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Resource Book

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r o e t s Healthy Bodies Bo r e p ok u S Happy Kids

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Background information to give teachers and parents insight into issues related © ReadyEdPu bl i cat i o ns to childhood obesity. •f orr evi ew pur pos esonl y•

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Written by Sandy Tasker. Illustrated by Terry Allen. © Ready-Ed Publications - 2003 2nd Edition published by Ready-Ed Publications (2004) PO Box 276 Greenwood Perth Western Australia 6024 Email: info@readyed.com.au Website: www.readyed.com.au COPYRIGHT NOTICE No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic or electronic process, or otherwise copied for public or private use, without written permission from the publisher. ISBN 1 86397 535 7


The Healthy Bodies, Happy Kids Website www .readyed.com.au/healthy www.readyed.com.au/healthy

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Features of the site include:

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In conjunction with this series, Ready-Ed Publications is pleased to launch the Healthy Bodies, Happy Kids website website. The site is designed to provide students with a forum for submitting ideas about healthy eating and exercise as well as allowing them to post their own healthy recipes. Students and/ or classes are able to register their details, which will help to create a list of schools that are interested in swapping information. This site will appeal to students in all year levels. Students and classes are also able to submit their own individual work to be published online. Please note that all work is thoroughly checked by Ready-Ed Publications before it appears online and that surnames will be omitted on request to protect privacy. •

Food Facts: contains information about the food groups, nutrients, taste sensations, recipes and fun food links;

Tips on exercise and staying healthy;

A research page that provides a springboard for links to topics such as diabetes, cholesterol, heart disease and much more;

Teachers WWW links;

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• Student WWW links for food and exercise sites. The aim of the site is to encourage communication and to display students’ own ideas, so be sure to check out the site! To submit work or send feedback, please use the forms on the site or email directly to healthy@readyed.com.au

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P A G E 2 HEALTHY BODIES, HAPPY KIDS – RESOURCE BOOK

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Contents

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4-6 4 5 6 7-8 7 8 9 - 13 9 10 11 11 13 14 - 15 14 14 14 15 15 17 - 18 17 18 19 - 21 19 19 20 21 21 24 - 25 24 25 26 27 - 29 27 29 31 - 32 31 33 - 34 33 34 36 - 37 36 37 38 39

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1: INFORMATION ON THE SERIES 1.1 Purpose 1.2 Books in the Series 1.3 Student Outcome Links 2: WHAT IS OBESITY? 2.1 Facts and Figures 2.2 Cultural and Indigenous Health Issues 3: A HEALTHY DIET 3.1 Diet Recommendations 3.2 Nutrients and Their Role 3.3 Kilojoules and Calories 3.4 Recent Food Trends in Australia 3.5 Labelling Requirements 4: HEALTH PROBLEMS AND DIET 4.1 What is Cholesterol? 4.2 Cardiovascular Disease 4.3 Diabetes 4.4 Additives and Allergies 4.5 Eating Disorders 5: BODY SYSTEMS AND A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE 5.1 The Digestive System 5.2 The Cardiovascular System 6: PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 6.1 Why Exercise? 6.2 Types of Exercise 6.3 Sport Solutions and Alternatives 6.4 How Do I Programme Physical Activity Into the Day? 6.5 Active Games with a Health Theme 7: SELF-ESTEEM AND HEALTH 7.1 Self-esteem Facts 7.2 Peer Pressure and Junk Food 8: “JUNK FOOD” AND THE MEDIA 9: CURRICULUM INTEGRATION 9.1 A Cross–Curricular Approach 9.2 Stories, Songs and Poems with a Health Message 10: WHOLE SCHOOL PROJECTS 10.1 Involving the School Community 11: PARENTAL SUPPORT 11.1 How To Encourage Parent Involvement 11.2 General Advice for Parents 12: CANTEEN INITIATIVES 12.1 Organisations 12.2 Healthy Recipe References 13: INTERNET LINKS FOR TEACHERS 14: NATIONAL HEALTH ORGANISATIONS

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Information on the Series

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1.1 Purpose

This series has been created for implementation in the classroom as part of the Heath and Physical Education learning area in Australian schools for students aged 5 - 13. Recent ongoing publicity has reflected Australian society’s concern with obesity, as well as related health problems such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Statistics in this Resource Book will illustrate that unhealthy lifestyle choices in childhood are linked to serious health problems later in life, if these habits remain unaddressed. Obesity and associated diseases have a widespread effect on the community, draining public health resources as a result of behaviour and choices that can be modified during childhood.

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There is a pressing need to intervene at an early age and to cover ALL of the areas that are linked to the lifestyle choices that can be made, including: Promoting healthy habits such as a nutritious, balanced diet and regular exercise. Developing a positive self–image so that children are able to respect their own Raising the awareness of the ways in which modern society influences choices through advertising, particularly about the availability of unhealthy convenience foods. Encouraging students to choose physical activity over sedentary alternatives such as television and computer games. The challenge lies in the need to not only equip students with the information necessary to make healthy choices, but to provide the opportunities and resources for them to experience and practise these skills on an ongoing basis, in their real environments.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 1.2 Books inu the Series •f or r ev i ew p r po sesonl y• The Resource Manual

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This health series will provide comprehensive, up-to-date information, as well as a range of ideas that support a “whole school” approach to health promotion. There are specific activity suggestions and “hands-on” investigations contained in the following books of the series:

Factual and statistical information on: diet – requirements, recent food trends, labelling requirements, allergies and eating disorders; body systems – digestion, cardiovascular responses, health problems; exercise – benefits, programming, variety and alternatives in exercise for students; self-esteem – peer pressure, eating habits, body image, facilitating positive perceptions; media – guidelines, viewing strategies, analysis, use of positive media exposure; Indoor and outdoor games with a “health” theme; Curriculum integration ideas; Whole school projects and parent involvement; Tips on how to work with the school canteen to promote healthy food choices; Recipes for healthy meals and snacks; Web sites, addresses and contact details of nationwide health organizations.

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Adopting an integrated approach, activity ideas provided will draw on and cultivate skills in language, numeracy, science, society and environment and the arts. The focus of the workbooks will be practical learning experiences using resources from students’ existing surroundings. P A G E 4 HEALTHY BODIES, HAPPY KIDS – RESOURCE BOOK

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The age ranges covered are: Junior (Years 1 – 3), Middle (Years 4 – 5), Upper (Years 6 – 7). The activity books are theme-based books with age-appropriate mascot characters that enhance visual appeal and student motivation. Books contain content related to:

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Healthy eating – Raising conceptual understanding of the value of a balanced diet, with opportunities for students to analyse their own diets and experience alternative options. The healthy body/body systems – Coverage of the digestive and cardiovascular systems with a focus on how looking after these parts of the body contributes to overall health. Exercise and physical fitness – A range of learning experiences that encourage students to expand their understanding of “what is exercise” and to seek new practical strategies to increase the level of physical activity in their daily lives. Self-esteem – Exploring ways to foster a positive body image and develop constructive selfmanagement skills. The Media and a Healthy Lifestyle – Facilitating a critical awareness of the strategies employed by the media to advertise fast foods and using the same techniques to promote positive ideals. Practical, inquiry-style activities based around relevant, real-life situations and using easily obtained resources such as junk mail and the newspaper. “Take Me Home” activity sheets that can be used as homework and as a means of eliciting parental support and awareness of health issues. Internet links that are “student-friendly”.

Curriculum Links © ReadyE dPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

The BLM Activity Books have been linked to Strands from various state curriculum documents as indicated on the next page. These documents are as follows:

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1 . Health and Physical Education - a curriculum profile for Australian schools. The Health and PE curriculum profile is published by: Curriculum Corporation, PO Box 177, Carlton South, Victoria, 3053 www.curriculum.edu.au (Document is © Curriculum Corporation, 1994)

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2 . Personal Development, Health and Physical Education K - 6 (ISBN 0 7313 4241 0). PDHPE is one of the six key learning areas in the NSW curriculum and the Syllabus is published by the Board of Studies NSW, GPO Box 5300, Sydney, 2001 (www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au)

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3 . Health and Physical Education - Y ears 1 to 10 Syllabus (ISBN 0 7242 8236 X). Years The syllabus is published by: Queensland School Curriculum Council, PO Box 317, Albert St, Brisbane, Queensland, 4002 (The Syllabus Document is © The State of Queensland 1999) 4. Curriculum and Standards F ramework II (ISBN 1 74010 045 X). Framework The Draft Framework book is published by: Victorian Board of Studies, 15 Pelham Street, Carlton, Victoria, 3053 (Document is © Board of Studies 1999) 5 . Health and Physical Education - Student Outcome Statements (ISBN 0 7309 8668 3). The Health and PE Outcomes and Standards Framework book is published by the Department of Education of Western Australia, Royal Street, East Perth, WA, 6000 www.eddept.wa.edu.au/centoff/outcomes/

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Outcomes Grid: Health and Physical Education Strands Covered in Activity Books: Australian States and Territories Indicators refer to Strands according to this code:

= Strong focus;

= Some related activities

(N.B. Although specific movement and Physical Education skills are not a focus of this series, there is a sound coverage of physical activity concepts, attitudes and alternative solutions to organised sport in each of the BLM Activity books, and ideas for integrating physical activity lessons into health education concepts in the Teachers’ Manual.)

National document: SA / NT / Tas / ACT

Strand

Health of Physical Human Human People and Food Individuals Activity Development Movement and and the Populations Community

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Coverage in Activity Books

State/s

Safety

Human Relations

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State/s

Minimal coverage in some books

Western Australia

Queensland

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Concepts for a Healthy Lifestyle

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Coverage in Activity Books

State/s Strand

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Self Management Skills

Interpersonal Skills

Promoting Developing Enhancing the Concepts Personal Health of and Skills DevelopIndividuals for ment and Physical Communit- Activity ies

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Strand

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New South Wales

Growth Interand personal Develop- Relationment ships

Victoria

Personal Health Choices

Safe Living

Self Active Health of and Lifestyle Individuals Relationand Populations ships

(Main focus

(Strong on Identity focus on and both Developing conceptual and organisers) Maintaining Relationships)

Coverage in Activity Books P A G E 6 HEALTHY BODIES, HAPPY KIDS – RESOURCE BOOK

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2 What is Obesity? 2.1 Facts and Figures

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Obesity can be measured using the Body Mass Index (BMI), which is calculated by dividing a person’s weight in kilograms by their height in metres squared. For example, a person who weighs 67 kg and is 1.7 metres tall would calculate as follows: = 67 ÷ 1.72 = 67 ÷ 2.89 = BMI of 23.18 (healthy) A BMI between 18.5 and 25 is considered “healthy” for adults, 25 to 30 is “overweight” and more than 30 is “obese”. This should be used as a guide only as age, gender, muscular proportion and ethnic background have not been taken into consideration. Additional calculations need to be conducted for children as age and gender impact upon growth rates.

