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For Year s 6 - 8 ears

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Marine Worlds

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(10 - 12 year olds)

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Activities to Extend Talented Students in . te the Regular Classroom o c . che e r o t r s super

Edited by Sandy Tasker. © Ready-Ed Publications - 2006. Published by Ready-Ed Publications (2006) P.O. Box 276 Greenwood Perth W.A. 6024 Email: info@readyed.com.au Website: www.readyed.com.au COPYRIGHT NOTICE Permission is granted for the purchaser to photocopy sufficient copies for non-commercial educational purposes. However, this permission is not transferable and applies only to the purchasing individual or institution.

ISBN 1 86397 579 9


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Contents Teachers’ Notes ............................................................................................................... 4 Student Record Sheet ...................................................................................................... 6 Marine Life - Facts ........................................................................................................... 7 Identification Parade ....................................................................................................... 8

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Home Sweet Home .......................................................................................................... 9 Oceanopedia ................................................................................................................. 10 Missing Parts ................................................................................................................. 11

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The Inner Fish ................................................................................................................ 12 Danger! ......................................................................................................................... 13

The Food Chain .............................................................................................................. 14 The Fish Café Strip ......................................................................................................... 15

Predators of the Deep..................................................................................................... 16

Survivors in the Surf ....................................................................................................... 17

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons What Do You Seef ino ther Sea?r .......................................................................................... 20l • evi ew pur poseson y• What Would You Do? ...................................................................................................... 18

Endangered Species ...................................................................................................... 19

An Icy Idea .................................................................................................................... 21 How Does Your Ocean Flow?........................................................................................... 22

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Current Affairs................................................................................................................ 23

At the Bottom of the Deep Blue Sea ................................................................................ 24

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Pass the Salt .................................................................................................................. 25

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Just the Tip of the Iceberg ............................................................................................... 26

How Sub-lime ................................................................................................................ 27 Fishy Fashion ................................................................................................................. 28

Dangers of the Deep ....................................................................................................... 29

Oceanic Exclusive.......................................................................................................... 30 Creepy Deep Creatures ................................................................................................... 31 Think Tank - 1 ................................................................................................................ 32 Think Tank 2 .................................................................................................................. 33 Answers ......................................................................................................................... 34

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Teachers’ Notes This fully revised series was initially devised as a means of providing extension for students within the regular classroom, whilst catering for the needs of the teacher and providing materials that were designed along educationally sound lines. Although the content and layout for the revised series has been completely updated, the principles behind the series remain the same, using CONTENT LEVELS as a basis for categorising activities. The key to this approach, which we term the appropriate curriculum model, is that students are presented with activities appropriate to their levels of understanding of the content together with their mastery of the requisite higher-order thinking processes. The levels are an adaptation of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, still a widely accepted and valued model of education.

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Below are the Content Levels and Indicators used in this book:

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What it means

What the student does

FINDING OUT: Recalling data, showing understanding through restating or extending ideas. Answers factual questions, interprets information, describes or illustrates events.

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Content Level 1

Content Level 2 What it means

What the student does

USING INFORMATION: Using information in a new situation through extending or breaking down concepts being studied. Problem solving based on knowledge gained. Making assumptions.

Level ©Content Rea d3yEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• What it means

What the student does

CREATING / EVALUATING: Putting together ideas to develop new products, making judgements based on new information. Puts forward theories or original ideas and designs, forms and states opinions on theories.

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Moving Through the Content Levels

It is important that higher-order activities such as those at Content Level 3 are underpinned with a solid base of knowledge — the tasks and activities aligned with Levels 1 and 2 are designed to establish and expand this. It should never be assumed that students have the requisite content knowledge, but be prepared to advance students quickly to higher-level activities if they demonstrate a sound understanding of the facts and concepts presented in Levels 1 and 2. In considering the structure of this material, it is envisaged that in the heterogeneous classroom situation, the series can be implemented as follows:

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o c . che e r o t r s sEmphasis pe M Above Average ____________ u onr Level 2/3 Child Ability Level

Interpretation

M Average _________________ Emphasis on Level 2 M Below Average ____________ Emphasis on Level 1 Many pages contain activities from more than one level. In this case, the TIME taken on each part will change focus, according to the outline above.

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Teachers’ Notes Using the Pacemaker Packs in the Classroom > Promote interest in the theme — set up a classroom learning centre that may contain: • Books and posters; • Models and artefacts; • CD-ROMS; • Art supplies and plenty of writing and drawing paper; • A “theme” table with items brought by students from home.

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> Decide on the approach to the theme that suits you and your students best: • Teacher-directed with the whole class completing teacher-assigned sheets at a specified time (teacher records progress). • Student-directed with students working through materials at their own pace at a specified time (student records progress). • As an interest-based approach with students working from a selection of photocopied worksheets at their own pace (student monitored and recorded). • As supplementary materials to a unit of study.

You may wish to use this series as a Learning Centre, with photocopied sheets displayed in pockets that students can select from, perhaps set up like this:

© ReadyEd P u b l i c a t i o n s S RLD MARINE WO •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Slots - for title.

Two covered strawboard sheets, hinged for easy storage and display.

Pockets for photocopied Pacemaker sheets.

Instructions for use.

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Relevant resource books for research.

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Relevant resource books for research.

