________________________________________________________ Climax: A scene which shows that the complication is at its height.

_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Resolution: The complication is finally resolved. Usually this happens because the main character has solved the problem. _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 41


Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

4.iii

First Copy

At this stage, students are in a position to start writing. We don’t call this a ‘rough copy’ because this implies that spelling, punctuation and neatness matter less. It also implies that their work will eventually have to be re-written when this might not be the case. Students might choose to end their writing on the first copy. A first copy is only followed by a second and a third if writers choose to re-write their work.

4.Writing Time i. Collect Seeds ii. Plan

iii. First Copy iv. Edit And Revise

encourage students to slow down.

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Most students write too fast so

v. Proofread vi. Publish

First Copy - students begin to write.

© Rea dyEtod Pplanning ubl i ca i owrite. ns » Students should refer their notes ast they They should also refer to notes that they have on text types so that the •f or r e vi e weffip u r p o se on l y • most effective and cient ways are used tos express their ideas.

Key Points

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» Students should feel that their writing has a real purpose, such as: writing to their grandparents, conducting an interview, writing a drama script, writing to a best friend, writing a blog about a holiday or creating a ‘how to’ brochure on playing sport. » During each copy, students should be constantly asking themselves how they can improve their work. Editing, revising and proofreading is what good writers constantly do – they don’t need to wait until they have finished.

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» Most students write too fast so encourage them to slow down. A thoughtful more considered approach allows ideas to evolve. It allows for more meaningful conferencing and astute revision. » There is no ceiling to limit how often a piece of writing can be re-worked - the writer needs to decide this.

» If students wish to make second and third copies of their work, editing, revising and proofreading should continue. In the final copy, these elements should all be addressed in greater detail with the help of an adult to produce work that is as error free as possible.

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First Copy Checklist r o e t s Bo r e

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Check meaning…

ok

 Did I plan my work properly?  Does my work follow my chosen text type structure?  Are my ideas in order?  Is my message clear?  Does my work make sense?

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p u S

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons f o r r evi ew pur posesonl y• • Have I left anything out?  What detail should I add or take away?

 How can I say this more clearly and concisely?

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Check for improvement…  Have I read it myself?

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 What are the best words to use?

.  Has at buddy e group helped me? o c .  Has an adult c read my work? e her r o t s super  Has a buddy read my work?

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Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

4.iv

Edit And Revise

Writing should be reader-friendly, and editing and revising is central to the process of producing quality work. Most students struggle to be enthusiastic about this part of the writing cycle so teachers need to manage this more carefully than other parts of the cycle. The mantra for editing and revising is simple enough: never think that your writing can’t improve. This represents a mind shift for the developing writer.

4.Writing Time

Teac he r

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S The mantra for editing and revising

i. Collect Seeds ii. Plan

iii. First Copy

is simple enough: never think that your writing can’t improve.

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iv. Edit And Revise v. Proofread vi. Publish

And Revise -d on-going through copy. ©Edit Re ad yE Pub l i caevery t i on s •f o r e vi ewcanp u r p o s eso nl y » r Editing and revision be done by the student, teacher and• a peer. Key Points

Teachers can be directly involved in this process through conferencing.

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» You might also like to try setting up a small group of two or three students to help edit one piece of work (buddy group). Students would need to work co-operatively and in a positive manner to make worthwhile and helpful suggestions.

» Students should know the difference between editing and revising. Editing is the first aid and targets grammar and punctuation. Revision is about the craft of writing, and focuses on how well the text reads. Revising includes such skills as being able to change or alter the story order, genre, tense, tone, and adding and deleting parts.

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» The skill of editing and revising can be explicitly taught in the Mini-Lessons. Teachers can model this and work with the students to help build their independence and interest in making their work more reader-friendly.