Evidence published from the 2002 Childhood Obesity Summit held by the NSW government indicates that:

Almost one quarter of Australian children between 2 and 17, and over half the adult population, are considered overweight or obese. The 1995/6 estimated national cost of addressing obesity-related issues was between $680 $1239 million in Australia. Gastro-intestinal, endocrine and orthopaedic (postural and weight bearing) problems are possible short-term consequences of obesity, and long-term risks include cardiovascular disease.

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Obesity is linked to disrupted insulin levels, leading to diabetes and associated afflictions such as stroke, limb amputation, kidney failure and blindness. Low self-esteem and childhood depression can result from social intolerance towards individuals affected by obesity.

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Societal trends, such as increased use of cars for transport, television and computers for entertainment, and high fat foods for meals are amongst potential causes of the rise in childhood obesity. A 2001 NSW Child Heath Survey discovered that 40% of 5–12 year olds were watching 2 hours or more of television or videos each day and playing 1 hour or more of computer games.

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Addressing the issue of obesity requires involvement from the family, educators, community organisations, the media and food industries with governmental support.

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Social barriers, such as safety concerns in walking or riding as a form of transport, cultural beliefs that contradict current health ideas, the difficulties faced by ethnic groups seeking health education in an English-speaking environment, and the reduced availability of resources in rural and remote communities must be considered when offering solutions to the obesity problem. Children who have more confidence in their fundamental movement skills are more likely to pursue physical activities in the playground and out of school. Solutions will have the most impact and success if they address the whole population (hence a whole school approach is most appropriate), are long-term (such as implementation of educational activities throughout the school year and practised at each year level), and are well resourced. Ready-Ed Publications

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Source: www.health.nsw.gov.au

A key source of support is from the parents, and issues such as education, access – both physically and financially – to healthy foods and exercise opportunities for the whole family, must be addressed on an ongoing basis.


2.2 Cultural and Indigenous Health Issues Cultural issues that restrict access to education and health resources can further impact on current community health issues. Families that speak limited English may miss out on information that would otherwise assist in the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle. Certain cultures may also favour diets that do not reflect the commonly accepted ideas of a “balanced diet” in Australia.

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Of particular concern is the health of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population in Australia. Having had to adjust rapidly from a hunter-gatherer lifestyle when European people settled, indigenous peoples are now known to experience a high incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. Health problems in some indigenous populations are compounded by socio-economic disadvantages and remote living conditions, reducing access to fresh foods and health services. Poor living conditions increase the risk of infectious disease, with gastro-intestinal illnesses increasing the likelihood of poor nutritional intake. Substance abuse, which has been identified as a problem in some indigenous communities, has also been identified as a risk factor, in that long-term, excessive use of alcohol is linked to nutritional deficiencies and less money is consequently spent on healthy food.

The high incidence of low birth weight in Aboriginal infants has been linked to dietary problems later in life, if followed by ongoing nutritional deficiencies. This problem is said to be improving slowly but still needs to be acknowledged as an area of concern. Solutions for the health problems experienced by indigenous groups are in many ways similar to that of the general population, although specific issues such as those outlined above need to be taken into consideration.

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Initiatives towards improving the health of these individuals need to be community-based with a focus on specific, local needs. The problems that may exist for a group living in a remote outback setting will differ from the needs of indigenous families in an inner-city dwelling. Approaches that cater for early intervention are best, as healthy habits can be established from an early age, and childhood health problems can be prevented rather than needing to be addressed later on. Instead of focusing simply on education for a healthy lifestyle, concrete measures to address the other risk factors mentioned above must also be incorporated through community policy and practice.

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Reference:

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Cultural traditions and beliefs, languages spoken and learning styles of indigenous groups need to be considered when planning new programmes, with realistic expectations of outcomes. The groups themselves would also benefit from being involved in making decisions at every stage of the process as a sense of ownership enhances motivation. Electronic version of the publication: Nutrition in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples from the National Health and Medical Research Council (2000) at www.health.nsw.gov.au/obesity (Go to the Obesity Summit page and check out the links page.)

o c . che e r o t r s s uper Note: Ideas for “Cultural Issues” activities can be found in Junior Book - Activity 5 Middle Book - Activity 2

P A G E 8 HEALTHY BODIES, HAPPY KIDS – RESOURCE BOOK

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3

A Healthy Diet

3.1 Diet Recommendations

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The recommendations for a healthy diet can vary slightly depending on the source and age of the documentation. However, most Australian health references agree on these basic principles on dietary guidelines for children:

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A complete diet can be divided up into “Food Groups”, namely 1) Grains, 2) Fruit and Vegetables, 3) Dairy, 4) Meat and Proteins and 5) Fats and Oils. There are slight variations of this model found throughout the available literature.

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Eat mostly foods from the grain group (bread, cereals, rice, pasta; up to 7 serves daily) and fruit and vegetable groups (7 serves daily, e.g. 2 pieces of fruit and 5 serves of vegetables). Eat moderate amounts of foods from the dairy group (2 – 3 serves of milk, cheese, yoghurt) and meats/proteins group (1 – 2 serves of red meat, poultry, fish, eggs). Eat moderate to smaller amounts of polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fats. Choose foods that are low in saturated fats, sugars and salt.

Choose foods that support the RDI (Recommended Dietary Intake) of essential nutrients, such as calcium, iron and vitamins.

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A variety of different foods will increase the likelihood of achieving a healthy balance of foods from these groups.

Drinking about 8 glasses of water each day will help to keep the body hydrated and functioning smoothly.

Eat Most

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Food Groups Cereals, breads

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Vegetables, legumes Fruit

Milk, yoghurt, cheese

Lean meat, fish, poultry Eggs, nuts

Eat Least

Butter, margarine Fats, olis, sugar

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How Much Should You Eat?

A balanced diet can be introduced to students by having them consider guidelines like those detailed by the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. These guidelines recommend that we eat foods from the five food groups every day as in the diagram on the left. Variations of this approach are seen throughout Australian and overseas references. Sometimes the healthy food pyramid is used to educate on the correct balance of foods. There are many other ways to remind students of the recommended balance, such as through characters in the BLM Activity Books of this series.

P A G E 9 HEALTHY BODIES, HAPPY KIDS – RESOURCE BOOK


Note: Ideas for “Healthy Diet” activities can be found in: Junior Book - Activities 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 Middle Book - Activities 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7 Upper Book - Activities 1, 2, 4, 5

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There are many different healthy food choices for each food group. Below are just a few:

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Grains: rice, risotto, sandwiches, rolls, foccacia, Turkish breads, pitta bread used for dipping, flat bread used as wraps or as a pizza base, healthy breakfast cereals, muesli bars, pasta dishes, noodles in stir fry. Fruit: fresh fruit, tinned fruit, fruit rollups, fruit kebabs, fruit salad or platters, juice or smoothies, dried fruit, fruit served on cereals, frozen fruit juice ice blocks. Vegetables: fresh, frozen, tinned, stir-fried, served with healthy dips, in sandwiches, with pastas, juiced, in vegetable pies, lasagne or stuffed baked potatoes, soups, salads, tacos. Meat and Protein: lean meat, baked, roasted, stir-fried, cold meats, fish fillets, grilled, barbecued, kebabs, quiche, boiled eggs, in sandwiches or rolls, small amounts to top pizza. Dairy: low-fat cheese and milk, yoghurt, sour cream, light cream, low-fat ice cream, dips made with cottage cheese or ricotta, fruit milkshakes, fondue with raw vegetables.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons 3.2 Nutrients and Their Role •f o rr evi ew p ur p oses onl y•

A varied diet including some of the choices above will provide an adequate intake of fats, salts and sugars without the need for additional foods that contain excesses of these ingredients.

Protein

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The primary role of food is to supply nutrients to the body for maintenance, repair, immunity and energy. These nutrients include: protein, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, fats and water.

Protein gives the body the materials to build up, maintain and repair the muscles and organs. It also assists in the production of haemoglobin, the substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen around the body. Protein also creates antibodies, cells that fight off infection and disease. Protein is found in meat, fish, eggs, dairy foods, beans and nuts.

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Carbohydrates supply energy to the body. There are two different types of carbohydrates: sugars and starches. Sugars (also known as simple carbohydrates)) can be found in many fruits, as well as in high-fat foods such as chocolate. Sugars are absorbed into the bloodstream very quickly to provide a fast energy boost. Starches (complex carbohydrates) take longer to be digested, so they release energy over a longer period of time, resulting in increased stamina. They are found in bread, cereals, pasta and vegetables.

Minerals Minerals account for a range of functions, from building bones to transmitting nerve impulses. Minerals are found in small amounts in a wide range of foods, from meat to fruit to dairy products. For children, teenagers and women, it is especially important to receive enough calcium, the mineral that strengthens bones. Calcium can be found in dairy products, leafy green vegetables and some fish such as sardines and tuna. P A G E 1 0 HEALTHY BODIES, HAPPY KIDS – RESOURCE BOOK

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Vitamins Vitamins also perform a range of functions such as aiding growth and development, boosting immunity and energy, and supporting vital organs in the body such as the eyes. Vitamins are found in a range of foods, especially fruits, vegetables and dairy products.

Fats

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Fats are stored energy. Aside from this function, they help to make hormones that are needed for a range of tasks, such as keeping the body at the right temperature and maintaining blood pressure. Fats are also helpful in moving vitamins around the body – they help vitamins A, D, E and K to be absorbed by our system. Too many fats, though, are a cause of health problems, such as obesity, clogged arteries and diabetes. Fats are usually supplied by the foods eaten every day, such as meat, milk, cheese, fish, and some plants.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Water

Fibre

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Water is the main ingredient in the fluids of the body’s circulatory system, lymphatic system, digestive system and urinary system. It is the agent used in perspiration, to keep the body cool. It also acts as a lubricant for joints and organs. The body loses between 2 and 3 litres of water a day from all of these activities and more following exercise or during hot weather. As all foods contain water, a certain amount can be replaced each day just by eating. However, approximately 8 glasses of water will meet the needs for this essential nutrient more adequately.

Fibre is a substance found in plants such as fruits, vegetables, and grains. It helps the digestive system work properly to eliminate wastes. It has also been found to be good for the body as a whole, by reducing the chances of cancer, heart disease and diabetes.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f or e vi ew puand r poCalories sesonl y• 3.3r Kilojoules

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As outlined in the passage above on nutrients, the main sources of energy are carbohydrates, proteins and fats, which are converted by the body into their simplest components of simple sugars, amino acids and fatty acids. The energy supplied by these nutrients is measured in kilojoules (a metric measure used in Australia and NZ). This measure is used to explain how much energy can be derived from certain foods, as well as how much can be “burned” by physical activity. Kilojoules are also called calories, and 1 calorie is equivalent to 4.186 kilojoules. (In the USA, which uses the Imperial measure rather than metric, products such as “Lo-Cal” are available.) To give an idea of the “power” of one calorie, this is the amount of energy required to increase 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius in temperature.

