Issuu on Google+

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

w ww

. te

m . u

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super


Title: Extension Activities in Australian History

Ready-Ed Publications

Acknowledgements i. Clip art images have been obtained from Microsoft Design Gallery Live and are used under the terms of the End User License Agreement for Microsoft Word 2000. Please refer to www.microsoft.com/permission.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

© 2012 Ready-Ed Publications ii. Wikimedia Commons. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Printed in Australia Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published Author: Lisa Craig by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Illustrator: Alison Mutton Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

iii. istock.

Copyright Notice

The purchasing educational institution and its staff have the right to make copies of the whole or part of this book, beyond their rights under the Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act), provided that:

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

The number of copies does not exceed the number reasonably required by the educational institution to satisfy its teaching purposes;

2.

Copies are made only by reprographic means (photocopying), not by electronic/digital means, and not stored or transmitted;

3.

Copies are not sold or lent;

4.

Every copy made clearly shows the footnote, ‘Ready-Ed Publications’.

w ww

Any copying of this book by an educational institution or its staff outside of this blackline master licence may fall within the educational statutory licence under the Act.

. te

The Act allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of the pages of this book, whichever is the greater, to be reproduced and/or communicated by any educational institution for its educational purposes provided that

www.

ready e

d.net

For details of the CAL licence for educational institutions contact: Copyright Agency Limited Level 19, 157 Liverpool Street Sydney NSW 2000 Telephone: (02) 9394 7600 Facsimile: (02) 9394 7601 E-mail: info@copyright.com.au

Reproduction and Communication by others Except as otherwise permitted by this blackline master licence or under the Act (for example, any fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review) no part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, communicated or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission. All inquiries should be made to the publisher at the address below.

o c . che e r o t r s super Published by: Ready-Ed Publications PO Box 276 Greenwood WA 6024 www.readyed.com.au info@readyed.com.au

ISBN: 978 186 397 841 5 2

m . u

1.

educational institution (or the body that administers it) has given a remuneration notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL) under Act.


Contents Teachers' Notes Australian Curriculum Links

4 4

SECTION 1: CAPTAIN JAMES COOK Captain James Cook And Tupaia Student Information Page Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2 Activity Page 3

38 39 40

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 6 7 8 9

10 11

First Contact With The Māori People Student Information Page Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2

12 13 14

SECTION 2: THE COLONISERS AND NATIVE PEOPLES

First Impressions Of The Eora Student Information Page Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2 Activity Page 3

16 17 18 19

On The Other Side Of The World Student Information Page Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2 News From Sydney Cove Student Information Page Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2

SECTION 4: NOTABLE COLONIAL PEOPLE

Mary Reibey (1777 - 1855) Student Information Page Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2

42 43 44

William Barak (1823 – 1903) Student Information Page Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2

45 46 47

William James Farrer (1845 – 1906) Student Information Page Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2

48 49 50

ew i ev Pr

The Voyage To New Zealand Student Information Page Activity Page

Teac he r

German Settlers Student Information Page Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2

SECTION 5: WORKING FOR AUSTRALIANS' RIGHTS © ReadyEdP ubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

52 53

20 21 22

A Woman’s Right to Vote Student Information Page Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2

54 55 56

23 24 25

Working For Indigenous Rights Student Information Page Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2

57 58 59

Senator Neville Bonner (1922-1999) Student Information Page Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2

60 61 62

m . u

w ww

. te

The Changing Role Of Australian Women Student Information Page Activity Page

o c . che e r o t r s super

Australia’s Natural Wonders Student Information Page Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2

26 27 28

SECTION 3: MIGRATING TO THE AUSTRALIAN COLONIES Free Settlers Student Information Page Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2 Activity Page 3 A Passage To Australia Student Information Page Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2 Activity Page 3

Answers

63-67

30 31 32 33

34 35 36 37 3


Teachers’ Notes Extension Activities in Australian History has been written to interlace with topics and themes explored in Books 4, 5 and 6 of the Australian History Series. Its aim is to delve into the scenes behind the people and events that have shaped Australia and to extend students’ thinking skills in History. Activities and tasks could also be used for differentiated work in mainstream classes or differentiated homework. The book’s five sections have been closely linked to the Australian Curriculum. The first section focuses on Captain James Cook’s first voyage of discovery, which eventually brought him to Australia and examines the nature of the first contacts with Polynesian peoples on this journey.

The second section encourages students to reflect upon the challenges of setting up a distant settlement in New South Wales and the effects this had on the First Australians.

Section Three explores how migrants needed to develop the colonies when brought to Australia and the conditions under which they travelled. German migration to South Australia is given as a case study.

The fourth section examines the lives of notable colonial persons who made significant contributions in various domains to Australian life.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• The final section looks at individuals and groups who worked towards achieving rights for all Australians, specifically women’s suffrage and indigenous rights. It asks students to research further, other people who have continued this endeavour.

w ww

. te

m . u

o c . che e r o t r s super Australian Curriculum Links Year 5

Year 6

Historical Knowledge and Understanding

Historical Knowledge and Understanding

Historical Knowledge and Understanding

ACHHK078

ACHHK096

ACHHK114

Year 4

ACHHK079 ACHHK080

4

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

AHCHHK097


Section 1: r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Captain James Cook

w ww

. te

m . u

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

Captain James Cook http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Captainjamescookportrait.jpg

Year 4 - ACHHK078 The journey(s) of AT LEAST ONE world navigator, explorer or trader up to the late eighteenth century, including their contacts with other societies and any impacts.

5


Student Information Page

Captain Cook And Tupaia On June 3rd 1769, Captain James Cook joined 150 international observers on the Pacific island of Tahiti to record the transit of Venus across the face of the Sun. An impressive fort was built just for this purpose. Astronomers hoped that their observations could help to calculate the Earth’s distance from the Sun.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

When the event was over, Cook’s thoughts turned to his secret assignment – finding the Great South Land. He was to have unexpected help on this mission. Tupaia, a Polynesian navigator and respected priest, visited Cook in his map room on the Endeavour. Like Cook, Tupaia loved navigating the open seas and wanted to join the crew of the Endeavour to sail back to England.

Cook consented to take Tupaia on the voyage south for the following reasons: •

Tupaia could consult Cook on the customs of the native peoples who they would meet during the voyage;

Tupaia came from a culture that had been crossing the Pacific Ocean in outrigger canoes for hundreds of years;

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Tupaia’s navigation skills • f orr e vi ew pur posesonl y• •

Tupaia spoke some English, which would help with communication.

. te

m . u

w ww

Polynesian peoples of the Pacific used many methods of navigation in their outrigger canoes (see image right). This knowledge was handed down to each generation in stories. Tupaia had learnt how to find his way at sea by fixing in his mind the position of the stars as they set on the horizon. He also observed the Sailing canoe of Otaheite by J. Webber 1778 Dixson Library, State Library of NSW [DL Pe 215] flight path of birds as they migrated and how clouds had a way of forming over particular islands. He noted the colour of the sea and the sky and the shape of the waves. Tupaia amazed Captain Cook one day when he drew a map of all the islands that lay 3000 kilometres to the north and to the south of his island home.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Captain Cook departed from Tahiti on July 13th 1769 to find the legendary Great South Land and claim it for the British Crown. Tupaia and Joseph Banks climbed the high mast together and waved goodbye to the islanders of Tahiti.

6

Section 1: Captain James Cook


Captain Cook And Tupaia 1

Activity

 Read the information on page 6, then complete the questions and tasks below. 1. How do we know that the observation of Venus was an important event for scientists at the time? _______________________________________________________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

_______________________________________________________________________ 2. What did Captain Cook and Tupaia have in common?

Teac he r

_______________________________________________________________________

ew i ev Pr

_______________________________________________________________________ 3. How were Tupaia’s navigation methods different to European methods?

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons _______________________________________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 4. Why do you think Tupaia wanted to accompany Cook back to England?

Research

w ww

m . u

_______________________________________________________________________

 Choose one of the navigational instruments available to Captain Cook. sextant

. te

chronometer

Davis Quadrant

magnetic compass

o c . che e r o t r s super

Make a sketch of the instrument and explain how it helped navigation.

Section 1: Captain James Cook

7


Activity

Captain Cook And Tupaia 2

 Read the source below carefully. It is an extract from Joseph Banks’ journal (12th July 1769). Then answer the following questions using this source and the information on page 6. on his own account, in my opinion sensibly enough, the government will never in all human probability take any notice of him; I therefore have decided to take him. Thank heaven I have financial means and I do not know why I may not keep him as a curiosity, as some of my neighbours do lions and tygers at a larger expense than he will probably ever put me to; the amusement I shall have in his future conversation and the benefit he will be of to this ship, as well as what he may be if another should be sent into these seas, will I think fully repay me.”

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

“This morn Tupaia came on board, he had renewed his resolve of going with us to England, a circumstance which gives me much satisfaction. He is certainly a most proper man, well born, chief Tahowa or priest of this Island, consequently skilled in the mysteries of their religion; but what makes him more than any thing else desirable is his experience in the navigation of these people and knowledge of the Islands in these seas; he has told us the names of above 70, the most of which he has himself been at.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

The Captain refuses to take him

1. What did Joseph Banks admire about Tupaia?

m . u

_______________________________________________________________________

w ww

_______________________________________________________________________ 2. Why does Banks think that Tupaia will be a useful addition to the expedition?

. te _______________________________________________________________________ o c . 3. Do you think Cook and Banks shared the same feelings aboute Tupaia? Give reasons c h r to support your answer. e o t r s s r u e p _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 4. What does the above source tell you about the type of family that Banks came from? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 8

Section 1: Captain James Cook


Captain Cook And Tupaia 3

Activity

 Read the source below. It is a copy of Cook’s orders to the crew about the treatment of the Tahitians. Rules to be observed by every person on His Majesty’s bark, the Endeavour, for establishing better trade and provisions etc., with the inhabitants of Georges Island. 1. To endeavour by every fair means to cultivate a friendship with the Natives and to treat them with all imaginable humanity.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

2. A proper person or persons will be appointed to trade with the Natives for all manner of Provisions, Fruit, and other productions of the earth; and no officer or Seaman, or other person belonging to the Ship, excepting such as are appointed, shall Trade or offer to Trade for any sort of Provisions, Fruit, or other productions of the earth unless they have my leave to do so.

3. No sort of Iron, or any thing that is made of Iron, or any sort of Cloth or other useful or necessary articles are to be given in exchange for any thing but provisions.

1. Why was it important for Cook to enforce the first rule?

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons _______________________________________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• _______________________________________________________________________

2. Choose one of Cook’s rules and suggest what might have happened in past contacts with Indigenous Australians for Cook to make this rule.

w ww

m . u

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

. te

Research

 Cook wanted to trade goods for breadfruit with the Tahitians. Research the value of this breadfruit in a sailor’s diet. Sketch this fruit, then provide some information about it in the space below.

o c . c e her r Sketch of breadfruit Value of breadfruit o t s in a sailor’s diet. super __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________

Section 1: Captain James Cook

9


Student Information Page

The Voyage To New Zealand The Dutchman Abel Tasman was the first European to sight the coastline of New Zealand in 1642. Tasman wrote in his journal, “This land looks like being a very beautiful land and we trust that this is the mainland coast of the unknown south land.” Captain Cook wanted to find out if New Zealand was indeed a part of the Great South Land or separate from it.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Map showing Cook’s voyage from Tahiti to New Zealand (1769).