» Although re-reading is one of the most effective strategies used to improve writing, not enough students do it. Re-reading something that you have written should be done as a matter of routine and as a natural part of writing. Good writers continually do this and reflect on their progress by asking themselves such questions as: “Is 44


Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

Edit And Revise this any good?”, “Does it make sense?”, “Have I left anything out?”, “Do I have a sizzling start?”, “What are the best words to use?”, “How can I say this more clearly and succinctly?” and so on. » “You should be the best expert in the world on your own writing." Students must know their work and share responsibility for correcting work. When conferencing, have the student sit close and be intimately involved to form a teacher-student partnership aimed at improving the student’s work.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

» Use this opportunity to teach something that you see in the text, e.g. lack of capitals or incorrect use of commas, etc. But just teach one skill at a time - do not overdo it. These one-on-one sessions ensure that direct, meaningful teaching is occurring and it eliminates teaching out of context such as stand-alone English skills lessons.

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Key Points

» If the student is at the publishing stage, the entire work should be proofread thoroughly by the student so it is as error free as possible. » Some simple checklists have been included in this book which students can use for their own work and with a peer/buddy (see pages 46-48).

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“You should be the best expert in the world on your own writing.”

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . ch e r Good writers continually re-read what er o t sand continually supe r they have written ask themselves, “Is this any good?”, “Does it make sense?”, “Have I left anything out?” etc. 45


My Editing And Revision Checklist Title Of Text: _______________________________________ Date: _______________ Name: ________________________________________________________________

Editing

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No

Not Yet

Are all my sentences complete?

Are my sentences written with clarity?

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Does it all make sense?

Have I fixed up any run-on sentences?

Are my sentences too wordy? Are my sentences too short? Do the verbs agree with their subjects? Have I used pronouns to good effect? Is my punctuation correct?

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Did I use rich vocabulary (e.g. • f o rr e vadverbs, i ewverbs, padjectives)? ur posesonl y• Am I paragraphing properly?

Did I check all capital letters and full stops?

Have I taken care to fix up any spelling mistakes?

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Revision And Proofreading Was my work looked at by a buddy?

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Did I revise, edit and proofread my own work?

Yes

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Is my work neat and tidy? No

Not Yet

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Did a teacher/adult conference with me?

Have I put my name and the date on my work?

What I like most about my work:

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Here are some goals (Goals For Growth) for my next piece of writing: ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

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Narrative Editing And Revision Checklist Title Of Text: _______________________________________ Date: _______________ Name: ________________________________________________________________ Structure

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S N/A

None Or Beginning

Working On It

Proficient

My title of the story reflects the story line. Included an effective sizzling start.

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The orientation establishes the setting (time and place) and main characters.

Complication/problem/conflict explained. Protagonist has a weakness, but changes by the end of the story. Antagonist balances story against the protagonist. Each paragraph has built-in tension, e.g. will my character survive?

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Exciting climax, giving the protagonist the opportunity to r triumph. •f or evi ew pur posesonl y• Series of exciting events showing progressive build-up of suspense.

Resolution ties up loose ends and draws story to a successful end. N/A

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Completed a thorough plan.

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Discussed ideas with others.

None Or Beginning

Working On It

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Editing

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Accurate use of punctuation.

Proficient

Accurate use of grammar.

Continuously self-edits throughout the writing process. Language

N/A

None Or Beginning

Working On It

Proficient

Used descriptive vocabulary, e.g. verbs, nouns, adverbs, adjectives, etc. Included imagery (use of sensors to connect with audience). Spelling is accurate. Handwriting is legible and presentable. 47


My Buddy Narrative Revision (Attach to your work)

Title Of Story: ______________________________________ Date: _______________

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Me: ____________________________ My Buddy: ____________________________

Reflection

Discussed

Be positive: “I like the way that you wrote…”, “What I liked most about the story…", “The characters I liked most…”, “The best part of the story…”. Make a connection: “That part reminds me of…” Be truthful: “Your writing makes me feel…”

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Summarise: “Your writing is about…”

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Be helpful: “Have you thought about…?” •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Be thoughtful: “I would like to know more about…” Revision

Making sense: “I thought the story was/was not confusing”.

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Lead on: “What’s going to happen next?” ,“How will it end?”

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Planning: “I thought the text was/was not well-planned”.

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Final thoughts and impressions:

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ I hope that you found my comments helpful!

