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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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About Ready-Ed Publications Ready-Ed Publications was established in 1984 with the purpose of creating practical classroom activity student worksheets. At the time, the role of the teacher was becoming ever more diverse with an increasing range of duties and responsibilities within the school and school community. Since then, the role of the teacher has continued to evolve with an escalating range of tasks and obligations, ensuing a reduction in time available to prepare work for the daily instructional program.

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Throughout these past 23 years, Ready-Ed Publications has built a reputation as publishers of Australian made, high quality, innovative, timesaving materials for teachers of students aged 5-12 years. In addition, all materials are based on state or national curriculum guidelines or specific age-related interest areas and subjects.

Ready-Ed Publications aims to assist busy professionals by making available contemporary classroom materials that contain relevant and stimulating work to support the requirements of the curriculum.

Internet Inquiry: Ancient Civilsations

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

© 2008 Ready-Ed Publications Printed in Australia Author: Sally Young Typesetting and Cover Design: Shay Howard ISBN 978 1 86 397 750 0

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USA. www.imsisoft.com

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Cover image: IMSI’s Masterclips/MasterPhotos collection, 1895 Francisco Blvd, East San Rafael, CA 94901-5506

Clip art images have been obtained from Microsoft Design Gallery Live and are used under the terms of the End User License Agreement for Microsoft Word 2000. Please refer to www.microsoft.com/permission.

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Published by: Ready-Ed Publications PO Box 276 Greenwood WA 6024 www.readyed.com.au info@readyed.com.au

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COPYRIGHT NOTICE Permission is granted for the purchaser to photocopy sufficient copies for non-commercial educational purposes. However, this permission is not transferable and applies only to the purchasing individual or institution.

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Contents

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Assessment

Teacher Assessment: Written Information .............. 10 Teacher Assessment: Inquiry Skills ........................ 11 Student Self-Assessment ...................................... 12 Activity Checklist ................................................. 13

The Incas:

The Vikings:

Background Notes................................. 24 Activity 1 ............................................... 25 Activity 2 ............................................... 26 Activity 3 ............................................... 27 Task Cards ............................................. 28

The Indus V alley Valley alley:

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Curriculum Links .................................................... 4 Teachers’ Notes: ................................................... 5 Teachers’ Notes: Inquiry Learning Process .............. 6 Information Literacy Chart ..................................... 7 Teachers’ Notes: How to use this book ................... 8

Background Notes................................. 29 Activity 1 ............................................... 30 Activity 2 ............................................... 31 Activity 3 ............................................... 32 Task Cards ............................................. 33

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew puThe r pCelts osesonl y• Celts:

Ancient Egypt:

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Background Notes................................. 19 Activity 1 ............................................... 20 Activity 2 ............................................... 21 Activity 3 ............................................... 22 Task Cards ............................................. 23

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Background Notes................................. 34 Activity 1 ............................................... 35 Activity 2 ............................................... 36 Activity 3 ............................................... 37 Task Cards ............................................. 38

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Background Notes................................. 14 Activity 1 ............................................... 15 Activity 2 ............................................... 16 Activity 3 ............................................... 17 Task Cards ............................................. 18

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Background Notes................................. 39 Activity 1 ............................................... 40 Activity 2 ............................................... 41 Activity 3 ............................................... 42 Task Cards ............................................. 43 Answers ................................................. 44

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Curriculum Links The activities contained in this book address the following strands and outcomes: VICTORIA

NEW SOUTH WALES

Stage 2

Studies of Society & Environment Strand: Time, Continuity and Change Identifies similarities and differences in the lives of people of various generations. Studies the ways of life of a civilisation of the past. Strand: Culture Describes some of the achievements of people from an ancient culture. Explores practices, customs and traditions of familial groups and communities in an ancient civilisation.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Stage 2

NT / ACT / TAS - NATIONAL CURRICULUM

QUEENSLAND

Studies of Society & Environment Culture

Studies of Society & Environment

(Cultural Cohesion and Diversity) Describes practices, customs and traditions of a group. Time, Continuity and Change

Level 2

Level 2

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Human Society and Its Environment Strand: Change and Continuity Describes events and activities of a past civilisation and compares the similarities and differences with people of today. Strand: Cultures Understands that a culture is based on a shared system of customs, practices, symbols, languages and traditions. Studies an ancient civilisation and compares it to modern society.

Level 2

Strand: Time, Continuity and Change

2..8

Explains different meanings about an event, artefact, story or symbol from different times.

Level 2 TCC 2.1

TCC Classifies various information sources according to 3.1b © R e a d y E d P u b l i c a t i o n s D2.6 their own criteria. (Understanding the Past) Interprets accounts and artefacts of people in other times. Strand: Culture and Identity • f o r r e v i e w p u r posesonl y•Level 2 (Interpretations and Perspectives) Identifies aspects Identifies how symbols, rituals and places reflect 2.3

identities of different groups and civilisations. WESTERN AUSTRALIA

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Society & Environment

SOUTH AUSTRALIA

Society & Environment

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Strand: Time, Continuity and Change

Strand: Time, Continuity and Change

2.1

Describes and records ages and sequences using timelines and flow charts to present historical information.

2.2

Describes the diversity of practices, customs and traditions of ancient civilisations.

Standard 2

2.7

Level 2

Understands that there are similaritites and differences in the activities and events in people’s lives over time.

TCC 2.1

Understands that people’s life stories determine how they view the past.

TCC 2.3

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Examines information from a range of sources about people in different periods of time and places.

Strand: Societies and Culture

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Standard 2

CI 2.5

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of environments and family ways of life that have endured or changed.

Strand: Culture

Understands people belong to cultural groups that have particular forms of cultural expression. Understands that similarities and differences exist in the cultural expressions of groups and communities.

Level 2 C 2.1 C 2.2


Teachers’ Notes:

Learning About Ancient Civilisations

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Each of the civilisations presented in this book offers students a key aspect of what makes up a successful society. The Incas, without developing a system of writing and recording their history, had a well developed social structure.

The Vikings were foremost in trade and exploration, while the advanced society of the Indus Valley treasured fine clothing, pottery and jewellery; and developed sophisticated housing and drainage systems.

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The theme of ancient civilisations is an important one for children to study, as it provides clues and links to the development of the society in which they live today.

The Celts, of what is now the United Kingdom, were the warrior people of Iron Age Britain, while the Ancient Romans made a huge contribution to modern society with their architecture, recognition of hygiene and health, and the social structure in which they lived.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons use the Internet inl this •f orr evi ew puThe r p oofs es on ybook’s •

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inquiry-based approach brings these concepts to life for students and gives them great insight into what life must have been like in these fascinating ancient civilisations.

