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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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About Ready-Ed Publications Ready-Ed Publications was established in 1984 with the purpose of creating practical classroom blackline master activities. At the time, the role of the teacher was becoming ever more diverse with an increasing range of duties and responsibilities within the school and school community. Since then, the role of the teacher has continued to evolve with an escalating range of tasks and obligations, ensuring a reduction in time available to prepare work for the daily instructional program.

Ready-Ed

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Throughout these past 24 years, Ready-Ed Publications has built a reputation as publishers of Australian made, high quality, innovative, timesaving materials for teachers of primary and lower secondary levels. In addition, all materials are based on state or national curriculum guidelines or specific age-related interest areas and subjects.

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Publications

Ready-Ed Publications aims to assist busy professionals by making available contemporary classroom materials that contain relevant and stimulating work to support the requirements of the curriculum. Fantastic Inventions © 2009 Ready-Ed Publications Printed in Australia Author: Robyn Fitzgerald

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Acknowledgements i.

I-stock Photos.

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Clip art images have been obtained from Microsoft Design Gallery Live and are used under the terms of the End User License Agreement for Microsoft Word 2000. Please refer to www.microsoft.com/permission.

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iii. Corel Corporation collection, 1600 Carling Ave., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1Z 8R7. iv. Wikimedia Commons. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”.

o c . che e r o t r s super Published by: Ready-Ed Publications PO Box 276 Greenwood WA 6024 www.readyed.com.au info@readyed.com.au

ISBN: 978 1 86397 776 0

COPYRIGHT NOTICE Permission is granted for the purchaser to photocopy sufficient copies for noncommercial educational purposes. However, this permission is not transferable and applies only to the purchasing individual or institution.

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Section 1: Land Early Car Design The Innovations of Otto, Langen and Wankel 7 Comprehension Activity 8 Creative Activity 9 Modern Car Design Piston Engines Piston Engines Activity Gears Gears Template Technology and the Environment Technology and the Environment Activity

10 11 12 13 14 15

Cars of the Future Future Designs Future Designs Activity Future Designs 2 Future Designs Activity 2

16 17 18 19

Comprehension Activity 1 Comprehension Activity 2 Flights into Space 1 Flights into Space 2 Space Technology Space Activity 1 Space Activity 2 Space Activity 3 Top Secret Space Plane

Section 3: SEA Under the Water Submarines Submarine Activity Diesel Electric and Nuclear Submarines 1 Diesel Electric and Nuclear Submarines 2 Comparing Early and Modern Submarines Comparing Early and Modern Submarines Activity Life in a Modern Submarine 1 Life in a Modern Submarine 2 Nuclear Submarines and the Environment Other Submarines Submarine Stories Build a Submarine

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Section 2: Air Aircraft Design Aerodynamic Forces Aerodynamic Forces Activity

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Examining Technological Leaps The Technological Innovations of the Wright Brothers 24 The Flyer and The Modern Day Airbus 25

26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

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Teachers' Notes Curriculum Links

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Answers

36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

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Teachers’ Notes The Air Section focuses on the Wright brothers’ early plane. This method of transport is compared to the Boeing 747 and the new Airbus. Other fantastic technological leaps that are explored include orbital and suborbital space planes and a secret supersonic jet engine.

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The Land Section covers the invention of early engine design, including Nicolaus Otto’s internal combustion. These early inventions are compared to a modern day hybrid petrol and electric car; the Pyrius. In this section, students are guided to design their own car/hybrid means of transport. Students are encouraged to draw on their knowledge of science fiction in popular culture such as the transport devices in the Star Wars trilogy movies and various superheroes’ transport (e.g. the Bat mobile) to assist them to process and enjoy this topic.

The Sea Section explores past, present and future methods of travelling by sea and focuses on the development of the submarine, with reference to James Bond-like underwater cars. Your students will enjoy making a working submarine from a soft drink bottle!

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Fantastic Inventions examines how past, current and future inventions consistently affect our modes of transport, our lifestyles and the environment. It details dramatic technological leaps that have changed land, sea and air transport forever.

Fantastic Inventions is highly relevant to teachers of English, Society and Environment / HSIE and Technology and Enterprise. It is aimed at upper primary students, however the activities can be easily adapted to suit younger students.

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Curriculum Links QUEENSLAND (Studies of Society and Environment) Science and Society – Levels 3 & 4

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NEW SOUTH WALES (HSIE) History – Stages 4 & 5

SOUTH AUSTRALIA (Society and Environment) Place, Space and Environment – Standards 3 & 4 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6 NORTHERN TERRITORY (Studies of Society and Environment) Environments – Bands 3 & 4

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E4.3, E4.4, E4.8, E4.10, E5.3, E5.5, E5.8, E5.10

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons (3) Interactions with the Environment – Standards 3 & 4 •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• (8) Communication – Standards 3 & 4 TASMANIA (Society and History)

(2) Place and Space

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(5) Time, Continuity and Change

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ACT (Social Sciences)

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WESTERN AUSTRALIA (Society and Environment)

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The Student Understands World Issues and Events – ELA23 VICTORIA (The Humanities – History)

Historical Knowledge and Understanding – Levels 4 & 5 Historical Reasoning and Interpretation – Levels 4 & 5

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Land

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  Early Car    Design

The Innovations of Otto, Langen and Wankel

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Nicolaus Otto, Wikimedia Commons

Eugen Langen, Wikimedia Commons

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Read the information below.

Wankel rotary engine, Wikimedia Commons

© ReadyEdPInu bl i c at i on s 1876, Otto and Langen built a two stroke engine in their own factory. Their invention won a gold medal the World’s •f orr evi ew pur po se sato n l yFair, •where

Otto was deeply interested in technical inventions and during his lifetime he invented engines which were powered by coal, gas and air. The ‘explosion’ of fuel was contained inside the engines. These types of engines generated far more power and were safe machines. The petrol designed engines that we know today are based on Otto’s designs.

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new inventions were showcased to the world. Also, in 1876, Otto built the first four stroke piston cycle internal combustion engine. It burned air and fuel. Over the next ten years, 30,000 of these engines were sold.

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Nicolaus Otto was born in 1832 in Germany and died in 1891. He finished school at 16 and delivered groceries to make a living. When he was growing up, trains and cars were powered by steam. Steam driven cars were so heavy that they damaged roads in Europe and Britain and were very impractical for the unsealed roads in Australia.

Today, 100s of millions of these engines are sold for boats, tractors, aircraft, motorcycles and industrial engines.

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Otto patented the first successful two stroke engine in 1861 together with Eugen Langen. This engine was practical for everyday transport. Langen owned a sugar cane factory, so he could afford to help Otto set up the first engine manufacturing company in the world.

Felix Wankel was another great inventor born in Germany. In 1957, he invented the Wankel rotary engine. A rotary engine contains a rotar or turning piston, which moves in a circular motion, so it goes around instead of having pistons pump up and down. Mazda have shown a lot of interest in the Wankel rotary engine and have managed to improve it.

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   Design   Early Car

Comprehension Activity  Reread the passage on page 7 and write the words in bold and their meanings in the table below. An example has been done for you.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Meaning

Manufacturing

Making or producing items using physical labour or machinery.

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Spelling Word

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  Questions

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1. Who invented the four stroke piston cycle internal combustion engine?

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_________________________________________________________________________

2. Work out how many years we have been using this engine.______________________ 3. Approximately how many internal combustion engines are in use today?_ _________ 4. Who invented the rotary engine?____________________________________________ 5. What car company are particularly interested in the rotary engine?________________

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  Early Car    Design

Creative Activity

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Benz Patent Motorwagen powered by a four stroke engine based on Otto's design. Wikimedia Commons.