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Before commencing, talk over the activities contained in the book with your class. Encourage students to broaden their thinking to suit the open-ended nature of the upper level activities, helping them to understand that there is not “one correct answer”. Outline a procedure for the activities: • How will students store and present their completed worksheets? (In a file, a booklet, a plastic sleeve.) • How can students work on the contents? (Individually, in pairs, in small groups.) • From where can further research sources be obtained? • What people or organisations might be able to help? • How and when will the sheets be available?

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Student Record Sheet

Name: .............................. ..............................

Topic: Activity

Date Finished

Student Comments

Teacher Comments

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Marine Life - Facts

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Begin your underwater journey by reading these amazing facts about the ocean.

Life began in the seas 3.1 billion to 3.4 billion years ago, whereas land dwellers appeared only 400 million years ago.

99 percent of the earth’s living space is contained in the oceans.

The blue whale is the largest known animal ever to have lived on sea or land. They can reach more than 33 m in length and weigh nearly 200 tons – more than the weight of 50 adult elephants. The blue whale’s blood vessels are so broad that a full-grown trout could swim through them, with a heart the size of a small car.

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The oarfish is the longest bony fish in the world. With its 15 m snakelike body, a huge red fin and a horse-like face and blue gills, it has often been mistaken for the elusive seaserpent.

Green turtles can migrate more than 2, 200 kilometres to lay their eggs.

Many fish can change sex during their lifetimes. Others, especially rare deep-sea fish, have both male and female sex organs.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons • Bluefin tuna, are among the largest and fastest marine fish. An adult may weigh 680 •f or r e v i e w phour. ur po se o nl y pounds and swim up to 88 km per Used as sushi ins Japan, bluefins are• also among •

Penguins “fly” underwater at up to 40 km per hour.

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the most valuable fish; individual bluefins can bring as much as $20,000 at United States docks.

Since the structure of coral is very close to human bone, coral has been used to replace bone grafts in helping human bones to heal quickly and cleanly.

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o c . e These marinec life facts come from the herOcean Planetst r o Smithsonian Institution’s s uper exhibition and from the book Ocean Planet: •

Alginates, from the cell walls of brown algae, are used in beer, frozen desserts, pickles, adhesives, ceramics, explosives, paper and toys.

Writings and Images of the Sea, by Peter Benchley and Judith Gradwohl (published by Harry N. Abrams Inc., 100 5th Ave., New York, N.Y. 10011). Source: http://seawifs.gsfc.nasa.gov

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Identification Parade

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Imagine that you are a marine biologist who has to write a short descriptive passage about the following marine creatures.

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Visit www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/ocean/Oceanlife.shtml or use a similar site to find out some interesting facts about each animal and write it in the box below. One example has been done for you. Cut each fact card out and glue onto card. Draw a picture of the animal on the other side.

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The Squid: The squid is a mollusc, an invertebrate (animal with no

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Clown Fish/Anenome Fish:

Sea Cucumber:

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backbone), closely related to the octopus. Squid have eight arms with suckers and two longer tentacles for feeding, two hearts and two large eyes. They squirt water behind them to move through the water and when threatened, they project a jet of ink to cloud their predator. Squid use their beak-like mouths to eat foods that they collect with their tentacles. Because the esophagus runs through the brain, the food must be in small pieces before swallowing. Giant Squid can be up to 17 metres long with eyes as big as basketballs. These squid live deep in the ocean and have never been seen live, only dead.

Squid:

Lantern Fish:

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Plankton:

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Related Outcome: Students will produce fact cards on a variety of sea creatures based on Internet research. Subject Areas: Science – Life and Living; English – Reading, Writing; Technology; Information. / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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Home Sweet Home

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The ocean is divided into the Benthic and Pelagic areas. The Pelagic area included three zones – the sunlit Euphotic (a lot of light) zone, the twilight Dysphotic (a little light) zone and the midnight Aphotic (no light) or abyssal zone. The abyssal zone is dark and almost freezing, so only about 1% of all sea life can live in this area. The Benthic area forms the sea floor.

Based on your findings from “Identification Parade” (P. 8) or your common sense, draw a line from each creature that you have just researched to the area in the ocean that you think it would most likely be found. squid

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sea anemone

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plankton

sperm whale

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gulper fish

clown fish

Surface

Euphotic

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons200 metres Dysphotic •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 1 km

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Aphotic

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Bethnic Area

The Midnight Abyss of the ocean is extremely interesting as it is not only one of the most unexplored areas of the world, it also contains some of the harshest conditions and therefore the most bizarre and well-adapted creatures. You might like to do some more research on this and make a diorama of “The Abyss”. Try these to get you started: www.suelebeau.com/oceanzones.htm www.extremescience.com/DeepestFish.htm Write a story about a deep-sea diver’s adventures in the abyssal zone.

Related Outcome: Students will demonstrate their understanding of oceanic zones by matching sea creatures to each zone, creating a diorama and writing a story. Subject Areas: Science – Life and Living; Technology and Enterprise – Design process; English – Writing. / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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Oceanopedia In the boxes beside these words, write a definition, use the word in a sentence and draw a picture to help young children understand it.