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The Ancient Egyptians, basing their advanced civilisation on the Nile and the agricultural opportunities it allowed, were forward-thinking in education with their schools, writing system and the invention of black ink and paper.

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Teachers’ Notes

Inquiry Learning Process

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Each section will include:

Background Notes

Background information to act as an introduction on the topic for students.

Focusing Activity

Gathering Information

Evaluation

Evaluation and assessment complete the process for any learning experience. It is often difficult to assess creativity and inquiry learning skills as students approach tasks differently. These are only a sample of the questions that need to be addressed at the evaluation stage:

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orUsing r e vi ew pur posesonl y• Information Expanding Activity

Students will use these activities to become familiar with the topic and the available information sources.

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These activities will allow students to clarify and refine their information sources and determine which materials will be relevant to the task, allowing them to explore the content in greater depth.

Inquiry Activity

Creating and Evaluating

At this stage students will be familiar with information sources for the theme. Students will be encouraged to combine their content understandings with the expansive array of information available on the Web, with the aim of making related investigations and reports. Activities are more open ended and allow for individual interpretation, allowing students to work within their own ability range.

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Did the student communicate effectively in written form/ and or oral presentations?

Did the student demonstrate proficiency in using appropriate technologies?

Did the student reflect on his/her performance?

Assessment Sheets

Pages 10-12 contain assessment forms to be used at the teacher’s discretion. The forms have been tailored to particular activities and have been categorised as follows:

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Extra Task Cards These activities provide alternative extension or remedial open ended inquiry activities to incorporate a range of learning styles and ability levels. They may also be used as early finishing activities or as individual projects.

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Internet Use

Activities in all sections are designed to have students utilising websites that have been carefully selected for each task. It should be emphasised that the World Wide Web is merely a source of information, along with print resources such as an encyclopaedia and CD-ROM.

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⌧⌧⌧

Information Literacy Students should be encouraged to follow the steps of the information literacy process. There are plenty of websites (e.g. www.big6.com) that contain additional material about the steps involved in this process. A chart has been included on Page 7 and this can be photocopied and distributed to students as they prepare to undertake the inquiry tasks in this book.

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This book is designed to facilitate the inquiry learning process, creating a platform for students to learn how to learn. The structure of the book is based on the premise that students will complete the activities in the order in which they are presented, starting with introductory factfinding exercises and leading on to higher order processes and independent research.

•Written Information •Inquiry Skills •Student Self-Assessment The students should be encouraged to complete a self-assessment form as they complete each activity (i.e. set them up in a box as part of the learning centre). Teachers can then use these forms to help them assess the students’ understanding of the inquiry learning process.


Information Literacy Chart Six Steps The activities in this book use an information problem-solving approach. This process incorporates technology skills across the subject areas of science and SOSE / HSIE / Society and Environment.

r o e t s Bo4. Organising r e p ok u S 1. Defining

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Clarify the question and look at key words.

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Think about what you already know.

How can I organise this information? o

Use a graphic organiser (e.g. flow chart, cluster/ word web, story map, etc.).

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What is the task asking? What needs to be done?

2.a Locating © R e d y E d P u b l i c a t i o n s 5. Presentation What resources can I use? do I present this o • View the r suggested website. f o r ev i ew pur pHow os esonl y• information? o

Consult other resources such as previous websites, library books, World Book CD-ROM.

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Project, fact file, diagram, story, journal entry, etc.

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Use MS PowerPoint or Word.

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Navigate to find the appropriate information.

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o c . e 3.c Selecting 6. Evaluation her r o t s super and Analysing

Which source of information is appropriate/relevant? o

Decide what information you will use.

Reflect on work and conduct self-assessment o

Use the student selfassessment sheet.

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Teachers’ Notes:

How to Use this Book

r o e t s Bo In the Library r e p ok u S

Learning Centre Approach

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Students complete the sheets in order as they appear in the book. Photocopy the checklist of activities (see Page 13) for students to mark off sheets as they are completed. This checklist page can also be used for your teacher records.

Library teachers can allocate sheets to students for independent inquiry. Students can work in pairs or groups for some of the more detailed activities, otherwise such activities may be spread over 2-3 lessons.

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Set up an ancient civilisation themed learning centre in the classroom using posters, library books, themed resources, art supplies, puzzle sheets, writing paper and so on.

In the General Classroom

Students will need to use a computer with Internet access for the inquiry activities. In the classroom these sheets may therefore be used as early-finisher research activities, or for individual students to work on independently, depending on the availability of computers.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Other Ancient Civilisations Resources from Ready-Ed Publications:

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Outrageous Ancients: Teachers’ Manual ISBN: 1863977309

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Outrageous Ancients: Students’ Resource Book ISBN: 1863977295

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As a Homework Activity As the activity sheets usually provide a carefully selected website, teachers should feel comfortable in directing students to complete the inquiry activities as homework tasks. The websites are all accessed safely through Ready-Ed’s website so there is no need for students to conduct searches which may lead them to inappropriate web content. It is wise to check the status of the website for a particular activity before allocating the activity sheet as websites do disappear frequently, even if only temporarily. See Page 9 for information about websites.

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Include a tray of Student Self-Assessment sheets (see Page 12) for students to complete after each activity.

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Teachers’ Notes:

How to Use this Book

Useful Websites: r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Updating of Internet References

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Inquiry Process – Information Literacy o

www.ltag.education.tas.gov.au/Planning/ models/inquirymodel.htm – Inquiry Model

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www2.edc.org/FSC/MIH/ – Integrating Inquiry and Technology

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www.big6.com/ – Big 6 – Information Problem Solving Approach

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www.teachers.ash.org.au/rblonline/ – Resource Based Learning

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www.learningtolearn.sa.edu.au/ – Learning to Learn

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www.eduplace.com/kids/hme/k_5/ graphorg/ – Graphic Organisers

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www.webquestdirect.com.au/ – Webquest Direct

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school.discovery.com/schrockguide/ webquest/webquest.html – Webquest Directory

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It is now common knowledge that World Wide Web sites disappear from time to time. While all of the sites selected for this book were accessible at the time of publication, it is anticipated that many sites will move to a new location, modify their layout or disappear from the Internet completely. Ready-Ed Publications endeavours to check all sites on a regular basis and replaces any sites that have moved. In addition, attempts are made to locate missing sites that have relocated to another address. All website references for this book are clearly linked on our website at a specific location. The direct address for this book is: www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry

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Click on the link to Civilisations. By using this index students do not have to laboriously type in any URLs, greatly reducing the margin for error when trying to locate sites that have long and complicated addresses. The website indexes are clearly set out and easy for students to navigate. While we do maintain the links and replace where necessary, details of broken links can also be emailed to us at fixlink@readyed.com.au with clear details of the book title and page number.