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The following shows how many kilojoules are found in one gram of: Fat - 37 kJ Carbohydrates - 16 kJ Protein - 17 kJ Dietar Dietaryy fibre - 13 kJ Water - 0 kJ

This indicates that the best way to acquire energy without oversupplying the body with fats is to eat foods higher in carbohydrates and fibre than in fats. Research also shows that the body finds it easier to convert fat from foods into body fat than to re-form carbohydrates as fat – therefore, foods high in fat will more likely be stored in the body if consumed in excess. Additional stores of fat will continue to “pile on”, as evidenced by the extreme sizes that people with obesity can reach. Ready-Ed Publications

P A G E 1 1 HEALTHY BODIES, HAPPY KIDS – RESOURCE BOOK


How are kilojoules burned? The rate at which kilojoules are required and burned will depend on a number of factors, such as gender, age, height, weight, genetic make-up, physical activity and metabolism. Growth and development require significant amounts of energy, so children and adolescents will require additional energy sources. Muscle tissue consumes a huge amount of energy, so the more muscular a person is, the higher their energy requirements will be. To simply burn off the excess kilojoules consumed takes a lot of work. To lose 1kg of body fat, a person would have to use up 37 000 kilojoules in physical activity. Maintaining a healthy diet that supplies energy at an appropriate level means that a balance can be achieved between intake and elimination though a normal diet and a realistic exercise regime.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S How much is required?

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Many sites, such as www.medicalonline.com.au contain tables with recommended daily intake for adults and children. These need to be used as a guide only, as many factors, including age, gender, general health and diet over a period of time, all influence the amounts of nutrients required and used by the body.

3.4 Recent Food Trends in Australia

In recent years, several food production companies have attempted to persuade consumers to buy and use their products by claiming to be healthy, or to provide a unique health benefit. Below are some examples of these products, and research into their true health merits.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• “Energy” Drinks

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These drinks often contain large doses of legal stimulants such as caffeine (equal to one or often more cups of coffee), guarana (a plant extract that also contains caffeine), taurine (a protein – most healthy people already have enough protein in their daily diet) and ginseng. High levels of sugar (10-12%) are also found in these drinks and long-term use can contribute to obesity and dental problems, as well as reduced water absorption leading to dehydration. The effects of drinking these doses can last up to 12 hours. Specifically targeting the youth market, these drinks are attractive and readily available to children. The “energy” obtained from these drinks only provides a short-term boost. Caffeine increases heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature, and can also result in hand tremors and heartbeat irregularities. Children who consume energy drinks in excess can suffer from sleep disturbances and anxiety, according to Sports Medicine Australia. Source: www.smartplay.net/whatsnew

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There is an enormous amount of literature indicating research to support arguments both for and against the use of daily vitamin supplements. Certainly, there are some situations where additional vitamins are beneficial, particularly during pregnancy, chronic illness or if a person has chosen to completely remove any variation of food containing certain nutrients (for example, becoming a vegetarian, or removing gluten or dairy products from the diet). Many medical sources, however, agree that a normal, balanced diet will supply all of the necessary vitamins and minerals required, particularly if a variety of foods are eaten, as some foods contain a higher concentration of some nutrients and less of others. In fact, some research indicates that certain vitamins, particularly fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K can be toxic in large amounts due to an inability to be properly absorbed and used by the body, resulting in unpleasant side-effects.

P A G E 1 2 HEALTHY BODIES, HAPPY KIDS – RESOURCE BOOK

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Low-Fat Foods

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There is a difference between eating foods that are low in fat, such as fresh fruit and vegetables, and low-fat foods, which are foods such as dairy products that have been reduced in fat. Although many adults who wish to lose weight may consume reduced fat products, children who are of a healthy weight do not need to eat foods that are reduced in fat, according to Nutrition Australia. Fats are required in the diets of children in small amounts as a source of energy, to support cell structure and the central nervous system (essential fatty acids), to aid blood clotting and to transport fat-soluble vitamins. The most sensible guideline to follow lies in the type of fats consumed. Oils such as olive, canola monounsaturated polyunsaturated and peanut (monounsaturated monounsaturated) and fish oils, soy bean, nuts and seeds (polyunsaturated polyunsaturated) are saturated fats that can be consumed moderately. Only small amounts of fats should be consumed. These are found in butter, lard, dairy foods, meats and chicken.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Vegetarianism

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There are varying degrees of vegetarianism, ranging from “semi-vegetarians” who have only removed red meat from their diet, “lacto vegetarians”, removing meat, fish and eggs from their diet, “lacto-ovo vegetarians”, eating milk and eggs but no meat, and “vegans”, who eat only plant-based products. People follow vegetarian diets due to reasons relating to their beliefs or preferences in health, religion or animal rights. Vegetarian diets are not necessarily healthier, and can sometimes lead to deficiencies, unless careful planning ensures that all essential nutrients are consumed either by meat alternatives or vitamin supplements.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Fad Diets

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A multitude of “fad diets” exist in Australian society, with many books being produced, claiming a life-changing experience. Nutrition Australia has reviewed some of these: High Protein Diets: Lacking in fruit and vegetables, and carbohydrates, this diet is low in energy and some essential nutrients. High Carbohydrate Diets: These diets can be low in fat, and although many are healthy, they can be an extreme change from the high-fat content in many regular diets. Other Diets: Consisting of various food combinations, some of these diets have very little scientific evidence to support their claims.

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3.5 Labelling Requirements The adequacy of information on food labels has been much publicised in recent years. Food Standards Australia New Zealand have released the following requirements for packaged food: Nutrition labelling, with information on the levels of energy, protein, total fat, saturated fat, carbohydrates, sugars and sodium, in addition to other nutrients claimed to be in the product; Percentage labelling of some ingredients on some foods;

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Accurate name or description of the food;

Name and address of the manufacturer or importer;

Declaration of any ingredients which may be allergens for some people; A “use-by” or “best before” date (bread can have a “baked on” label); Approved additives listed;

Storage information if required; Country of origin (this requirement is currently under review).

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An ingredients list from greatest to smallest ingoing weight;

Further information on labelling can be obtained from: www www.foodstandards.gov .foodstandards.gov.au www .foodstandards.gov .au Many foods also have a table outlining the nutritional content of foods, and since December 2002, requirements developed by Food Standards Australia New Zealand directed that all foods display such tables, apart from those consumed in very small amounts, such as herbs and spices. This will enable consumers who wish to avoid certain ingredients, or monitor their nutritional intake, to be able to make a more informed choice. The Advertising Federation of Australia has issued warnings related to the advertising of non-genetically modified food, so that companies are vigilant in ensuring that their claims are accurate. The National Heart Foundation has specific guidelines by which a company must abide in order to use the healthy “Tick” logo. These are just some of the concerns related to the information that is available to consumers. Aside from regulations on the accuracy of information on nutritional panels, there are many strategies, used by companies in large print on the front of packaging, in an attempt to mislead or persuade the customer. Some examples are shown below. These are from www.askdrsears.com (Learning About Food Package Labels), which contains comprehensive information on the issue of food labelling.

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Often, the word “lite” or “light” does not indicate a product that is lower in fat. Sometimes, as in the case of olive oil, it can mean “light in colour”. If pertaining to fat, the product should contain at least half the fat of the regular product.

Fat Free:

Should contain less than 0.5gm of fat per serving size. A product claiming to be 95% fat free means that it contains 5% fat, which is actually quite a bit if the portion is large.

Low Fat: Should contain 3gm or less of fat per serving size.

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Pure: Has no generally accepted meaning, and this statement is of little value.

Natural: Does not necessarily mean “good for you”. For example a fatty serve of steak can be called natural.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Made from natural … :

A product can start off as natural but be subject to extensive processing before it hits the shelves.

Made with real fruit:

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This may be true, but it may be difficult to find just how much real fruit is actually in the product – it may be predominantly artificial flavours and sweeteners with a small portion of fruit added for texture and appearance.

Fruit Drink:

May contain more artificial flavours than natural fruit. Choose fruit juices instead.

Read labels carefully, taking note of the “per serving” columns rather than the “per 100gm” if the whole container is being consumed. If the product is being served from a larger package, take note of the size of the serving that is being eaten, compared to the suggested serving size in the nutritional information panel.

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When reading labels, also take note of these ingredients, as sodium, cholesterol and sugar are common items that need to be reduced in some diets:

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Ideas for “Labelling Requirements” activities (next page) can be found in: Junior Book Middle Book Upper Book

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Sodium: salt, bicarbonate of soda, baking soda, monosodium glutamate (MSG). Cholesterol: animal fats, cheese, and whole milk. Sugar: fructose, dextrose, sucrose, glucose, lactose, honey, molasses and corn syrup.

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Activity 18 Activities 22, 23 Activity 3

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4

Health Problems & Diet

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 4.1 What is Cholesterol?

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Cholesterol is a fat-like substance that is used in the body for everyday functions such as the production of Vitamin D, the absorption of essential fatty acids and the production of sex hormones. Cholesterol travels through the body in two forms – LDL (low-density lipoprotein), which can build up and lead to atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries due to a build up, which increases the risk of a heart attack). The other form, called HDL (high-density lipoprotein), carries surplus cholesterol away from the tissues. High LDL levels can occur if there is a genetic predisposition and the diet is high in saturated fats found in animal fats (in full cream milk, on the edges of cuts of lamb and beef) and biscuits, pastries and other high-fat snack foods, especially fried foods. People with high cholesterol are usually recommended to follow a diet with low-fat varieties and leaner cuts of meat, avoiding fried foods and using unsaturated margarines rather than butter. Physical activity will help to stabilise the balance of fats in the body, and sometimes medication is prescribed to help lower cholesterol.

4.2Re Cardiovascular © adyEdPubDisease l i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Cardiovascular disease collectively describes a variety of conditions including heart disease, stroke and vascular disease. These all affect the functioning of the heart and blood vessels as they transport blood around the body, due to build ups of fatty deposits in blood vessels, hardening of the artery walls (atherosclerosis), and increased blood pressure placing demands on the heart to work harder. The heart itself needs oxygen to perform its function, and when blockages prevent oxygenated blood from reaching the heart, problems can occur. Partial blockages place a strain on the heart, and pain called angina often occurs. Total blockages can result in death of heart muscle cells, known as myocardial infarction, or heart attack. When the heart stops beating, death can occur unless immediate medical attention assists the heart to begin beating once more. Arterial blockages near the brain can lead to stroke, which can manifest itself in a variety of ways including paralysis of the limbs and face, cognitive impairment and behavioural changes. The risk of atherosclerosis rises considerably in people who smoke, have high cholesterol levels, diabetes or high blood pressure. Many factors impacting upon heart health are linked to obesity and are essentially preventable.