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Osmosis ____________________________________________

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____________________________________________________ Sentence ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________________

Bioluminescence ____________________________________

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____________________________________________________ Sentence ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________________

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Photosynthesis ______________________________________

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Symbiosis ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ Sentence ___________________________________________

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Filter Feeding _______________________________________ ____________________________________________________ Sentence ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________________

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Find some interesting ocean words of your own and create a word search or crossword puzzle for your classmates; OR make a simple “ABC of the Ocean” book for junior primary students with a word and picture for each letter of the alphabet. Related Outcome: Students will use meanings of words to create a book or activity of their choice. Subject Areas: Science – Life and Living; English – Writing. / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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Missing Parts

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Complete these drawings of marine animals. Write a label next to the first part explaining how it helps the animal adapt to its life in the ocean. Dolphin’s blowhole

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Crab’s claw

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Octopus’ tentacle

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Do some further research on adaptations of sea life, and then, on the back of this page, draw your own “super sea creature” that is highly adapted to survive a variety of sea conditions and predators. Write a paragraph explaining all of the adaptations that your creative creature possesses. www.oceanicresearch.org/adapspt.html does not have any pictures, but provides some excellent examples of adaptations. Related Outcome: Students will analyse features of sea creatures that help them adapt to ocean life. Subject Areas: Science – Life and Living; English – Reading; Technology and Enterprise – Design Process. / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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The Inner Fish

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Label these parts of the external and internal organs and parts of a typical fish:

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liver, stomach, brain, gills, dorsal nerve cord Use a good book to help you match these functions to the correct body part:

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Filters blood, secretes bile, and gets rid of wastes.

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Drains oxygen from water so the fish can breathe.

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One of the parts of the fish’s digestive system

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Controls the nervous system of the fish.

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Runs along the spine of the fish, supplying nerves to the body.

mouth

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gas bladder

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In order, from “most similar” to “least similar”, write the parts that you think most closely resemble human parts:

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons ___________________________________________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• What is the purpose of the “gas bladder” or “swim bladder” of a fish? Have a guess before ___________________________________________________________________________

you look it up:

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Think about the body of a fish and suggest how ideas from its anatomy have been stolen in the creation of:

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A submarine: _________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Flippers: ____________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ SCUBA apparatus: _____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Use another part of a sea creature that you find interesting to create an invention for humans, e.g. Ink squirter for shoplifters like ink from a squid or suction caps for windscreen shades like octopus suckers.

Related Outcome: Students will analyse the structure and function of the body parts of a fish. Subject Areas: Science – Life and Living, Natural and Processed Materials. / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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Danger!

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Make a list of marine creatures that are dangerous to humans. Visit a site such as www.barrierreefaustralia.com and search for “dangerous animals”.

HOW IS IT DANGEROUS TO HUMANS?

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Make a warning sign for beachgoers to advise them about the dangers of one of the above creatures.

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ANIMAL

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Do this interesting experiment, found at www.pbs.org (Ocean Realm)

You need: one egg, a dessrt or soup spoon, two glasses, paper towel, a hand towel or flannel and some very warm water. 1 2 3 4

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Break the egg into one glass and carefully use the spoon to separate the yolk into the other glass. Hold your partner’s arm over some paper towel on a desk, and pour the egg WHITE onto their arm. This represents the venom of a sea creature. Soak the flannel in very warm water, wring out and then use as a compress by holding it firmly over the “venom”. After a minute or so, remove the compress. Observe what has happened to the egg white. Try to remove it from the arm now.

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What did you observe? ________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Many sea creature venoms are forms of protein, just like the egg white. By applying a heat treatment, the protein coagulates (becomes firmer) and is then easier to remove. Please note this is just an experiment to demonstrate how this technique can work. Any bites from venomous sea creatures require immediate medical attention from a professional. Related Outcome: Students will recognise that some sea creatures are dangerous to human beings as a result of protective features. Subject Areas: Science – Life and Living; Technology and Enterprise – Information. / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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The Food Chain

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What do you think is meant by the “food chain” in an ocean?

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_______________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Find out some information on these one on a narrow strip of paper. the food chain that they belong to

plants and creatures below, then draw each Decorate with colour. Link them in order of and hang in the classroom (as shown).

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Krill

Squid

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Phytoplankton

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Killer Whale

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In reality, ocean food chains are extremely complex and would be hard to draw. Imagine that there is an oil spill that affected the population of seals. Find out what seals eat – what would happen to the population of these creatures if the seals disappeared? What are the seal’s major predators? What would happen to them? Draw a flow diagram on the back of this page and try and go as far as you can down all the tracks of consequences. Messy, isn’t it? Related Outcome: Students will demonstrate understanding of a food chain by constructing a simple ocean food chain with diagrams. Subject Areas: Science – Life and Living. / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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The Fish Café Strip

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Beneath the sea, a bustling city has a street full of cafés where the marine creatures like to dine. Just like in restaurants here on dry land, there are different types of “menus” that our fishy friends prefer. Draw the animals below inside the café of their preference:

Krill Sea Star

Limpets Octopus

Bottlenose Dolphin Dugong

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Blowfish Oyster

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What is special about the dugong’s diet? ________________________________________ The clownfish feeds on the leftovers of the anemone in which it dwells. Write a letter to the clownfish from another sea creature trying to convince the clownfish to have a better diet and visit the restaurant. Then write a response from the clownfish explaining why it is happy where it is. Do some further research on the diet of one of these animals and create a special menu for the café that it likes to visit. Related Outcome: Students will categorise marine animals according to their diets and produce creative works based on findings. Subject Areas: Science – Life and Living; English – Reading, Writing. / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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Predators of the Deep Many carnivores are well-known as predators. They hunt down their prey by using special skills or adaptive features. Fill in the table below with some abilities of these predators. Add some of your own. Predator

Ability

Shark

Fast moving,

Dolphin Sea Anemone

Stonefish

.............................. ..............................