How have cars developed in terms of: car safety:

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Look at the pictures of the Patent Motorwagen and the modern day car and fill in the table below.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

comfort:

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  Design a Poster

Make a poster for your classroom which describes and shows the extra features on a modern day car.

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extra features available:

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Explain what features you would alter or remove from the car to improve it.

Draw and label bonus features that you would like added to the modern day car.

Use the space opposite and the back of this sheet to brainstorm ideas and draft/ plan your poster. 9


Piston Engines

 Modern Car Design

Today, Otto's piston engines are used in a range of cars. The flow diagram opposite shows how the piston engine operates to move a car. In a modern day car,

Petrol Heat Force Power Motion

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happens because the fuel and air mixture is burnt and the fuel changes into gases, which always expand when heated.

• Petrol is converted into heat.

• Heat becomes the force that moves the parts and makes the engine work.

• Heated gas rises, so the mixture is then drawn into the cylinders and compressed, increasing the force and the power.

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• By turning the key in the ignition, the spark plug ignites the fuel and air mixture in the engine.

• The right mix of fuel and air and the correct timing of the piston movement help create the energy conversion.

• The pistons are forced up and down. This

valve spark plug combustion chamber

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Induction stroke

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piston

Exhaust stroke

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Power stroke

Stroke 1- The Induction Stroke

Stroke 3 - The Power Stroke

The inlet valve is open and the exhaust valve is closed. The piston descends, pushing the fuel down. After this stroke, the inlet valve is closed.

Both valves remain closed. The compressed gas is ignited by a spark from the spark plug. Expansion of burning gas drives the piston down. The exhaust valve opens.

Stroke 2 – The Compression Stroke Now both inlet and exhaust valves are closed. The rising piston compresses the mixture in the combustion chamber and compression heat vaporises the mixture.

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© www.istock.com/johnwoodcock

Below are the four strokes of a piston engine showing the induction and the compression strokes of the Four Stroke ‘Otto Cycle’.

Stroke 4 -The Exhaust Stroke The inlet valve is closed and exhaust valve is open. The piston rises to expel (force out) the burnt gases, the inlet valve opens, and then the exhaust valve closes. The cycle restarts with the induction stroke (first movement of the piston).


 Modern Car Design

Piston Engines Activity

1. Label the diagram below to indicate how a piston engine works to make a car move.

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2. Look at the Induction Stroke on page 10 again. Can you work out which is the inlet valve, that lets in the fuel and air mixture? Explain where it is. _________________________________________________________________________________

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3. Look at the diagram of the second piston on page 10. This shows the compression stroke of the engine. Explain what happens to the fuel and air mixture in the combustion chamber. _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Look at the diagram of the third piston on page 10. What drives the piston down?

_________________________________________________________________________________

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6. What are the names of the four © ReadyEdPub l i cat i on different strokes of as piston engine? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

5. Draw the exhaust gases being expelled from the exhaust valve of the 4th piston below.

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 Modern Car Design 

Gears

Read the information below. This topic will help you to understand what gears are and how they work. It will also help you to make a very simple gear system.

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What are Gears? Gears are a mechanical system which transmit torque (rotation)

Experiment with Gears

Steps

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from one shaft to another. A gear is a disc with teeth around its edge. The teeth on a gear mesh (interconnect) with similar teeth on an adjacent gear. Around 1636, a German man called Pappenheim designed a rotary pump, which contained two gears that could move liquids inside a pipe. Gears were used in steam engines for 150 years before being used in cars.

• Carefully cut out the diagram on page 13 and stick it on to thin cardboard, such as cardboard from a breakfast cereal packet. Cut round the cardboard. • Make sure that the largest gear’s teeth fit inside the smaller gears' teeth.

• Finally, pin each gear in the centre, loose enough so that you can turn each gear.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Questions •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 1. If you turn the largest gear clockwise (around and to the right) which way does the small • Turn your gears and answer the questions below.

gear on the left turn? (Clockwise, around and to the right or anti-clockwise, around and to the left?)

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____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Can you predict which way the smaller gears will turn if you turn the larger gear in the opposite direction (i.e. anti-clockwise)?

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3. Turn the larger gear anti-clockwise. Was your prediction correct?

____________________________________________________________________________ 4. What did you notice about the rate that the smaller gears were turning, in comparison to the larger gear? ____________________________________________________________________________ 5. Guess how having two gears would affect the amount of power generated in engines. ____________________________________________________________________________ 6. Where do you find gears in a car? What do the gears do? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

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Gears Template

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 Modern Car Design 

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 Modern Car Design 

Technology and the Environment

Read the information below.

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Present day hybrid cars combine a petrol or diesel engine with a rechargeable electric battery to reduce the drawbacks found in purely petrol or solely electric cars. Some of the design features found in current prototype hybrid cars include: the ability to sometimes shut down the engine, being able to recover energy and store it in the battery and a streamlined design to reduce ‘drag’ and therefore energy loss. The electric motor and batteries of a hybrid car can be used to power things like lights and wipers when a car stops at a red light. This reduces fuel costs. The electric motor in a hybrid car works with the brakes to slow the car down. The energy is captured in the battery to be used later, so there is no need to plug it in at (very rarely available) electricity stations. The electric motor in the hybrid car charges the battery just like a generator in a standard car.

The Toyota Prius 2010 Model ‘IFCAR’.Wikimedia commons

The Honda Insight, the Toyota Prius, the DaimlerChrysler, the General Motors Hy-wire (current models), the Mercedes-Benz M-class Hyper and Dodge Charger and the Citroen C Cactus concept cars are examples of different types of hybrid cars.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew   p Questions ur posesonl y• Why Were Hybrid

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Greenhouse gases are producing a ‘blanket’ effect and are heating up the Earth’s atmosphere. Although today’s regular petrol driven cars emit 96% fewer hydrocarbon exhaust pollutants than cars from the 1970s, many more people are driving, and this figure continues to grow as developing nations, such as China, produce and purchase more cars and the world’s population expands. Fewer than 10% of cars on the roads today cause 50% of the total automobile pollution! Hybrid cars do reduce emissions by up to 90% and the 2010 model Prius shown above, claims to cut petrol consumption by 50%.

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1. Explain three ways in which hybrid cars save energy. •

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Cars Developed?

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2. Imagine that you are the Minister for the Environment for a day. Using the information on this page, what two laws would you submit to parliament that would immediately reduce pollution? Law 1_________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Law 2_________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________


 Modern Car Design 

Technology and the Environment Activity

  Create a Poster  Create a flyer that promotes the hybrid car. Use persuasive language and images to encourage people to purchase these cars.

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Draft/plan your poster in the space below.

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Websites to Help you Design your Poster:

 www.howstuffworks.com/hybrid-car.htm This excellent website has information about the latest technology. The home page gives you access to more detailed information about how cars work.  http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/politics_show/3154854.stm This is a BBC report on future plans to recycle cars.  http://starryskies.com/articles/dln/5-96/junk.html This site displays personal views on car recycling.  http://www.travelwise.org.uk Click on the tab, For Schools, then the link, Environment, for information about the impact of cars on our environment.

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 Cars of the Future  Read the information below.

Future Designs To find out more about cars in the future go to:www.drive.com.au.