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Diabetes is one of Australia’s fastest-growing chronic diseases, with over 500 000 Australians affected and just as many who have symptoms of the disease but have not yet been diagnosed. Diabetes is characterised by the inability of the pancreas to produce enough insulin – a hormone required to allow glucose in the blood to enter cells and be converted to energy. There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 (10 – 15% of cases) Occurs when the pancreas is not producing insulin due to an autoimmune response attacking pancreas cells, and daily injections are required to supplement this. Careful blood sugar monitoring is required, as well as maintenance of a healthy diet and lifestyle. Onset generally occurs during childhood or early adolescence, and is usually not caused by lifestyle factors. P A G E 1 6 HEALTHY BODIES, HAPPY KIDS – RESOURCE BOOK

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Type 2 (85 – 90% of cases) Is characterised by the pancreas not producing enough insulin, or the body is not using insulin in a healthy way, and is caused by genetic predisposition and lifestyle factors, such as obesity. Onset is more gradual and usually occurs in later adulthood (after about 45, although can occur earlier than this). Treatment, if the disease is identified early, may only require some lifestyle and dietary modifications, although if left untreated, insulin injections may also be required. In Australia, the indigenous population is more at risk of diabetes due to their physical inability to process the high-sugar diets introduced by European settlers. Both types of diabetes can result in complications such as heart attack and stroke (caused by high blood fats and elevated blood pressure), leg ulcers and foot problems (caused by peripheral nerve disease and blood vessel damage), kidney disease and diabetic retinopathy, which is a leading cause of blindness.

r o e t s Bo r e p 4.4 Food Additiveso u k S

Source: www.diabetesaustralia.com.au

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Additives can be described as anything added to a food which is not intended to be a major ingredient. Additives are used to increase taste (for example, artificial sweeteners or flavour enhancers), improve colour, preserve the food or add to the vitamin or mineral constitution of the food. Food Standards Australia New Zealand regulates the type and amount of additives that are included in processed foods. Usually these additives are included on ingredient lists as internationally recognised coded numbers. Generally speaking, numbers in the 100’s indicate colours, and preservatives are numbered in the 200’s and 300’s. The flavour enhancer monosodium glutamate (MSG) is otherwise known as 621. Although many people express concern over the presence of additives, much of the literature indicates that very few people have adverse reactions to additives. It is important for those allergic to certain additives to carefully read food labels to check for their presence.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr ev i ew puAllergies r posesonl y• 4.5 Food

Source: www.foodsciencebureau.com.au/

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Food allergies occur when the body produces an immune response (in the form of histamines) to certain chemical substances in foods. This leads to bodily reactions such as rashes, swelling, vomiting, diarrhoea or breathing difficulties. A life-threatening combination of these reactions is known as anaphylaxis. Common allergens include milk, eggs, fish, shellfish, soy, wheat and nuts. Food intolerances occur because some people lack certain digestive chemicals and are unable to break some foods down. The responses, such as gas and diarrhoea, are often mistaken for allergies. The best “cure” for food allergies and intolerances is avoidance of the food in question, although it is best to consult a doctor or specialist who can advise on the specific situation and help to ensure that a person still has a balanced diet if they need to avoid certain foods.

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Source: www.foodallergy.org

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4.6 Eating Disorders One of the many dangers associated with obesity in children and adolescents is the potential for individuals with weight-control problems to develop an eating disorder. There are many forms of eating disorders, namely: anorexia and bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder and eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Anorexia Nervosa

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Anorexia Nervosa is characterised by extreme restrictions on food intake combined with an unhealthy body weight (significantly below the normal range). The person with anorexia has intense fears of gaining weight and/or losing control of their eating habits. Often, their body image is distorted and the person does not recognise that they are underweight. Bulimia Nervosa

Binge Eating Disorder

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Bulimia Nervosa is demonstrated by a lack of control over eating, characterised by swings between “binge eating”, often in secret, and periods of compensation for binges by self-induced vomiting, laxative use, excessive exercise and fasting.

Binge Eating Disorder is demonstrated by periods of binge eating without compensatory behaviour such as vomiting or excessive exercise. It is often difficult to pinpoint a single cause of an eating disorder, with many factors appearing to play a role in most cases.

Some examples of these factors include an extreme reaction to social expectations of thinness, family attitudes and poor communication habits, biological dysfunction, personal beliefs and anxious or submissive personality traits and/or tragic or stressful life events. Risk factors precipitating eating disorders include a low self-esteem, problems with accepting oneself, problems with weight perception and excessive dieting. Eating disorders can damage the body and its systems, and can cause physiological effects such as temperature sensitivity, poor bone density, fertility interference, changes in hair, skin and nails, weakness in the cardiovascular system and muscles; and psychological effects such as anxiety, depression and personality changes. Severe cases of eating disorders, particularly anorexia, can result in hospitalisation and even the risk of death. Many specialised organizations and support groups exist to assist in the physical and psychological healing of people with eating disorders.

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Ongoing counselling to restore a healthy perception of self, and careful monitoring of an adequate diet, may need to continue for months or even years. Many people “recover” from eating disorders and go on to live a normal, healthy life, although some are at risk of relapse during stressful periods of their life. One of the problems associated with both obesity and extreme weight loss is the fact that society places a strong focus on physical appearance, creating a sense of guilt and fear of rejection if the perceived standards are not met. Instead, the goal should be based on healthy behaviour, as this is more likely to result in more realistic weight maintenance.

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5

Body Systems & a Healthy Lifestyle

r o e t s B r e oo 5.1 p The Digestive System u k S

Awareness of the structure and function of the digestive and cardiovascular systems can aid understanding of how a healthy lifestyle can reduce the risk of obesity.

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Digestion begins in the mouth, where the teeth reduce food into small, manageable portions to swallow. The enzymes in saliva start to break the food down chemically and the tongue assists in moulding the food into a ball and pushing it down the oesophagus. The oesophagus is a muscular tube that moves in waves of muscle contraction, called peristalsis, down into the stomach.

The stomach walls contract, moving food around as gastric juices break food down into chemical components. This process takes approximately 4 hours. Gradually, food is pushed into the small intestine (which is between 5.5 and 7 metres long, looped back upon itself in the abdomen). Here, nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream by finger-like structures called villi, and transported though the body to carry out various functions. teeth

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The gall bladder stores bile, and this is squirted into the small intestine to help break down fats. The undigested remains continue on into the large intestine, where water is reabsorbed into the body.

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The pancreas is an organ, about 15 cm long, which produces enzymes that break down proteins, carbohydrates and fats, as well as maintaining the blood sugar levels in the body.

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The waste moves into the rectum and is passed out of the body.

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5.2 The Cardiovascular System After a person breathes in oxygen-rich air, the air travels down the trachea and into two branches called the bronchi, which lead to the lungs. These bronchi separate into smaller branches called bronchioles, which terminate at tiny sacs called alveoli. At the alveoli, oxygen is exchanged with carbon dioxide, which is present in capillaries from the pulmonary arteries. The carbon dioxide is the waste product from cellular use of oxygen, and is transported through the lungs and exhaled, whilst the incoming oxygen passes into capillaries leading to the pulmonary veins, which carry the oxygenated blood to the heart and body.

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The diaphragm, a large, flat muscle at the base of the lungs and the intercostal muscles, between the ribs, control breathing. The movement of these contract and expand the chest cavity. When a person inhales, increased room inside the chest cavity lowers the air pressure, causing air to flow into the lungs to equalise the pressure.

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Breathing rates vary depending on age and fitness levels, but at rest are usually between 12 and 20 breaths per minute for adults and 15 and 25 breaths per minute for children aged 6 – 12. When a person is exercising, the muscles are consuming oxygen to perform their function. Therefore, the body will increase its breathing rate in response to aerobic activity so enough oxygen reaches these muscle cells.

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The opposite occurs as exhalation reduces the space in the chest cavity and air is forced out to equalise the pressure. This pattern is monitored by the autonomic nervous system, which means that it is normally not a conscious action. The medulla, part of the lower brain, contains respiratory centres that respond to changing levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood and change the level of breathing to accommodate the body’s needs. arteries (dark)

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As the heart pumps, blood is forced out into arteries and moves though the body. Where the arteries become capillaries, the blood cells travel in single file and oxygen and nutrients pass through the capillary walls and into cells of the body to perform their functions.

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Deoxygenated blood returns via veins to the lungs, where it is “re-fuelled”.

Note: Ideas for “Body Systems and a Healthy Lifestyle” activities can be found in: Junior Book - Activity 7 Middle Book - Activities 8, 9, 10 Upper Book - Activities 6, 7 P A G E 2 0 HEALTHY BODIES, HAPPY KIDS – RESOURCE BOOK

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6

Physical Exercise

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 6.1 Why Exercise?

Many of these benefits of exercise are found in several information sources:

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Physical Benefits

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Exercise stretches ligaments, maintaining flexibility and joint lubrication, which prevents injuries from overstretching. The cardiovascular system is strengthened, lung capacity increases and the process becomes more efficient, reducing risks of heart disease and stroke. Excess fats are “burned”, keeping the body at a healthy weight. The immune system is improved. Physical stamina, muscular strength, balance, and coordination are increased. Reaction times improve. Weight bearing helps to maintain bone density, protecting from the effects of osteoporosis.

© Re adyEdPubl i cat i ons Mental, Social and Emotional Benefits •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

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Concentration levels are increased. Endorphin releases result in a feeling of well being and reduced stress levels. Physical appearance improves (particularly if healthy weight loss and muscular toning occurs), improving self-esteem. Goal setting and a sense of achievement are developed as exercise aims are met. Belonging to a sporting or leisure club builds awareness of teamwork, commitment, time management and positive social interaction.

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Ideas for “Physical Exercise” activities can be found in: Junior Book - Activities 8, 9, 10 Middle Book - Activities 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 Upper Book - Activities 6, 7

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6.2 Types of Exercise There are four different types of exercise (although definitions will vary slightly depending on the source). Most fitness experts will recommend a combination of these types so that maximum benefits can be experienced.

Aerobic Movement of larger muscle groups over a period of a few minutes or more.

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After a short amount of time, additional oxygen is required to maintain the necessary production of energy, which is why this type of exercise leads to an increased breathing rate and pulse.

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Aside from the metabolic reactions that consume fats, these types of exercise will usually also improve the function of the cardiovascular system.

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Subsequent health benefits include reduced risks of obesity and cardiovascular disease.

Examples of aerobic exercise include walking, swimming, cycling, tennis, football and netball. Most forms of aerobic exercise are practised for between 20 and 60 minutes.

Anaerobic

Shorter bursts of energy, such as sprinting, without the excess intake of oxygen. Is dependent on stores of oxygen within the muscles.

This type will improve athletic performance but overall health benefits are not as significant if this type of exercise is performed without other types.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons Resistance •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

Usually carried out by performing repeated sets of lifting or pushing against a form of resistance to a particular set of muscles.