Prey

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Which of these creatures above would you prefer to be, and why?

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Octopus

Name:

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Shark tracking andr culling can happen on u occasions when people aren killed by sharks. • f o r e v i e w p r p o s e s o l y • Basing your beliefs on researched facts, write a “letter to the editor” of a newspaper

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Letters to the Editor

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Dear Editor,

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voicing your view FOR or AGAINST this practice. Write your good copy on another page.

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_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

Related Outcome: Students will investigate the predatory actions of some marine animals from a range of perspectives. Subject Areas: Science – Life and Living / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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Name:

Survivors in the Surf

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Use the speech bubble below for a news report on a predatory octopus that has just ventured into an area of crabs – one of their prey. What information will the warning include, and how will the crabs know how to defend themselves.

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News that just to hand that ... ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

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____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Sea animals user various methods to protect themselves from predators. State how the animals • f o r e v i e w p u r p o s e s o n l y • below defend themselves then list three categories of defence that sea creatures use. News Desk

Sea urchin: _________________________________________________________________

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Oyster: ____________________________________________________________________ Blowfish: __________________________________________________________________

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Blue-ringed octopus: _________________________________________________________

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Cuttlefish: _________________________________________________________________ Starfish: ___________________________________________________________________ Sea cucumber: ______________________________________________________________ Sea animals can protect themselves by these categories of defence:

1 ________________________________________________________________________ 2 ________________________________________________________________________ 3 ________________________________________________________________________ Related Outcome: Students will investigate how defence methods are used by some marine animals. Subject Areas: Science – Life and Living. / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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What Would You Do? Many people have survived shark attacks. Do some research to find out when and where they were attacked, how they survived and how they feel about sharks now. Write your findings one person’s story here (use extra pages if you need them):

Name: .............................. ..............................

___________________________________________________________________________

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___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

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Write three interview questions that you would ask a person who has survived a shark attack: 1 ________________________________________________________________________

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2 ________________________________________________________________________ 3 ________________________________________________________________________ Imagine that you are waiting to catch a wave whilst surfing and you find yourself being encircled by a suspicious looking fin. Write a story of your experience of survival.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons ___________________________________________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• ___________________________________________________________________________

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___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________

Related Outcome: Students will investigate personal accounts of a frightening experience. Subject Areas: English – Reading, Writing. / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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Name:

Endangered Species

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Many factors are causing a threat to species of sea life risking possible extinction. Choose two of these to research, or find other marine creatures that you know are under threat:

seahorses

whales

sea turtles

Atlantic salmon

Compile notes on the animal’s appearance, habitat, feeding habits, reproduction, reasons for it being endangered and any attempts that have been made to save it. Organisations such as the World Wildlife Fund (www.worldwildlife.org) are working towards prevention of animal extinction and may have some helpful information.

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ANIMAL 1: Create a “storyboard” for a television advertisement to educate people on this disappearing species.

© ReadyE dPubl i cat i ons ______________________ ______________________ •f orr evi ew______________________ pur poses______________________ onl y• ______________________

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______________________

______________________

______________________

______________________

______________________

______________________

ANIMAL 2: Imagine that you are a member of a wildlife protection group and you are conducting a doorknock to raise money to help this species. You may like to do a raffle or sell posters/calendars of the animal, or you may simply be asking for a donation. What will you say to convince the person who answers the door? Write your speech on the back of this page or a separate sheet of paper. Related Outcome: Students will use researched information to create a television storyboard for an educational advertisement. Subject Areas: Science – Life and Living; English – Reading, Viewing; Society and Environment – Place and Space. / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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What Do You See in the Sea? Earth’s bodies of water cover over 70% of the world’s surface and are of great importance to the human race.

Name: .............................. ..............................

What is the difference between a sea and an ocean? ___________________________________________________________________________

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___________________________________________________________________________ Make a list of the many uses made of the sea.

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___________________________________________________________________________

Which do you think is most important and why?

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___________________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Imagine a planet with no oceans separating the continents. Write an explanation about how our world would be different – think about world unity, exploration, disease control, pollution, animal species, holiday travel, transport, leisure, etc. ___________________________________________________________________________

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Would you like to live in a world like this? Why / Why not?

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_________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

Record Race: Find out the record–holding sea or ocean for the following. The largest area: _______________________

The deepest: __________________________

The saltiest: __________________________

Smallest ocean: _______________________

Biggest living creature: __________________

Deadliest creature: _____________________

Related Outcome: Students will examine the role of the ocean in the context of our planet. Subject Areas: Science – Life and Living, Earth and Beyond; Society and Environment – Place and Space. / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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Name:

An Icy Idea

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Since the 1970s, there have been proposals put forward that icebergs be towed for the Antarctic to Australia. Why do you think this has been suggested?

___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

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Think about this idea. List the potential problems and possible solutions: Possible Solutions

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Difficulties or Problems

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• ___________________________________________________________________________

Do you think the proposal is realistic? Why or Why not? _____________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

Design a mechanism that could tow an iceblock across a swimming pool. If possible, make it and test it.

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Draw and label your “ice mover” here:

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Could similar concepts be used with a towing machine for an iceberg across an ocean? _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ Find a good website that considers this concept and write the address here: ___________________________________________________________________________ Related Outcome: Students will reflect on the concept of towing ice to Australia from Antarctica and include their own creative ideas. Subject Areas: Science – Earth and Beyond; Society and Environment – Place and Space, Resources. / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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How Does Your Ocean Flow?