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The Electric Car

Electric cars are often slow and don’t go very far before they have to be recharged and so we would need to build many ‘electric stations’ across the country, before people would buy them in large numbers. There would not be much profit for investors initially, but perhaps the government might consider investing in technology to make electric cars a more attractive buy.

Pressurised Air

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Cars of the future may use new technology and alternative fuels and energy sources. They may include more successful electric cars, hybrid cars, solar powered cars, fuel cell powered cars and modern shapes and designs. They will reflect our changing lifestyles, wants and needs, our need to conserve our diminishing supply of fossil fuel and our need to reduce car pollution which leads to greenhouse gases, acid rain and climate change.

One very exciting possibility for car development relies on very old technology. Pressurised air can be used to drive engines and wheels. Because of the size of tanks today, liquid nitrogen rather than oxygen would be more suitable to allow cars to go further for longer. The air we breathe in is made up of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and 1% of other gases. The process of liquefying the gas, nitrogen, increases its energy giving capability. As liquefied gas is reheated in the engine, it expands up to 700 times its original volume. This pressure drives a car’s engine. Currently, the electricity needed to create liquid nitrogen increases energy consumption. Tata Motors has developed a proptype air car called city cat, that apparently produces zero pollution and costs only a few dollars to drive over 200 kilometers.

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electric motor combined with a petrol engine. In Australia, there is potential for more reliable hybrid solar powered cars that use the sun’s electricity to power their motors. Each solar cell is currently small and expensive, and many cells are needed to drive hybrid solar powered cars, however, this technology, combined with a cheaper, more readily available source of energy has real potential in Australia. Developing new cars though, costs millions and manufacturers usually like to be able to sell cars overseas to recover costs and generate maximum revenue.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• You have read about typical hybrid cars that have an The Hybrid solar powered Car

Compressed Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

o c . che e r o t r s super The Fuel Cell Car Fuel cell cars are powered by hydrogen and oxygen, which produce a chemical reaction; energy. The advantage of a fuel cell powered car is that only heat and water are produced as a result of running the car. The technology is costly. However, some say that the oil companies have a vested interest in keeping us driving fuel guzzling cars. 16

It is also possible to create a car that runs on compressed carbon dioxide. This would actually remove a greenhouse gas from the environment. To work out whether this is a good thing for the environment, you would have to weigh up the cost of setting up compressed air stations and the amount of energy and pollution produced to create the compressed air.


 Cars of the Future 

Future Designs Activity

Read the information on page 16 to help you to complete the activities on this page.  Write down the advantages and disadvantages of the alternate energy sources used to power cars.

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Energy Source

Advantages:

Disadvantages:

Hybrid Solar Power

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Electric

Advantages:

Disadvantages: Advantages:

Fuel Cell

Disadvantages: Advantages:

© Read yEdPubl i cat i ons Disadvantages: Advantages • f o r r e v i ew pur posesonl y• Compressed CO Pressurised Air

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Disadvantages:

Highlighted Word

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 In the table below, write out the meanings of the words in bold in the passage on page 16.

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 Cars of the Future 

Futures Design 2

Read the information below. Can you imagine a flying car, made with recyclable plastic, possibly coated with material that glows, or is undetectable? Perhaps you can imagine a fully automatic car that prevents crashes or one fitted with food dispensers? Read on, because these sorts of cars are not as far away as you might think.

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To find out more about the flying car go to: www.moller.com/skycar

Light Weight Materials

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The energy that it takes to push a car through the air as you drive, results in aerodynamic drag. The bigger the frontal area of a car, the more force it takes to move a car, and the more drag it has. Modern, sleek designs can help improve fuel efficiency. Lightweight materials such as aluminium and magnesium can reduce weight. In 1999, Chrysler invented the Composite Compact Vehicle made of recyclable plastic! One of the technological and design innovations planned for cars of the future include X-by-wire systems, which remove parts like the steering column and instead control steering and manage lane changing by computer. A little further into the future and the modern car will be connected to the Internet. Diagnostic tools linked to the Internet may be able to work out what is wrong with your car, update you about weather patterns and redirect your route to avoid traffic. Air bags will have controlled release and collision avoidance systems. Cars of the immediate future may also have adaptive cruise control that senses traffic ahead, slows you down, plans an alternate route and uses robotic suspension to smooth your ride. Cars in the 22nd century may be connected via your brain to the controls. This would have the advantage of increasing our ability to stop quickly in the case of an accident.

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Night Vision

In the future, computer programming might even take over the car controls to avoid crashes or let you sleep while the car drives itself!

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Radar and night vision are also possible.

Night vision systems may be created in future cars and will result in vision better than human eyes. Night vision also lets you see three to five times better than regular lights. Infra-red cameras see heat instead of light, and project images on the windscreens of cars.

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Voice technology, in your choice of female or male voice, will let your car talk to you and let you know when it needs a service. Voice activated controls would mean that you wouldn’t need to take your eyes off the road to put music on. You may be offered a ‘blank palette’ to choose the exterior colour of your car, its outer shell or shape, the style of its seats, dashboard treatment, instrumentation, steering wheel and safety features.


 Cars of the Future 

Future Designs Activity 2

Read the information on page 18 to help you complete the activities below.

  Questions  What do you think are the two best innovations mentioned in the passage? Explain why.

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First Technological Innovation: ____________________________________________________ Reason: _________________________________________________________________________

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_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

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Second Technological Innovation: _ ________________________________________________ Reason: _________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

©R e adyE dPubl i cat i ons   Design an Amazing Car

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 Draw and label your ideal car of the future in the space below. For ideas, use Google Images and search Star Wars, Bat Mobiles or Concept Cars like the famous underwater car in the James Bond movies. Perhaps you will create a hybrid car, e.g. half-plane, halfcar. Try to design something amazing.

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 Give a brief explanation of two of the gadgets inside your car. Explain what they do and how they work. Gadget 1 in my car: ________________________

Gadget 2 in my car:________________________

It works by:_______________________________

It works by:_______________________________

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Air

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  Aircraft    Design

Aerodynamic Forces Read the information below. There are four aerodynamic forces: lift, thrust, weight and drag.

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Lift =

Upward movement. The lift of the plane must be equal to its weight to remain level. By increasing power and lift, the plane rises. If this power and lift fails, the plane descends.

Drag =

Force created when an object is slowed by the resistance of the wind. Drag is the force created when the plane is slowed as the wind meets the resistance of the plane’s body. Try holding a small object out of the window of a moving car (not your hands as it is too dangerous). The air ‘push’ is very obvious!

Thrust =

Forward movement. Thrust happens when air is forced past the blades of the propeller or pulled into the valve (two way opening device). Note, for the jet engine, the process is the opposite. The jet engine pushes its way through the flow of air. Forward power through the air must be greater than drag for a plane to be able to move forward.

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Heaviness. Keeps the plane on the ground.

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Weight =

© ReadyEdPu bl i cat i ons Remember • For a plane to fly, the forces of lift and thrust must overcome •f orr ev i ew pur posesonl y• weight (and therefore gravity) and drag.

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Drag

Thrust

• wind under the wings

Weight

Stability = plane parts being strong enough to withstand all four forces.

The dotted lines below show one possible pathway for the wind. Note: the design of the plane’s rudder may reduce wind resistance and drag and increase stability so the plane is not pushed from side to side as much. Lift

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Power = the energy created by the engine assists lift and thrust, but it must not be too heavy.

• Airfoil (wing design) and angle of attack (the direction and angle of the wingtip) assists lift and thrust to overcome weight and drag. A streamlined design (a smooth and sleek aircraft shape) reduces wind resistance and prevents drag.