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Examples include using free weights or weight machines, or doing sets of sit-ups, push-ups, squats, leg raises, etc. (where gravity acts as the resistant force).

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Stimulates growth of muscle cells, leading to overall increase in muscle size and strength. Also contributes to weight loss, as muscles are more effective than body fat in calorie consumption.

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Exercise aimed specifically at increasing range of motion in joints.

Examples include warm-up stretches, yoga, callisthenics, gymnastics and dance movements. Most forms of exercise will contribute to overall flexibility.

Can improve posture and prevent injury caused by overstretching of ligaments.

Source: www.intellihealth.com

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6.3 Sport Solutions and Alternatives Many children avoid physical activity because they experience problems with coordination, balance, endurance and strength. Lack of “sporting” ability and reduced confidence can affect each other in an ongoing cycle. Consequences of physical inactivity, such as obesity, can act as a further deterrent. Low energy levels and motivation, reduced self-esteem, and the assumption that overweight people are not athletic can consolidate the dilemma. One of the issues identified in the 2002 NSW Childhood Obesity Summit (September 10–12, 2002) was the need to cultivate the acquisition of fundamental movement skills in children. If early intervention in practice of basic skills such as balance, ball skills, hand-eye coordination, gross motor control and sequencing is not implemented, students can lack the foundations on which to build more complex abilities such as the capacity to play wing attack in netball or to kick a ball in a football match.

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Jane Vallentyne, from the University of Alberta, in her presentation paper Skills with Thrills identifies that fundamental movement skill acquisition can be likened to language development in that a “window” exists where children before the age of 9 can learn and integrate skills more easily. As children get older, it becomes more difficult to do this. The most effective way to teach fundamental movement skills is to have an understanding of the sequential development, and to break the task down into manageable components. Using age-appropriate language to explain movements, as well as plenty of modelling and hands on practice is important. Finally, young children need a fun, and supportive environment in which to learn these skills. Using activities that isolate the skill but have a theme or game to increase motivation, and plenty of variety, will be the most successful way to encourage skills. Parents and students should also be reminded that not all types of physical activity require specific skills or demand that the child participates in a team sport. A brainstorming session with a class should be able to produce a large variety of ideas for activities such as the examples provided below:

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Walking the dog Swimming at the beach Flying a kite Rollerblading or skating Dancing with friends Riding to school Frisbee throwing Playing with a hula hoop Helping with the housework (e.g. sweeping, making the bed, washing windows) Playing games such as “chasey”, hide and seek, etc.

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Identifying active recreation as being as worthy and as beneficial as organised team sports will help to boost the confidence of students who prefer a non-competitive environment. Many health education sources identify that a current obstacle to maintaining a healthy lifestyle is the amount of time that people spend in front of a computer screen, instead of engaging in physical activity. One idea that has been designed to combat this in Australia is a computer program with an animated character that appears on the computer screen, offering fitness tips, nutritional advice and other lifestyle information to children and adults. See the website: www.computerfit.com for more information.

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6.4 How Do I Programme Physical Activity Into the Day?

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Many teachers may sense that pressure is mounting on them to be solely responsible for “fixing” the increasing problem of childhood obesity. This should not be the case, as other influences such as families and the media, should also play a part in addressing the health needs of children. The teacher’s role, however, can be made easier by thoughtful integration of activities, so that in today’s perceived “crowded curriculum”, some breathing space can be made as health-promoting lessons can share outcomes with other learning areas. Listed below are some ways in which exercise can be programmed into the school day. A section later on in this manual will address ways in which other areas, such as a healthy diet, can be incorporated. Find a time where daily fitness suits the type of class you have. Some teachers avoid fitness time because it is difficult to calm students down afterwards. Try using it as an incentive for students to work hard during morning lessons. If the class “earns” fitness time (which they usually work hard to do), then fitness can be held just prior to recess or lunchtime. This way, students will make an effort to complete set work, and the high energy levels will be dissipated during the break. Use fitness activities as part of another lesson, for example measuring how far they can run in 10 seconds for maths, writing rules for an outdoors game as a language activity, walking around the school to observe plant life for science. Lead students in stretching exercises between every few lessons. This aids concentration and improves posture. Use soft foam balls to practise throwing and catching skills by making up games to play in a circle around the classroom on a wet day. Choose students who tend to be more “inactive” to be messengers, so that they are taking breaks to walk to the office or another classroom. Vary the areas around the school where fitness activities are conducted, so that students are kept interested by a new environment. Ensure that a reliable system is in place for borrowing sports equipment during breaks. Try to finish lessons a little earlier to encourage borrowing of equipment so that you don’t have to lock the door and “rush off to duty supervision” before students have a chance to get what they need. Teach students games that you think may “take off” in the playground, and ensure this equipment is available to them. Make sure parents are aware that every day is a sports day, so students always have correct shoes, hat and drink bottle in order to enjoy outdoor play during their breaks. Invite community sports groups to run “clinics” with classes at the school. This is enjoyed by students, teaches new strategies to teachers and encourages students to join out-of-school clubs.

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6.5 Active . Games With a Health Theme

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Most active outdoor games, as long as they are played safely by students on a regular basis, will contribute to overall fitness. These games have been adapted to incorporate a “healthy” theme, so that ideas learned during classroom time are reinforced.

Year Levels: Junior and Middle

FOCUS SKILLS SKILLS:: Listening skills and speed EQUIPMENT EQUIPMENT:: None Procedure: Students stand in a circle. The teacher walks around the circle naming each student as one of four fruits, e.g. apple, banana, pear, orange. Each time the teacher calls out a fruit all students of that fruit must swap places with someone else from that group. If the teacher calls “fruit salad”, the whole class must change places with someone else. This game can also be played on chairs in a large room. Being “out”, if a student is the last one to move to a new position, is optional. P A G E 2 4 HEALTHY BODIES, HAPPY KIDS – RESOURCE BOOK

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Healthy Hamburgers FOCUS SKILLS: Listening skills and cooperation EQUIPMENT: 5 – 8 hoops, small sticky dots or strips of material (4 – 6 different colours) Procedure: Briefly review the importance of including all food groups in a diet. Place the hoops randomly in a large, open space. Give each student a strip of material or a sticky dot to wear and match each colour with a hamburger filling, e.g. blue = bun, red = tomato, yellow = cheese, green = lettuce, pink = beetroot. Teacher calls out “Fillings everywhere” and the students must walk, jog, skip or hop around. When the teacher calls “Hamburger”, the students must stand inside a hoop by the time the teacher has counted slowly back from five. Each group that has made a complete hamburger earns the class five points. Each student who has not found a group in time earns the teacher one point. The aim is for the class to stay ahead of the teacher in points.

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Year Levels: Middle and Upper

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FOCUS SKILLS:: Running speed and action accuracy EQUIPMENT:: 4 large bathroom sponges, 8 buckets (4 filled to the same level with water) Procedure: Explain to the students the importance of enough blood getting around the body during exercise. Break the students up into four teams, giving each leader a sponge. Each team has to line up behind a full bucket of water. On “go”, each team member has a turn at filling the sponge with water and running to the other bucket (placed 10 – 20m away) where the sponge is squeezed empty. Continue until each team member has had a turn (teams sit down to finish). One point is allocated to the team that finishes first, and two points are given to the team that has got the most “blood” in the end bucket.

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Year Levels: Middle and Upper

Fruit © ReadyEdKebabs Publ i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y•

FOCUS SKILLS: Body mobility and throwing accuracy EQUIPMENT: Five coloured hoops per team (for about 5 teams) Procedure: One team member stands about 5m away, facing their team-mates who are all in a single file line. The single student is the “kebab stick”. One by one, each student in the team must pick a hoop and call out a fruit of the same colour (blue = blueberry, red = strawberry, yellow = pineapple, orange = orange, green = apple). Once they have called out the fruit, they must throw the hoop from their starting line over the kebab stick. The kebab sticks may move their body, but not their feet, to help get the hoop on. Each student can have three tries before someone else has a turn at throwing. The winning team is the first one with all the fruit on the kebab. (Adapted from

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Year Levels: Junior to Upper

o c . che e r o t r s super Digestion Ball

FOCUS SKILLS:: Teamwork and ball skills EQUIPMENT:: One basketball per team (4 – 6 teams) Procedure: This game runs in the same principle as tunnel ball, however each time the ball goes through the team, it is moved differently according to the body part called out. Familiarise teams with the process first. As with tunnel ball, the ball moves from front to back but in this game, each time the front student has had their turn at a movement, they run quickly to the back of the team, thus creating an “endless tunnel”. Teeth: Ball must be passed overhead and bounced 3 times by each student to munch it up. Oesophagus: The ball is rolled through the legs of the students, but must be touched by each pair of hands. Stomach: The ball is passed “over and under” until each student has touched the ball. Intestines: The ball is passed overhead but then must be passed in a complete rotation around the abdomen before it is passed on. When all team members have completed all phases, the last student must pass the ball out of the digestive tract by carrying it over a designated line near the teacher. Year Levels: Middle and Upper

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No Remote! FOCUS SKILL: Running acceleration EQUIPMENT: One hoop and three beanbags per team Procedure: Tell students that they need to increase their movement whilst watching television by getting up to “change the channels”. You need six students per team. Place hoops a short distance away from each team, with the beanbags on the ground in front of the first team member. On “go” the first team member runs with one beanbag and places it inside the hoop. The next team member “changes the channel” by running out and placing another beanbag in the hoop. When all 3 beanbags are in the hoop, the next team member brings one of the beanbags back. This continues until all of the beanbags are back and the students are sitting down in a line. Year Levels: Junior and Middle

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Ad Knockdown

FOCUS SKILL: Kicking accuracy EQUIPMENT: 8 small witches hats, 2 soccer balls, 5 small laminated cards Procedure: Two teams are formed, facing each other in two lines so that each person is facing a partner from the opposite team. Two students are also required to stand to the side as judges. 8 witches hats are placed down the centre, between the two teams. Both teams are asked to turn around and the judges hide the laminated cards underneath 5 of the 8 witches hats. The teams turn around. The teacher nominates a pair and these two students kick the soccer ball to try and knock down any witches hat. The judges help to retrieve the balls and pass it on to the next nominated pair. Each team scores two points for a normal ad. that is knocked down and five points for knocking down a “junk food” ad, indicated by the coloured cards underneath. The judges help to decide who had knocked the witches hats down, whilst the teacher ensures that all pairs get a turn at kicking. (Adapted from Phys. Ed. Games for 6-8 year olds; Ready-Ed Publications)

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Year Levels: Middle and Upper

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FOCUS SKILL: Throwing accuracy EQUIPMENT: 20 - 30 tennis balls, square plastic crate Procedure: This can be a quick class reward activity at the end of a fitness lesson. The class nominates five students to be the orange catchers. The rest of the class stand on a line on the basketball court about 6m away from the crate. On a whistle, the whole class tries to throw their balls into the crate. The orange catchers can catch any that they know will not make it and, as long as these oranges are caught on the full, they can also be thrown into the crate from where they were caught. The number of balls that end up in the crate may be traded in for class points or minutes of free time.