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© ReadyEdP ubl i cat i ons o www.umuc.edu/virtualteaching/module1/ strategies.html – Teaching With •f orr evi ew pur p osesonl y• Technology

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webquest.sdsu.edu/roadmap/index.htm – How to Design a Webquest

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www.refdesk.com/ homework.html#homework – Reference Desk

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Teacher Assessment Written Information

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This assessment proforma is designed to evaluate activities that require creative written accounts and tasks. YES NO

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Did the student understand the task?

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What information strategies/skills did he/she employ to complete the task? ___________________________________________________________

Displaying Information:

Did the student demonstrate confidence in sharing his/her learning experience with the class?

Presentation:

ŠWasR e ad yEdPubl i cat i ons the layout eye-catching? Were appropriate materials/resources used to enhance •f o rr evi ew pur posesonl y• presentation? (e.g. images/drawings/computer programs) Did the student proofread his/her work?

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Research Skills:

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Did the student grasp the main concept of the task?

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Has the student shown flair and imagination in his/her work?

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Has the student shown evidence of library or multimedia research?

Has the student demonstrated proficiency in using the Internet as a research tool?

Extra comments:

___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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Teacher Assessment This assessment proforma is designed to evaluate activities that require inquiry and thinking skills.

r o e t s Bo r Inquiry Skills e p ok u S Defining – Did the student understand the task?

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YES NO

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Locating – Did the student access a range of resources? Selecting and Analysing – Did the student choose and make use of appropriate sources of information?

Organising and Synthesising – Did the student lay out and organise their information appropriately?

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Reflections

YES NO

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Creating and Presenting - Did the student present their ©R e dyEd ubl i a t i ons work ina a manner that was P appropriate toc the task? Evaluation –i Didw the student complete the self-assessment •f or r e v e p u r p o s e sonl y• sheet?

Did the student reflect on his/her work and suggest changes?

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Did the student show competency in working through the inquiry process to complete the task?

Extra comments:

___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________

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Student Self-Assessment Name: __________________________________

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I learnt new things during this task.

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

I enjoyed this task.

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Read the statements below and then tick the statement that describes how you feel.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons I feelf my could be improved. • owork rr ev i e w pur posesonl y• I found this task difficult.

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I would like to learn more about this topic. I was satisfied with my effort.

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I was unsure of what I was supposed to do.

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Activity Checklist Student Names

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Photocopy this sheet onto A3 paper and display in learning centre. Students check off the sheets as they complete them.

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The Incas:

⌧⌧⌧ Focusing Activity Expanding Activity

Inquiry Activity

Extra Task Cards

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Ancient Egypt:

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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The Vikings:

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The Indus Civilisation:

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⌧⌧⌧ Focusing Activity

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The Celts:

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Ancient Rome:

⌧⌧⌧ Focusing Activity Expanding Activity Inquiry Activity Extra Task Cards

13


The Incas Background Notes

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

The Inca civilisation was a pretty good place to live – depending on the way you looked at it. The Sapa Inca delivered harsh punishments to people who committed crimes, which meant that there was very little crime. As well as that, everybody was taken care of and always had a home and enough food to eat.

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Teac he r

In what is now Peru a great civilisation of people, known as the Incas, once lived. It was a huge civilisation that at its largest was home to about twelve million people. It has been difficult to learn much about the Incas as they had no system of writing and therefore no books or charts recording the way that they lived. Historians believe though, that the civilisation grew from a small city in a place called Cuszo in Peru and existed from about 1438 AD to 1533 AD, when their society was destroyed by invading Spanish soldiers.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons The Incas believed in lots of •f orr evi ew pu r po se s on l y• different gods that ruled different

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aspects of nature such as a river god, a sky god and a sun god. They encouraged people to worship the gods and to make the gods happy they would kill and sacrifice an animal and occasionally a person as well! (Maybe not such a great place to live.)

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The Incas were ruled by one person, known as the Sapa Inca. Like a king, he was born into his position. The Incas thought he was half man and half god, having been descended from the god of the sun, Inti.

o c . che Do You Like e r o t r Guinea s Pigs? super

The Inca did too, but they liked them fried or roasted. They also ate potatoes and grains, fish, vegetables, nuts and maize.

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The Incas

⌧⌧⌧ Focusing Activity

1

Go to: www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry/ancient.htm The Incas

Click on Site 1

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

1. What kinds of things did the Inca people eat?

________________________________________________________

Teac he r

2. What kind of clothing did the Inca wear?

3. Describe a house belonging to a common person.

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________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________

4. Which Inca children were able to attend school?

________________________________________________________

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons • f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• ________________________________________________________

5. Did children learn to read and write at school? Explain your answer.

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All people were not equal in Inca society.

. te •The Ayllus

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________________________________________________________

o c . •The rulerc or Sapa Inca •Slaves and farmers e her r o t s s r u e p 1. _______________________________

Place the following Inca groups in their order of importance:

•Town workers, e.g. jewellers, carpenters

2. _______________________________ 3. _______________________________ 4. _______________________________

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The Incas

ExpandingActivity

2

Go to: www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry/ancient.htm The Incas

Click on Site 2

Look at the information on this page. Would you have liked the Inca life style?

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S LIKE DISLIKE

Write down three things that you would like and three things you would dislike about living in an Inca civilisation.

1.

1.

2.

2.

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Teac he r

Living in an Inca Civilisation

© ReadyEd3.Publ i cat i ons or r e vi ew ur ptheolife se onl y• What is • one f thing about your life that isp similar to of s an Inca? 3.

_____________________________________________________________________

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What is one thing about your life that is different from an Inca’s?

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_____________________________________________________________________ What have you learnt about the Incas so far?