New Guinea

Hawaiian Islands EQUATOR

Society Islands

Tahitian Islands

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

1000 kilometres

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons PACIFIC OCEAN •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

New Holland

New Zealand

w ww

Cook’s voyage to New Zealand

. te

m . u

Cook's First Voyage 1768 to 1771

Tupaia guided Cook westwards through the chain of the Tahitian islands. The men were constantly on the lookout for dangerous reefs. The Endeavour anchored in deep harbours on several of the islands to take on supplies such as: yams, bananas, pigs and chickens. Joseph Banks was particularly looking forward to fresh food. On July 28th he recorded in his journal that, “Our bread is at present so full of vermin that despite all possible care I have sometimes had 20 at a time in my mouth, every one of which tasted as hot as mustard.”

o c . che e r o t r s super

Wherever the Endeavour sailed, the crew was met by local inhabitants, who paddled out in canoes to greet them. The people appeared to be happy, living in large long houses built near the shore. They spent their days fishing, tending their animals and collecting coconuts and other fruit that grew abundantly.

10

Section 1: Captain James Cook


Activity

The Voyage To New Zealand

 Read the information on page 10, then answer the questions below. 1. How was Cook going to prove that New Zealand was or was not a part of the Great South Land? ____________________________________________________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

____________________________________________________________________ 2. Estimate the distance that the Endeavour sailed from Tahiti to New Zealand.

Teac he r

The distance is approximately ___________________________________________

ew i ev Pr

3. Why did Cook stop frequently to take on food supplies after leaving Tahiti?

____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Visit Manuae (or Scilly) in French Polynesia using a digital mapping tool. The island’s coordinates are: -16.324929, -154.375713.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons description of your impressions of this tropical island. •f or r e vi ew pur posesonl y• Your description might include:

Imagine that you are a sailor on the Endeavour passing by Manuae. Write a short

w ww

m . u

- whether or not people inhabit the island; - any wildlife you may have spotted; - the weather conditions on that day (very important to sailors); - a sketch of Manuae as seen from the ship. Continue on the back of this sheet if you need more space.

. te o ___________________________________________________________________ c . che e ___________________________________________________________________ r o t r s super ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

Section 1: Captain James Cook

11


Student Information Page

First Contact With The Māori People Cook’s landing in New Zealand

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Cook’s party was suddenly confronted by a group of Māori men carrying weapons. Cook told his sailors to fire their muskets over the Māoris’ heads. But when one Māori warrior came close to the ship and raised his spear, one of Cook's sailors, fearing for his life, shot the man through the heart. Cook had to summon Tupaia from the ship, whose language the Māoris understood. Eventually, Tupaia was able to convince the Māoris to trade with the British for food.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Nicholas Young, a 12-year-old boy on the Endeavour, alerted Cook on October 6th 1769 that land was near. This headland was named “Young Nick’s Head” in the boy’s honour. The next day, Cook dropped anchor and went ashore to arrange supplies. There was no fresh water or vegetables to be found so this inlet was named “Poverty Bay.”

Maori Man by Sydney Parkinson 1784 Wikimedia Commons

Read the account below which recounts the arrival of Cook's ship in New Zealand from a Maori man's point of view.

Te Ūnga Mai – The Arrival © ReadyEdPu bl i cat i ons The divinities in their red cloaks arrived from thes west to Turanga-nui. •f orr evi ew pur po es onl yThey •

The Endeavour had been away from Britain for 14 months. Its crew was homesick and tired, but Cook had orders to complete his mission. During the next six months, Captain Cook carefully mapped the New Zealand coast. He discovered that a strait, now called Cook Strait, separated New Zealand into two large islands. Cook tried to build friendlier relationships with the other Māori people who he encountered. When it was time to take the Endeavour home, Cook set a course westwards towards Van Diemen’s Land, sighted by Abel Tasman in 1642.

. te

12

m . u

w ww

Completing the mission

came in a big winged bird. It was beautiful as it glided on the water. But some of us old people had fear that the figures coming in a smaller bird closer to the shore had come to take us back to the ancestral land. We heard loud noises coming from the river’s mouth. Ducks flew high into the air. A group of iwi men took up clubs and spears and ran to see what was causing this commotion. The Pakehas in red, pointed a stick weapon and made loud noises in the air near our men. Brave Te Maro followed the figures with his spear to their small bird. Then he fell. In the next days, the Pakeha killed more iwi men and tried to take others to their winged bird. We were not sad to see them depart our land.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Section 1: Captain James Cook


First Contact With The Māori People 1

Activity

 Read the information on page 12, then complete the activities below. 1. The 8th – 9th of October at Turanganui is celebrated in New Zealand for various reasons. Explain why this time is celebrated from the points of view specified below. Point of View

Explanation

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

The landing place of the Horouta canoe that brought the star navigators from Polynesia about 1250 A.D. Cook’s first landing on New Zealand soil and formal meeting with the Māori people. The first Māori meeting with Tupaia, the highpriest from the ancestors’ homeland.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

2. What do you think would have happened if Tupaia had not gone ashore with Cook for the first meeting with the Māori people at Turanganui?

w ww

m . u

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

. te

_______________________________________________________________________

o c . c e her r _______________________________________________________________________ o t s super _______________________________________________________________________ 3. Why was mapping the New Zealand coastline such an important part of Captain Cook’s mission?

_______________________________________________________________________ 4. Cook’s orders, written one year before he landed in Tahiti, instructed him to return home from New Zealand by any route that he thought best. Why do you think Cook headed west towards Van Diemen’s Land? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Section 1: Captain James Cook

13


First Contact With The Māori People 2

Activity

Study the sources below. One is a journal entry by Joseph Banks (March 1770) and the other is a sketch of a Māori village (1878). Also look at the image on page 12, then complete the task below.

 Think about what we can learn about Māori culture from the sources below and from the image on page 12. Organise your ideas in a mind map in the space provided. Some headings could be: appearance, buildings and food resources.

Teac he r

“This we called the War song, for tho they seemed fond of using it upon all occasions whether in war or peace they, I believe, never omit it in their attacks. Besides this, they have several other songs which their women sing prettily enough in parts; they certainly have more taste in them than could be expected from untaught savages.

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

A Maori Fishing Camp (1878)

State Library of Victoria Instrumental musick they have not, unless a kind of wooden pipe or the shell called Tritons, a Trumpet with which they make a noise not much differing from that made by boys with a Cow’s horn may be called such. They have indeed besides these a kind of small pipe of wood, crooked and shaped almost like a large tobacco pipe head, but it has hardly more musick in it than a whistle with a Pea in it; but on none of these did I ever hear them attempt to play a tune or sing to their musick.”

w ww

. te

14

m . u

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

Section 1: Captain James Cook


Section 2: r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

The Colonisers And Native Peoples

w ww

. te

National Library of Australia

m . u

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

Year 4 - ACHHK079 Stories of the First Fleet, including reasons for the journey, who travelled to Australia, and their experiences following arrival. Year 4 - ACHHK080 The nature of contact between Aboriginal people and/ or Torres Strait Islanders and others, for example, the Macassans and the Europeans, and the effects of these interactions on, for example families and the environment.

15


Student Information Page

First Impressions Of The Eora

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Before settling at Sydney Cove on January 26th 1788, Governor Phillip and his marines had contact with Eora speaking people at Botany Bay. The Gweagal and Bediagal clans greeted the First Fleet with shouts of, “werre! werre!” (go away, go away). Governor Phillip offered the indigenous people beads, trinkets and mirrors, which they accepted. When more “floating islands” started to appear in the bay with “devils” climbing the huge white wings, the Gweagal became restless. They wanted the “white-faced ghosts” to leave and pointed to the water. News of the intruders travelled fast to other Eora people.

While exploring for a better site for the first settlement in Port Jackson, Phillip’s party met with more Eora people on the northern side of the harbour. In Governor Phillip’s first news despatch to London, he described the manly and confident appearance of the Cannalgal men (Eora speaking people). He named this meeting place Manly Cove.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Eora contact with the British •f o rr ev i ew pur posesonl y•

Governor Phillip was given orders from Lord Sydney, the Home Secretary, about the treatment of indigenous peoples of the new colony. The orders included:

w ww

m . u

“You are to endeavour by every means to open up communication with the natives, and conciliate their affections, enjoining all our subjects to live in harmony and kindness with them.”

. te

“...endeavour to procure an account of the number inhabiting the neighbourhood of the intended settlement, and report your opinion to one of our Secretaries of State in what manner our relationship with these people may be turned to the advantage of this colony.”

o c . che e r o t r s supe r In the first few days after settlement at Sydney Cove, unarmed Cadigal men

(Eora speaking people) made contact with the Europeans. They showed the marines the best places to land and tie up their boats. The marines shared fish that they had caught with nets with the Cadigal. The two peoples also danced together in the warm evenings on the shoreline as shy Cadigal women looked on from a distance.

16

Section 2: The Colonisers And Native Peoples


First Impressions Of The Eora 1

Activity

Consult the interactive map of “Locations of Aboriginal Groups in the Sydney Area” at: www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/barani/themes/theme1.htm.

1. Locate and label the clans mentioned on page 16.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

2. Use the map below to explain why it was easy for the Eora at Botany Bay to spread the news of the First Fleet to others. ____________________________________________________________________

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

____________________________________________________________________ N

Broken Bay

PACIFIC OCEAN

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Port Jackson •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Botany Bay

m . u

Scale

w ww

10 kilometres

3. Why do you think that the Gweagal and Bediagal clans thought that the Europeans were “ghosts”?

. te o c ____________________________________________________________________ . che e r o t r  Read the orders that Lord Sydney gave toe Governor Arthur Phillip on page 16. s s r u p Use a dictionary to help you with the words that you do not know. ____________________________________________________________________

4. What evidence can you find that Lord Sydney thought that Indigenous Australians might oppose the settlement of their land by the British? The evidence I found is _________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Section 2: The Colonisers And Native Peoples

17


Activity

First Impressions Of The Eora 2

 Read the source below. It is an entry from William Bradley’s journal written in late February 1788.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Sunday. 3 p.m. ...... In a Cove to the North West 3 Miles above the Ship we saw several Natives, some sitting round a fire, others were just landing with their Canoes. The moment they perceived us, they ran off in great confusion and hurry not taking time to make the Canoes fast or haul them ashore, these people had a dog with them. We found Mussels on the Fire, others in their Canoes and some dropped between both; their fright was so great that they went off without taking their fishing lines, spears or anything with them. We left string of beads, Cards, pieces of Cloth etc. about their Fire & in the Canoes & were very particular not to move any one of their things.

1. How is this account of British and Eora contact different to the description of first contact at Sydney Cove on page 16?

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons _______________________________________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 2. Can you suggest a reason for the Eora’s reaction to the British marines?

_______________________________________________________________________

w ww

m . u

3. Describe what happened on this Sunday afternoon from the point of view of the Eora people. Plan your writing first on the back of this sheet. _______________________________________________________________________

. t e o _______________________________________________________________________ c . c e her r _______________________________________________________________________ o t s s r u e p _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 18

Section 2: The Colonisers And Native Peoples


First Impressions Of The Eora 3

Activity

1. What knowledge and technology do you think that the British and Eora had, to help one another survive in the Sydney environment? Make notes in the table below. Look at the example provided. Knowledge and Technology Excellent tracking skills to hunt animals.