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Bouncing Baked Beans

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Year Levels: Middle and Upper

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FOCUS SKILL: Group cooperation EQUIPMENT: Parachute, 10 beanbags Procedure: Students spread themselves evenly around the chute and pull it taut. A beanbag is added and students must work out a way to move the chute in unison so that the beanbag “jumps”. Once this is achieved, the teacher adds one more beanbag at a time. If the class gets a certain number of beanbags “jumping” at the same time, they can earn a class reward. Year Levels: Middle and Upper

Rock and Roll

FOCUS SKILL: Group cooperation EQUIPMENT: Parachute, two large foam balls Procedure: Students spread themselves evenly around the chute and pull it taut. A large foam ball is placed on the chute and students must keep the ball moving across the top of the chute in a rolling motion by tilting the surface. If the ball rolls off, the student closest to it is out. Once students are familiar with this game, introduce another ball. The aim is to keep both balls rolling but not touching. (Adapted from Life Fit Book 3; Ready-Ed Publications) Year Levels: Middle and Upper

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Self-Esteem 7 & Health 7.1 Self-esteem Facts r o e t s B r e oo p u k S

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Self-esteem can directly influence people’s ability to maintain a positive attitude about their own health habits. Self-esteem can be negatively affected by excessive weight due to a number of reasons, including:

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Distorted body image – even students who are not overweight may begin to feel negatively about themselves because they believe that they are “fat”. Media images – expectations permeated by the media place unrealistic expectations of body shape on children and adolescents. Peer pressure – students who are overweight are labelled as “unhealthy” and “lazy” and tend to be the target of teasing and social isolation. Parental pressure – some parents may berate their child for weight problems, but do not know how to help them with this problem.

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First and foremost, it should be remembered that nobody “chooses” to be overweight, so criticising children for allowing themselves to gain weight will do nothing to improve the situation. It is important to place the focus on becoming “healthier” rather than “losing weight” so that initial gains can be viewed from a holistic perspective, and not measured in kilograms. A child who has begun to eat more healthily or joined a new team has already made progress, whether it shows up on the scales yet or not. Self acceptance has been recognised as the first step towards change. A person who makes changes in their lifestyle because they respect their body and how they treat it, will be more likely to have permanent control over these changes than a person who places unreasonable restrictions on themselves in a response of self-disgust. In the classroom, teachers can help to nurture the self-esteem of all their students, and encourage a healthy attitude by:

Openly discussing with students the negative effects of any form of teasing. Issuing rewards for students who display accepting and encouraging behaviour (publicly with younger students, and in private for upper primary). Displaying pictures of a variety of different people around the classroom, ensuring that stereotypes and idealistic images are avoided. Using pictures of sporting stars as role models, as these people tend to have healthier body shapes than movie stars or models. Emphasising positive qualities in students which are not physical, so they develop a more intrinsic sense of confidence. Avoiding lessons that focus on specific weight of students. Filling out a worksheet that asks students to weigh or measure themselves may only destroy the confidence of sensitive students and open doors for thoughtless comments to be made. (Ref: www.chdf.org.au) When discussing the impact of foods on weight, making sure that verbal contributions are voluntary. As mentioned above, students who are sensitive about their weight may feel uncomfortable commenting on what they eat, but they are still learning by listening to others. (Ref: www.chdf.org.au)

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Eating habits are often constructed as a result of emotional issues. If children eat excessively for any reasons such as loneliness, depression, boredom or anxiety, efforts need to be made to find other ways of coping, so that unhealthy habits are not formed. Exercise, for example, is a logical alternative, as this will reverse the effects of overeating and help to increase fitness, social interaction and personal achievement. Eating for reasons linked to low self-esteem will require sensitive investigation, and may unfold deeper mental health issues. Consultation with parents, administration, school psychologists and outside agencies may be necessary to tackle these problems with adequate support.

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7.2 Peer Pressure and Junk Food

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One of the main influences on a child’s diet is the food that their peers are eating. “Fad” sweets and fast foods are heavily marketed towards children with bright packaging and gimmicks. Many children are placing pressure on their parents to buy certain foods for school lunches so that they “fit in”. Although it is unlikely that the temptation to choose unhealthy foods can be totally eliminated, there are ways to steer students in the right direction by: Using positive modelling – teachers eating healthy choices, especially if patrolling the school on duty or sitting with the class at lunch. Students will then note that teachers “practise what they preach”.

Ensuring healthy and attractive food choices at the canteen. A later section will focus on canteen foods in more detail.

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Providing adequate time and a comfortable place for students to eat food. Students are more likely to choose appropriate foods and eat them properly if they have time to finish them instead of running about with a snack on a stick. Taking the time to check younger students’ lunchboxes, and encouraging them to eat the healthy snacks: “I see you haven’t finished your apple yet”. Reading excerpts from articles where celebrities are interviewed on the healthy foods that they eat.

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Note:

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Using hygiene as a reason for introducing a no-sharing policy, so that parents’ attempts to send healthy lunches to school are not foiled by students discarding sandwiches to share chips.

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Ideas for “Self-esteem and Health” activities can be found in: Junior Book - Activities 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 Middle Book - Activities 17, 18, 19, 20 Upper Book - Activities 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19

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“Junk Food” 8 & the Media r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

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A substantial degree of concern on childhood obesity is related to the power of advertising. Advertisements for fast foods and unhealthy snacks are televised heavily during children’s viewing hours, with statistics indicating that Australia has one of the highest levels of televised fast food and junk food commercials. Cartoon mascots, prize giveaways and catchy jingles are just some of the enticements that these commercials use to target children. Many times, toys are actually used as an addition to food purchases, creating a situation where children may choose a fast food or sweet in order to obtain the “free toy”. Because large food companies make high profit margins on their sales, they are able to afford clever, glossy marketing schemes and free giveaways. Several sources of literature mention that groups have suggested placing a tax on junk foods, with revenue being placed into projects to address health problems linked to obesity.

In many fast food advertisements, nutritional facts are glossed over, or misleading language is used, so that the focus is placed on the marketing strategies rather than providing information on the product itself. In fact, lack of information is a strategy in itself, as many children will want to buy a product so that they can find out what it actually is. Young children have limited understanding of the purpose of advertising. They are unaware that advertising is conducted to increase sales, and just accept the commercials at face value.

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Current literature mentions that some countries including Sweden and Canada (Quebec) have placed restrictions on the advertising of unhealthy foods during children’s television viewing hours. Individuals and lobby groups in Australia and New Zealand are appealing to politicians to introduce similar legislation.

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(Source: www.phha.net.au and www.theage.com.au)

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Many of these groups also point out that whilst there is heavy advertising of junk foods, there is a lack of promotion for healthy food choices. Recent Australian campaigns such as the Fruit and Veg. series and the “Kids in the Kitchen” cooking segments are examples of a few initiatives that have been taken to reverse this trend. Lobby groups are calling to increase the number of positive advertisements so that children can make informed choices on the foods that they eat and are exposed to a range of creative, affordable and healthy ideas for snacks.

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Ideas for ““Junk Junk F ood and the Media” Food awareness activities can be found in: Junior Book - Activities 16, 17, 18, 19 Middle Book - Activities 21, 22, 23, 24, 25 Upper Book - A ctivities 20, 21, 22A 22A,, 22B, 23, 24

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9

Curriculum Integration

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9.1 A Cross-Curricular Approach English

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Included here are some general ideas for integrating this Health Education series into other learning areas. Specific lesson activities can also be found in each of the student books that are available.

Read and write stories about characters featured in books written about food. Use these as a springboard for class discussion on healthy habits.

Make paper fruit and vegetable shapes and write healthy poems on them. Hang them from the ceiling.

Write letters, using the correct format and the proper editing process, to thank visiting speakers or to ask healthy food/ fast food companies for more information on their products. For younger students, letters can be written to book characters to advise them of healthy habits.

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After making some healthy food, students can use the procedure format to write the recipe.

Use viewing strategies and Outcome Statements to analyse food advertisements in magazines, newspapers and on television. Write, and conduct, interviews with food producers, sports instructors, the school nurse or others to discuss their views and ideas on healthy living. Create cartoon strip stories to advertise healthy lifestyle changes.

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Compose items for the school newsletter, e.g. “This week’s healthy tip” for actual publication.

Use fruit and vegetables in word problems, e.g. “I have six apples and five bananas ...” Or to demonstrate portions, e.g. one quarter of the apple, one eighth of the banana slices.

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Aim for accuracy and consolidation of concepts when weighing and measuring during cooking. Question children, e.g. “We need to use 500ml. How much of one litre is this?”. Use junk mail to cost out a healthy meal and compare costs of different junk food brands. Provide students with kilojoule amounts for each food (found on nutritional panels and some weight control books) and ask them to carry out kilojoule additions for certain meals. Students can read food labels and compare nutritional value per serving to different portions of that same food, e.g. “How many kilojoules would there be in 3 packets of potato chips?”. Students can survey others and graph results on lifestyle preferences, e.g. favourite healthy foods, exercise, etc. Students could design and map out obstacle courses or safe riding routes to school.

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Society and Environment / SOSE / HSIE Discuss the significance, origin and health value of traditional foods from various cultures. Which cultures seem to have a healthy diet and why? Can the rate of obesity and other health problems from these cultures be researched and compared to nations with a high fat diet? Consider the different attitudes other cultures have towards body image. What difference does this make to how they eat, diet and exercise? Analyse the environmental benefits of eating fresh produce. Fresh foods with minimal packaging can be composted, fed to pets, and are more easily served as leftovers, etc. Compare this to excess packaging (mainly for marketing purposes) of many junk foods and the environmental implications.

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Discuss the wider impact that healthy lifestyles may have on our society. How would this affect our population, our health budget, people’s jobs, etc.?

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Look at historical approaches to living a healthy lifestyle. What has improved? What is worse? Do we know more but use limited amounts of this knowledge? Upper primary students can research legislation and government initiatives that are aimed at improving health issues. Debates or referenda can be held considering issues such as advertising restrictions, detailed labelling and canteen food guidelines. These can be compared to the effectiveness of laws related to smoking and alcohol.

Science

Grow a class vegetable garden, monitoring conditions and measuring growth patterns.

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Categorise fruits and vegetables according to the type or part of the plant that they come from. Conduct simple experiments with food, such as trying to extract potato chip oil from the top of a bowl of water, and record findings and implications. Examine the changes in food, such as sun-drying slices of apple.

Technology and Enterprise

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Investigate, design, make, appraise and market a new healthy product, such as a snack food.

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Examine different types of food packaging. Categorise packaging into essential, helpful or excessive for marketing. Analyse the amount and format of information provided on a variety of food packaging, comparing healthy and “junk” products. Create alternative methods for supplying this same information, considering the target consumers.