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Look at the list of adjectives below and choose two words that describe Inca people. Explain why you have chosen them by using them to complete sentences.

o c . che •hard working •lazy •sad e r o t r •law abiding •clever s •artistic s uper

• I think the Incas were _____________________________________________ because ________________________________________________________ • I also think the Incas were _________________________________________ because ________________________________________________________ 16


The Oceans ofIncas the World The Sea

Inquiry Activity

3

Go to: www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry/ancient.htm

The Incas

Click on Site 3

The year is 1532. Your name is Francisco Pizzaro. You are a Spanish conquistador searching for silver and gold in the new world. You have arrived in Peru and have your first contact with the Inca people. The Inca have never seen foreigners like you before and you have never seen anyone before like them.

Teac he r

You are going home to report to the King of Spain when you return. Write notes for your report sheet under the headings below. •The People

• Clothing

•What they grew

• Crime and Punishment

Your Majesty,

• Buildings

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons _____________________________________________________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• _____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

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_____________________________________________________________________

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_____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

. te o _____________________________________________________________________ c . c e her r _____________________________________________________________________ o t s super _____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 17


Go to:  www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry/ancient.htm

Extra Task

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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Teac he r

Use the website to come to some conclusions about why the Inca civilisation ceased to exist. In the boxes describe the key events that involved Pizarro and Atahualpa.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . che e r o t r s super Extra! Your Opinions

What are your thoughts on the way the Inca were overpowered by the Spanish? What other countries do you know of where the indigenous population were overpowered in this way?

18


Ancient Egypt Background Notes

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Although this civilisation existed a long time ago, it was quite modern. The ancient Egyptians had schools, a writing system and even invented black ink and paper.

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Teac he r

Ancient Egypt lay in the centre of modern day Egypt in the north of Africa, on the river Nile. The Nile was very important to the ancient Egyptians – in fact, they couldn’t live without it. Egypt is very dry but every year the Nile would flood, spreading water across the land and making it suitable for growing crops. It gave the Egyptians water to drink and fish to eat.

If you were a boy you would also be married young, maybe by the age of 15. You would also like putting on makeup! Both men and women spent a lot of time keeping themselves clean and adorning themselves with jewellery and makeup, particularly black kohl that was used to line their eyes.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• If you grew up in ancient Egypt life

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The ruler of ancient Egypt was known as the Pharaoh. Pharaohs had great power. When they died they were buried in tombs to honour them and to house all the gold and valuable possessions that they were going to take with them to the next life. To protect their bodies, Pharaohs, as well as ordinary Egyptians were mummified. This meant pulling their internal organs out and wrapping their bodies in linen and oils to keep them from rotting.

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would be very different from today. If you were a girl you wouldn’t have to go to school, but you would probably be married by about the age of 12! People, in general, married very young. Girls usually worked in the home, cooking and cleaning for the family although, if they wanted to, they were able to have jobs outside the home, buy property and even in some cases become Pharaoh.

o c . che e r o t r s super

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Ancient Egypt

⌧⌧⌧ Focusing Activity

1

Go to:  www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry/ancient.htm Ancient Egypt

Click on Site 1

The answers to the questions below are contained in pyramids. The pyramids also contain a letter that will help you crack the code to the riddle at the bottom of this page.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok S u W S

1. Egypt was built on the: _________________

code letter: ____

Teac he r

__________________

code letter: ____

Y

3. They believed in a sun god called: _________________

code letter: ____

servants

4. The ruler of Egypt was known as a:

U © ReadyEdPuD bl i cat i ons __________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Wealthy homes in Ancient Egypt had: code letter: ____

5. Egypt is part of the:

sun-dried mud

code letter: ____

__________________

fish

I

code letter: ____

Sahara

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7. The Ancient Egyptians built their homes out of:

m . u

__________________

6.

Ra

hieroglyphics

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2. Ancient Egyptians had a form of writing called:

Desert

M . te o c . che e r o t r s H super

__________________

code letter: ____

A

8. It was built around 2400 years ago. It is 66 feet (20 metres tall!): __________________

sphinx

Pharaoh

code letter: ____

9. They relied on the Nile for water and: _________________

code letter: ____

Nile River

Crack the code to find out the answer to this riddle!

Why was the Egyptian boy upset? Because:

__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ 1

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Ancient Egypt

ExpandingActivity

2

Go to:  www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry/ancient.htm Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egyptians were buried with some of their favourite things.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Use the website to answer these:

1. What had to happen to a person after they died before they could go on to the afterlife?

Draw and label the items you would like to be buried with around the mummy below.

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

The Afterlife Ancient Egyptians believed that after a person died, their spirit went on to have another life. Where a person’s spirit went after they died depended on whether or not they had been a good person while they were alive.

Click on Site 2

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons _____________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• _____________________________

_____________________________

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_____________________________

3. Where did good people go in the afterlife?

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2. What are Ba and Ka?

. t e o _____________________________ c . c e her _____________________________ r o t s su er 4. Describe how a body was mummified:p _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

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Ancient Egypt

Inquiry Activity

3

Go to:  www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry/ancient.htm Ancient Egypt

Planning Your Report:

r o e t s BPresentation: r e oo p u k S

Use Site 3 as a starting point for your research.

Think of all the interesting ancient Egyptian buildings and artefacts and present your report in an Ancient Egyptian style.

Your Task:

With a partner, research and write a report on

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Mystery has surrounded the young Pharaoh, Tutankhamen, ever since his tomb was first discovered.

Click on Site 3

E.g. You could create a fact page using pyramid shapes or draw a picture of Tutankhamen’s tomb and write information in the treasures around the tomb.

Tutankhamen © ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons – the Boy King. •f orr evi ew pur poses l y• Notes:on

_________________________________

Who he was.

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Include Information on:

_________________________________ _________________________________

When he lived.

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_________________________________

When and by whom his tomb was first discovered.

_________________________________

How old he was when he died.

_________________________________

o c . _________________________________ cheh e How old he was when became r er o t _________________________________ Pharaoh. s super The mystery surrounding his death. The curse that was believed to have been protecting his tomb. Any other interesting facts you can find out about him.

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_________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________


Go to:  www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry/ancient.htm Use the website/s at: Ancient Egyptians

Task card 1 Look at “Cats, Dogs and Other Pets” on the website.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Think about your life. What animal do you think should be sacred? Consider an animal that people should be grateful to because of its contributions to our lives.

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Teac he r

What animals did the Ancient Egyptians love and regard as being sacred? Why was this animal so loved?

Imagine you are a Pharaoh. Write a description of what you would do to give this animal special, celebrity status in your city. Include details of any laws you would pass about the animals, monuments you would build, special holidays, etc. Illustrate some of your ideas.