BRITISH

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

EORA

Governor Phillip was anxious to build up his knowledge and © Re adyEdPubl i cat i ons understanding of Indigenous Australians in the Sydney area. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

. te

m . u

2. Complete the mind map below with methods that he could have used to gather information.

o c . che e r o t r s super

3. Highlight the method that you think would be the most effective. Discuss your answer with a partner. Section 2: The Colonisers And Native Peoples

19


Student Information Page

On The Other Side Of The World In 1788 Terra Australis was the most isolated land on the Earth. When Governor Phillip arrived at Port Jackson with the lives of 1403 people in his hands, it would be at least nine months before news of their experiences reached Britain.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

Reports from the First Settlement

ew i ev Pr

Convicts, soldiers and officers began recording their daily activities, challenges and opinions of Port Jackson in reports, diaries, letters and works of art. Writing about their experiences was a way of keeping the link with their homeland alive. It was Governor Phillip’s duty to inform the British Government about the problems that the settlement was facing and what supplies were needed to help the settlement survive.

Read the events below that convicts, soldiers and officers recorded during their first weeks in the Port Jackson settlement.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 1. The• Governor’s canvas house has been erected on the east sideo of n thel cove, f o r r e v i e w p u r p o s e s y• which has been named Sydney.

w ww

m . u

2. To fight scurvy, convicts collect wild celery, spinach and parsley that grow abundantly around the camp. The addition of these plants to the ration of salt-pork has been welcomed.

3. This month has been very wet with violent thunderstorms. On February 6th a lightning strike killed six sheep, two lambs and a pig.

. te

4. Indigenous people, while seen from a distance, do not come to the settlement. After six weeks, two young men pay a thirty-minute visit and were given two small axes.

o c . chekilled an emu, which caused r e 5. The Governor’s game-keeper great curiosity and o excitement. Its flesh was saidr tos be well-flavoured. t s r u e p 6. Religious services are held every Sunday (weather permitting) and several marriages among convicts have already taken place. 7. On February 28th the “old and desperate” convict Thomas Barrett was tried and hanged for plotting to steal food and escaping into the bush.

20

Section 2: The Colonisers And Native Peoples


On The Other Side Of The World 1

Activity

 Look at the events reported from Port Jackson on page 20. Choose three events and think about what conclusions can be drawn from them about life in the penal settlement in its first weeks. An example has been provided for you below.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

The only shelter in the penal colony’s early weeks was in tents. Convicts, Event 1 soldiers and even Governor Phillip had to wait for houses and barracks to be built. Tents wouldn’t provide much protection during storms.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 1. What experiences might a child of a convict and a child of a naval officer at Port •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Jackson have written about? Write your ideas under the headings below. Convict's child

_________________________

_________________________

_________________________

_________________________

w ww

m . u

Officer’s child

_________________________ . te _________________________ _________________________ o c . che e _________________________ _________________________ r o t r s _________________________ uper _________________________ s _________________________

_________________________

_________________________

2. Do the children have experiences in common? Why/why not? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Section 2: The Colonisers And Native Peoples

21


On The Other Side Of The World 2

Activity

Make a list on the back of this sheet of five things that Governor Phillip needed to do after arriving at Sydney Cove. For example: Build pens to stop the farm animals escaping. Look at the list of events again on page 20 to help you generate ideas.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Follow these steps:

i. Organise your list in the order of most important (1)  least important (5).

iii. Debate the merits of your two priorities with another pair.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

ii. Discuss your list with a partner. Reach a decision together on the two top priorities for Governor Phillip. iv. In your group of four, agree on the Governor’s number one priority for Sydney and write it in the space below. Share your findings with the class.

 The top priority is : ________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Study this painting •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•  Study this painting of Sydney Cove (1804) by Francis Jukes. Would the scene in

because ________________________________________________________________

w ww

. te

m . u

the painting attract free settlers from Britain to migrate to New South Wales?

o c . che e r o t r s super National Library of Australia

 I think the painting is / is not a good advertisement for migration because … ________________________________________________________________ 22

Section 2: The Colonisers And Native Peoples


Student Information Page

News From Sydney Cove  Read this news bulletin about the progress made in the first two years in the Sydney colony. London Edition 1d

r o e t Public Advertiser s Bo r e p ok u S

1st of June 1790

Teac he r

AGRICULTURE The land is hard to till because the tools brought on the voyage are not adequate to this important task. Hardwood trees that are plentiful around the settlement will not fall under the axes of six men! Even so, many acres have been cleared and plans to expand farming land west of Sydney Cove are well-advanced.

very low and there is resort to hunting native animals of the region such as the kangaroo, emu, possum etc. Fish catches are abundant in the summer, but are most scarce in cooler months of the year. Great sharks, stingray and oyster at times complete the diet. George Worgan, the colony’s surgeon, reports that the scourge of scurvy and dysentry has diminished amongst the convicts. The regular partaking of wild spinach, lemons, oranges and quinces has aided favourably in this matter.

ew i ev Pr

THE FORTUNES OF SYDNEY His Majesty’s subjects under the watch of Governor Arthur Phillip Esq. have at last sent these Isles news of their fate in the colony of New South Wales. We can surmise that our colonists have met with mixed blessings.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons CONVICTS •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te

m . u

w ww

Much of the seed stock gathered by the Governor has spoiled and will not take root. Rain has been most irregular. The colony cannot grow wheat crops for its daily bread. Maize grows well but its bread is not liked well by the people. Fortunately, vegetables sprout from the earth like gifts. Potatoes, peas, endive, melons and strawberries grace tables in good supply. Governor Phillip noted that only those convicts who neglect to tend their vegetable plots should ever fear for an empty belly.

Convict labour has been applied to the preparation of farm land and building houses in the settlement. Females are mostly occupied in domestic service under the beneficial influence of the officers and their wives. The convicts are housed in tents as the building of permanent barracks proceeds.

o c . che e r o t r s super

HEALTH IN THE COLONY There is much complaint of the lack of pork and beef meat. Salted supplies run

DISEASE STRIKES NATIVES Alarm has been raised about a disease which has swept off large numbers of the Natives of the environs of Sydney. Captain John Hunter assures us of the shocking sight of finding men, women and children dead or dying in the little coves which nestle the harbour. The disease has not afflicted our people with the exception of a sailor from the Americas, one Joseph Jeffries.

Section 2: The Colonisers And Native Peoples

23


News From Sydney Cove 1

Activity

1. Highlight the information in the source on page 23 that tells you about how the colonists at Port Jackson were changing the environment and that tells you about the traditional way of life of the Eora people. 2. Complete the change and effect chart below referring to three changes that you have highlighted in the news report on page 23.

Effect r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Change

Teac he r 3

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

m . u

2

ew i ev Pr

1

Hold a Debate

. te

o c . che e r o t Prepare FOR or AGAINST arguments for the following topic: r s super

 Many of the convicts transported on the First Fleet came from slums in the industrial cities of England. They suffered from poor health and had few prospects for the future except perhaps a life of petty crime.

“Convicts had a better future in New South Wales.”

 Use your own knowledge of life during the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the ideas in the Public Advertiser news report on page 23 to help you.

24

Section 2: The Colonisers And Native Peoples


News From Sydney Cove 2

Activity

 Governor Phillip had to ration food in the first settlement. Read about the daily food ration issued on April 12th 1790 (right). This ration had to be divided among seven people. Use this source and the information on page 23 to help you answer the questions below.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

1. How would you describe the diet of the British in the First Settlement?

.

_________________________________________________

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

_________________________________________________

2. What was growing in the colony at this time to make the rations tastier and healthier?

_______________________________________________________________________ 3. Why did Governor Phillip give convicts their own vegetable patches to tend?

_______________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 4. Governor Arthur Phillip ordered thep rations to be divided equally among all the • f o r r e v i e w u r p o s e s o n l y • people in the settlement “without distinction.” Why do you think Governor Phillip

_______________________________________________________________________

gave the military and convicts equal rations?

w ww

m . u

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

. te

 Below is a popular nursery rhyme in the 18th century about a porridge made from dried peas. Children clapped hands together as they recited the rhyme as in “One potato, Two potato.” Poor people ate pease porridge for most meals.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Pease porridge hot, pease porridge cold, Pease porridge in a pot, nine days old. Some like it hot, some like it cold, Some like it in the pot, nine days old.

5. Create a nursery rhyme based on the food available at Sydney Cove and perform it for the class. Invent a clapping game to accompany your rhyme. Section 2: The Colonisers And Native Peoples

25


Student Information Page

Australia’s Natural Wonders

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Early descriptions of plants and animals The first settlers often named the fauna and flora after other plants and animals that they were familiar with in Europe and other explored regions of the world. Read some of the names which settlers gave the plants and animals which they found near Port Jackson (right).

Settler name monkey-bear piping crow clock-bird duckbill dishwasher badger iguana/guano beef wood native peach native tulip

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

The first settlers could hardly believe their eyes when they saw how beautiful and different the continent’s plants and animals were. Eucalypts did not smell sweetly and their leaves did not fall off in autumn. Swans were black, not white. It was natural that many of the first reports from Sydney described Port Jackson’s fauna and flora and the important part it played in the survival of the settlement in its early years.

Present name koala magpie kookaburra platypus wagtail wombat goanna banksia quandong waratah

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Seeing was believing •were f okeen rr e vi ew pur posesonl y• Europeans to know

w ww

m . u

everything about the Great South Land. As early as the 1790s Australian plants, animals and birds were shipped to Europe to be studied by scientists and enjoyed by wealthy collectors. By 1813 Napoleon and Empress Josephine of France had bottlebrush and eucalyptus trees growing at their Malmaison Palace. John Gould took the first live budgies to England in 1840. The little parrots thrived in Europe and became popular pets around the world. When the first preserved platypus reached London in 1799, the zoologist George Shaw believed it was a carefully planned hoax. He thought that someone had sewn different animal parts together to create a new species.

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super Many native animals did not survive the long voyage to Europe due to the

terrible conditions on board ships. As a result, taxidermists in the Australian colonies preserved animal specimens to be exhibited in the world’s museums. Much of this work was done by skilled women. When native animals did reach Britain alive, they caused a sensation and made front-page news.

26

Section 2: The Colonisers And Native Peoples


Australia’s Natural Wonders 1

Activity

 Read page 26, then answer the questions below. 1. Choose two of the names given to plants or animals by the early settlers. Why might the Europeans have chosen these names? a) __________________________________________________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

b) __________________________________________________________________

Teac he r

2. Many of the Australian plants and animals shipped to Europe did not survive the voyage. Suggest how the transporters could have solved this problem.

ew i ev Pr

____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

3. Read the source below. It is a news snippet from the Sydney Gazette & New South Wales Advertiser (1803). Highlight parts which may suggest the animal’s identity in the text. A curious little native Animal, partaking in appearance of the squirrel & native cat is at this time in possession of Dan M'Coy. The tail is of a remarkable length, the eyes rather prominent, the breast of a deep tan colour, and the back a dark mixture. On either shoulder, a thin skin expands itself, which probably assisted in its flight or spring from tree to tree. From its hoarse droning noise when handled or annoyed, it at present passes under the appellation of the Buzzing Squirrel.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

m . u

 I think the animal being described is a ____________________________________ because ____________________________________________________________

. te

o c . che e r o ___________________________________________________________________ t r s super

4. Write a short news article about a mammal, reptile or bird found in Sydney that was unknown to the first settlers. You can make comparisons with other animals to help the reader form a picture of this new discovery.

___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Section 2: The Colonisers And Native Peoples

27


Australia’s Natural Wonders 2

Activity

 Which animal parts do you suppose George Shaw thought the “fake” platypus specimen might have been made up of? Annotate the diagram.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

an otter's waterproof fur

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

. te

28

m . u

 Read the flyer below which was distributed in London in 1794. In the 1790s, the one shilling admission to see a live kangaroo could have bought a modest pair of shoes, a good pair of lady’s gloves or a family’s bread for a week!  On the back of this sheet design your own flyer which advertises the exhibition of an Australian animal, bird or reptile for the first time in England.

o c . che Think about including the following e r featurest your flyer: r sono supe r •

an eye-catching headline;

a border that attracts attention;

the location of the exhibition;

price of admission;

a description that adds mystery to your unique Australian animal.