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Compose and perform jingles for healthy eating and exercise.

Paint self-portraits, afterwards discussing the parts of the body that the student likes. Use famous portraits from throughout the ages, identifying different cultural perspectives on body image and healthy habits that are portrayed. Dramatise situations in which students make healthy choices. Choreograph simple dance or aerobic routines for morning fitness.

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9.2 Stories, Songs and Poems with a Health Message To reinforce the healthy living message, it may be useful to read stories, sing songs and recite poems with the class. Some of these could also be adapted or performed at school assemblies.

Stories

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Search for “children’s books about nutrition” at www.asfsa.org

Songs

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The popular ABC publication Sing! contains the lyrics of many songs, along with the music and CDs. Several of these songs have a food theme and are mainly suitable for middle to upper primary students. An online listing of these songs can be found at: www.abc.net.au/learn/sing/ For junior students, the Australian children’s group “The Wiggles” have many appealing songs. These are fun and easy for children to learn, and most have actions to accompany the songs that can form part of a daily fitness routine. The Wiggles also have a video and album called “Yummy Yummy” (1994) with a range of food songs. Internet sites with lyrics or song lists are below: www.funnytummy.com/music/ Song words www.mixedup.com/foodsongs.htm http://foodsafe.ucdavis.edu/music.html Another approach is to take common tunes and play these for the students until they are familiar with the tune, then ask the students to write their own “healthy song” to this tune. Use nursery rhymes for younger students and modern pop/rock songs for upper primary.

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Eat Some Rice (to the tune of Three Blind Mice)

Eat some rice,

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Some examples:

o c . ch e Chinese, Japanese, Thai. r e o t r sways, pe Rice cans beu served in r many It tastes really nice. Boil, steam or fry,

It’s good for you too, it really pays, To eat some rice on a few days. So eat some rice.

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Big Burger (to the tune of White Christmas)

I’m dreaming of a hamburger, A serve of fries with that as well. With the meat all drying,

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S And the oil from frying,

How long it’s sat there I can’t tell ... With wilting lettuce, soggy bun,

And the slice of bacon’s overdone,

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I’m dreaming of that big burger,

And as for pickles, there’s just one ...

Poems

www.funnypoets.com has some humorous poems about food. This site will need screening by a teacher first to check which poems are appropriate for each year level. Students can write their own food poetry using the following examples:

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There was a young boy from Perth, Who did not give his diet much worth. He ate chocolate and pies, And a large serve of fries, And then found it a challenge to surf!

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Limericks:

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P A G E 3 3 HEALTHY BODIES, HAPPY KIDS – RESOURCE BOOK


V egetables and lots of fruit, I nside is something really beaut. T o keep you fit and active too, A nd help you fight off colds and ‘flu. M aybe you know of two or three, I n fact there’s A, B, D, E, K and C. N utritious vitamins every day, S ave your health and help you play.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Haiku (5 – 7 – 5 syllables)

The athlete is swift He crosses the finish line Training was worth it

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Acrostic:

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Oh, that little black box, That we call the TV, Where we sit in our socks, And use no energy. The images flash, On the smeary screen. It’s the same kind of trash, You’ve already seen. When the cricket’s rained out, And you don’t think it’s funny, Did you stop to think about, How outside it could be sunny?

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Ode

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10.1

Whole 10 School Projects r o e t s Involving the School Community Bo r e p ok u S

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Undoubtedly, the most effective and enduring lifestyle changes and attitudes can be instilled by implementing health strategies on a school-wide basis. In this way, the success of early intervention can be consolidated and reinforced each year. If a school is embedded in a consistent philosophy of healthy eating and regular exercise, and if this is supported by the environment (such as daily fitness programmes and healthy canteen choices) there is an increased likelihood of healthy choices becoming second nature to the students. Below are just some ways that a school can work as a team and in collaboration with community resources to establish a healthy culture.

Teachers

Send out notes at the beginning of the year asking about students’ food preferences, allergies, sports interests, special skills, etc. This will enable teachers to capitalise on student interests and encourage non-participants. Eat healthy lunches with students, and compliment students on their “yummy” healthy lunches. Pre-school students benefit from “fruit time”. Why not consult parents and continue this nutritious and social sharing into the primary years. Fruit is inexpensive and when cut up, students can experience a variety of tastes. Allow water, and only water, to be kept on desks during lessons. This will keep students hydrated and reduce the need for excessive drinking at lunchtimes. Work in conjunction with a buddy class to reinforce health concepts. Older students will often learn best by being given the responsibility to set examples, and younger students will eagerly follow the modelling of their seniors. Support concepts incidentally, for example ask students if they would like to talk about their sports club when they bring in a trophy for news-telling time. Hold a “walking tour” of the community around the school. Point out footpaths, pedestrian rules, safe and open routes, location of safety houses, and strategies to manage emergency situations, as well as identifying local parks and other outdoor play facilities. Link up with a country class if you live in the city, or vice versa. Email or send letters to each other discussing foods that are eaten (country schools may consume more fresh produce and have less access to junk food; city schools may have a wider range for choosing healthy foods), physical activity (country children may use walking and cycling more often; city children may have greater access to local sporting clubs) and share knowledge learnt.

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Set aside a “Health Corner” in each school newsletter. This can feature items from students, healthy recipes, details on new recreation activities, and pointers on establishing a healthy lifestyle at home. Ready-Ed Publications

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Investigate and purchase resources from local and government agencies that provide health learning materials. Contact producers and organizations, taking advantage of campaigns such as “Fruit and Veg.” week and “Jump Rope for Heart”. Invite guest speakers, assembly presenters and incursions that relate to health issues. Consider forming a “Breakfast Group”, with donated or additional school funds, for identified students at risk who are arriving early at school having had no breakfast. Volunteers or teachers can take turns supervising and providing students with nutritious breakfasts. Invite the school nurse to become involved with new schemes, as she can act as an “authority” and provide additional information.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Parents

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Community Members

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Set up a roster (in conjunction with the parent group or School Council) for parents to take turns walking to school on a set route, picking up students in small groups along the way. This may reduce parental fears of child safety and encourage walking to school as a form of physical activity. Parent volunteers or senior students can supervise students arriving at school on bikes in a similar scheme. Share skills and knowledge. Many parents work in the field of health and fitness and may be happy to visit and provide a free incursion.

Communicate with after school care programmes that are held on site, discussing ways in which healthy food and physical activity can be promoted in a consistent manner. As a whole class, contribute to church stalls, fairs or fetes with healthy recipes and low fat/sugar alternatives. Investigate the roles of butcher, baker, and greengrocer in the community and find out how they offer healthy food alternatives. Discuss the differences between shopping at supermarkets or from speciality shops. Create a community cookbook – as well as selected student recipes, invite parents and exstudents to contribute to a healthy cookbook.

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Community Health

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Investigate and present findings on sport and recreation services available. Research the role of dieticians and nutritionists and their role. Examine the kinds of foods found at community events such as sausage sizzles and lamington drives. What healthier alternatives could be offered?

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Investigate the menus offered in services such as Meals on Wheels. Are these meals healthy? Take a tour of food manufacturing plants and focus on the healthy alternatives offered by these producers. Visit an orchard or vegetable farm and examine the stages involved. Compare a fruit farm with a processed food factory – what are the differences in terms of chemical additives, hygiene, etc.? Discuss how often “takeaway” food should be eaten on a weekly basis. Research the healthiest options at well-known fast food restaurants. Survey all the places in the local community that provide meals. Rate them in terms of healthy choices. Include places such as football clubs, aquatic centres, local universities, etc. Design a healthy menu or dish for a favourite restaurant in the community. P A G E 3 6 HEALTHY BODIES, HAPPY KIDS – RESOURCE BOOK

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11

Parental Support

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11.1 How To Encourage Parent Involvement

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For successful implementation of this series, it is vital that parental support is elicited in the following ways: Helping students with their “Take Me Home” activity sheets, which appear in the student activity books. More than just straightforward homework sheets, these activities are designed to encourage positive interaction between parents and their children. Many of the sheets require students to analyse their habits at home or assist in making healthy choices for the family. Other activities depend on parents giving their children encouraging feedback for self-esteem activities. Responding to school initiatives that introduce new health policies, such as new canteen menus, donating healthy snacks for fund-raising stalls and assisting during special events. Encouraging their child to accept and request healthy lunches. Setting positive examples in leading a healthy lifestyle. It is suggested that a parent meeting is held at the beginning of this health unit, so that the content of the programme can be explained. Parents can also be reassured that this is not an exercise in judging habits at home, but simply allowing children to evaluate their own lives, as this is one of the most effective ways to promote healthy attitudes.

© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 11.2 General Advice for Parents

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Be realistic: Most experts will agree that, as long as a diet is usually balanced and nutritious, an occasional “slip up” will not do any permanent damage. With this in mind, try not to be too concerned when your children are eating junk food occasionally at friends’ parties, if their diet at home is acceptable. Kitchen Kids: Purchase children’s cook books, checking first to make sure they contain plenty of nutritious recipes, and enjoy watching your child become more aware of what goes into food. When a child is given the responsibility of preparing food for the family, they can also pass on knowledge about healthy eating that they have learned at school.

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A Few Fries: Try not to be too strict with expectations on your children’s eating habits. This may just lead to rebellious behaviour. For example, if children know that they can have one fast food meal each month, they may accept an otherwise healthy diet more readily. Shop-wise: Include children in decision-making when doing the weekly shopping. If a child selects which healthy foods they would like to eat, then they will be more likely to eat it. Green Thumbs, Happy Heart: Grow a vegetable garden with your children. They will enjoy selecting varieties, will spend time tending to their seedlings rather than inside watching TV, and will be keen to eat their harvest. Table Manners: Sitting down to a family meal at the table will enable you to monitor your children’s eating. This will also develop good habits and avoid the “grazing” that results from constant eating in front of the television. Ready-Ed Publications

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Label Wars: Read labels carefully, taking note of the order of the listed ingredients. Choose foods that list natural ingredients first, with ingredients such as salt, sugar and oil last on the list or not on there at all. Fats Alert: Choose products that contain monounsaturated fats or polyunsaturated fats rather than saturated fats (check the labels). Detective Work: Do not be deceived by leading language used on packaging. Potato chips that are “lite” may still contain a relatively high level of fat in comparison to other snacks such as rice crackers. Check levels of fat and carbohydrate on the package, remembering that carbohydrates and proteins will still lead to weight gain if over-eaten, but are much lower in kilojoules than fat. Carbohydrates are also more easily converted to energy, and less easily converted to body fats.

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Kids are Kids: Remember that children’s nutritional requirements are different to adults because they are still growing and use energy at different rates. Most children do not need to rigidly count calories or eat only “diet” products. Instead, focus on a balanced diet with mainly fruit, vegetables and grains and moderate amounts of dairy (milk, cheese and yoghurt) and protein (lean meats, fish and eggs) balanced with a good dose (30 minutes) of daily exercise.