Gravity = force that attracts objects toward the ground and slows lift.

This diagram will give you an idea of the position and direction of each force.

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  Aircraft    Design

Aerodynamic Forces Activity Read the information on page 22 to help you to complete the activities on this page.

  Questions

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1. Write down your own definition of drag.

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2. Which aerodynamic forces must be greater than drag and weight for a plane to move forward? _________________________________________________________________________ 3. Name the two forces which pull a plane towards the ground and slow lift. •

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons f o rr evi ew pur posesonl y•   • Label the diagram

Draw air pressure (wind) around the plane, then label the four aerodynamic forces and indicate where the angle of attack lies.

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4. What is another name for the design of a plane wing?_ _________________________

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  Examining    Technological Leaps

The Technological Innovations of the Wright Brothers

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Orville Wright, Wikimedia Commons

Wilbur Wright, Wikimedia Commons

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Read the information below.

Wilbur and Orville Wright flew their plane, called the Wright Flyer, on December 17th, 1903, at Kitty Hawk in America in 1903.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •made f orr evi ew pur posesoand nl y• Orville Wright Their plane was

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would have moved of two types of wood, their hips from side called spruce and ash, to side to move and was covered with a the rudders (like a type of material similar to yacht’s rudder works cotton, called muslin. It today) to move their was powered by a simple aircraft from side four cylinder petrol to side. The Flyer's engine. The plane had no motor created the cabin. The Wrights flew power to assist lift. their plane lying down, The wings used air their left hands operated The Wright Flyer 1903, Wikimedia Commons pressure to further a lever to control the assist lift. The two propellers created forward elevators, which helped control the plane's lift, movement (thrust) by the air being pulled into as the elevators could be moved up and down. Wires were connected to the wing tips and could the valve (two way opening) of the propellers and turning them around and around (rotary be warped (bended) as they were also joined to movement). It is incredible, isn’t it! the pilots' hip cradles on the lower wing. Wilbur

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  Examining    Technological Leaps

The Flyer and The Modern Day Airbus Read the information below.

The Flyer

Modern Day Airbus

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On their fourth flight, on the same day, the distance covered was a more impressive 852 feet in 59 seconds, with some minor damage during a hard landing. By the 5th October, 1905, Wilbur Wright flew 38.9 kilometres in 39 minutes, 29 seconds at a low level altitude. Compare this to a modern Boeing 747, first made over 40 years ago, in 1968.

The modern Airbus is an incredible advance on the first planes ever built. It is a doubledecker jet airliner that is the largest built so far. It can seat up to 30-50% more passengers than the Boeing 747. The airbus uses 20% less fuel and produces less pollution. It has around 10-15% more range (distance) than the 747, as it is able to fly for up to 15,100 kilometres before refuelling. Planned models include the short and stretched versions. Flying at speeds of 913 kilometres an hour, it weighs 275,000 kilograms when empty and can weigh 548,000 kilograms at full capacity. The wingspan of the plane is 79.8 metres wide, which is about as long as a football oval and it can seat up to 555 passengers. Its length is 73 metres and its height is just over 24 metres. It flies at a height (altitude) of 39,000 feet or 11,800 metres. Future models may include sleeping quarters, recreational facilities and a crèche. Take a virtual tour of Qantas’ new airbus at www. qantas.com.au/info/flying/A380/index

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On December 17th, 1903 at 10.35 am, the two American brothers, Wilbur and Orville Wright, made the first popularly accepted sustained and controlled powered flight. The distance was a mere 120 feet, and they flew for only 12 seconds at a low level (altitude), but they made a controlled landing and took pictures to prove it. The plane’s weight when unmanned was 274 kilograms. Its length was 6.4 metres and its height was 2.8 metres. The Wright Flyer had a wingspan of just over 12 metres. It also had a 12 horsepower petrol engine.

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Boeing 747 A Boeing 747 takes 14 hours to fly between Sydney, Australia and California, America. Over 30,000 people per week travel this way. Each aircraft may carry around 524,524 passengers and fly at around 913 kilometres per hour. Its flight range (distance) is around 13,450 kilometres. Weighing a staggering 181,346 kilograms, it flies at an altitude of 39,000 feet (11,800 metres). It is 70.6 metres long, 19.4 metres high at the top of the tail, 6.1 metres wide (inside the cabin) and its wingspan is 64.94 metres. Compare this to the new airbus, first delivered at the end of 2007.

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Beluga Airbus, Wikimedia Commons

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  Examining    Technological Leaps

Comprehension Activity 1 Look at page 25. Write the words in bold and their meanings in the table below. Meaning

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Highlighted Word

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Fill in the flight comparison data charts below using the information from page 25. Aircraft

Length

Wingspan

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1968+ 2008+ Year

1905 1968+ 2007+

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Aircraft

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  Examining    Technological Leaps

Comprehension Activity 2   Task 1  In your opinion what is the biggest advance in flight technology that has happened in the last 110 years? Describe the advance in detail.

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_ _______________________________________________________________________________ _ _______________________________________________________________________________

  Task 2

 Below, draw and label the inside plan of an airbus. Remember to include a cockpit, crew galley, food storage area, recreational area, cargo bay and seating. You may like to include some innovations of your own.

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  Examining    Technological Leaps

Flights into Space 1 Read the information and complete the questions below.

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There are people booking flights on suborbital planes now, such as Russia’s Soyuz spacecraft which flies in 2011. If it goes ahead, it will be the first privately funded mission to the international space station. Latest reports indicate that it will cost US $20 million per person for the ride, and two out of six spots have already been booked! Xcor Aerospace and Space Adventures are asking $98,000 American dollars to be a back seat passenger on the EZ–Rocket for a 100 kilometre altitude flight. What a bargain!

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Did you know?

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Space shuttle launch, NASA

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also mixed and burned which provided fuel for the shuttle’s three essential rocket engines. The highly expensive propellant was used up during the mission, and NASA had to try and find or replace the rocket boosters for each new space trip. It reached around 321.8 kilometres altitude. This type of plane is known as an orbital plane.

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In order to launch an object into space, it needs to be travelling at 28,163 kilometres per hour! So at the moment, current space shuttles are very expensive to use. The first space shuttle, the Columbia, flew on April 12th, 1981. Two solid liquid rocket boosters carried 453,592 kilograms of propellant (fuel). Super cold liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen were

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1. What type of plane is the Columbia?_______________________________________________ _ __________________________________________________________________________ 2. Explain what an orbital plane is, in your own words.__________________________________ _ __________________________________________________________________________ 3. How many kilometres per hour does an orbital space plane have to travel to launch into space?_______________________________________________________________________ 28


  Examining    Technological Leaps

Flights into Space 2 Read the information and complete the questions below.

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A suborbital plane, sometimes called an X-plane, has a few advantages over the use of shuttles. Firstly, it is a (RLV) or Reusable Launch Vehicle. Some suborbital planes get to ‘launch speed’ with the boost of a mother ship that launches them to a reasonable altitude, then releases them. This keeps costs down. NASA has an X- fleet of prototype (experimental) suborbital planes which are testing new technologies to see how they work. If new

technologies fail, or technological parts have problems, the astronauts and technicians can see close-up what went wrong. Most, if not all of the vehicles that go into space come back to Earth. With orbital planes, engineers and technicians may need to rely on diagnostic computers to tell them what went wrong. Faulty parts from orbital planes may be left behind (jettisoned) in the atmosphere.