Section 2: The Colonisers And Native Peoples


Section 3: o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Migrating To The Australianr Colonies

w ww

. te

m . u

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

Image courtesy of the State Library of South Australia. SLSA: B 9160. Klemzig, 1844.

Year 5 - ACHHK096 The reasons people migrated to Australia from Europe and Asia, and the experiences and contributions of a particular migrant group within a colony.

Section 3: Migrating To The Australian Colonies

29


Student Information Page

Free Settlers Living conditions were miserable in parts of Britain in the 1800s for the working class. As the promise of a better life in the Australian colonies spread through Europe, more free settlers began arriving in New South Wales. Only eleven settlers arrived at Sydney Cove on the Bellona in 1793. By 1830 more than 70,000 migrants had answered Australia’s call.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Categories of migrants

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

People migrated under different conditions and for different reasons. Below is a list of colonial migration schemes before 1860 to attract settlers. FREE SETTLERS: Settlers and merchants who paid for their own passage to Australia. They applied for land grants to establish farms and businesses.

MILITARY and EX-CONVICTS: Soldiers and emancipists who decided to stay on in the colony after completing their service. They were granted farming land. THE GOVERNMENT SCHEME (1820s and 1840s): The Colonial Office helped suitable candidates from poor backgrounds to migrate. The government paid for these migrants’ passage.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

THE BOUNTY SCHEME (1835-41): Labour for the new industries in the colony was in big demand. Qualified tradespersons who were of good character and ideally aged between 18 and 30, had their passage paid for by settlers. Agents in Britain were paid a commission for every migrant who they boarded on a ship.

m . u

w ww

ASSISTED IMMIGRANTS SCHEME (1840-1860): Convict transportation was coming to an end and so the image of Australia as a penal colony was fading. This drew migrants from all over the world. Earl Grey’s scheme helped young Irish women and orphan girls to migrate to Australia to work in domestic service.

Read the profiles of two people who migrated to South Australia in the 1800s.

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

WILLIAM THOMAS BROWN BAILES Born in 1811 in Devon, England. Migrated to South Australia in 1836. Married Georgina Knapp in 1838 and raised three children. Had various jobs such as a carpenter, Image courtesy of the State Library of South Australia. builder, publican and SLSA: B 60395 William Thomas Brown Bales, undertaker. Died in 1868. ca. 1850 Never returned to England to see his family.

30

MATILDA JANE EVANS Born in 1827 in Surrey, England. Migrated to South Australia in 1852. Mother died during the voyage. Married Ephraim Evans, a Baptist minister in 1860 and had four children. Ephraim died in 1863. Opened a ladies’ school at Angaston in 1868. Published 14 novels. Died in 1886.

Section 3: Migrating To The Australian Colonies

Image courtesy of the State Library of South Australia. SLSA: B 53558 Matilda Jane Evans, ca. 1865


Free Settlers 1

Activity

 Read the information on page 30, then answer the questions. 1. Identify three reasons that “pushed” (-) people to migrate from Europe and three reasons that “pulled” (+) migrants to the Australian colonies. Pulled Migrants To Colonies (+)

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

2. Why did the colonies introduce migration schemes?

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Pushed People From Europe (-)

____________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 3. What• kind of migrant the colonies want to o attract? f o rr edid vi ew pu r p sesonl y•

____________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________

m . u

____________________________________________________________________

w ww

4. The “Bounty Scheme” only lasted for six years because the Colonial Office was not happy with its results. Why do you think this scheme failed?

. te o c  Research a settler from your local area and prepare a short profi le like the ones on . c e page 30. Share your migrant profile with the class. her r o t s super

____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

Section 3: Migrating To The Australian Colonies

31


Activity

Free Settlers 2

 Study the pie charts which show the population in the Australian colonies in 1822, 1852 and 1882. The charts show the approximate ratio of females to males. For example, in 1822 the ratio of females to males was 1:3. This means that for every woman in the population, there were three men. 1822 Females

1882

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Females

Males

Females

Males

Males

1. Why did the colonies want to attract more women to migrate?

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

1852

____________________________________________________________________

2. In 1822, 75% of the population was male. What problems might this have caused?

____________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 3. How successful were the migration schemes in achieving a balance between males •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• and females in the population? Use the charts to explain your response. ____________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________

w ww

m . u

____________________________________________________________________ 4. Create an advertisement to appear in a British newspaper in the 1800s promoting free passage for young ladies to Australia. Include the qualities that the women should have to be deemed suitable candidates. What kind of life will you promise them?

. te o c Free Passage to Australia . che e r o t r s super

32

Section 3: Migrating To The Australian Colonies


Activity

Free Settlers 3

 Read the news story below about the arrival of 200 female immigrants to Van Diemen’s Land in August 1832.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

The Princess Royal, with the free females on board, unfortunately ran aground near Pittwater on Saturday last, and though not much damaged, we believe she has not yet been dislodged. Mr. Grant, the agent for Lloyd's, has been on board ever since. His Excellency, the Governor, the moment he heard of the accident, went down in a government vessel to give assistance to the immigrants. Mr. Thomson's steam vessel conveyed them up to Newtown, where they will be housed temporarily in the Orphan School.

We trust these women will appreciate the advantage they possess over other free settlers that have yet come to the colony, in having immediate shelter given to them, and a committee of respectable and intelligent ladies appointed by the Governor himself to assist them in obtaining employment. They will if they are wise and friends to themselves have an opportunity to do well and avoid the problems which new settlers so frequently face.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

m . u

On the other hand, we should advise our readers who intend to employ them, to recollect they are free immigrants and entitled to be treated with every respect that their conduct will merit, while at the same time, for both parties’ sake, a proper contract as in England should be made for a certain period of service, as a year, half-year or quarter, most certainly not less than a month, so that in case of a separation the employer should not be left suddenly without a servant, nor the servant sent abroad without provision.

1. Find two pieces of evidence in the news story that the female migrants were very welcome in Van Diemen’s Land in 1832.

. te o c • _________________________________________________________________ . che e r 2. Identify two warnings givenr to the newspaper’s readers. o t s s r u e p ____________________________________________________________________ •

_________________________________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________ 3. Write down two ways that the female settlers could spoil their opportunity in Van Diemen's Land. •

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________ Section 3: Migrating To The Australian Colonies

33


Student Information Page

A Passage To Australia The voyage to Australia in colonial times took between four to six months depending on the winds and the weather. Passengers and crew ran the risk of being attacked by pirates, shipwrecked or falling victim to diseases on board. Settlers in the Australian colonies who wanted labour for their new industries, paid £30 for the passage of a young married couple, £5 for each child over a year, £15 for females of a marriageable age and £10 for each young unmarried male.

r o e t s B r e oo Conditions on shipsp u k S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Conditions below top deck on wooden sailing ships were very cramped for most migrants. Only wealthy passengers had private cabins. Decks were about 40 metres long and the ceilings were 2.2 metres high. Ships usually carried up to 700 migrants. Single men and women slept at opposite Female emigrants in London. National Library of Australia. ends of the deck and families were placed in between. Up to three people shared a plank bed bunk. The only privacy for families was a screen made with a blanket. A long bench was fixed in the centre of the deck where everyone ate their meals together. In their tiny berths, passengers had to store at least a month’s food rations and cutlery. A ship’s doctor was employed to look after the migrants. The lack of ventilation below deck and the number of people in a confined space meant that diseases spread quickly. This was particularly serious for children, who regularly died from measles, typhus fever, influenza and dysentery.

w ww

Read these other fascinating facts about the experiences on migrant ships.

. te

34

m . u

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

- Fresh water was very precious so people bathed with sea water. - Women had an enclosed toilet. Men were expected to relieve themselves on the sheltered side of the ship (but only in calm weather). - During rough seas, passengers were often thrown from their tiny bunks. Seasickness was common and often lasted for the entire voyage. - During bad weather the hatches were locked. It was like living in a dungeon as oil lamps could not be used in case they fell over and caused a fire.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Section 3: Migrating To The Australian Colonies


Activity

A Passage To Australia 1

 Read the information on page 34, then complete the tasks and questions below. 1. Make a list of the dangers that migrants faced on the passage to Australia. You may add ideas of your own to the list. Allocate each danger a risk rating. High risk

Medium risk

Low risk

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Rating

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Danger

2. The danger/s that had the highest risk was/were ____________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons ____________________________________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

3. The fact that migrants were willing to risk the long voyage to Australia tells me that

____________________________________________________________________

w ww

m . u

4. Why do you suppose settlers were willing to pay more for the passage of young married couples? ____________________________________________________________________

. te

____________________________________________________________________

o c . che e r o t r s super Keepsakes …

5. Imagine that you were a child in 1850 whose family decided to migrate to Australia. You can only take with you five keepsakes from your homeland on board the ship. Write what you would take in the box below.

 Explain to a classmate why these objects are important to you. Section 3: Migrating To The Australian Colonies

35


Activity

A Passage To Australia 2

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

1. Use the information on page 34 to annotate the diagram below of a passenger deck on a migrant ship. The galley (kitchen) has been given as an example.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Migrant ships docked at ports such as Cape Town or Rio de Janeiro so that they could stock up on provisions for the rest of the voyage to Australia. Stopovers also gave passengers the opportunity to send letters back home.

w ww

. te

36

m . u

2. Write a letter to a friend telling him or her about your voyage so far and your plans for the future as a migrant in an Australian colony.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Section 3: Migrating To The Australian Colonies


Activity

A Passage To Australia 3

 Read the news report from the Melbourne Argus, November 1852.

TERRIBLE STATE OF AFFAIRS ON BOARD EMIGRANT SHIP AT THE PORT PHILLIP HEADS.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

comforts, etc., had been consumed. The Lysander ship, has been taken up by Government as a quarantine hulk and proceeds to her destination at the Heads this day, having on board stores sufficient for three months, when further arrangements will be made, which we trust will improve the fearful state of things on board. The abovementioned are the only details known to our reporter at present, but, at all events, this case clearly exhibits the cruelty and ill-judged policy of crowding such a number of people on board a single ship, no matter her size, for a lengthened voyage.

ew i ev Pr

Intelligence was brought to Williamstown on Wednesday evening last, by Captain Wylie, of the brig Champion, from Adelaide, that a large ship, the Ticonderoga, 90 days out from Liverpool, with more than 800 Government emigrants on board, had anchored at the Heads. A great amount of sickness had occurred among the passengers, more than 100 deaths having taken place, and almost a similar number of cases (typhus fever) being still on board. Nor was this all. The doctor's health was so unstable that he was not expected to survive, and the whole of the medicine, medical

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

m . u

1. Explain why typhus fever could have easily spread through the Ticonderoga. ____________________________________________________________________

2. Did the Government provide satisfactory medical care for the voyage?

. te o 3. Why did Captain Wylie sail ahead to inform the authorities at . Port Phillip Bay c (Melbourne) of thec Ticonderoga’s e herpredicament?st r super o ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

4. What recommendations would you have made to the British Immigration Commissioners to improve conditions on board migrant ships? •

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________ Section 3: Migrating To The Australian Colonies

37


Student Information Page

German Settlers

Teac he r

Many of the Germans who arrived in the colony of South Australia after 1838 were of the Lutheran religion. They left their homeland because Frederick William III of Prussia wanted to change the way that people worshipped. He shut Lutheran churches, exiled pastors and put church-goers in prison. This religious persecution was the reason why many Germans migrated to South Australia. They saw migration as a means of keeping the Lutherans’ way of life alive and becoming a part of a new nation.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

George Fife Angas (image right), a pioneer of the colony of Mr George Fife Angas South Australia, was sympathetic to the Germans’ problems. State Library of Victoria Angas admired their religious faith and strong work ethic. He believed that Germans could contribute to the economy of the colony. In 1838 Angas paid the passage for the first group of twenty-one migrants from Hamburg. He settled the Germans on his own land in the Adelaide Hills, where they quickly set up farms. News of the migrants’ successes motivated others to join the Lutherans in the colony. By 1900, Germans made up 10% of the population in South Australia.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons The German migrants brought with them their knowledge of farming methods •f or r evi e wapplied pur po ses nthe l y • built up over many generations. They mixed farming to o make best German settlers’ contribution to Australian life

w ww

m . u

use of their environment’s resources and to produce enough food to sustain their community. They were also able to sell their fresh vegetables in Adelaide each day. A typical migrant’s farm consisted of a long narrow strip of land leading down to a creek; a house was constructed close to the road and behind the house a vegetable patch was cultivated and chicken runs and pig pens built; vineyards and orchards occupied the next space; a large area was dedicated to growing wheat and barley and the remaining land was turned into pasture for livestock.