Begin – If I was Pharaoh I would make_______ sacred © Rea dydPubl i cat i ons animals ...E •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Task card 2

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Use the website/s at: Ancient Egyptians

Imagine you are an ancient Egyptian labourer working hard on one of the great pyramids of Giza.

o c . che e r Stealing the treasure sounds tempting but if you get o t r s spunishment per caught, u for tomb robbers is severe – or

One day you find a secret network of tunnels leading into one of the pyramids full of treasures.

even worse – you could suffer the curse of the Pharaohs.

Write a story about your adventure stealing the Pharaoh’s treasure and getting it out of the tomb.

23


Vikings Background Notes If you have ever seen pictures, or read about Vikings before, you might think of them as hairy, violent men whose job it was to break into villages, kill everybody and steal treasures – oh, and all of that wearing a hat with horns on it. In actual fact this probably isn’t the whole truth.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

fire in the middle of the room and a hole in the roof above it to let the smoke out. The Vikings usually lived in large family groups and so would cook, sleep, eat and do everything else together, in this one space.

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The Vikings were also travellers, explorers and traders. They came from the Scandinavian countries, Denmark, Norway and Sweden from about 800 AD to 1050 AD and travelled to new places in search of riches as well as new places to settle. They also did their fair share of fighting, invading villages and fighting the locals. In fact the Beserks were a special group of Viking people who became famous as fierce fighters. They believed that the gods had given them superhuman strength and used to get so worked up and crazy before a battle that they were said not to even feel the pain of wounds!

When they first started to invade new places, Vikings believed in many different gods, which we now call the “Norse Gods”. After they started to move into new countries, many of them started to change their beliefs and follow Christianity instead.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Vikings lived in long, one roomed houses that were built of stone and wood, sometimes with clumps of dirt and grass to hold the walls together. They had a big

When the Vikings invaded it wasn’t because they were a part of an army. Unlike Ancient Egypt or Rome, the Vikings weren’t organised but came in small groups with separate leaders. They probably also came for different reasons. Some may have been violent and gone to get rich, raiding and stealing in foreign countries, whilst others came to settle and find a better life. As for the image of a Viking wearing a hat with horns on it – that appears to be a myth. Viking helmets, in fact, never had horns. They were made out of iron with a long piece that extended downwards protecting part of the face. These were only for wealthy people however – the everyday Viking most likely fought with no helmet at all.

o c . che e r o t r s super


The Vikings

⌧⌧⌧ Focusing Activity

1

Go to:  www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry/ancient.htm The Vikings

Click on Site 1

The Vikings were famous for their longships that travelled huge distances to conquer and settle new lands.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

______________________________ ______________________________

2. What materials were longships made from? ______________________________

3. How many warriors could a longship carry?

5. What kind of people were buried with a longship?

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Teac he r

1. What did longships look like?

At the websites read about longships and answer the following questions.

______________________________

6. How did the Vikings know which way they were going when they travelled across the sea? ______________________________

______________________________ © ReadyEdPu bl i cat i ons 7. Why were longships excellent for ______________________________ arriving in new lands and sneaking •f orr evi ew pur p os e so n l y • up on

______________________________

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Draw a longship filled with Viking warriors.

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enemies?

______________________________ ______________________________

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4. What design features made the longships move across the water?

o c . che e r o t r s super

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The Vikings

ExpandingActivity

2

Go to:  www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry/ancient.htm The Vikings

Click on Site 2

The Vikings came from the Scandinavian countries of Norway, Sweden and Denmark.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Teac he r

Use an atlas to help you.

ew i ev Pr

• Label Norway, Sweden and Denmark on the map. • Which continent do these countries belong to? ___________________

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Use the website to help you. The Vikings believed in many •f orr ev i ew pur po esofothree nl y • Draw as picture different gods and goddesses that ruled Norse mythology

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Norse gods below and write a description underneath.

m . u

different aspects of nature.

o c . che e r o t r s super

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

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____________________

____________________

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The Vikings

Inquiry Activity

3

Go to:  www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry/ancient.htm The Vikings

Click on Site 3

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Your Task:

ew i ev Pr

Teac he r

Village Life for the vikings

With a partner, research and draw an overhead map of a Viking village.

Think about:

What will your village be called? (Find out what typical Viking village names were.)

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons What kind of jobs would • orr evi ew pur posesonl y• people bef doing? Planning Your Village:

w ww

What do the houses look like? If there is anyone eating in your village – what are they eating?

m . u

What are the women wearing? What are the men wearing?

Use Site 3 as a starting point for your research.

. teanimals would What kinds of o c you find in a typical Viking . che e village? r o t r s super

Use this page to collect your information and then draw your village on an A3 piece of paper.

Extra:

When you have finished making your map, you could transform it into a model. Clay, clothes pegs (to transform into people), grass clippings, small plastic animals and egg cartons or other small cardboard cartons may be useful for your design.

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Go to:  www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry/ancient.htm Use the website/s at: Vikings

Extra Task

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Writing with Runes

The letters in the Viking alphabet were known as runes. The Vikings wrote runes on pebbles and large stones.

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Teac he r

Give one reason why people wrote runes on stones.

In the space below draw a design of a Viking sword. Write your name in rune letters on one side of the sword.

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m . u

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c Now draw another sword. On the other side of the sword, write a simple . c e question about Vikings h in runes. Find the answer to your question on the r e o t r s website or on the previous websites forp thise topic. Answer it underneath using s r u English letters.

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Indus Valley Background Notes

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The ancient Indus Valley was very advanced and the people had many of the luxuries that we have nowadays. They had weights that were used to measure quantities of things for sale. Women wore beautiful clothes, had fancy hair dos and wore lipstick and jewellery. They made beautiful cloth, pottery and metal carvings. There have also been items found there that the people couldn’t possibly have mined in the Indus Valley, meaning that they must have traded with people very far away. The Indus Valley people had a system of writing, but, unlike Egyptian hieroglyphics, nobody has been able to crack the code and work out what it means yet.

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The Indus Valley civilisation was a mysterious, ancient civilisation that existed along the border of India and Pakistan about 4500 – 5000 years ago. That’s during the time of the Ancient Egyptians and long before the great civilisations of ancient Greece or Rome. It was a very large civilisation which was home to several cities.

Mature Harappan “Priest King”

the same style. The houses themselves weren’t rough mud buildings like you might expect. They were built with a lot of care using individual clay bricks and some were even two or three storeys high! Each house had its own courtyard, a well for getting fresh water and sewers and drainage systems attached to each house which were, in a way, ancient bathrooms. This is amazing when you think that about 4000 years later, during the Middle Ages in London, people were throwing their sewerage out onto the open street! So what happened to all their knowledge? Well, nobody knows for sure, but it did come to an end.