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Space does not have a visible boundary like land. Scientists generally agree that a vehicle is in space once it has reached an altitude of 100 kilometres . Any plane that reaches at least 100 kilometres above the Earth then falls back down, has not completed a full orbit (circle), so is called suborbital.

The use of suborbital planes could get passengers from continent to continent in under an hour. Letters, equipment and goods would also be delivered speedily. This could have quite a large impact on our future. It might change where we live and work, the speed of technological change, disaster relief and delivery of food and health supplies.

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1. In your own words describe what a suborbital plane is.

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______________________________________________________________________________ 2. How do you think the use of suborbital planes might change people’s lives in the future? ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3. List at least three benefits of a suborbital plane. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 29


  Examining    Technological Leaps

Space Technology Read the information below.

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NASA is also working on solar wind A space plane probably will not sails. They look like triangular kites. fly as far as a shuttle. However, Launched in space, they could if it uses lift for at least part of collect the sun’s energy and use it the trip rather than relying on to power space planes of the future. rockets, it will save on fuel and Another exciting idea is the use of a the weight of fuel required magnetic-levitation rail system. Rows to be taken with the plane of magnets could move the craft on flights. Spaceshipone, faster and faster, and then repel the built by the company Scaled craft so that it lifts off the ground. This Composites, was carried by a would be less expensive than rocket mother ship on June 21st 2004 launches. and released at an altitude of A conceptual drawing of a space elevator nearly 15 kilometres. Rockets climbing through the clouds, Space elevators might compete with Wikimedia Commons boosted it to an altitude of 100 space planes to lift people and goods into kilometres. It won a US $10 million Ansari space in the future. They would not need fuel X-Prize for repeated flights in a privately and may need less maintenance than space developed reusable spacecraft. As it fell back planes. Long carbon nanotubes are made from to Earth, it glided in to land, raising (feathering) a type of modern material that is 100 times the wings. Spaceshipone used Earth’s air stronger than steel and as flexible as plastic. pressure to prevent a too rapid descent. It is These would be attached to a weighted object only 8.5 metres in length, with a wingspan or station in space. The other end would be of 8.2 metres and a height of 2.7 metres. The attached to a mobile platform in the sea. propellants are made of solid rubber and People would still need technology to protect nitrous oxide. Other companies use kerosene, them from extreme heat and have breathable like jet fuel with hydrogen peroxide to fly. oxygen available. NASA, together with a company called Xcor Go to www.nasa.gov/externalflash/Buzz_ Aerospace, developed a methane powered Lightyear/web/index.html to transport cargo on a engine in 2007. Methane is a greenhouse traditional space plane. gas that heats up the Earth’s atmosphere, so using a vehicle to get rid of greenhouse gases is a very positive development for the Check Out these Websites environment.

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Another incredible and possible way that planes may be powered is by air breathing rockets. At first launch, specially designed intake ducts would transfer oxygen to specialised rockets. When sufficient speed and power is gained, the rocket would use oxygen in the atmosphere to burn the hydrogen fuel.

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Have a look inside Spaceshipone’s cockpit at: www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/gal100/ss1.htm.

Watch an animation of XCor’s Lynx suborbital plane at: www.youtube.com/watch?v=3a-l1tb1rPg Watch an animation of Virgin Galactic’s spaceship 2 at: www.youtube.com/watch?v=WBo8t0B5NhM&featu re=related


  Examining    Technological Leaps

Space Activity 1 Many people thought that early flight pioneers were crazy. They described planes during the 1900s as ‘WWR’ (wood, wire and rag) and refused to fly because of safety concerns and many crash landings.

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 Take a quick class survey. How many of your classmates are unconcerned about safety when they fly? Only a little concerned about safety? Very concerned about safety? Will not fly at all? Record your results in a bar chart below.

  Survey 2

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 If you had the chance to fly in a suborbital plane tomorrow, would you do it? Asking the above question, conduct a class survey. Record your results in a bar chart below.

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  Examining    Technological Leaps

Space Activity 2   Task 1  In your opinion, what is the most amazing technological development in flight that could happen in the next 50 years? Why? (You may think of your own idea or write about one of the developments that you have read about so far.)

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Draw this technological development below. You may also want to make a model of it.

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 Write a story in which you fly in an orbital or suborbital plane in 2020. Begin below ...

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  Examining    Technological Leaps

Space Activity 3   My Plane of the Future

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 Draw and label your ideal plane of the future in the space below. For ideas, use Google Images and search for Bat Planes or Concept Planes.

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 Give a brief explanation of two of the gadgets inside of your plane. Explain what they do and how they work. Think about whether they help the environment, create more power, or give your machine special features. Look at the engine on page 34 for more ideas.

Gadget 1 in or on my plane: _ ____________________________________________

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It works by:___________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

Gadget 2 in or on my plane:______________________________________________ It works by:___________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

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  Examining    Technological Leaps

Top Secret Space Plane Read the information and complete the pie chart below.

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  Pie Chart

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This engine is due to be completed by the year 2017. It is supposed to be ten times better than existing engines. This figure is based on the fact that its thrust (forward power) will increase by 100%, while its weight will be reduced by 50% and its fuel use will be reduced by 25%. The total cost of the invention, developing improvements, repairs and maintenance is expected to be reduced by 60%.

Top Secret Picture of Jet Engine GE 90,Wikimedia Commons

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Fuel reduction •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Weight reduction

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 Draw a pie chart showing the jet engine’s fuel and weight reductions in percentages.

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Submarines

  Under the   Water

Submarines are vessels that travel underwater. The people who sail on submarines are called submariners. Submariners discovered many centuries ago how to dive and surface a submarine, but like cars and planes, submarines only became practical in the early 20th century with the invention of electrical motors, batteries and diesel engines. In the 20th century, nuclear power was invented. Submarine on the surface. The submarine dives by flooding the ballast tanks. This is done by opening valves (taps) at the bottom of these tanks to let the water in, and opening valves (taps) at the top of these tanks to let the air in the tanks out.

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air valve 

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Ballast tank

Ballast tank

Compensating tank 

 water valves

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• The submarine returns to the surface by blowing the water out of the ballast tanks using high pressure air from large air bottles. air valve

air valve

Ballast tank

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A submarine that has dived – main ballast tanks (MBTs) flooded. Once dived, the submarine stops itself from sinking too deep by controlling its weight. It does this by pumping water out of, or flooding water into its compensating tank. air valve

air valve

Ballast tank

Ballast tank water valve

Compensating tank Flooding

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Pump

water valve

Pumping water


  Under the   Water

Submarine Activity

How Does a Submarine Move? All submarines use propellers to drive themselves through the water. Some submarines use electric motors to turn the propeller and some use steam motors to drive.

  Activity

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1. Draw a submarine that has surfaced in the first diagram below.

2. Draw a submarine that has dived in the second diagram below.

Propeller

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3. Draw a submarine stopping itself sinking in the third diagram below.

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Propeller

Propeller

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Diesel Electric and Nuclear Submarines 1

  Under  the   Water A Diesel Electric Submarine Moving (propelling.)

Air

Snorkel Periscope

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The submarine shown above uses an electric motor to turn the propeller. The electric motor gets electricity to run from a very large battery. The battery gets its electricity from a diesel generator. The diesel generator gets fuel from a fuel tank and air from outside the submarine, using a very large snorkel tube, just like you might use when you go swimming. These are called diesel electric submarines.

Fuel

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generator so that it can get air from the snorkel. This is called periscope depth, because the submarine must also have a periscope raised near the surface so that it does not hit ships.