. tewere valued migrants in South Australia because: o The Germans cvillages . cheand quickly constructed well-planned • they were hard-working e r and farms from the wilderness; o t r s super • they were instrumental in establishing the industries of wine-making in the famous Barossa Valley, woollen textile weaving and silversmithing;

38

German miners worked in the copper mines and smelters;

Lutheran missionaries worked with Indigenous Australians in remote communities to learn more about their languages and cultures.

Section 3: Migrating To The Australian Colonies


Activity

German Settlers 1

 Read the information on page 38, then complete the questions. 1. Why did George Fife Angas pay for German settlers to travel to Australia? ____________________________________________________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

____________________________________________________________________

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

2. Right is a painting by George French Angas (1844), the son of George Fife Angas. It depicts the German migrants’ village of Klemzig on the River Torrens near Adelaide. Find evidence in this image that the Germans wanted to preserve their cultural heritage.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons The • evidence I found is … ______________________________________________ f or r ev i e w pur posesonl y• Image courtesy of the State Library of South Australia. SLSA: B 9160. Klemzig, 1844.

___________________________________________________________________

. te

German

British

m . u

w ww

3. How was the German migrants’ experience both similar and different to British migrants that came to Australia? Complete the Venn diagram to show your ideas.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Section 3: Migrating To The Australian Colonies

39


Activity

German Settlers 2

 Read the information on page 38, then complete the tasks and questions.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

1. Sketch and label a plan of how Germans carried out mixed farming. Turn the page to landscape format for your sketch.

 Read the advertisement below which appeared in the Adelaide Advertiser in 1889.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 2. Why do • youf think Mrs Hammer preferred a German girl? or r e vi e w pu r po sesonl y• WANTED, a respectable, strong, country GIRL for general housework, GERMAN preferred. Apply to Mrs Hammer, 6 Bundle Street Adelaide.

_______________________________________________________________________

. te

m . u

w ww

 Read the source below. It is an excerpt from a letter that Agneta Stephan (a German migrant living in Victoria) sent to her brother in Germany in 1857.

“Here the greatest cold is in July and August, however, it is never very cold here, but much rain. It freezes a little here of a night once in a while, but when the sun comes, all then quickly thaws again. I have not seen snow yet. In September we plant potatoes, at Christmas it is the hottest and the beginning of January is the wheat harvest. The reason we have no draught bullocks is that we had to pay so much for the fields. But in the future it will become better. Our greatest joy would be if you and your children would come to us, because we could all live right well from the land which we have; etc.”

o c . che e r o t r s super

3. How does Agneta try to persuade her brother to migrate to Australia? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 40

Section 3: Migrating To The Australian Colonies


Section 4: r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Notable Colonial People

w ww

. te

Wikimedia Commons

m . u

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

Year 5 - AHCHHK097 The role that a significant individual or group played in shaping a colony; for example, explorers, farmers, entrepreneurs, artists, writers, humanitarians, religious and political leaders, and Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples.

Section 4: Notable Colonial People

41


Student Information Page

Mary Reibey (1777 - 1855)

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Setting up business

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

It is hard to imagine that this bespectacled grandmother (right) was once a headstrong girl of 15, who took a joyride on a neighbour’s horse then tried to sell it disguised as a boy! The punishment was seven years transportation. Mary Haydock arrived at Port Jackson in 1792 aboard the Royal Admiral. During this voyage she caught the eye of Thomas Reibey, an Irish officer in the East India Co. Thomas gave up his career in the navy and contact with his family for the love of a convict girl. Mary married Thomas in 1794 and settled on a farm on the Hawkesbury River.

Thomas built a business, shipping grain, coal and timber along the Hawkesbury River. Using his contacts from the East India Co., Thomas opened an importing company near Sydney Harbour. He later joined forces with Edward Wills and they engaged in the sealing and whaling trade. By 1807 Thomas was operating three boats on the Hawkesbury and had bought a sailing ship to trade in the Pacific. After a trip to India in 1809, Thomas suffered health problems and died in 1811 at the age of 42. Edward Wills followed Thomas a month later. At only 32 years old, Mary was left with seven children to raise and various businesses to run.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

The first female merchant in the colony

w ww

m . u

In 1807 while Thomas was tending to his businesses, Mary ran a little store in The Rocks supplying the colony with butter, tea, tobacco, soap and clothing. Shortly after, Mary obtained a hotel-keeper’s licence from Governor Lachlan Macquarie and opened up lodgings in a cottage that she owned in George Street, Sydney. Mary’s nose for business expanded to include: -

. tand several buildings in George and Castlereagh Streets,o a warehouse e Sydney; c . che Bank of New South Wales;r major shares in the newly-founded e o st su over 1000 acres in land grants r from Governor Lachlan Macquarie. r pe

By 1820 Mary’s family were able to live well off her investments. In fact, she was one of the wealthiest people in the colony; however, at times, her convict past saw the family snubbed by free settlers. Mary returned to England briefly in 1821, but missed Sydney Town. She retired from business in the late 1820s and applied herself to improving education and the lives of other emancipists.

42

Section 4: Notable Colonial People


Mary Reibey (1777 - 1855) 1

Activity

 Read the account below of the incident that led to Mary’s transportation. It was written by Mary Reibey’s great grandson, Murdo Thomson in a letter to the Courier Mail in 1933.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

I think it is only fair to give Mrs Reibey's version of the story as told to my father, the late James Thomson, of Burrin, Shoalhaven (N.S.W.), who was Mr. Reibey's favourite grandson, and lived with her at Macquarie Place, and was educated at the Australian College, now the Sydney Grammar School. This is Mrs Reibey's story: That she lived with an uncle, her parents being dead; the pony in question belonged to her uncle, and Mary was in the habit of sneaking rides against her uncle's command. He stood it for some time, and when she was 13 years of age he told her she would have to give up riding the pony or go to a boarding school. Mary replied: "I would sooner go to Botany Bay!" This seemed an easy solution to her uncle, who had several children of his own, and she was sent to Australia under the care of a clergyman, named Johnstone. (There is at present a descendant of Mr Johnstone living in Brisbane. I met him at Buderim some time ago.)

1. Compare Thomson's account with the information on page 42. How do the two versions differ? List the differences below.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons _______________________________________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• _______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________

w ww

m . u

2. How does Thomson try to convince the reader that his version of events is more reliable? _______________________________________________________________________

. te

_______________________________________________________________________

o c .at: cyou,e e To help h read Mary Reibey’s biographyr online o r http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/reibey-mary-2583 st super

3. Which version do you think is more likely to be accurate?

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

Section 4: Notable Colonial People

43


Activity

Mary Reibey (1777 - 1855) 2

 Read the information provided on page 42, then answer the questions. 1. How was Mary Haydock’s life different to most of the convict women who arrived at Port Jackson in the 1790s? _______________________________________________________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

_______________________________________________________________________

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

2. Why did Thomas and Mary make a good team? Complete the heart with your thoughts.

m . u

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

One of Governor Macquarie’s policies (1810 -1821) was to treat free settlers and ex-convicts alike in order create equal opportunities in the colony.

. te o _______________________________________________________________________ c . c e her r _______________________________________________________________________ o t s s r u e p 4. Create a timeline for Mary Reibey’s life and achievements. 3. How did Mary benefit from Macquarie’s policy?

44

Section 4: Notable Colonial People


Student Information Page

William Barak (1823 – 1903) William Barak was an indigenous man who was born into a clan known as Wurundjeri. Below are some events that affected his life.

The Batman Treaty

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

John Batman was a grazier, who saw the potential of the land near Melbourne for agriculture. In 1835 he met with Wurundjeri Elders at Merri Merri Creek to negotiate a “rent” for the use of their land. Governor Bourke immediately annulled the Batman Treaty declaring that the land belonged to the Crown, not the Wurundjeri. There was a flood of 500,000 settlers into the area over the next twenty years. The clans were pushed out of their territories. They suffered from diseases, starvation and dispossession. In just 30 years, the indigenous population dropped from 60,000 to 2,000.

The Native Police Corps

The Native Police Corps had two purposes: (1) to provide discipline and work habits that would “civilise” indigenous men and (2) to make good use of the tracking skills of the native policemen. Many trackers left the Corps due to poor pay and the problem of living and working between two cultures.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons In 1863 Wurundjeri people squatted on their ancestral land near Healesville. f or evi ewappealed pur o seso l ya • Simon• Wonga andr William Barak top the authorities ton create mission Coranderrk

. te

I was born into the Wurundjeri clan in 1823. My father, Bebejan, was the clan’s head. When I was 12, I saw my uncle Billibellarry witness a signed treaty with John Batman on behalf of all our people in the Narrm region of Melbourne. From that time on, our lives would never be the same. For two years I went to the Yarra Mission SchooI. At 19, I joined the Native Police Corps as a tracker, just as my father had done and I became known as William Barak. In 1844 I went to Coranderrk to paint our Koorie culture and invite dignitaries from near and far to listen to our people’s stories.

m . u

w ww

for indigenous people driven from their homes by settlers. The mission went on to produce wheat, hops and traditional crafts. When Simon Wonga died in 1875, Barak took his place as clan leader. Barak fought untiringly throughout his life for the rights of Indigenous Australians and the preservation of his culture. Read the account below about William Barak's life.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Section 4: Notable Colonial People

45


Activity

William Barak (1823 – 1903) 1

 Look at the map below of Wurundjeri territory in Victoria before 1835 and read the information on page 45 to help you answer the questions. 1. Why did John Batman want to make a treaty with the Wurundjeri? _______________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

_______________________________ _______________________________

Teac he r

_______________________________

ew i ev Pr

 Read what Batman’s treaty offered the Wurundjeri each year for the rent of about 600,000 acres of land: “One hundred Pair of Blankets, One Hundred Knives, One Hundred Tomahawks, Fifty Suits of Clothing, Fifty looking Glasses, Fifty Pair scissors and Five Tons of flour.”

2. Do you feel that this was a fair deal for the Wurundjeri people?

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons _______________________________________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• _______________________________________________________________________

3. Why was a signed treaty with indigenous people unusual at this time?

m . u

_______________________________________________________________________

w ww

_______________________________________________________________________ 4. Identify three effects that the settlers’ arrival had on Barak’s clan.