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The largest city within the civilisation was called Harappa. Within most cities, all the buildings were perfectly planned and laid out in a grid-like pattern. In each city there was a large warehouse used for storing grain. There was even a huge public bath, the size of a large swimming pool, in the middle of the town. There were main roads, side roads and small alleyways running to each of the different houses. All the roads were perfectly straight and all the houses were built in

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About 1700 BC the Indus Valley civilisation disappeared. Nobody is sure exactly what happened to these people but some historians believe that a group of nomadic people, the Aryans, invaded the city. Archaeologists have found parts of skulls with knife wound marks, which indicates that there was a violent invasion. Whatever it was, it certainly appeared to be the end of the great Indus Valley civilisation.

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Indus Valley

⌧⌧⌧ Focusing Activity

1

Go to:  www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry/ancient.htm Indus Valley

Click on Site 1

1. Which continent was the Indus Valley civilisation in?

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____________________________

2. What two countries does the Indus Valley lie between? • __________________________ • __________________________

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Colour the continent on the map.

3. What are some of the physical features of the Indus Valley?

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons ________________________________________ •f orr evi ew________________________________________ pur posesonl y•

The physical features of a landscape are some of the types of land forms, e.g. rivers, mountains, hills.

________________________________________

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4. What were the three major cities of the Indus civilisation called? Underneath write one fact about each major city.

o c . che Fact: ____________________________________ e r o t r s s uper  ________________________  ________________________

Fact: ____________________________________  ________________________ Fact: ____________________________________

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Indus Valley

ExpandingActivity

2

Go to:  www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry/ancient.htm Indus Valley

Click on Site 2

Click on “View artefacts” in the box. Look at the artefacts that have been found from the Indus Valley civilisation. Choose four artefacts that you find interesting and draw a picture of each.

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Write down what each artefact is and what you think it shows us about the kind of life that these people lived.

Name ofc artefact: © ReadyEdP ubl i at i ons _______________________________ _______________________________ •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• This artefact shows us that: This artefact shows us that: Name of artefact:

_______________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

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Name of artefact:

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_______________________________ This artefact shows us that:

Name of artefact:

_______________________________ This artefact shows us that:

_______________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

_______________________________

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Indus Valley

Inquiry Activity

3

Go to:  www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry/ancient.htm Indus Valley

Click on Site 3

Planning Your Story:

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Presentation: S

Write a story about a day in the life of a family living in the ancient Indus Valley civilisation.

Think About:

Think of all the interesting Indus Valley artefacts and present your story in an ancient Indus style.

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Your Task:

Use Site 3 as a starting point for your research about family life in the Indus Valley.

Make your story creative and interesting to read. Make notes below.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Notes: How• many members inv f o r r e i e______________________________________ w pur posesonl y• this family?

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What might the people be wearing?

______________________________________ ______________________________________

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What is the role of each family member?

______________________________________

What food might they be eating?

______________________________________

What might the children be playing with?

______________________________________

. tmight they be ______________________________________ What work e o c ______________________________________ doing? . c e r Where would they beh e o ______________________________________ t r s super doing this work? What else can you find out about the daily lives of these people?

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______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________


Go to:  www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry/ancient.htm Use the website/s at: Indus Valley

Extra Task

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Use any of the websites shown.

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Record the answers and give your quiz to a partner or other class member to solve.

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Use the space below to create a quiz on the ancient Indus Valley using interesting facts you have discovered at the website.

Give your quiz an extra dimension by rewarding each correct answer with points towards something, e.g. a piece of an Indus Valley jigsaw or a wall, floor roof, etc. of an Indus house, each time the answer is correct. You will have to provide enough quiz questions for someone to get enough correct answers to finish their task.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

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__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

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The Celts Background Notes The Celts were the people of Iron Age Britain. The Iron Age was about 2000 years ago and it was so called because it was during this time that people discovered and began to rely heavily on iron.

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Sometimes they even fought naked! They also wrote about the Celtic queen, Boadicea, who was a savage fighter with red hair down to her knees. She fought against the Romans and invaded London when the Romans ruled over it. When, she thought she was beaten, she drank poison to avoid capture (not your average queen).

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The Celts were not unlike the Vikings – they had a pretty fierce reputation as fighters and they also weren’t organised into a great civilisation like the ancient Egyptians or Romans. Instead they were people who banded together in small groups, in and around their own farms. The Celts were thought to have come from Ireland, Scotland, Wales and England. At one stage they spread right into Europe but when the Romans came to Britain many Celtic people moved back into the north of Great Britain and Ireland. The people of Ireland and Scotland still consider themselves as Celts.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons The Celts believed in many gods that •f orr evi ew pu r p othe se so l y • ruled over forces of n nature and

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The Celts didn’t write down their history so a lot of what we know comes from what the Romans wrote after they invaded Britain. The Romans reported that the Celts were brave fighters who fought with bare chests, painted with an indigo blue dye, and with hair coloured bright white and spiked up with lime. The Celts were said to be fond of heads and would cut off the heads of their enemies and tie them to their horses to ride back home with! Before a battle began they would stand and shout at their enemy, working themselves up into a frenzy.

they had wise men called Druids who were healers, fortune tellers and priests. One of the reasons we have learnt about the Celts is by discoveries in muddy swamps (or peat bogs). The mud helped to preserve these things so that they didn’t rot. There have been all sorts of finds in these marshes – swords, jewellery, cooking pots and even people!

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One very famous Celtic man, known as Lindow Man was found one day in 1983 in Cheshire, England. Police initially thought there had been a murder until they discovered the body was 2000 years old!


The Celts

⌧⌧⌧ Focusing Activity

1

Go to:  www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry/ancient.htm The Celts

Click on Site 1

1. The Celts invented:

toothpaste

soap

deodorant

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2. The Celts lived:

in cities

in small farming communities

3. Celtic people lived in extended family groups called:

5. Every clan had a:

leader

castle

dragon

mobs

bunch

clan

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4. The Celts would also belong to a larger group called a:

fines

Write the name of each group of Celts next to the correct description. *nobles

*druids

*warriors

*bards

*artisans

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons These• people didn’t have to work in the p fields. designed and f o rr ev i ew uThey r p ose sonl y•

1. These people were wandering entertainers. They sang, told stories ____________________ and recited poems. They were very well respected by the Celts. 2.

made jewellery, fabrics and pottery as well as making goods out of iron. If they were talented they could become very wealthy.