Name: ..............................

Earth’s currents move in circular patterns caused by atmospheric pressure .............................. pushing the water in the wind’s direction. North of the equator, the currents move to the right and in the South they move to the left, in huge loops called gyres. This is called the Coriolis effect. The heat from the sun at the equator also warms the surface of the water and pushes it towards the poles. Where two currents meet, the cold water sinks, pushing the warmer .mos.org water to the surface. Source: www www.mos.org

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Try this simple experiment which illustrates how warm and cold water currents flow. •

You will need a glass or see through plastic bowl about three quarters full of icy cold water.

Gently pour a cup of hot water (with food dye added) to the icy cold water in the bowl.

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What happens when the hot water is poured in? __________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

Draw the colour in the water as it mixes and cools down:

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Try these variations of this experiment. f or r e i e p r posesonl y• What• happens if you tie v string tow the cup ofu hot water and lower it into the bottom of the bowl of icy water?

_________________________________________________

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What happens if you lower icy cold coloured water into a bowl of boiling hot water? (Be careful!)

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(Use a plastic or foam cup with holes punched in the side.)

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___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

Use a hairdryer to create a “wind” across the top of the water making sure that the hairdryer does not get wet). Describe what you see. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Can you explain what you saw in your experiments, in terms of how currents flow? ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

Related Outcome: Students will explore influences on ocean currents by conducting simple experiments. Subject Areas: Science – Working Scientifically, Earth and Beyond, Energy and Change.

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Name:

Current Affairs

.............................. ..............................

Use an atlas or Internet reference to label the map below with arrows in blue (cold) and red (warm).

The cold current to the south of Australia, circling Antarctica. The warm current near the east coast of South America. A warm current which flows north along the east coast of the United States. A warm current which flows in a northerly direction near the United Kingdom.

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• • • •

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Some oceanographers study current patterns by investigating the direction and time taken for floating objects that are lost from damaged sea craft. Examples of items include 29 000 rubber bath toys, 80 000 Nike sneakers and 5 million Lego pieces. Add to this some real life cases of “messages in a bottle” and you have a recipe for some fascinating study. Go to www.alteich.com and search under “ocean currents” to find out more.

Sent From: _______________

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Write your own message in a bottle in the space below. What information will you include? Will you make it practical or cryptic? Have a look at an atlas and decide where it might land if you sent it off from your closest beach.

Intended destination: ________________

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_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

Related Outcome: Students will locate the world’s major ocean currents and apply this to a creative writing task. Subject Areas: Science – Earth and Beyond; Society and Environment – Natural and Social Systems. / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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At the Bottom of the Deep Blue Sea Just like the Earth’s surface above the water, the ocean floor is irregular with mountains, valleys and plains.

Name: .............................. ..............................

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Label the seascape below with these parts: Continental shelf, Continental slope, Ocean mountain range or ridge, Abyssal plain (deep flat areas on ocean floor), Trench (deepest depth in the ocean)

Early exploration of the sea floor consisted of lead weights attached to lines with marked lengths being dropped from boats. Nowadays, sonar (sound) energy is sent to the bottom of the ocean and the time measured until the sound bounces back can determine the depth. Special craft that can withstand huge amounts of water pressure have been built by scientists to explore the ocean floor.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Amazing things have been discovered by deep-sea exploration. Hot springs of up to 400o Celsius have been found underwater. Beneath the sea, strange tubeworms that are up to one metre long feed on bacteria that gets energy from the chemicals in the earth rather than the sun (which cannot penetrate this far into the sea). www.mos.org/oceans/planet/features.html has some more information about the sea floor.

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Similarities

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Differences

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Write some similarities and differences between DEEP-SEA exploration and SPACE exploration:

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Which would you rather participate in, and why? __________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Conduct some research on deep-sea exploration, then imagine that you are allowed to go into a deep-sea exploration craft. Write a poem about your experiences in the deep blue. Related Outcome: Students will understand that the ocean is comprised of different sections and relate deep-sea exploration to their own experiences and ideas. Subject Areas: Science – Earth and Beyond; English – Writing. / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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Name:

Pass the Salt

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Although the amount of salinity in the ocean varies form one place to another, the average ocean salinity is 35 grams of salt per litre.

Experiment 1: Fill two identical ice cream containers with 1 litre of warm water in each. Dissolve 35 gm of salt into one. Place a small ball of Plasticine into one, then the other and compare the results. What do you find?

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___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

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___________________________________________________________________________

Experiment 2: You will need:

2 beakers, 2 test tubes labelled 1 and 2, 2 thermometers, ice cubes, salt, water, “sea water” (35 gm salt dissolved in 965 ml of water).

thermometer

1] Place approximately 30 ml of salt water into test tube 1 and 30 ml of fresh water into test tube 2. 2] Place each test tube into a beaker containing ice cubes.

salt

3] Sprinkle several tablespoons of salt over the ice cubes in each beaker.

Place a thermometer into each test tube. © Read4]y E dPu b l i ca t i ons 5] Record the temperatures of each thermometer on the table below. •f orr evi ew pur p oWater sesoFresh nl y • Salt Water

test tube

beaker

15 mins

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30 mins 45 mins

Explain the results.