. te o • ____________________________________________________________________ c . c e her r • ____________________________________________________________________ o t s s r u e p 5. Why was Coranderrk so important to Simon Wonga and Barak? •

____________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 46

Section 4: Notable Colonial People


Activity

William Barak (1823 – 1903) 2

 Read the poem below about Barak by “Sylva” published in the Sydney Morning Herald in 1930. 1. Why do you think the poet has written this poem 27 years after Barak’s death? ____________________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

The wind in the trees, The birds on the wing, The rain as it falls, Sad tidings they bring Barak is gone - is gone. The screech of the night-birds, The mopoke's weird cry, The blast of the storm, No moon in the sky; Barak is gone - is gone. Last chief of thy tribe, Man greatly beloved, Respected by all, True servant of God, Barak is gone - is gone. All nature doth mourn, The old Chief has passed, Alls sorrows and griefs Are things of the past. Barak is home - is home. When wattles did bloom (As Barak foretold), His soul took its flight, To be with his God. Barak is home – is home. Gone to this home beyond the skies, Gone to his Father - God; Where all is peace and happiness, No dread of usurper's rod. Barak is home - is home. Dear black brother, adieu, adieu! We'll meet in heaven above, To dwell with Christ for evermore, The source of light and love. Barak is home - is home.

____________________________________ 2. Highlight in different colours, ideas in the poem that show that Barak lived between two cultures - the Wurundjeri and European.  Look at this painting by Barak (1898).

w ww

. te

m . u

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che ____________________________________ e r o t r s sup r e ____________________________________ Wikimedia Commons

3. What could a European in the 1800s learn about Barak’s people from this painting?

____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________

Section 4: Notable Colonial People

47


Student Information Page

William James Farrer (1845 – 1906) Growing wheat in the colonies

WILLIAM JAMES FARRER’S PROFILE Born: Westmorland, England in 1845. Father was a farmer, who paid rent to a landowner. Education: William was gifted at Mathematics. He completed a degree at Cambridge in 1868 and went on to study a medical degree. Farrer’s plans soon changed when he was diagnosed with the disease of tuberculosis. Migration: To regain his health, William migrated to New South Wales in 1870. His first job was tutoring children on a sheep station near Canberra. Farrer wanted to buy his own farm so he re-trained as a land surveyor. As he travelled the western districts of New South Wales, he became interested in the wheat industry and its problems. He settled in the Queanbeyan district.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Problems in the wheat industry Farmers planted wheat varieties that had come from other parts of the world, but many of these varieties were not suited to the Australian climate. Crops were being attacked by a fungus disease called rust. William Farrer decided to put his energies into producing wheat plants that could be grown in drier areas and escape rust.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

By the 1840s two industries were driving the economies of the Australian colonies – wool and grain-growing. Bulk wheat exports to Europe did not begin until 1883. A railway network finally made it possible to transport wheat to shipping ports. Production was improved by the development of new machinery such as the “stump jump” plough, the scrub roller and later, the header harvester. With these machines, farmers were able to clear large areas of land for sowing wheat.

Success at last!

w ww

From 1882, Farrer selected superior wheat plants from different varieties and bred them. He recorded which plants were stronger and adapted well to the drier conditions and continued crossing these new wheat types with plants brought in from Britain and the Americas. The ideal wheat that Farrer wanted would tolerate drought and yet be flavoursome and easy to mill. Finally, in 1903, Farrer created his famous Federation variety that produced large yields wherever it was grown in Australia and was a big commercial success. Farrer dedicated the rest of his life to improving the quality of Australian wheat. In 1914, of the 29 varieties of wheat recommended for planting in New South Wales, 22 of these had been developed by Farrer.

. te

48

m . u

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

Section 4: Notable Colonial People

Wikimedia Commons


Activity

William James Farrer (1845 – 1906) 1

 Read the information on page 48, then answer the questions and tasks below. 1. Explain why the wool and wheat industries were important for the future of the Australian colonies. _______________________________________________________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

_______________________________________________________________________ 2. Why was it easier to transport wool to the markets than wheat?

_______________________________________________________________________

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

_______________________________________________________________________ 3. Research one of the machines mentioned on page 48 that helped to develop wheat farming. Sketch the machine and write brief notes about how it worked.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

m . u

4. How did William Farrer become interested in the wheat industry?

_______________________________________________________________________

. teFrom 1883 to 1898, Farrer carried out his research without any o ca simple life financial support from the government. Farrer . led c e with his wife without luxuries. A wealthy uncle offered him a h r e o t but Farrer refused small fortuner tos return home to England, s r u e p because he wanted to continue his experiments.

_______________________________________________________________________

5. What does the above information tell you about William Farrer’s character? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Section 4: Notable Colonial People

49


Activity

William James Farrer (1845 – 1906) 2

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

1. Imagine that you are the Mayor of Queanbeyan who is going to unveil a bronze statue dedicated to the achievements of William Farrer. Write the speech for the ceremony. Deliver your speech to the class.

w ww

m . u

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super 2. Discuss with a partner how people’s achievements can be commemorated and write your ideas on the back of this sheet.

 Research two ways in which William Farrer’s contribution to Australian society has been honoured. •

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

50

Section 4: Notable Colonial People


Section 5: r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Working For Australians’ Rights

w ww

. te

m . u

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

Making herself pleasant – for the time being. 1903. State Library of Queensland

Year 6 - ACHHK114 Experiences of Australian democracy and citizenship, including the status and rights of Aboriginal people and/or Torres Strait Islanders, migrants, and women.

Section 5: Working For Australians’ Rights

51


Student Information Page

The Changing Role Of Australian Women

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

During Queen Victoria’s reign (1837-1901), the role of a woman in society was to be a good mother, wife and home maker. Women were to behave respectably and uphold the family’s good name. It was widely accepted that there was no need for women to look outside the home for other pastimes because it was assumed that caring for their husbands and children would bring all the happiness that they could ever want. In fact, unmarried women were pitied. It was believed that a decent woman had no place in the grimy world of factories of the industrial revolution; this was a man’s world. If a middle-class Young woman dressed in a close fitting jacket and gathered skirt, woman had to work, her options were limited to teaching or posing next to a chair, 1870-1880 State Library of Queensland looking after children. The way women dressed in Victorian times reflected their place in society (see image above right). They had to appear feminine and dainty. Dresses were ornate and had tight bodices and hooped petticoats. Women wore whale-bone corsets that emphasised a tiny waist. Clothing at this time was not meant to be comfortable or allow women to move freely, so it was not unusual for women to faint for the sake of fashion. In the Australian colonies, women maintained many of the ideals of the Victorian era, but the challenges of building a new society brought changes.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

w ww

Australia’s growing prosperity in the early years of Federation, gave women more opportunities to find work. A life of domestic service with its long hours and poor pay no longer attracted women. In 1901 it was becoming difficult to find servants to work in well-to-do households. Woman actually preferred to find factory jobs that provided good wages, independence and friendship in the workplace. Trade unions, which grew out of the Shearer’s Strike of 1891, welcomed female unionists. Even in country areas, the role of a farmer’s wife had changed considerably. Pioneer women in remote areas had become successful business managers of family farms and could also find time to run the local post office or rural supplies store.

. te

m . u

Australian women at the turn of the century

o c . che e r o t r s super

Woman typing on a typewriter ca. 1915 State Library of Queensland

52

Section 5: Working For Australians’ Rights


Activity

The Changing Role Of Australian Women

 Read the information on page 52, then answer the question below. 1. Why was it easier for women of the upper classes in Britain to follow the example of family life and behaviour set by Queen Victoria? _______________________________________________________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

_______________________________________________________________________

Teac he r

 Read what Louisa Lawson had to say about Victorian fashion in 1889, then answer the questions that follow.

ew i ev Pr

“Bound, padded, compressed and laced, the modern woman is a highly artificial product, made not after God’s image, but as near as possible to a fashion plate; and if any inhabitant of another planet were curious to see what a real woman was like, we should have to take him to some of the few women not afraid to use dress for purposes of health and comfort only, and beg him to overlook those who, by corsets, high heels and a score of other inventions, have succeeded in constructing in themselves, a new variety of women.”

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons _______________________________________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 2. What was Louisa Lawson criticising about the women of her generation?

_______________________________________________________________________

m . u

3. What would Louisa make of women’s fashion today?

w ww

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

. te

4. Why did working women after the Federation shy away from domestic service?

o c . _______________________________________________________________________ che e r o 5. Choose one of the girls in the images on page 52. Write a short diary entry about t r s s r u e p the day her photograph was taken. Read your entry to a partner. _______________________________________________________________________

Section 5: Working For Australians’ Rights

53


Student Information Page

At the close of the 19th century, women were campaigning for the right to vote and be elected in state and federal elections. Suffrage groups in every Australian state held public meetings and handed out information leaflets. They presented petitions to colonial state parliaments signed by thousands of women who supported the cause. Federal politician Sir William Lyne made this comment about women’s suffrage in 1902, “I believe that instinctively a woman knows the character of a man better than a man does, and I believe women will be able to record a better vote in the selection of the best men to represent the community in the halls of the Commonwealth...”

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Making herself pleasant – for the time being. 1903. State Library of Queensland

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

A Woman’s Right To Vote

Timeline for granting the vote to women

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons f or r egiven vi e w r p ose sonl y• Women over 21 the rightp tou vote in Western Australia. 1899 • 1901

First federal election – only registered voters from the states eligible.

1902

Vote given to women in all states for federal elections. This right was only granted to men and women who were British subjects. Women over 21 in New South Wales could vote in state elections.

m . u

Women over 21 given the right to vote in South Australia and run for state parliament. This was a world first.

w ww

1895

1903

Women over 21 in Tasmania could vote in state elections.

1905

Women over 21 in Queensland could vote in state elections.

1908

Women over 21 in Victoria could vote in state elections.

. te

o c . c e Women in parliament her r o t sby 1908, a woman’s right s While voting rights for women were granted in all states r u e p to stand for parliament was introduced in most states only after World War I had come to an end in 1918. In 1921 Edith Dircksey Cowan, a well-respected social worker, ran for the seat of West Perth WA and won. She was Australia’s first female parliamentarian.

54

Section 5: Working For Australians’ Rights


Activity

A Woman’s Right To Vote 1

 Read the information on page 54, then answer the questions below. 1. As the Australian states moved closer towards Federation, women’s movements which campaigned for the right to vote became more active. What connection can you make between these developments in the late 19th century?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

 Study the cartoon (1903) on page 54. Its caption reads: Making herself pleasant – for the time being. Now answer the following questions.

2. What impression did the cartoonist want to make about the suffragist?

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 3. What was the mother’s reaction to the suffragist?

© R e a d y E d P u b l i c a t i o n s 4. Why did the cartoonist include a crying baby? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

w ww

m . u

5. Not everyone was is favour of women’s suffrage. Write a reply to Sir William Lyne’s comment from a person (male or female), who was opposed to giving the vote to women. _______________________________________________________________________

. te o _______________________________________________________________________ c . che e _______________________________________________________________________ r o t r sin Australia? su r pe 6. Who was eligible to vote in the first federal election _______________________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________ 7. Which groups living in Australia in 1902 were not granted the right to vote? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

Section 5: Working For Australians’ Rights

55


Activity

A Woman’s Right To Vote 2

 Read the news item below published in the Sydney Morning Herald (March 22nd 1921).