____________________

4. These people could come from any of the other groups of people and could be men or women. Some of them went to schools to learn tactics. They wore their hair spiked up and whitened with lime. They sometimes wore a horned wooden or metal helmet.

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3. These people were wealthy. They could be farmers, or warriors or landowners. They had more free time than most as they had other ____________________ people to do a lot of their work for them.

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5. These people were very powerful in Iron Age Celtic clans. They had to study for years to be able to have this title. They were the wise men of the village. They would give people advice on medicines, who to marry, how to solve arguments and all sorts of other problems.

____________________

____________________

If you were an Iron Age Celt what group do you think you might have belonged to and why? _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

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The Celts

ExpandingActivity

Go to:  www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry/ancient.htm The Celts

Click on Site 2

The Celts were mostly farmers who lived a peaceful life. however, at times they were forced to defend themselves from other clans or Roman soldiers. When they had to do so, they retreated to hilltop forts built specially to keep them safe.

1. What shape were the Iron Age Celts’ houses?

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_____________________________

2. What materials were these houses built from? _____________________________

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3. What is an “iron fire dog”?

_____________________________

Design and draw your own hilltop fort.

To scare or trap the enemy you can use any kind of devices that would have been available to you at the time. Label your special security features.

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The Celts

Inquiry Activity

3

Go to:  www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry/ancient.htm The Celts

Click on Site 3

The Celts did not write things down so they passed their culture on through stories and songs.

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1. Which myth do you like the best and why? __________________________________________

2. Who was the main character of this myth? __________________________________________

3. Describe what happens to this character in the story:

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Some stories that were told by ancient Celts have been handed down and are still known today.

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Read the Celtic myths at the website.

__________________________________________ __________________________________________

Planning Your Myth:

© ReadyEdP u bl c t i opoint nsfor your Use Site 3i as aa starting research about Celtic myths. •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Think About:

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Your Task:

Celtic myths involve normal people as well as imaginary creatures, like pixies and dragons. A lot of Celtic stories are about fairies, some who are good and bless people with lovely things, and some who are bad and cause trouble for the people in the stories.

o c . Make your story creative and interesting che e r to read. o t r s super Write your own Celtic myth.

.

Presentation: Illustrate your Celtic myth with some of the characters from your story.

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Go to:  www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry/ancient.htm Use the website/s at: The Celts

Task card 1

Use the website/s at: The Celts

Task card 2

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Design a Celtic Shield

Decorate the shield with Celtic style patterns.

Prepare a list of household chores for each family member.

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Copy the shield outline below onto a larger piece of paper.

How would life have been different for someone your age living with an Iron Age Celtic family?

Think!

How did they get their food?

How did they get their shelter?

How did they make their clothes?

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Who looked after the children, © ReadyEdP ubl i c at i on vegetables, animals, and so s on? •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

o c . c e he r Draw two armoured Celtic warriors Task card 3r o t s suwith rdecoration. body pe

Use the website/s at: The Celts

Celtic warriors came from all people within the society. They aimed to frighten the enemy with their strange, scary appearance.

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Read the descriptions of Celtic warriors.

Make each warrior different. Give them a Celtic name and write a description of their personality and why they are moved to fight in the battle.


Ancient Rome Background Notes

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Wealthy Romans lived in large houses. There was a courtyard and often an atrium in the middle of the house that the other rooms would open up onto. This meant that the houses were light and bright and had a nice view without looking onto the street. There were no windows in Roman houses that faced the street, to keep snoopers and burglars out. This might have been a good idea, considering a lot of the population were not wealthy enough to live in houses, in fact slaves made up about 40% of the population of Rome!

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When you think of ancient Rome you might think of people in togas and sandals, men lying on daybeds eating bunches of grapes, huge buildings and gladiators facing lions and bears as huge crowds cheered on. Ancient Rome was all that and more. Suprisingly however, it began as a small village in about 753 BC. By 1 AD Rome wasn’t just a large city – it was the heart of a huge empire that spread from Britain, across Europe and even into Africa (which was handy for a constant supply of lions and other scary creatures to fight).

Women weren’t even allowed to drink wine. It is thought that kissing was invented when Roman men came home and would kiss wives to make sure they hadn’t been disobedient and drinking while they were gone!

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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The ancient Romans were very concerned with hygiene and health. They built aquaducts to supply them with fresh water, and spent a good part of their lives washing themselves and cleaning their bodies and teeth. They may have been the first people to invent toothpaste – if that’s what you call it. To keep their pearlers shiny, ancient Romans would grind the skulls of mice and rabbits into a paste and use it to brush their teeth!

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Rome was ruled by an Emperor. He was the leader and was elected by the Roman people – or some of them – as women and slaves were not allowed to vote. Men held most of the power in ancient Rome while women weren’t allowed to own property or get a job until later on in the days of the empire.

The colosseum has become famous in ancient Roman history as the site at which much Roman entertainment took place. During the first 100 days following its opening in 80 AD, 5000 animals were killed, including elephants, lions, tigers, elks, hippos and giraffes. We can only guess how many people fought and died in its grounds from then on until the end of the empire.

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Ancient Romans

⌧⌧⌧ Focusing Activity

Go to:  www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry/ancient.htm Ancient Romans

God/Goddess

God of fire

LXXXVIII Goddess of wild animals, hunting and the moon XX

The earth goddess

XXXIV

Goddess of wisdom

C

Minerva (34) Venus (78)

Vulcan (98)

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i on s Neptune (12) •f orr evi ew pur posesonFortuna l y• (34) Jupiter’s wife, the queen of gods. She took care of women

XXXIV

List of Gods

The goddess of luck

LXII

The god of death

LXXVIII

The goddess of love

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XXVII

God of war

CXII

The most important god, god of the sky. The king of gods

Jupiter(112)

Mars (27) Pluto (62)

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XCVIII

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Match the Roman numerals to the numbers then write what power each god or goddess possessed.

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The Romans had many different gods and goddesses that they believed ruled different life forces. The Romans also had their own system of numbering, called Roman numerals. Power

1

Click on Site 1

Juno (100)

Maia (44)

Ceres (20) . XII Godt of the Sea e Diana (88) o c XLIV The goddess of growth . che e r o t r s su per Use the second site to help you with these: • What did the ancient Romans believe happened when you died?