If the submarine wants to go deeper, it must stop the diesel, shut the snorkel and lower the periscope. It can then just use the electricity stored in the battery, but it must be careful to return to periscope depth to run the diesel and put more electricity into the battery (recharge it) before it goes flat.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons A diesel electric submarine needs toi be near thep • f o r r e v e w ur posesonl y• surface of the water when running the diesel

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A Nuclear Submarine Moving (propelling.)

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The submarine shown above uses a steam motor (turbine) to turn the propeller. The steam motor gets steam from a nuclear reactor. The nuclear reactor contains very hot radioactive metal rods. These hot rods turn water into steam, just like a very big kettle. These are called nuclear submarines.

How Does a Nuclear Submarine Move Forward? A nuclear submarine works better than a diesel electric submarine because its nuclear generator’s hot radioactive rods take many years to cool and just keep on making steam to drive the submarine. Unlike a diesel electric submarine, a nuclear submarine needs no other fuel and no air from outside. This means that a nuclear submarine can stay underwater for a very long time without having to return to periscope depth. 38


Diesel Electric and Nuclear Submarines 2

  Under the   Water

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Hydroplanes

A submarine can go up or down using small wings (hydroplanes) at the back and at the front of the submarine. The hydroplanes at the back control the up and down angle (pitch) of the submarine. They work best at high speeds. The hydroplanes at the front of the submarine control the up and down depth of the submarine and work best at low speed.

Hydroplanes control up and down angles and up and down depth.

  Task 1

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 In your own words, explain how a diesel submarine and a nuclear submarine work.

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See diagram of submarine and hydroplanes above.

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Sonar is special equipment which can work out the depth of the sea or position of an underwater object using sound waves.

 One country has diesel submarines. Another country has nuclear submarines. If they go to war, what will the country with the nuclear submarines be able to do that could help them win the war? _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________ 39


  Under the   Water

Comparing Early and Modern Submarines Read the information below. and was shaped like an egg. Like all submarines it dived by filling the ballast tank with water. Unlike modern submarines there was no high pressure air to blow the water out of the ballast tank. Instead the submariner used a foot pump to pump it out of the tank.

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One of the earliest submarines was the Turtle. It was built in 1776 by Mr David Bushell of the United States of America. At that time, the United States was at war with Great Britain. Great Britain had many warships and the United States only had a few. Great Britain’s ships were blocking the American ports, stopping ships with trade goods from entering. Bushell decided that the United States needed a secret A photo of a full-size model of the Turtle submarine on display at the Royal Navy submarine museum submarine weapon to sink the Wikimedia commons British ships or to scare them away. The submarine that he invented was small. It only carried one person

The propeller was also turned by hand. The submariner turned another propeller to make the vessel go up and down, and used a rudder to move it left and right. The submariner also had a drill which was used to drill into the bottom of a British ship to sink it.

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Australia has six modern diesel electric submarines. They are called Collins Class submarines. They are the largest diesel electric submarines in the world. Each submarine has a large electric motor, four large batteries, three powerful diesel generators and front and back hydroplanes and rudders to turn it left and right and up and down. Ballast tanks are filled and emptied to dive and surface. Collins Class submarines carry many torpedos and missiles. They carry up to 60 people, who work in the control rooms and live in the upper and lower living areas.

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Collins Class submarine. Wikimedia Commons

Because modern submarines are very hard to detect, they are used to patrol the world's oceans in times of peace to protect Australia’s assets. During times of war they are used to fight enemies.

In times of peace submarines can: • spy on other countries; • secretly watch illegal foreign fisherman who are stealing fish; • discover military targets. During times of war, submarines can: • find and destroy enemy submarines and surface ships; 40

• blockade foreign ports and stop ocean trade; • provide intelligence (find out about another country’s technology, their strengths and weaknesses); • provide underwater protection for surface ships, using their weapons; • lay mines; • land special forces in enemy territory.


  Under the   Water

Comparing Early and Modern Submarines Activity   Think

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 Draw a Venn diagram in the space below which identifies the similarities and differences between an early and a modern submarine.

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  Under the   Water

Life in a Modern Submarine 1 Read the information below and then carry out the research tasks. Life on a submarine is interesting and busy. Everyone works very hard - usually 12 hours per day.

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The officers make sure that the submarine is safe by making sure that it is not too heavy and that it does not hit ships or land, using navigation and looking out of the periscope.

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The captain is in charge and makes sure that everyone knows what to do and is doing it properly.

The sailors run the diesels, batteries and main motor and also listen for other ships and submarines using sonar.

Both men and women can now be submariners. When they are not working, submariners are usually eating, sleeping, playing board games or watching videos. Sleeping quarters are cramped. They sleep on tightly fitted bunks that make it difficult to turn over. There are some spots in a submarine that tall people cannot stand up in. However, the navy makes sure that the wardroom can sit people fairly comfortably, and that the crew receive regular and tasty cooked meals on board.

The crew often get to travel the world, sometimes on secret missions protecting Australia or helping countries that might be in danger from civil war (war amongst themselves) or other enemies. Submariners may not be able to contact family and friends until they are in port. While they are at sea, they are not connected to phone lines, and mobile phones are out of range. They work under harsh artificial light. They have to be careful how much water they use, so they can end up feeling quite stinky at the end of a trip! Some submariners’ spouses (husbands, wives and partners) have been known to destroy the navy uniforms because they smell so much of diesel and sweat! Sometimes submarines stay under the water for six months at a time.

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The crew get paid while they train for nationally recognised qualifications. Every submarine requires a chef, mechanical and electrical engineers, officers and a crew. Many of the skills learned as a submariner are very useful if the submariner decides to leave the navy and get another job.

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1. Find out more about one of the jobs on a submarine. Describe it and say whether you would like to try it.

____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. What are the best things about being a submariner on a Collins Class submarine? What are the worst things about being a submariner? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 42


  Under the   Water

Life in a Modern Submarine 2   Present a Talk  Present a talk to the class entitled, ‘A day in the life of a submariner (engineer/chef/ captain/sailor)’ to the class. Draft your talk in the space below.

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  Activities ona Future Submarines © Re dyEdPubl i cat i ons

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 Below is the outline of a possible future submarine. What do you think would need to be inside? List the equipment and facilities (like a cook’s room, called a galley) below and draw them on the submarine provided. Don’t forget your control room where important decisions are made and the wardroom (where the crew relax). _ __________________________________

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 Draw the facilities on the submarine inside the diagram above. 43


  Under the   Water

Nuclear Submarines and the Environment Alpha

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In 1993, Russia admitted that it had dumped twice as much radioactive waste into the sea than all of the other countries in the world put together. For years, Russia denied dumping waste. Most of this nuclear waste came from its submarines’ old nuclear reactors. While Russia has stopped dumping nuclear waste now, the waste that it has dumped in the past will continue to damage sea life for centuries to come. People as well as animals are at risk of radiation poisoning, which can cause birth defects.

Penetration of paper, aluminium and cement by three different types of radiation.

  Research Questions on the Effects of Nuclear Waste

1. Discuss the terms: Radioactive Waste, Nuclear Reactor, Defects and Birth Defects in class.

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Cement

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2. Look at the diagram above. It shows three types of radiation which are produced by nuclear waste: alpha, beta and gamma. Which radiation type can penetrate:

3. Which radiation type is the most dangerous? Why? What effect does it have on humans?

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______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 4. How long does nuclear waste take to break down/decay? ____________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. How long does uranium-238 take to break down and why is it so dangerous?