Do the Time-Warp: Collect magazine recipes or purchase cookbooks that feature healthy meals that are quick and easy to make. This will help you to avoid the trap of resorting to fast foods because they are convenient.

Prepare Ammunition: Think of responses in advance to combat the “nag-attack” when a new unhealthy product arrives on the shelves. Try purchasing a healthier alternative, a book, or just spending quality time with your child to satisfy their calls for attention. Allowing continual nagging may result in you eventually “caving in”.

Sports of Sorts: Remember that there are many different ways for daily exercise to be carried out. If your children are reluctant to join a club, choose activities that the whole family enjoys. A day of rollerblading, bushwalking or kite flying will be just as effective as enrolling your child in a sports team.

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Catch This: Practise basic skills with your children so that they become confident in physical education at school. Throwing and catching balls, shooting basketball hoops or practising a cricket swing will only take a few minutes each day, but will be well worth the time when your child feels happier about joining in at sport time. Healthy Helpers: It can sometimes seem time consuming and expensive to support your children in physical activity. Remember that a lot of simple chores can be done around the house for a small amount of pocket money. Washing the car, sweeping and making the beds are examples of jobs that can burn kids’ kilojoules and save you time.

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Believe so they Achieve: “Sponsor” your children on a “No TV Week” or a “Two Fruit a Day” Week, presenting them with a reward at the end. Make sure that you don’t just turn off the television, but provide another activity for them to do instead. .nutritionaustralia.org for more healthy tips and facts. Go to www www.nutritionaustralia.org

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The following is a suggested outline for a parent letter and advice sheet that could also accompany the first “Take Me Home” Sheet.

Dear Parents

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The main aims of this unit are

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This letter is to inform you of a Health Education unit which we are commencing in our class. We will be using a book from the series “Healthy Bodies, Happy Kids” for some of our lesson plans. This series places a focus on students evaluating their own healthy lifestyle, observations and preferences in the fields of diet, physical activity, self-esteem and body image, and media awareness. Instead of dictating theories of healthy habits to students, this series emphasises the need for students to become informed decision-makers and critical analysts through hands-on, inquiry-based activities. Thus students will be drawing upon resources in their everyday lives, such as investigating the lunches that they choose from the canteen, observing the content of fast-food commercials and surveying their classmates to discover different forms of physical activity.

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To promote the learning of nutritional requirements in an interesting way, so that healthy food choices can be made more easily. To provide students with as many alternatives in diet and physical activity as possible, so that it becomes easier for them to see how they can make healthy choices. To ensure that students are able to accept their own bodies and make sensible decisions to care for their bodies rather than embarking on impossible diets out of self-disgust. To emphasise the “whole child”, so that students are able to develop a wellrounded self-concept rather than being critical of just one aspect of themselves. To provide students with the ability to understand how certain aspects of the media can mislead people, resulting in a less-healthy lifestyle. It is hoped that you will help to raise your child’s awareness by working through some of the “Take Me Home” activity sheets, and reinforcing that the students are not “wrong” or “bad” because of the health choices that they make, but that there may be healthier alternatives available that they might enjoy and benefit from.

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Please enjoy this journey with your child. Their healthy bodies will thank you!

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12

Canteen Initiatives

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S 12.1 Organisations

Federation of Canteens in Schools (FOCIS)

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There are a number of organizations in Australia which support healthy foods at school canteens:

Contact: (07) 3260 4122

A new resource is “Looking After Our Kids”, a video and handbook available for canteen staff to help provide healthy choices for school children throughout Australia.

The “Smart Card” is a debit card that can be used for students to purchase foods from the school canteen instead of bringing money to school and buying unhealthy snack food at delicatessens on the way to and from school. This card has recently been piloted in Western Australia.

(StarCAP): ©StarRCanteen eadAccreditation yEdPProgram ubl i cat i ons Australian Child Health Development Foundation: •South f or r evi ew pu r pose sonl y•

A WA initiative that provides skills to canteen staff.

www.chdf.org.au

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This site is very comprehensive and contains some excellent tips on canteen service, advertising analysis and developing a Health Promoting School.

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These excellent sites have provided the inspiration for some of the ideas listed below:

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Initiating Change

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Make sure that a decision-making committee involves all stakeholders, such as administration, teachers, parents, community volunteers and student representatives where appropriate. It may also be useful to have a representative who has had experience with another school canteen or works in the area of nutrition. Ensure that changes made are documented clearly as a researched, written policy, which is in line with other school policies and recognised health guidelines. Aligning canteen practices with the school’s curriculum will establish a two-way support system and promote consistent messages to the students. When selecting canteen menu items, begin by an audit of the current menu. The school may find that they can use many existing, healthy items that are already popular rather than instigating a complete overhaul. Elicit support from motivated volunteers who have been well informed of health and safety guidelines. Secure ongoing participation from these volunteers by creating a culture of gratitude and respect within the school. Recognition awards, inviting canteen volunteers to school and staff events, students sending letters and cards, and rewarding manners in canteen lines with

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posters and senior “line monitors” will all help to make canteen staff feel appreciated and inclined to continue their efforts.

On The Menu

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S Fun and Participation

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If total removal of pastry foods is considered unreasonable, perhaps these foods could be limited to certain days in the week, so that students are not ordering them every day. Consider taste, cost and familiarity when selecting food items. Remember that many students do not have a “sophisticated palate” and prefer the basics. Prepare food in colourful, creative ways. Make sure that they are easy to carry and eat, with limited packaging. Ask students to contribute snack ideas and to think of “cool” names for menu items. Change some menu items regularly so that students are encouraged to try new tastes. Introduce new lunches as “Special of the Week” and have senior students announce these over the public address system. Students can design an attractive menu on the computers. Updated menus including nutritional values of items can be sent home with school newsletters. Check for foods such as fruit and vegetables that are in season. These will be more likely to taste better, be more readily available and cost less.

Hold “tasting sessions” for classes at a time. Organise it like a cheese tasting tour and cut up small samples of the food. Encourage students to comment on the taste and appearance of the food, rate it on a rating card, etc. Use the menu items as special rewards for excellent behaviour of individuals. Hold competitions for student recipes, posters advertising healthy lunches, best mannered class to serve. Students can design and paint decorations for bins around the canteen to keep it an attractive and hygienic place to be. Canteens can become involved with theme weeks, such as serving healthy Easter foods such as “Bunny Food Basket” full of salad sticks, etc. or “Damper Salad Rolls” on Foundation Day.

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• 12.2 Healthy Recipe References

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Below are a few websites that appear to contain appropriate recipes and references for healthy meal and snack ideas.

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www.healthyeatingclub.org Select the “HEC recipes” link.

www.nutritionaustralia.org Select recipe archive for recipes or publication catalogue for a guide to healthy cookbooks. www.foodwatch.com.au Click on “Recipes for Health”. www.chdf.org.au Click on “Enjoy Healthy Eating”.

www.sanitarium.com.au contains a range of recipes. Can be searched for under categories such as Snacks, or by dietary needs such as low fat, low sugar, etc. www.gofor2and5.com.au is a Western Australian site with a focus on increasing the daily intake of fruit and vegetables. This site contains many recipe ideas. As part of this campaign, a recipe book, called Healthy Food Fast (WA Department of Health, 2002) is available.

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13

Internet Links

Below is a range of national and overseas Internet links that have been useful in the research for this publication. Many sites contain excellent ideas for lesson activities.

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www.health.nsw.gov.au/obesitysummit/ provides facts, figures and solutions discussed at an Obesity Summit in New South Wales in September, 2002.

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www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au is a government site with facts, recipes, questions and answers linked to healthy eating.

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www.public.health.wa.gov.au includes a “Health in Schools” lift-out section, with an electronic version of a publication for Western Australian school health initiatives.

www.kidshealth.org is a comprehensive American site with an abundance of information on a wide range of health topics for teachers, parents and students. The “Kids” section is easy to follow, written in appealing language and features well-presented visuals. www.eatingdisorders.org.au is a comprehensive Victorian site on eating disorders. www.diabetesaustralia.com.au is a national, informative site on diabetes.

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www.discoverfitness.com offers practical “what, where, when and why” advice on fitness.

www.activeaustralia.org is a Federal Government site aimed at increasing physical activity in Australia. www.chdf.org.au (Children’s Health Development Foundation) is a South Australian site with a range of information on promoting a healthy school community.

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www.chdf.org.au provides information on self-esteem in Australian schools.

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www.cln.org Select “Subject Areas” then “Health” then “Self-Esteem” for a range of great activities and practical strategies. Some of these may also be appropriate to modify for a parent handout.

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www.education-world.com can be used as a search for selfesteem activities.

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www.adbusters.org is a site dedicated to raising critical awareness of advertising strategies

www.youngmedia.org.au is an Australian site that considers the impact of advertising.  www.media-awareness.ca is an excellent Canadian site with a wealth of ideas appropriate for Australian students on critical analysis of advertising

www.zillions.org is a visually attractive site that gives simple examples of advertising tricks.

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National Health 14 Organisations r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S

Many of the websites listed below have some useful links.

Heart Foundation of Australia

Cnr Denison St & Geils Ct Deakin ACT 2600 Tel: 1300 362 787 Website: www.heartfoundation.com.au

Email: heartlines@heartfoundation.com.au

Nutrition Australia

National Office:

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National Office:

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Merrilynne Hayes c/- PO Box 16

Upper Pakenham VIC 3810

Website: www.nutritionaustralia.org

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Email: m.hayes@NutritionAustralia.org

Australia:

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Tel: (03) 5942 7421

Australia New Zealand Food Authority

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PO Box 7186

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Canberra BC ACT 2610 Australia Tel:

02 6271 2222

Email: info@foodstandards.gov.au New Zealand: PO Box 10559 The Terrace, Wellington 6036

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Australian Sports Commission National Office: Australian Sports Commission PO Box 176 Belconnen ACT 2616 Tel: 02 6214 1111 Website: www.ausport.gov.au

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Email: asc@ausport.gov.au

Australasian Society for the Study of Obesity

Healthy Eating Club

Mailing Address: 157 Clarendon St, Southbank, Victoria, Australia, 3006 Tel: (03) 96906527 Website: www.healthyeatingclub.com

Health Departments

Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care - www.health.gov.au

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Website: www.asso.org.au

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New South Wales - www.health.nsw.gov.au

Victoria Department of Human Services - hna.ffh.vic.gov.au

South Australian Department of Human Services - www.dhs.sa.gov.au/default.asp Australian Capital Territory - www.health.act.gov.au

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Northern Territory Health Services - www.nt.gov.au/ntg/health.shtml Queensland Health - www.health.qld.gov.au

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Western Australian Health Department - www.health.wa.gov.au

Tasmanian Department of Health & Human Services - www.dchs.tas.gov.au

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Healthy Bodies, Happy Kids: Resource Book