___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ • What other kinds of religion were popular during the Roman Empire? ___________________________________________________________________ 40


Ancient Romans

ExpandingActivity

Go to:  www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry/ancient.htm Ancient Romans

2

Click on Site 3

The Emperor wants gladiators for his army. Complete the poster below and write a job advertisement for a gladiator.

Teac he r Location: Rank:

Ancient Rome ______________________________

Job description: As a gladiator you will be expected to: ______________________________

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r o e t s Bo r e p ok u Position S vacant: Gladiator

© Rea dyEdPubl i cat i ons ______________________________ •needed: f orr e vi ew skills pu r p sesonl y• Skills The following will beo helpful: ______________________________

_____________________________________________

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Suitability:

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Benefits:

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_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ The following groups of people are encouraged to apply:

o c . cFuture e benefits of this position include: her r o t s super _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

_____________________________________________ Extra Information: ____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

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Ancient Romans

Inquiry Activity

Go to:  www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry/ancient.htm Ancient Romans

3

Click on Site 4

Ah, being a Roman – bathing with your mates in the afternoon, servants to massage fragrant oil into your back and bring you big bunches of grapes, great shows to take in, fantastic food, and a huge house with a beautiful courtyard.

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However if you were poor, or a slave, life may not have been quite so flash!

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At the website browse through the menu options. Compare the life of a rich Roman and a poor Roman in the table below. Entertainment: Meals:

Rich Romans

Poor Romans

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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The baths: Housing:

Daily life: Other:

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Type of work:

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Would you rather be poor in your society or in Ancient Rome? Explain your answer. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 42


Go to:  www.readyed.com.au/urls/inquiry/ancient civilisations Use the website/s at: Ancient Rome

Task card 1

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Life in the Roman army could be pretty miserable. Soldiers were well paid but they might spend years away without seeing their families and they weren’t allowed to get married until they had left the army.

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Click on Site 5

Imagine you are a Roman soldier. Write a letter home to your family explaining what life is like.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr ev i ew pur posesonl y• Use the website/s at:

Click on Site 6

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Task card 2

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Ancient Rome

Rome was famous for its roads. They were long and straight and allowed soldiers and merchants to travel long distances without having to traipse through the mud.

o c . che e r o t r s super Travellers would also have been nervous of the ghosts

When Romans left the safety of the cities and travelled along these roads it could be dangerous as robbers and bandits often attacked. of the dead that were buried outside the village. Write an adventure story based upon the quest of travelling from one city to another past these dangers.

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Ancient Civilisations: Answers 4. During mummification the brain was removed from the body through the nose, the liver, lungs, stomach and intestines are then removed. The heart stays in the body. The organs are then stored in canopic jars. The body is then covered in salt for 40 days. After this the body is then stuffed with resin soaked linen. The skin is then treated with perfumed oils and resin before being wrapped in linen cloth.

These people were wealthy. They could be farmers, or warriors or landowners. They had more free time than most as they had other people do a lot of their work for them. Warriors: These people could come from any of the other groups of people and could be men or women. Some of them went to schools to learn tactics. They wore their hair spiked up and whitened with lime. They sometimes wore a wooden or metal helmet with horns. Druids: These people were very powerful in Iron Age Celtic clans. They had to study for years to be able to have this title. They were the wise men of the village. They would give people advice on medicines, who to marry, how to solve arguments and all sorts of other problems.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S The Vikings Activity 1, Page 25 1. They were very long and very narrow. 2. The ships could carry up to 60 warriors. 3. There was a large, square sail in the middle of the ships. As well as that the longships had holes for oars down the side. 4. Only very rich people were buried with their ships. 5. The boats were very shallow, so they could be ridden right up to the shore. This helped the Vikings plan surprise attacks on villages and monasteries.

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The Incas Activity 1, Page 15 1. Corn, potatoes, coffee and grain. (As that in some parts of the civilisation they also ate fish and llama.) 2. In the cooler regions the Inca wore clothes made from woven alpaca or llama wool and in hotter places they wore cotton clothing. Jewellery was popular with men and women. 3. A common house was made of rock and a mixture of mud and grass. Inca houses had no doors and any openings were covered with animal hide. 4. No, only the very wealthy, high status children went to school. 5. Children did not learn to read and write as no formal system of writing existed in Inca culture. 1. The ruler/ Inca or Sapa Inca 2. The Allyus 3. Town tradesmen 4. Farmers and slaves

The Celts Activity 2, Page 35 1. Iron Age Celtic houses were round and were known as round houses. 2. They were made from wooden stakes, mud and straw. 3. An iron fire dog was a decorative piece that would sit by the fire inside a roundhouse.

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The Celts Activity 1, Page 34 1. The Celts invented: b) soap 2. The Celts lived: b) in small farming communities. 3. Celtic people lived in extended family groups called: a) fines 4. The Celts would also belong to a larger group called a: b) clan 5. Every clan had a: a) leader

Ancient Rome Activity 1, Page 39 Venus: goddess of love Mars: god of war Vulcan: god of fire Ceres: the earth goddess Maia: goddess of growth Pluto: god of death Neptune: god of the sea Minerva: goddess of wisdom Fortuna: goddess of luck Diana: goddess of wild animals, hunting and the moon Jupiter: the most important god, god of the sky. The king of gods. Juno: Jupiter’s wife, the queen of gods. She took care of women.

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Ancient Egypt Activity 2, Page 21 1. After a person died and before they could go on to the after life, their body was mummified. Their spirit then went on to try to pass the test of heart in the Hall of Maat and have their name written down somewhere. apart of the spirit that went on to the afterlife. 2. Ba was the part of a dead person’s spirit that returned to live with the family during the day. Ka was the part of the spirit that went on to the afterlife. 3. If you were a good person you would go to the heavenly place called, “two fields” after you died.

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The Vikings Activity 2, Page 26 The Vikings came from Europe.

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Ancient Egypt Activity 1, Page 20 1. The Nile 2. Hieroglyphics 3. Ra 4. Pharaoh 5. Sahara desert 6. Servants 7. Sun-dried mud 8. The sphinx 9. Fish Code: Because his daddy was a mummy!

Bards: These people were wandering entertainers. They sang, told stories and recited poems. They were very well respected by the Celts. Artisans: These people didn’t have to work in the fields. They designed and made jewellery, fabrics and pottery as well as making goods out of iron. If they were good they could become very wealthy. Nobles:

Internet Inquiry: Ancient Civilisations  

The mysteries and intrigue of space and astronomy, the sea and ancient civilisations have always fascinated students. With the development o...

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