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ice

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___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

Research to find out any other factors that might prevent the oceans from freezing. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ In which areas of planet Earth does ocean water freeze? ___________________________________________________________________________ Related Outcome: Students will investigate the properties of salinity in relation to ocean waters. Subject Areas: Science – Energy and Change, Working Scientifically. / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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Name:

Just the Tip of the Iceberg

..............................

Place the correct word to complete these amazing facts about icebergs. (Source: www.wordplay.com))

..............................

aircraft, “bergy seltzer”, murder, balance, harvested, clamber • An iceberg was once the site for a _____________________ .

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• “Habbakuk” was the name of a secret World War II plan

to manufacture icebergs for use as ______________________ carriers.

• A crew of 82 were saved in June 1875 when they managed to _____________________

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onto an iceberg after being lost at sea in the “Calendonia”.

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• Trapped air that is thousands of years old escapes from a melting iceberg making a fizzing sound, known amongst iceberg fans as _____________________ .

• If you see birds fly from an iceberg, it may mean that it is about to roll. This may have to do with the bird’s sense of______________________ that can detect slight movements in the iceberg that cannot be seen by the human eye.

• In some places, such as Newfoundland, iceberg ice is _____________________ and

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Make up three more amazing facts about icebergs below and then read all of the facts out to a classmate in •f or e vfool i e w– canp u r p sesonl y• a jumbled order. See ifr you can them they pick the o fakes? sold for bottled water and vodka production.

________________________________________________________________________

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________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

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.tit anic.com or www .ency clopedia-tit anica.org and investigate the story of Visit www www.tit .titanic.com www.ency .encyclopedia-tit clopedia-titanica.org the Titanic.

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Write your ideas on this theory: What if, after the Titanic hit the iceberg, the ship was turned around and the iceberg was used as a huge floating life-raft?

___________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ __________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Create a picture of what you imagine the Titanic wreck looked like underwater a year after it sank. Related Outcome: Students will explore facts about icebergs and use these as springboards for their own ideas. Subject Areas: Science – Natural and Processed Materials. / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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Name:

How Sub-lime

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Create a “fun fact file” about these things. Include a picture of each.

Submarine

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Underwater camera

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Bathyscaphe

SCUBA diving

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Imagine that you are a producer of Jollygood Blockbuster movies. Write the outline of a movie plot that is based on the theme of deep-sea exploration. Make sure that you use lots of real-life diving equipment to ensure that your movie is as authentic as possible. ___________________________________________________________________________

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___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

Draw a scene from your movie set on the back of this page. Related Outcome: Students will research and apply understandings of deep-sea equipment Subject Areas: Science – Natural and Processed Materials; English – Writing. / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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Name:

Fishy Fashion

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Help this SCUBA diver sell his gear by making a flyer for the pinup board down at the local diving club. Draw a diving suit including all the SCUBA equipment that you know about, and label each piece of equipment with a sentence about its function.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Compare today’s scuba gear with an outfit that was used 150 - 200 years ago by writing the .in or s.about.com www.in .invvent entor ors.about.com s.about.com) Search for “Scuba history”. major differences in this table. (Try www Gear

1800s

Today

Breathing apparatus Outfit (what was worn on body) Weights to keep body down Related Outcome: Students will investigate the structure and function of modern and past diving equipment. Subject Areas: Science – Natural and Processed Materials; Society and Environment – Resources, Time, Continuity and Change / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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Name:

Dangers of the Deep

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SCUBA diving mishaps are often reported. Collect any newspaper reports or summarise any internet records of recent diving accidents. List some of the dangers involved in SCUBA diving.

___________________________________________________________________________

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___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

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___________________________________________________________________________

SCUBA stands for Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus. Construct a card with some tips for SCUBA safety. Try to use a method that makes it easy for the diver to remember, e.g. using acronyms (S.H.A.R.K.S. - Sharks Have A Really Keen Smell) or rhymes (“If your diving buddy comes into harm, do not panic…just stay calm”).

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Related Outcome: Students will use researched Insert picture of a fish nibbling thru a information diver’s on airdeep-sea tube diving to make up a safety card to keep divers aware. Subject Areas: Health and Physical Education – Safety; Technology and Enterprise – Information.

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Oceanic Exclusive

Name: ..............................

Read all about the Lost Continent of Atlantis by conducting an internet .............................. search. Try www.atlan.org and www.activemind.com (both tricky to read, but contain a lot of information). Write your notes on the back of this page, including some WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN and WHY information as well as some interesting facts or individual experiences. Write the article below on how you and your party of explorers found Atlantis.

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Date: ___________________________________

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Don’t forget an interesting name for your newspaper, an eye-catching headline and a picture with a caption!

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons ________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• ________________________________________ ________________________________________

________________________________________

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_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Related Outcome: Students will research a mythical place and create a newspaper article about its discovery. Subject Areas: Society and Environment – Culture; English – Reading, Writing. / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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Name:

Creepy Deep Creatures

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Choose one of the following to research: • Sea serpents and the warship “Daedalus” • Kraken / giant squid

In the speech bubbles below, write the opinions, with their “evidence” of a believer and a sceptic (someone who doubts the myth). In the bottom speech bubble, write “your say” on what you think about the existence of such creatures.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Sceptic

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Believer

y Your sa © Re adsay y EdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Draw your interpretation of what the creatures would look like.