______________________________________________________________________________ 6. Are there any positive uses of radiation? Explain your answer. ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________

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  Under the   Water

Other Submarines Submarines are not just used by the navy. Private companies often use them for salvage, to find valuable items lost at sea. Scientific submarines explore the world's oceans to further research fantastic marine life and to locate sunken ships. The Titanic, Bismarck and Sydney were recently found using modern submarine technology. You may like to research some of these ships.

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  Research and Imaginative Writing Activities

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Submarines can also be used for tourism, while unmanned submarines (which are very small and operated remotely from the surface) are used to perform work which is too deep or too dangerous for divers, such as repairing an oil rig deep underwater.

 Using Google, research the HMAS Sydney (ship), then answer the questions below. 1. Describe what this ship was used for and what happened to it.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons _____________________________________________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 2. Why is this ship so important? _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

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3. How was this ship found and investigated using modern submarine technology? __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________

HMAS Sydney 1940, Wikimedia Commons

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  Under the   Water

Submarine Stories   Plan a Story

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The story is only limited by your imagination! Plan/draft your story below.

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 Write an imaginative story about a submarine. Your story could be about: • finding lost treasure • an oil rig disaster and its impact on the environment • a war time hero • the future, where we all live in an underwater world filled with amazing creatures, like the gigantic octopus.

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  Under the   Water

Build a Submarine   Activity  Follow the procedure below to build your very own submarine.

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Materials

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1. Cut three holes inside of the soda bottle.

2. Stack the coins into three piles containing four, eight, and twelve coins. 3. Carefully wrap the stacks of coins with foil.

4. Place a rubber band around the plastic bottle and slide it next to the closest hole. Position the other rubber bands next to the two remaining holes.

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• An empty two litre plastic soda bottle with hole in cap (the hole should be big enough to pass a flexible straw through) • Three wide rubber bands • 24 x 20 cent coins • Aluminium foil • Adhesive (sticky) tape • Flexible straw • Large tub of water

5. Place the four coin stack under the rubber band closest to the bottle's top.

6. Place the eight coin stack under the middle rubber band, next to the middle hole.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 8. Push the shorter end of the straw (about 25 mm) through the hole in the bottle's cap. Reattach theo bottle cap to • the bottle. •f orr evi e w p u r p o s e s n l y Keep the flexible section outside and bent upwards. Tape the

7. Place the twelve coin stack under the last rubber band (NOTE: The weights should be next to the holes NOT over them.)

straw securely into place inside the bottle cap.

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9. Lower the submarine into the water. Do not let the long end of the straw take in water. 10. Observe the action of the submarine and record your observations.

11. When the submarine stops sinking, blow into the straw.

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12. Observe the action of the submarine and record your observations.

 Answer the following questions.

1. What makes your submarine dive? _ ______________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 2. What makes it surface?_ ________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

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Answers 4. They turn at the same speed.

Impractical: unrealistic. Unsealed: open, uncovered, unprotected and unimproved (roads). Showcased: shown-off, exhibited, offered, revealed or made noticeable. Piston: cylinder that moves up and down and gives or receives motion (rotary movement) around and around, through a piston rod. Motorcycles: motorised two wheeled vehicle. Spin-off: starts from another, secondary/ subsidiary (company), by-product of. Combustion: fuel and air-fired (engines). Founded: started, commenced. Merged: joined.

5. It doubles the power generated because there is more than one gear connected.

(1) Nicolaus Otto (2) 133 in 2009 (3) 100s of millions (4) Felix Wankel (5) Mazda

Technology and the Environment, page 14

6. You find gears in a gearbox. Gears are part of a system that help to turn the wheels of a car. They help to slow down and speed up a car when it has manual transmission. (Power is controlled by human hands changing the position of the gear stick. If you need more power in your engine, you can use a lower gear to climb hills.)

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Creative Activity, page 9

Car Safety: modern cars have air bags, much improved brakes, lights, indicators, tyres, seat belts, sensors and mirrors. Comfort: modern cars are padded, have heated and reclining seats, air conditioning, heat and arm rests. Extra Features: some modern cars have built in DVD players, CD player and satellite navigation systems.

1. Ways that hybrid cars save energy: recovering energy and storing it in the battery to power lights and wipers etc., and the ability to sometimes shut down the engine. The 2010 model Prius claims to cut petrol use by 50%. Streamlining also reduces drag and energy loss.

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Comprehension Activity, page 8

2. Responses will vary. Possible laws that could be presented include: a law to phase out cars made before 1980, as they cause about 50% of the world’s car pollution; incentives for people to buy hybrid cars, or for businesses to develop more environmentally friendly cars.

© R e a d y E d P u b l i c a t i o n s 1. Petrol, heat, force, power, motion. •isf otop rright r evalve vi e pFuture ur p ose so nl y• Designs Activity, page 17 2. The inlet valve the on w the first Piston Engines Activity, page 11

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Possible advantages and disadvantages of the alternate energy sources to power cars: 3. The fuel and air mix is forced up into the chamber in the second diagram. (This reduces its • Electric (Hybrid petrol-electric cars use volume. This pressure is increased as the fuel and electricity to save on petrol consumption; air mix is heated, creating force; converted into reducing the impact on the environment but mechanical power which moves the pistons up not removing it entirely. Electric cars, on their and down, rotates the crankshaft and is finally own, result in slower speeds and need to be connected to the wheels.) recharged at a cost of creating lots of ‘electric stations’.) 4. Expansion of burning gas drives the piston down. • Solar (the sun is freely available, but cars are

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5. To check diagram, see the gases being expelled on the left hand top side of the forth diagram on page 10.

not so profitable in cold climates).

Hydrogen (Fuel cell cars powered by hydrogen produce only heat and water as by-products, but technology is costly to develop).

Pressurised air/liquefied nitrogen (uses freely available nitrogen, but needs electricity to create liquefied nitrogen).

Compressed carbon dioxide (removes greenhouse gases, but creates pollution by

6. The induction stroke, the compression stroke, the power stroke and the exhaust stroke. Gears, page 12 1. Anti-clockwise, around and to the left. 2. Clockwise, around and to the right. 3. Individual response.

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using electricity to create compressed air).

2. Flight comparison data charts: Year

Aircraft

Length

Wingspan

Height

1903

Wright Flyer

6.4 metres

12 metres

2.8 metres

1968

Boeing 747

2007

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64.94

19.4

metres

metres

Airbus

73 metres

79.8 metres

metres Over 24

Year

Aircraft

weight

altitude

distance

1905

Wright Flyer

274 kilos

low level

38.9 kilometres

1968

Boeing 747

181,346 kilos

2008

Airbus

275, 000 kilos (unmanned)

metres

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Electric: powered by an electric current (the attraction and repulsion of electrically charged particles called electrons and protons). Hybrid: a mix of two different things, in the case of hybrid cars, this usually refers to two different power sources. It does not just mean a petrol and electric car; it could be any two working power sources. Combined: together with; joined. Potential: the possibility of great capabilities, the ability to grow or come into being. Solar: powered by the sun, using the sun’s heat and converting this to electricity. Recover: to get back, regain, restore. Revenue: money, profit, income. Hydrogen: a colourless gas that burns easily and is the lightest element in the universe. Found in water, the atmosphere and some living matter, oxygen + hydrogen = water. Vested: fixed and controlling interest in an investment (usually motivated by profit). Fuel-guzzling: (drinks) consumes to excess. Pressurized: air or (in this case) a gas, put under greater than normal pressure to create force and power. Liquefying: the process of making a solid or gas - liquid. Compressed: pressed into less volume or space.

emphasise the weight of the aircraft to the reader. Capacity: the maximum amount the plane can receive or hold. Recreational: relating to recreation, or entertainment and pastimes. Crèche: child minding facility.