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______________________________________

___________________________

Signed

Date


Buddy Response To Narrative Writing

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Reflection Be positive: “I like the way that you wrote…”

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Talk with someone about his/her work. S

Make a connection: “That part reminds me of…”

© R e a d y E d P u b l i c a t i o n s Summarise: “Your writing is about…” •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Revision

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Be truthful: “Your writing makes me feel…”

o c . Be thoughtful: “I would like to know more about…” che e r o t r snext?” su er Lead on: “What’s going to happen p Be helpful “Have you thought about…?”

Planning: “How will it end?”

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Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

4.v

Proofread

There is a distinct difference between editing and revision, and proofreading work. Proofreading focuses on the conventions of writing such as: spelling, grammar and punctuation. Editing and revision concerns itself more with how ideas are expressed by the author. Good writers will edit, revise and proofread as they work through each copy.

i. Collect Seeds

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S ii. Plan

iii. First Copy iv. Edit And Revise

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Proofreading is listed separately from editing and revision because once students decide to publish their work, an editor (such as a teacher or adult) should proofread in the final stage to eliminate all remaining errors from the work.

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4.Writing Time

v. Proofread vi. Publish

Proofreading - what writers do when they have finished.

» InR thee proofreading stage, often have diffi culty © adyE dstudents Pub l i ca t i ons recognising what needs to be fixed in their own work. It’s ar skill that we need to teach. Use thes Mini-Lesson •f o r e v i e w p u r p o esonl y• sessions to reinforce and develop this ability.

Key Points

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» Peer editing can also help with this problem. It is easier at first for students to begin by looking for their classmates’ mistakes. After they get some practice, they are better able to spot errors in their own work. » In this final stage of writing, a competent adult should sit with the student to meticulously proofread the work to eliminate as many errors as possible. This is the necessary dress rehearsal - preparing the work to be viewed by a wider audience.

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o c . che e r o t r s super “Good writing is

essentially rewriting. I am positive of this.” Roald Dahl

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Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

Five Effective Proofreading Strategies 1. Develop a universal marking key. This may be something that the school or the class has developed. The teacher and students should use a common language to identify and correct errors in all writing (not just in Writer’s Workshop).

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In this final stage of the writing cycle, at least three different sets of eyes should have looked over the work. This includes the author, a peer and an adult. Each fresh pair of eyes gives a new perspective and picks up different points when proofreading.

3. Re-read.

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u 2. Fresh eyes. S

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons The most important skill which we can teach writers isf the self-discipline of re-reading what • o r r e v i e w p u r posesonl y• they have written. Students should have a

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4. Proofread one paragraph at a time.

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Finding errors is best done looking carefully at one paragraph at a time. Writers need to break down their work into small chunks and focus on each paragraph and then on each sentence.

5. Conference.

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pencil or pen in their hand so that they can make corrections and changes as they go. focus on each paragraph and then on each sentence.

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When in conference, the teacher can suggest and talk about changes without physically correcting the work. Instead, the students can make the corrections as each point is discussed. This places the responsibility of editing back on to the writer. Students should continuously self-correct and this strategy teaches them how to do this. 51


Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

4.vi

Publish

The final stage in the writing cycle is to publish. At this point, the text should be finished and as free from errors as possible. It’s the final copy and the end of writing.

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ii. Plan iii. First Copy

iv. Edit And Revise v. Proofread vi. Publish

Publish - the final copy.

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»

i. Collect Seeds

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» Not all work will necessarily be published. This remains at the behest of the writers to decide how far they wish to take each particular piece of writing. It is not unusual to have five or six pieces of unpublished work before one might be selected to be published.

Key Points

4.Writing Time

Publishing encourages the writer to seek a wider audience such as: readers of the school newsletter, grandparents, parents, peers, teachers, readers of the local newspaper, school blogs, etc. If students don’t ever publish their work, they won’t ever take proofreading seriously. For this reason, encourage students to publish at least one piece of writing each semester. Students should be encouraged to eventually complete their work - even in the adult world of writing, publishers need authors to hand in manuscripts at some stage.

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There are a number of ways that students might wish to publish their final work. It’s common for students to handwrite their work, but encourage a creative but meaningful approach to the publication through an expansion of mediums such as on-line websites (including flipsnack or titatok), typed, class books or display walls. A published piece can include coloured pictures, drawings and other elaborate ways that will make the work attractive.