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On the back of this page, write a DIARY ENTRY of a sailor who had a close encounter with this creature. Related Outcome: Students will explore different perspectives on the existence of mythical sea creatures. Subject Areas: Society and Environment – Culture; English – Reading, Writing. / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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Think Tank - 1 Dive into this aquarium of ideas for creative seafarers

FINDING OUT • Write the plot outline for your favourite movie about the ocean. Write a letter to the director of the movie explaining why you liked it. • Research mysteries of the deep. There are some fascinating ideas based on unusual experiences in the ocean, for example, the Bermuda Triangle. Present your findings in a report or a speech.

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• Is there an organisation that is helping to save your favourite endangered sea creature? Write a letter showing your support or requesting more information about what you can do.

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• Find out about how a periscope works. Use recycled materials to make a model of one that you and your classmates can use. • Write a “how to” manual on caring for fish in a sea–aquarium. Include pictures and instructions on how to feed the fish, clean the tank and recognise problems in the tank.

• Make a “sea scavengers” table in your classroom. Encourage classmates to bring in and label items found on the shore. • Ask your teacher if you can bring in and dissect a fish. Draw and label all of the internal organs that you can identify.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

• Find out about how different cultures use and look after the sea.

• Find out where different sea creatures live and draw them onto a map of the world.

USING

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• Using all your knowledge on fascinating sea creatures (both real and mythical), design a museum dedicated to “Unusual Sea Life”. Draw pictures of how you would show each creature, with a brief explanation underneath. • Make a poster on prevention of sea pollution, based on what you know or can find out.

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• Find out about recent sea disasters in your area. How could they have been prevented? Write a safety newsletter for a boating or fishing club in your area.

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• Research your favourite seaside vacation destination. Make a holiday brochure or design a postcard for this holiday spot. Include historical, environmental and leisure information in the brochure. • Based on the deep-sea exploration done so far, draw up a timeline showing what deep sea exploration you think will be done in the next 100 years. Try to make it as realistic as possible. • Compare two of your favourite marine creatures by designing a table, showing the similarities and differences; OR compare the two animals using a Venn Diagram. • Using a list of sea creatures with pictures, find three different ways to categorise the animals, e.g. With and Without Backbones; Herbivorous or Carnivorous, and so on. • Read up on some historical accounts of an ocean event, such as the sinking of the Titanic, and role-play an interview with a survivor.

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Think Tank 2 CREATING AND EVALUATING • Imagine that you are embarking on an adventure to explore a shipwreck or to search for the “Lost City of Atlantis”. Re-design your family car as an underwater exploration vehicle. Draw a careful picture with all of the special parts you have included. • What if you could train sea creatures to help you in your search for Atlantis? Write about 10 sea animals and how they could hep you, based on their unique features, e.g. using sea-turtles as an underwater table whilst you write about your findings.

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• Have a classroom competition on who can come up with the best underwater gadget. What could be adapted from our everyday life to be used under the sea?

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• Create an underwater superhero and give him or her a special name, such as Gill-Man or Wave-Woman. Draw a picture of them and label all of their special powers that they can use to help the animals and people in the ocean. Write an illustrated story for the junior primary students in your school. • Make plans for an “Under the Sea” party in your class. Include plans for invitations, costumes, decorations, sea-themed party food, music, etc. Perhaps if your plans are good enough, your teacher may even let them go ahead. • Due to all of the risks associated with visiting the beach, school excursions to the seaside are often not allowed to go ahead. Design your own aqua centre (you may have visited one in your area) that helps visitors to see and understand the sea life at your closest beach. You may like to include a mini-beach, a walk-through aquarium, a touch-pool, an education centre, and more – your only limit is your imagination.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •• Design ar code language that deep-sea divers can usee tos communicate. Draw or write up f o r e v i e w p u r p o s o n l y • some ideas for your language. • Make a “Marine Picture–Clue” game for your classmates.

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• Make a collage using “sea–stuff”.

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• Study a marine creature in detail, and then make a life-like sculpture of it from clay or paper-mache.

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Answers These answers may vary slightly depending on the research source, however, the following provides a guide for checking and marking the student’s work. Largely, answers are “open-ended” and most answers showing detailed research and independent thought will be awarded good marks. Home Sweet Home 1.Euphotic: plankton (on surface), clownfish, sea anemone 2.Dysphotic: squid, sperm whale, lanternfish 3.Aphotic: sea cucumber, gulper eel

Oceanopedia

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Osmosis – the moving of water from a region of high water concentration to a region of low water concentration. Bioluminescence – light produced by a chemical reaction in a living creature, most commonly found in the ocean depths. Photosynthesis – the process in the ocean (also occurs with plants on the land) whereby plants such as phytoplankton and ocean plants turn carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen in a chemical process by using a pigment called chlorophyll to absorb light. Some sources say that about half of the world’s oxygen is produced by photosynthesis in the oceans. Symbiosis – “living together” the process by which two species live together for long periods of time, with one or both benefiting from the other, such as the sea anemone and the clown fish.

Missing Parts

Sharks teeth – large, set in many rows to take large bites of food / prey and swallow in large chunks. Crab claw - also alled ‘pincers’; are used for eating (opening shellfish) fighting, and to ward off predators. Octopus suckers – are used to feel and identify foods on the sea floor, some octopi also secrete venom through their suckers to help catch their prey. Dolphin blowhole – used to draw in oxygen for the dolphin to breathe as it surfaces form the water.