39,000 feet

39,000 feet

13,450

kilometres

15,100 Kilometres

Comprehension Activity 2, Page 27

This answer is open to interpretation. Some students may argue that the first leap forward is always the greatest and therefore they will say the Wright Flyer is the biggest advance. Others will judge the greatest advance by a plane's dimensions, its weight and size, altitude and range. Some students may pick events not listed in the passage, and this is perfectly acceptable. For example, they might choose the first space flight as the biggest advance in flight technology.

the environment, car's performance, cost and sustainability of the technology. Aerodynamic Forces Activity, page 23

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Flights into Space 1, page 28

(1) A space shuttle (2) Individual definition. (3) 28,163 kilometres per hour.

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1. Sustained: maintained, ongoing. Controlled: directed, regulated. Wingspan: the distance between the wingtips of an aircraft. Horsepower: based on the power a horse has; it is a unit of power for working machinery equal to lifting 55 pounds and moving at the rate of 10 feet per second. Advance: leap forward, improvement. Range: the maximum extent of distance that the plane can undertake normal operations such as flying and landing a plane successfully. Staggering: impressive, astounding; a person may stagger under the weight of carrying a heavy object, and therefore the word, ‘staggering’ helps

Flights into Space 2, page 29

(1) Individual definition. (2) Individual response. (3) Possible benefits of a suborbital plane: (a) reduced costs compared to orbital planes as more plane parts can be retrieved and reused. (b) engineers and designers can get first-hand knowledge of problems and so fix them more easily improving the quality of suborbital planes and speeding up technological development. (c) less fuel consumption, less cost, less impact on the environment. (d) may be used to improve our lives by reducing isolation and reducing travel times. (e) improving our access to services 49


and speeding cargo and mail delivery. Top Secret Space Plane, page 34 A quarter of the pie chart needs to be coloured to show fuel reduction and half of it needs to be coloured to show weight reduction. Submarine Activity, page 37 To check students’ diagrams see page 36. Diesel Electric and Nuclear Submarines, page 39

Life in a Modern Submarine 1, page 42 1. The best things about being a submariner might be: the opportunities for travel, to get nationally recognised qualifications and to help people around the world. The worst things might be: being away from family and friends, washing being rationed and the danger of working in war zones.

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2. The country with the nuclear submarines has the advantage because they can remain hidden for very long periods and therefore sneak up on the enemy. Nuclear submarines do not need to use a periscope to suck fresh air into the submarine, as they create their own fresh air (see previous answer). They would use sonar (sound waves) to help them locate the other country’s submarines and ships and destroy them with torpedoes. A diesel submarine can be seen more easily as it has to be near the surface of the water when running its engines. This is so the periscope can suck fresh air into the submarine, so the crew can continue to breathe.

Nuclear Submarines and the Environment, page 44

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1. Answers will vary. Diesel submarines use both diesel and electric power. A diesel submarine needs fuel to run it. Air enters the submarine from a snorkel. Nuclear submarines use a steam motor to turn the propeller. The steam is created with a nuclear reactor and hot radioactive metal rods. They need no other fuel or air from outside as oxygen is separated from the sea water they pump into the submarine.

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propulsion (the way a submarine is powered) is also far more developed in a modern submarine. There are living quarters and more complicated equipment, such as sonar, in the modern submarine.

1. Radioactive waste: some substances, such as uranium, give off rays which can be dangerous to living organisms and may last for thousands of years in the environment. Some materials used to power nuclear devices such as plutonium and uranium are not completely used up. They become another form of rubbish, or ‘waste’, that is difficult to dispose of safely, because some of these by-products can penetrate: cement, soil and human skin. If nuclear waste gets into the soil, it can enter the ecosystem (all living things and the environment) such as plants. Animals may eat these plants and we may eat the animals. If humans become exposed to nuclear waste, their cells can become damaged, and they can get cancer. A nuclear reactor: is a machine used to generate power, in which nuclear fission (atoms splitting) takes place. It produces heat energy that is generally used to drive engines and provide electric power. Nuclear reactors are used as a source of power in some large power grids and in some submarines. Plutonium or uranium is used to create nuclear fission. They release large quantities of energy upon splitting, along with more neutrons that may be absorbed by the nuclei of other isotopes, causing a chain reaction. The neutrons are expelled from the fission reaction at very high speeds, and are not likely to be absorbed at such speeds. The chain reaction releases enormous amounts of heat, which

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Comparing Early and Modern Submarines Activity, page 41

Similarities and differences that may be identified: A simple submarine has a propeller, rudder and ballast tank just like a modern submarine. Many modern submarines also have a device to pump liquid, although it would be a more complicated piece of equipment. Modern submarines have sophisticated weapons to cause damage to ships, instead of a simple drill, though drills would be used to repair items on modern submarines today. The means of

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is transferred through radioactive water to a separate, non-radioactive water system, creating pressurized steam. The steam drives machines to turn electrical generators. Defects: imperfections. A birth defect: For example, a child who is born missing a hand. 2. Paper = alpha and beta radiation. Aluminium = beta rays. Cement = gamma rays. 3. Gamma rays, because they are not stopped by the skin. They can produce burn injuries and reduce people’s ability to fight disease. They cause cancer.

1. www.news.com.au/heraldsun/ story/0,21985,23386556-661,00.html shows a picture of the ship. This ship was used during World War II. The entire crew of 645 men were sunk, probably by the German merchant raider, Kormoran, in 1941, in the Indian Ocean. They were returning home from from battle, on their way to the Fremantle port in Western Australia.

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2. The ship is important because no one knew exactly what happened to the survivors and now the families have an opportunity to grieve for lost relatives. More information can be found out about how the ship was sunk. 3. The ship was found using sonar and investigated using a ROM (Remotely Operated Vehicle). See underwater pictures at:

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4. We cannot predict when an unstable nucleus, which is found in nuclear waste, will decay. We know that particular types of radiation have different rates of decay. We know that if we have a large sample of radiation that we can work out when half of the nuclei will have decayed. This is called a half-life. It can vary from thousands of years to a fraction of a second. This tells you how long a substance may be around, but is doesn’t give you a true indication of how much radioactivity occurs. To complicate matters, substances like uranium 238, can decay into other substances, which may also be radioactive. Waste from a nuclear reactor or from an abandoned submarine can be both highly active (radioactive and dangerous) and have a long succession of radioactive by- products.

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Other Submarines, page 45

www.news.com.au/dailytelegraph/ story/0,22049,23387700-5001021,00.html Build a Submarine, page 47

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 2. The submarine surfaces by blowing out •f orr evi ew pur p oofs ewater so n l y • some the with the straw (like a

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5. Uranium-238 has a half-life of 4.5 billion years, producing 14 other radioactive products (isotopes) until it is non-radioactive. Exposure can cause cancer and birth defects.

1. The submarine dives because it has become heavier than the water it moves away.

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6. X-rays use radiation, and they help diagnose disease by showing a picture of inside the body. Gamma radiation is used to sterilize medical equipment, remove decay causing bacteria from food and keeps food fresh. Despite causing cancer, gamma rays can be used to treat some forms of cancer, as they kill off living tissue.

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Fantastic Inventions