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»

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»

Published work can be displayed on the class wall, kept in a folder or included in a class book.

»

Real growth in the skill of writing takes place during the creation of the first and second drafts, and the subsequent revision, reflection and conferencing. Most of the student’s time and effort should go into these parts of the writing cycle, rather than publishing. Be mindful of students who rush their work with the idea of being able to type up their work on the computer. Some teachers have their students publish their work at home to better utilise their actual writing time at school.

»

Once students’ work has been published, ask peers to respond by writing a review of a friend’s work - this continues the writing process.


Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

5 Reflection And Sharing 5-10 minutes

Teaching Tips

4

Mini-Lesson Checking The Status Hot Penning Writing Time

5

Reflection And Sharing

1

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The lesson should conclude with time set aside for sharing and reflecting on what has been accomplished. Students need to see that writing has a purpose and be allowed to read and share with each other what they have achieved. Reflection And Sharing gives the author an audience, a purpose for writing and a real sense of enjoyment in writing and oral reading. Don’t skip this part of Writer’s Workshop. In fact, significant learning takes place at this time of reflection and is as valuable as conferencing or any other instructional learning.

Reflection And Sharing - ways that students can share their work.

» Ask students to sit with a buddy and take turns to read to each other. » Popular among the younger students is an ‘Author’s Chair’. Students sit in a special chair and read their published work to the class.

© »RStudents eadcan yEdPubl i cat i ons set goals (Goals for Growth) about what they want achieve in w the next Workshop or beyond. •f ortor e vi e pWriter’s ur p osesession son l y•

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» Celebrate the progress and accomplishment of the students’ work by sharing with the class, passages and paragraphs that show improvement or accomplishment. » Students can give instant oral feedback on each other’s work using the T.A.G. technique.

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o c . che e r o t r s super T.A.G. Tell something that yo u enjoyed. Ask a question abou t their work. Give a suggestion fo r improvement.

“Readers have expectations. Writers have responsibilities.” 53


Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

Reflection And Sharing Teacher-Student Conferencing Key Points

Teacher-student conferencing is the time that the teacher spends with the students discussing their work. It provides the best opportunity to make the most of the teachable moments so that the students receive timely and meaningful feedback and suggestions on how to improve their work. It’s a highly personalised experience.

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 Use conference time to gather information about the class’s general English skills such as: spelling, punctuation, grammar and the writing craft itself. Feedback is vital and conferencing provides an immediate response to students' work. Record goals and progress for each student using:

» ‘A Star And A Wish’ certificate that you can issue at the conclusion of each conference (see page 60). » Writer’s Workshop Conference Anecdotal Records (see page 58). » An additional record that you may wish to develop yourself.

 Print offa and take them withP you onb a clipboard asi you move © Re d yEd u l i cat on s around the class. Writers feel vulnerable at this time so be tactful andr constructive with any suggestions fore improvement. •f or evi ew pu r pos sonl y•

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 When conferencing, physically sit at the same level as the students. You may wish to sit next to them at their desks or sit together at a separate designated conference table.

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 A conference can take place at any part of the writing cycle. Adjust your comments accordingly.

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 There’s no time limit for a conference, but you should meet with each student at least once a week. Working back from this, if you divide the total amount of writing time that you have allocated per week, with the number of students, it will give you a general guide on how long you can afford to spend with each student. Around five minutes per student is a starting point.

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 You can extend the conference time that you allocate for each student by inviting competent parents into the classroom to help out and share the workload. Even one or two parents once a week can make a significant difference. Consider conducting a Professional Development session with parent helpers so that they are familiar with the language, structure and their role within the Writer’s Workshop session.

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Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

Key Points

 When we think of conferencing, we tend to imagine it as a oneon-one session. But this does not always have to be the case. Be inventive, creative and open-minded in the ways that you deliver your message about writing to your students. For example: » allow students to listen in on the conversation that you are having with another student;

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

» some teachers like to make conferencing a structured process.If the students are sitting in groups of four or five, work your way around each group, e.g. Monday table, Tuesday table, etc.;

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» you might also have a small group at once if they have similar needs;

» nominate a set number of students to see in one session. You might post students’ names on a wall chart so that they know their conference times;

» select any number of students who you identify at the Checking The Status stage (see page 18) who are at a common point in their writing. While students are waiting to be conferenced, they should continue writing. Some students will often stop completely while they wait. There are a number of strategies that you can employ to keep students on task at this potential down time.