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The Food Chain

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Liver: Filters blood, secretes bile, stores food and gets rid of wastes. Stomach: One of the parts of the fish’s digestive system Brain: Controls the nervous system of the fish. Gills: Drains oxygen from water so the fish can breathe. Dorsal nerve cord: Runs along the spine of the fish, supplying nerves to the body. Gas Bladder: An adjustable sac inside a fish that is filled with gas that helps it to float at various depths in the ocean. * Submarine: Contains a chamber for air to change the depth of the submarine, similar to a gas bladder. * Flippers: Webbed design gives better pulling action on the water; like fish fins and tail. * SCUBA apparatus: Enables humans to brathe underwater; like gills.

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A food chain is the simplistic way of identifying the prey and predators in sequence in a particular ecosystem. It shows how animals and plants depend on each other to live, with each predator on “top” of their prey in the food chain.

The Fish Cafe Strip

Herbivores – Dugong, Krill, Limpets, Oyster Carnivores – Blowfish, Bottlenose Dolphin, Sea Star, Octopus A dugong is special because it is the only sea mammal that is entirely herbivorous.

Predators of the Deep Predator

Ability

Prey

Shark

Fast moving, counter-shading, sharp rows of teeth

Fish, rays, other sharks, sea lions, small toothed whales, otters, sea turtles, carrion (scavengers)

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Answers Cont. Predator

Ability

Prey

Dolphin

Agile, sharp teeth, echolocation (finding prey through high pitched sounds)

Fish, squid.

Sea Anemone

They catch food using their tentacles, which have poisonous stingers (called nematocysts) and protect themselves form predators by stinging with the tentacles.

Fish, mussels, zooplankton (small crustaceans, and tiny marine larvae), worms.

Each arm has two rows of suction cups. If it loses an arm, it will eventually regrow another arm. Very good eyesight. They catch prey with their arms, then kill it by biting it with their tough beak, paralysing the prey with a nerve poison, and softening the flesh. They then suck out the flesh. In order to escape predators, octopuses can squirt black ink into the water, allowing the octopus to escape. Another defence that octopuses have is changing their skin colour to blend into the background, camouflaging themselves.

Small crabs and scallops, plus some snails, fish, turtles, crustaceans (like shrimp ), and other octopuses.

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Stonefish

The most venomous fish in the world. It has thirteen spines in the dorsal fin which inject a highly toxic venom. The venom causes intense pain. These fish are extremely well camouflaged, looking like an encrusted rock or lump of coral. They usually wait for prey to swim past, and then strike with incredible speed.

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Octopus

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Fish and crustaceans.

Survivors in the Surf

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What do you See in the Sea?

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Categories of protection include camouflage, protective shells or spines, disorienting predators with ink, etc. using speed, hiding in habitat, growing back limbs, appearing larger than they really are, using venom, and so on. 1. Seas are similar to oceans except they are smaller and partially or fully enclosed by land.

2. The ocean can be used for exploration, travel (cruises, etc.), leisure, sport, mining, fishing, shell / pearl farming, isolating people (in times of convict settlement or disease control), tidal power, and so on.

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The largest area: Pacific – one third of the earth. The deepest: Mariana Trench in Pacific 35 929 ft – higher than Everest. The saltiest: Dead Sea – more than 6 times more than seawater. Located between Jordan and Israel. Smallest Ocean: Arctic – 10 times smaller than Pacific. Sea: Biggest living Creature : Blue Whale, found in all oceans, e.g. Antarctic, North Pacific, North Atlantic. Ocean: Deadliest Creature: Sea Wasp – can kill up to 60 humans. Can die within 30 sec to 4 min without treatment. Found in oceans in northern Australia and the Philippines. Source: www.exteremescience.com

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Answers Cont. An Icy Idea Ice towing has been proposed to address the problem of global warming / water restrictions. Difficulties or Problems

Possible Solutions

Iceberg melting Iceberg tipping over Grabbing onto the ice

Covering the iceberg with a “wrap” Selecting icebergs that are less likely to tip Using a wide-base attachment

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At the Bottom of the Deep Blue Sea

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Current Affairs

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Some similarities and difference between deep-sea exploration and space exploration:

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Differences Space exploration for much longer periods of time Life has been found in deep sea environments No gravity versus extreme water pressure More money/publicity for space race

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Similarities Special suit, including oxygen, required Special transport required Largely unexplored Specialised training - both can be quite dangerous

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Experiment 1: The Plasticene should float more in the salt water, as the water is more dense. Experiment 2: The salt water should be warmer as salt lowers the freezing point of water.

Just the Tip of the Iceberg

• An iceberg was once the site for a murder. • ”Habbakuk” was the name of a secret World War II plan to manufacture icebergs for use as aircraft carriers. • A crew of 82 were saved in June 1875 when they managed to clamber onto an iceberg after being lost at sea in the “Calendonia”. • Trapped air that is thousands of years old escapes from a melting iceberg making a fizzing sound, known amongst iceberg fans as “bergy seltzer” • If you see birds fly from an iceberg, it may mean that it is about to roll. This may have to do with the bird’s sense of balance that can detect slight movements in the iceberg that cannot be seen by the human eye. • In some places, such as Newfoundland, iceberg ice is harvested and sold for bottled water and vodka production. / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /

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Pacemaker Pack: Marine Worlds (Upper)  

This fully revised series of photocopiable activity books uses a structured, three-tiered approach to cater for gifted and/or talented stude...