FIRST WOMAN LEGISLATOR – MRS EDITH COWAN … Bringing, as she does, a wealth of experience into her new tasks, there is no doubt that Mrs Cowan will justify her election, and do credit to her gender.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

The preponderance of female votes over male votes – the number respectively being 1804 and 1197 – was a feature of the election. Mrs Cowan was elected by a majority of 46.

Women throughout Australia must all feel that the privilege that has come to Mrs Cowan brings also responsibilities. Few, if any, doubt that she will fill the office acceptably, and that she thoroughly deserves the honour of being Australia’s first woman legislator.

1. How close was the Edith and l h voting between b d h Cowan C d Mr Draper??

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Great interest has centred in the election of Australia’s first woman legislator, Mrs Edith Cowan, who defeated the Attorney General (Mr Draper) and Mr Eben Allen for the West Perth electorate W.A., at the recent elections.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

_______________________________________________________________________

2. What did the author of this editorial mean by: “ … the privilege that has come to Mrs Cowan brings also responsibilities …”? _______________________________________________________________________

w ww

m . u

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

. te

Research

o c . che e r o t r s super Prepare a two-minute talk to the class on Edith Cowan’s

 The article concludes that, “she [Edith Cowan] thoroughly deserves the honour of being Australia’s first woman legislator.” Do your own research on Edith Cowan’s life and contributions to the new nation. credentials to be the first female parliamentarian in Australia.

USEFUL WEBSITES:  http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/cowan-edith-dircksey-5791  http://www.womenshistory.com.au/image.asp?iID=338  http://www.abc.net.au/schoolstv/australians/cowan.htm 56

Section 5: Working For Australians’ Rights

National Library of Australia


Student Information Page

Working For Indigenous Rights

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

William Cooper (c.1861-1941) was one of eight children born of a Yorta Yorta mother and a European father. He spent most of his life in the Cumeroogunga community in New South Wales working as a shearer and labourer. William witnessed firsthand how much the indigenous people on reserves suffered, especially during tough economic times and long periods of drought. The state government offered little help. Indigenous men, women and children were starving on the rations handed out by employers, who did not pay their indigenous workers wages. William felt that Australian society in general did not know about the struggle of Indigenous Australians to be citizens in their own land. In the 1930s, William was a founding member of the Aborigines’ Advancement League that worked for indigenous civil rights. Two notable actions organised by William were: - a petition to be presented to King George VI in 1933 that asked for land rights, indigenous representation in parliament and the right to vote; - the first indigenous delegation to a Prime Minister in 1938, requesting that Aboriginal affairs be made a federal, not state responsibility.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te

m . u

w ww

David Unaipon (1872-1967) was the son of James Unaipon, the first indigenous preacher. David’s intelligence and keen interest in science and literature was noted by his teachers in South Australia. David became a preacher like his father and to support his family, the Aborigines’ Friends’ Association gave him a job collecting subscriptions to its publications. This David Unaipon gave him the chance to travel around the country. People were Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW [ML A 1929] struck by David’s correct use of English and enjoyed his lectures on indigenous traditions and folktales. The preacher achieved growing support amongst the general public for indigenous civil rights. Unaipon was the first indigenous person to publish in English in 1930. He also used his skills of communication to write articles for newspapers and magazines. He described the health of Indigenous Australians, who were in desperate need of medical care in outback reserves and missions. David joined the crusade with William Cooper to place indigenous affairs in the hands of the Commonwealth because he thought the states were neglecting the welfare of indigenous people. David Unaipon’s work is commemorated on the Australian $50 note.

o c . che e r o t r s super

Section 5: Working For Australians’ Rights

57


Activity

Working For Indigenous Rights 1

 Read the information on page 57, then complete the question below. How did growing up on Cumeroogunga Aboriginal Reserve influence William Cooper’s fight for indigenous rights? _______________________________________________________________________

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

William took years to collect 1,814 signatures from Indigenous Australians on a petition that asked for more indigenous rights. Imagine if he had been able to launch his petition online.

 Create a wiki space (simple webpage that can be edited) for William Cooper. Outline the reasons why indigenous people should read about the petition online to be presented to King George VI. Wiki space

Search

w ww

. te

58

m . u

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super

Section 5: Working For Australians’ Rights


Activity

Working For Indigenous Rights 2

 Use the information on page 57 and your own research to complete this fact file about David Unaipon’s life and work.

Fact File Civil rights worker

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Writer and lecturer

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Family

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Inventor

w ww

Boomerang Expert

m . u

 Read the news item below. It is taken from the Barrier Miner, Broken Hill, 1st October 1932.

UNAIPON, Adelaide's best known Aborigine, . te DAVID demonstrated how to throw a boomerang. He spends much o time in the parklands teaching school children the art. He c . chboomerang thinks throwing should ber ae national sport. er o st super

Why do you suppose that David thought it was important to teach children the art of boomerang throwing? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Section 5: Working For Australians’ Rights

59


Student Information Page

Senator Neville Bonner (1922-1999)

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Neville Bonner became the first Indigenous Senator for the state of Queensland in 1971. This achievement was extraordinary in many ways. Neville’s early life was spent in the Tweed River district of New South Wales, where he lived on an island with his mother in very poor conditions. Neville only attended school for two years when he was a teenager. As a young man, Neville travelled around Queensland working as a cane-cutter and labourer. He married in 1943 and went to live on Palm Island, in far North Queensland. For sixteen years, Neville tried to improve the way that people lived on this Aboriginal settlement. In 1960 the Bonner family moved to Ipswich. Neville continued to work for indigenous rights as president of the One People of Australia League (OPAL).

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Senator Bonner in Federal Parliament

. te

m . u

w ww

The boy, who had been born in a Gunya under a palm tree on Ukerebagh Island, took his place in the Queensland parliament in 1971. Neville reflected on this historic event, "For the first time in the history of this country there was an Aboriginal voice in the parliament and that gave me an enormous feeling of overwhelming responsibility.” The Senator believed that the best way to improve the lives of indigenous peoples was to be a part of the system that made the nation’s laws. Senator Bonner represented his Liberal constituents in Federal Parliament for 12 years. His efforts to change the lives of his people and their relationships with nonIndigenous Australians were effective in many ways. Some examples of Neville Bonner’s work in parliament were: - speaking out against the forms of racial discrimination experienced by Indigenous Australians in employment, education, health and housing; - producing committee reports on the conditions in Pitjantjatjara and Yankunytjatjara Aboriginal Communities of Central Australia and Aboriginal Land Rights in the Northern Territory; - improving the treatment of indigenous people in police custody.

o c . che e r o t r s super

During Senator Bonner’s time in Federal Parliament, he contributed to the passing of two ground-breaking bills regarding indigenous people’s rights: - The Racial Discrimination Act of 1975 and - The Aboriginal Lands Rights (Northern Territory) Act of 1976.

60

Section 5: Working For Australians’ Rights


Activity

Senator Neville Bonner (1922-1999) 1

 Use the information and image on page 60 and the news item below which is taken from the Hobart Mercury (1953) to answer the questions that follow. Three North Queensland Aborigines will be a highlight of the Hobart Show in a fortnight's time. The Aborigines: Neville Bonner, Carlo Allan, and Tippo Ingham, will give a demonstration of boomerang and spear throwing.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

1. How was Senator Bonner’s arrival to Federal Parliament in 1971 a part of his remarkable journey?

ew i ev Pr

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 2. How did Neville Bonner use his “Aboriginal voice” during his years in politics?

_______________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons _______________________________________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• _______________________________________________________________________

w ww

m . u

In 1972 some indigenous rights activists thought that the government was moving too slowly to approve land rights laws. On January 26th they set up the Aboriginal Tent Embassy in Canberra on the lawn outside Old Parliament House. They wanted to draw attention to the problems of Aborigines, who had seen their land taken away in 1788.

. t e o 3. Do you think that Senator Bonner would have approved of thisc way of achieving . civil rights? Why/why not? ch e r er o st super _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Section 5: Working For Australians’ Rights

61


Senator Neville Bonner (1922-1999) 2

Activity

 Research an Indigenous Australian who has followed Neville Bonner into state or federal politics since 1974. Here are some suggestions: Linda Burney (Canterbury NSW) Eric Deeral ( Cook QLD) Wesley Lanhupuy (Arnhem NT) Carol Martin (Kimberley WA) Hyacinth Tungutalum (Bathurst Is. NT) Alison Anderson (Macdonnell NT)

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

 Write a Facebook profile for the person who you have researched. Facebook

Search

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Neville Perkins (NT) Marion Scrymgour (Melville Is. NT) Ernie Bridge (Kimberely WA) Kathryn Hay (Bass TAS) Aden Ridgeway (NSW) Ben Wyatt (Victoria Park WA)

Name: ____________________________________ Date of Birth: _______________________________

Place ofd Birth: ______________________________ © Ready E P ubl i cat i ons Hometown: ________________________________ •f orr evi e w pu r posesonl y• Indigenous group: __________________________

w ww

Profile picture

. te

m . u

Political Party: ______________________________ Years active in politics: _______________________ Achievements: _____________________________

o c . che e __________________________________________ r o t r s super __________________________________________ __________________________________________

__________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ Location of electorate 62

__________________________________________ Section 5: Working For Australians’ Rights


Answers p.13 1. Landing place of the Horouta canoe: celebrating the arrival of the first Māoris from Polynesia to New Zealand and their history as traditional inhabitants of the land; Cook’s first landing: European discovery of New Zealand and first European contact with the Māori; First Māori meeting with Tupaia: celebrating the arrival of a respected priest from the ancestors’ homeland across the ocean and the traditions that unite Māoris with other Polynesians. 2. There could have been more violent fighting; Cook would not have been able to obtain fresh food for the voyage. 3. To discover if New Zealand was part of the Great South Land; to learn more about the islands for future British settlement. 4. Cook wanted one last chance to discover the famed Great South Land; he knew how to sail to Van Diemen’s Land because of Abel Tasman’s voyage in 1642.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

p. 8 1. Tupaia’s determination to join the Endeavour’s crew and his proper behaviour. 2. Tupaia’s knowledge of the Tahitian Islands and his navigation skills. 3. Student’s opinion. There is the suggestion in Banks’ journal that Tupaia might be treated as someone to put on display in Banks’ social circle. 4. Banks came from the upper class in English society; he had the means to finance Tupaia’s passage to England and upkeep whilst there. (Students might like to know that Tupaia died from illness shortly after leaving Australia.)