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Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

Conferencing HERE IS A CONFERENCE FRAMEWORK STRUCTURED AROUND FOUR KEY QUESTIONS. VARY AND WORK AROUND THIS STRUCTURE ACCORDING TO THE TEXT TYPE AND DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS’ WORK. STUDENTS SHOULD BE FOCUSED, ENGAGED AND INTERESTED IN THE DISCUSSIONS. SIT THEM CLOSE TO YOU AND LOOK DIRECTLY AT THEIR WORK.

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Key Question 1: What are you working on?

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Students should be constantly working on something. They can be at any stage of the writing cycle, but establish where they are up to. Confirm with students the purpose, audience and text types that they have decided on.

Key Question 2: Can you select something that you would like to share with me?

Ask the students to select a favourite part of their texts and read it out loud. You don’t need to hear all of what has been written. This helps the students understand the value of re-reading what they have written.

As the students read, react appropriately – laugh, be sad, entertained, excited, etc.

56

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robot developed his courage”, “I felt connected with your character when he admitted that he stole the apple”, “I think your choice of text type is perfect to explain how to play ice-hockey”, “I liked the way that you used rich vocabulary”.

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Re-read what the student has read to you. This gives them a chance to hear their own writing exactly as they have written it. Get them to comment after listening.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons f orand r e vi e w pu pos s o nthat l ythe• Give• immediate positive feedback. Forr example, “I e liked the way

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Ask the students to identify which part of their texts they think is the most important and why.

Explain what you noticed about their writing process.


Section 2: How Is Writer’s Workshop Structured?

Conferencing Key Question 3: How is it coming along or is there anything I can help you with? Now is the time to help identify and rectify problems that a writer is experiencing.

Ask students to explain what changes they have already made, and why, and how they decided what to fix up.

For further changes, try not to tell students what the problems are or what they need to change but rather ask them to identify areas that sound confusing, unclear or could be improved.

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Use this time to deliver teachable moments. Conferences are the perfect place to individualise and differentiate your teaching to the needs of each student. At this point, examine sentence structure, spelling, handwriting and punctuation.

Whenever you can, bring the students back to the relevant Mini-Lesson that highlighted a particular writing skill which you have taught and you want them to use. E.g. “Remember our Mini-Lesson last week on paragraphing…”

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Key Question 4: •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• What are you going to do next?

Asking students what they are going to do next with their work gives them continued focus, e.g. “How will your story end?” etc.

At the conclusion of the conference, students should feel a sense of empowerment, drive and energy towards their work.

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Continue to give praise and positive feedback, e.g. “What a great choice of verb”.

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. te o c continue to work on their writing; . c e start somethingh new; r e o t r s edit and revise their owns work; uper

What students can do while waiting for a conference or some help…

    edit or revise a buddy’s work;  talk to a friend about their work;  think of some seed ideas and add more to their notebooks;  try a Hot Penning Lucky Dip Writing Card.

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Writer’s Workshop Conference Anecdotal Records What’s Going Well ___\___\____

Text Type:

Date:

___\___\____

Text Type: Title:

Date:

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

___\___\____

Date:

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Text Type: Title:

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Text Type: Title:

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Title:

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Date:

Goals For Growth: What’s Needed

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Writer’s Workshop Class Conference Records Date

Notes And Observations

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Name

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A Star And A Wish For

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r o e t s Bo r e ok Here’s what youu didp well: S ______________________________________________ Keep working on: ______________________________________________ _______________________ Signature

__________________ Date

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A Star And A Wish For

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o c . ch Here’s what you did well: e r e o t r s super ______________________________________________ Keep working on: ______________________________________________ _______________________ Signature

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__________________ Date


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3:bl © ReadSection yEdPu i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur p osesonl y��� Assessment And Resources

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Section 3: Assessment And Resources

Ways Of Assessing Students’ Work Keep Trying

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Assessment is used primarily to inform students how they are going. Writer’s Workshop reduces the urgency for formal testing because assessing the students can be done effectively throughout the writing processes. Within this context, you are able to assess a range of English skills including handwriting, grammar, spelling, punctuation and the writing craft itself.

On-going and timely feedback is paramount to continued student progress. To do this, the teacher should be aware of the level each student is at and what’s required to move them onto the next level of their writing. Teachers need to go beyond simply correcting mistakes to engaging with the students at a deeper level and identifying and satisfying their writing needs. A range of assessment tools will give a more accurate and informed picture about the progress of the class and each student.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• A range of assessment tools could include: observation anecdotal records

o c . che e r o t r s super conferencing (teacher-student) work samples checklists rubrics

self-assessment

peer-assessment standardised testing, e.g. NAPLAN competitions, e.g. ICAS, Dorothy McKellar

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Section 3: Assessment And Resources

Resources And Materials Needed Materials Needed

Here is a list of resources and materials that you should consider making part of your Writer’s Workshop. Included in this list is a suggested layout of your classroom and how students can make use of it. This is where you can leave traces of your teaching around the classroom.

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 Writing Supplies Students should have access to writing supplies and materials including: paper, pencils, notebooks, folders, scissors, staplers, dictionaries, thesauruses, coloured pencils, biros and erasers.  Classroom Arrangement The classroom should be arranged to allow ease of movement around the room, including access to display walls and stationary resources. You will need an area large enough for the entire class to sit down on the floor for the MiniLessons, sharing time and other discussions.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Set up a spare desk for conferencing. Some teachers prefer •f orr estudents w ptou r pos es on l yto• toe gov to i the conference, whilst others prefer

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have the students come to a designated spot. You should have at least some areas around the classroom for students to be able to work, that is away from their regular desk area.  Display Posters Leave traces of your teaching throughout the room. Display around the room any teacher, commercial or student created posters, with the aim of reminding students about aspects of Writer’s Workshop. These display posters help develop independence, by making them a ready-reference for the students. Some examples of what to display include: quotations from famous authors, posters on text types, Hot Penning procedures, ‘Be Quiet’ posters, writing cycle signs, published work, etc.

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 Dictionaries And Thesauruses Dictionaries and thesauruses should be on every table or at least within reaching distance for each student. They are an under-utilised resource. Teach students how to efficiently use them to improve both their spelling accuracy and widen their word choices.

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Section 3: Assessment And Resources

Resources And Materials Needed  Seed Book A Seed Book is somewhere for students to jot down ideas and begin to plan how and what they are going to write. A simple exercise book will suffice, but some students may  Writing Supplies wish to purchase a small note book to carry with them  Classroom Arrangement everywhere, as they collect ideas from daily observations  Display Posters and anything else that pops into their heads. A Seed Book is a great way to get reluctant writers writing.  Dictionaries And

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 Seed Book

 Writing Journal  Writing Folder

 Writing Journal A writing journal is where students write their drafts (first copy etc.). Consider allowing students to purchase their own writing journal to reinforce the idea that writing is a personal and special experience. Otherwise, any writing pad will do.

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 Published Work Space  Finished Box

 Variety Of Books On Display

 Writing Folder Students will need somewhere to store their on-going and completed work. A file or folder of some sort will do for this purpose. In a writing folder they can keep what they are working on or anything that they have published.

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Published work should be displayed or made accessible to a wider audience. You can do this by pinning work up in a designated writing space on the wall (‘Writing Wall’) or by placing work in a special 'publish book' like an ordinary scrapbook. This can become part of the regular classroom reading material. It is hoped that each student will at some stage contribute to the scrapbook so that it is a genuine class effort.

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 Finished Box Create a ‘Finished Box’ or ‘Please Read Me’ tray where students place their completed work. Anything placed there should be cleared and returned as soon as possible. Students feel proud when they complete a writing piece. Immediate, meaningful feedback will encourage them to write again.  Variety Of Books On Display Rotate a permanent display of books of interest. Refer to the quality and aspects of these as part of your modelling and general focus in literature for the students. Leave the current class novel that you are reading to the class amongst these books as well.

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Writer's Workshop