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

p.7 1. 150 scientists had travelled to Tahiti to study the transit and a fort was built especially for the observation. 2. Both were keen navigators and wanted to learn about other cultures in distant lands; they were both respected leaders 3. Europeans had developed navigational tools and maps; the Polynesians relied on observations from nature and their oral traditions. 4. Student’s opinion could include: love of navigation and exploration, to help Cook navigate the Pacific Ocean, desire to meet new peoples etc.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

. te

p.17 1.

m . u

w ww

p.9 1. Cook wanted to build friendly relationships with the peoples he met so that he could learn about the new places that he visited and most importantly, trade for provisions. 2. Suggested answers: Rule 2 – Sailors may have gone ashore and not traded fairly with local people. Rule 3 – Valuable goods made of iron or cloth might have been traded for trinkets, like shells or souvenirs instead of food supplies.

p.14 Information from sources: use of tattoos, jewellery and ornaments worn by men; cloak made of feathers; men’s hair in top knots; women wore hair long; villages on the shoreline; canoes used for fishing and transport; fish traps; people enjoyed singing (especially war songs); musical instruments made from natural objects.

o c . che e r o t r s super

p.11 1. Cook needed to sail around the coast of New Zealand to determine if it was an island or land mass. 2. Approximately 6,000 –7,000 kilometres as the crow flies. 3. In the hot tropical climate, food and water spoiled quickly. 63


r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

p.18 1. In the first account the Eora/British relationship seems cordial (helping one another, singing and dancing). In the second account the Eora are alarmed by the arrival of the British party and flee, leaving behind valuable objects. 2. Student’s opinion. Possible response: On previous encounters with British sailors, the Eora may have been mistreated or taken advantage of.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

2. The distance between the clans was only a few hours walk or canoe trip along the coast. News could have spread to the north shore of Port Jackson within days. 3. The billowing white sails of the ships appearing suddenly in the bay; the light complexion of the Europeans; the white uniforms and wigs of the officers; the sight of men scurrying up and down the masts. 4. Lord Sydney wanted the two groups to “live in harmony” and avoid conflicts; Lord Sydney wanted to know the number of Eora living in the Port Jackson area. This suggests that he was assessing the threat.

by the emu’s appearance. They welcome, though, the chance to eat fresh meat. Event 6: The British maintain their religious traditions in the new colony; love blossomed during the First Fleet’s voyage. Event 7: Some convicts could not resist a life of crime or longed for freedom. 1. Student’s opinion. Answers could include: the local fauna and flora, indigenous people, convicts and their work etc. 2. An officer’s child may have had more material comforts (better clothes, toys) and be segregated from convict children, but conditions in the early years of the settlement for all children would have been quite harsh (lack of permanent accommodation, rationing, natural hazards). p.22 Painting study suggestions: the image portrays the Sydney Cove area as quite idyllic; on the foreshores of the harbour the houses are orderly and lanes wide; indigenous people appear content to live traditionally on the outskirts of the settlement.

© ReadyEdp.24 Publ i cat i ons 2. Suggested answers: • f o r r e v i e w p u r p oseson l y• knowledge of: the seasons and the CHANGE EFFECT

. te

Eora driven from land and food resources. Eora suffer from hunger.

Indigenous people have no immunity and die.

o c . che e r o t r s super

p.21 Suggested answers: Event 2: The British were still suffering from scurvy due to the long voyage. Their diet was very limited and not nutritious. The legumes helped to improve the diet. Event 3: Farm animals for food supplies were most valuable. The settlement couldn’t afford to lose animals during storms. Event 4: The Eora are suspicious or afraid of the Europeans. Event 5: The Europeans are amazed 64

Farms spreading over the Sydney area. Settlers eating traditional Eora food. Disease spreads through the settlement.

m . u

w ww

p.19 1. Eora food resources available; where to hunt and trap certain animals (kangaroos, possums); where boats could land safely on the shore and avoid rocks. British fishing nets and lines, guns for shooting larger animals, tools for cutting wood. 2. Suggested answers: Observing the Eora’s daily routines; learning the Eora language; collecting Eora artefacts; paintings and drawings of the Eora; observing Eora ceremonies; making friends with an Eora person who could explain customs and laws.

p.25 1. Meat and flour were the food staples. The British maintained their traditional diet, which often lacked vegetables. 2. Wild legumes, meat from local fauna and fresh fish, a wide variety of newly-planted fruits and vegetables that adapted well to the conditions. 3. To increase the settlement’s food supply; to keep convicts busy and out of mischief. 4. To keep the colonists in good health so that they could continue with their work; to stop fights and


resentment breaking out over unequal food rations. p.27 1. Student’s opinion. 2. Suggested answers: They could have studied the diet of the animals more carefully before transportation; given animals access to fresh air and water during the voyage. 3. It is most likely a sugar glider possum or squirrel possum. p.28

Teac he r

duck's webbed feet

duck's bill

p.31 1. Push factors: overcrowded, polluted cities; the growing crime rate; unemployment; poverty. Pull factors: promise of a better life; free farming land; high employment; business opportunities. 2. Free settlers needed workers for their farms and businesses; the British Government wanted to populate the colonies. 3. Young married couples and young single men and women with job qualifications. 4. Student’s opinion. The Bounty Scheme failed because migration agents often lied about the ages, good character and qualifications of migrants who they sent to Australia in order to secure commission.

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

tail like a beaver long ferretlike body

p.33 1. A formal welcoming party of respectable ladies was assembled to meet the women; the Governor himself assisted in the transportation of women from their ship which had run aground. 2. Readers are reminded that the women should be treated with respect as free settlers and not convicts and to make a proper work contract with any woman to be employed. 3. Student’s opinion. Suggested answers: could fall under the influence of convicts; fail to work hard and take advantage of their new situation. p.35 3. Suggested answer: migrants were determined to build a better life in the colonies. 4. Couples could be employed on the same property – the husband doing farm work and the wife in domestic service. They were more likely to stay in one place than move around searching for work.

w ww

. te

m . u

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons p.36 •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

p.37 1. The cramped conditions and poor ventilation. 2. No because there was only one medical officer on board for 800 passengers on a long voyage at sea. Doctors could die from infectious diseases as well. 3. To warn the authorities that passengers needed urgent medical care; to arrange for the ship’s quarantine to stop the fever spreading to shore in Melbourne. 4. Suggested answers: fewer migrants boarded; more doctors on board; health checks on passengers before they set sail; better food and water provisions.

o c . che e r o t r s super

p.32 1. There was a great imbalance between the number of males and females in the colonies. 2. Young men wanting to stay on in the colony were expecting to marry and settle down on their own land; the colonies’ administrators feared that large numbers of unmarried men could lead to lawlessness; women were also needed to do domestic work in free settlers’ service. 3. The schemes were very successful; in 1822 there was one woman to every three men, but by 1882 the ratio of women to men was almost 1:1.

65


Hawkesbury. (She was granted a pardon shortly after arrival.) Mary was separated from the influence of older convict men and women. 2. Student’s opinion. 3. Even though Mary was a female and had been a convict, she was granted land and hotel licences by Macquarie. Mary grew very wealthy from her enterprises. 4. Timeline should include: 1792- Arrived in Sydney; 1794 - Married Thomas; 1807 - Opened a store in Sydney; 1811 - Thomas died and Mary took over businesses; 1820 - One of the wealthiest people in Sydney; 1821 - Return to England; late 1820s - retired.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

p.46 1. To obtain land to develop into farms for the sheep and grain industries. Batman wanted the Wurundjeri to receive something in return for the use of their land. 2. Student’s evaluation. 3. Colonial authorities believed that Australia was Terra Nullius and did not recognise Indigenous Australians as the owners of land, so treaties were deemed unnecessary. 4. Introduction of disease; forced off the land; population dramatically decreased. 5. Coranderrk was set up to preserve the Wurundjeri people’s culture for future generations and to educate Europeans about the Wurundjeri.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

p.39 1. Fife believed that the hard-working, religious Germans could make a positive contribution to South Australia’s development. He employed the first groups on his own properties. 2. The houses are close together and of European construction (thatched roof ); the women’s dress; the erection of a church in the community’s centre; orderly, tidy street. 3. Similar: hoping to build a better life; mostly farmers and tradesmen; assisted passage by employers; wanted other family members to join them in the colony. Different: left Europe because of religious persecution initially; were never ex-convicts; settled together in a closeknit community. p.40 1.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 2. Mrs Hammer thought that German girls • f o r r e v i e w pur posesonl y• from rural areas would be respectable and

w ww

p.43 1. Similar: Sent to Australia. Different: Thomson claims Mary was 13, not 15; Mary convicted of horse theft and transported as a criminal, not sent by her uncle; Horse belonged to her uncle; Mary lived under the care of a clergyman in Sydney; no mention of her marriage to Reibey. 2. He includes the fact that he is Mary’s great grandson; Thomson quotes Mary’s words and claims that he met a descendant of the clergyman who cared for Mary, who could confirm his version. 3. Student’s opinion after weighing up the evidence.

. te

o c . che e r o t r s super

p.44 1. Mary married a respectable free settler and was allowed to accompany him to the 66

p.47 1. Barak’s contribution to indigenous culture lives on in the heart of “Sylva”; thinks that it is important to commemorate Barak’s contribution to indigenous/non-indigenous relations. 2. Indigenous culture: “last chief of the tribe”, the signs from nature that Barak has passed away ("screech of the night-birds... mopoke’s weird cry... no moon in the sky... wattles did bloom"), “dear black brother,” “no dread of usurper’s rod”. European culture: references to Christian religion ("heaven" and “to dwell with Christ”). 3. That they wore traditional clothing (possum cloak) and used body paint during ceremonies (in this scene only danced by men). They used boomerangs as musical accompaniment and women were seated as observers during clapping time.

m . u

hardworking. 3. Climate not as cold as Europe; the land (which can be bought) is fertile and provides well for the family.

p.49 1. Wool and wheat were the most important


exports from the colonies. 2. Railways were needed to transport wheat to shipping ports. Wool could be transported along rivers to ports. Grain could not be stored for long periods like wool bales. 4. Farrer’s job as a land surveyor put him in contact with the problems of wheat farmers and wheat diseases. 5. Student’s opinion. Farrer displayed a strong commitment to the development of the Australian economy.

p.58 1. William experienced himself and witnessed the hunger and hardships that indigenous people in rural areas suffered. 2. The wiki page could include information on: the poor conditions in which Indigenous Australians lived, the need to publicise injustices against indigenous people and an appeal for indigenous people to unite so they can take their cause to Australia’s Monarch.

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

p.53 1. Women from the wealthy classes did not have to work and could dedicate themselves full time to the family. 2. Women were artificial in their uncomfortable clothing that prevented them from leading a healthy, active lifestyle. They dressed to please other people. 3. Student’s opinion. 4. Women saw that life offered more than domestic service. New opportunities in the developing nation allowed women to be equal family providers and take on jobs that were usually the done by men.

Teac he r

stresses that she should feel fortunate that she has been given this chance because she is a woman. The author suggests Mrs Cowan should carry out her duties just as diligently as a male parliamentarian.

p.59 Family: son of James Unaipon, married. Civil rights worker: drew attention to poor health services for Indigenous Australians. Writer and lecturer: informed the public about Aboriginal culture and customs. Published articles to bring to the public’s attention problems facing indigenous people and how state governments were neglecting their responsibilities towards granting equal rights. Students to research beyond the information in the fact file. Final question: Student’s opinion. David Unaipon was a great advocate of keeping indigenous traditions alive for all Australians.

w ww

. te

m . u

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

p.55 1. Women in the states had gained more independence in terms of job opportunities and wanted to make their contribution through representation in parliament to a new, fairer society. 2. The suffragist appears out of place in the average woman’s backyard with her elaborate clothes, boots and hat. Her hitched skirt showing her ankle would have been quite disgraceful for the morals of the time. 3. The mother looks surprised, even bothered by the visit. 4. The crying baby gives the reader the idea that the suffragist is a scary sight. The cartoonist does not portray the suffragist in a positive light. 6. Males over 21 who were British subjects from all states and females over 21 who were British subjects from South Australia and Western Australia. 7. Indigenous Australians, migrants who were not of British origin.

p.61 1. Senator Bonner was born in very modest circumstances and had very little formal education, but his determination to improve the lives of Indigenous Australians wherever he went finally led to his place in Federal Parliament. 2. He spoke out against racial discrimination and the need for Aboriginal land rights. He campaigned for laws protecting indigenous people’s rights which were passed in parliament. 3. Student’s opinion.

o c . che e r o t r s super

p.56 1. Edith Cowan won by a mere 46 votes even though there were more female voters. 2. The editor congratulates Mrs Cowan, but also 67


Teac he r

ew i ev Pr

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

w ww

. te

68

m . u

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super


Extension Activities in Australian History