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r o e t Three s Book Bo r e p ok u SFor Ages 7 - 9

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Health Education © ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons for Australian •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• Schools o c . che e r o t r s super

© Ready-Ed Publications - 2002 (Revised edition) Published by Ready-Ed Publications P.O. Box 276 Greenwood WA 6024 Email: info@readyed.com.au

Website: www.readyed.com.au

COPYRIGHT NOTICE Permission is granted for the purchaser to photocopy sufficient copies for non-commercial educational purposes. However this permission is not transferable and applies only to the purchasing individual or institution.

ISBN 1 86397 506 3


Introduction

Health Education Activities - Book 3

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This Health Workbook has been created to assist teachers in the implementation of a structured and sequential whole school approach to the teaching of Health Education. The activities have been linked to the following strands of the key learning areas from the publication Health and Physical Education - a curriculum profile for Australian schools as referenced on Page 2 of this book. References at the base of each page indicate the Strand in which the page falls, while an indication of the Learning Outcome is shown at the top of the page. Human Development This strand focuses on: [refer to Pages 2, 6, and 36 of the profile document] concepts such as growth and development, personal behaviours of people in their social, biological and physical environments, and human sexuality. Physical Activity and the Community This strand focuses on: [refer to Pages 2, 8, and 38 of the profile document] fitness and the effects of exercise on the body, as well as attitudes towards body image and social expectations about fitness. People and Food This strand focuses on: [refer to Pages 2/3, 9 and 39 of the profile document] the importance of food in providing essential nutrients for the body, the safe preparation of food and the current changes in food production and packaging. Health of Individuals and Populations This strand focuses on: [refer to Pages 3, 10 and 40 of the profile document] the impact the physical environment can have on health, as well as looking at ways to promote health and prevent disease in individuals and populations. Safety This strand focuses on: [refer to Pages 3, 11 and 41 of the profile document] aspects of safety concerned with issues including water and road safety, strangers and unsafe situations, community action and safe practices. Human Relations This strand focuses on: [refer to Pages 3, 12 and 42 of the profile document] relationships with family, friends and group members, including communicating feelings and views, personal self worth, and community values and attitudes towards standards of behaviour.

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The activities contained in the book are designed to allow for the varying skills and abilities of the students. The following strategies are used throughout the workbooks: * Interviewing * Researching * Comparing * Surveying * Measuring * Predicting * Discussing * Evaluating * Role-playing * Planning * Illustrating * Brainstorming * Decision making * Problem solving * Communicating * Classifying The books should be implemented throughout the primary school in the order presented below. However, individual books could be used for the year levels within the age range stated. This will allow the teacher to provide a health education programme that recognises the different social backgrounds, knowledge and understandings, skills, values and attitudes of the children they are teaching. Book in Course Age Range 1 5-7 2 6-8 3 7-9 4 8 - 10 5 9 - 11 6 10 - 12 7 11 - 12+

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The activities in this book refer to material from the publication Health and Physical Education - a curriculum profile for Australian schools. The Health and PE curriculum profile is published by: Curriculum Corporation, PO Box 177, Carlton South, Victoria 3053 http://www.curriculum.edu.au Email: sales@curriculum.edu.au (Document is ©Curriculum Corporation 1994)

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Health Education Activities - Book 3

Contents - Book 3 Activity No.

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Introduction Body Parts and Movement Energy Expenditure Physical Activity Diary Food Groups - 1 Food Groups - 2 Tasty Sensations In Balance Menu Making Investigating Foods Get Well Pollution Hazards Beware - 1 Hazards Beware - 2 Skylarks in the Park Protective Headgear Skate Away, Scrape Away - 1 Skate Away, Scrape Away - 2 Danger Zones No Accidents Here Fire Emergency School Health Nurse Dental Health Nurse Diseases Medicines Decision, Decisions Changes Everywhere Fish ‘n’ Chores Communication Breakdown Speaking Out Listen Here! Think How Others Feel My Favourite Things The Me I Like Friendly Features Oh! What is the Matter with Me? - 1 Oh! What is the Matter with Me? - 2

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Human Development Physical Activity and the Community Physical Activity and the Community People and Food People and Food People and Food People and Food People and Food People and Food Safety Health of Individuals and Populations Safety Safety Safety Safety Safety Safety Safety Safety Safety Health of Individuals and Populations Health of Individuals and Populations Health of Individuals and Populations Health of Individuals and Populations Human Relations Human Relations Human Relations Human Relations Human Relations Human Relations Human Relations Human Relations Human Relations Human Relations

2 5 6 7 9 10 11 12 13 14 16 18 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 31 32 34 35 37 38 39 42 43 44 45 47 48 49

Human Relations

50

Human Relations

51

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36

Strand

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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

Activity Name

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Health Education Activities - Book 3

Teachers’ Notes Movement and Exercise (Activities 1 - 3) Background Information

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Students should be developing an awareness of more specific names and functions of body parts. Physical Activity describes any activity that involves gross motor (larger) movements and can range in exertion levels. Examples include walking, running, sports, dancing, leisure such as rollerblading, fitness games and physical chores such as sweeping. Responses to physical activity such as increased heart rate, sweating, muscular fatigue and increased breathing depend on levels of fitness and age. Children, for example have a higher average breathing rate then adults. Energy for exercise is obtained by the foods that we eat. Long term energy stores can actually be derived from having a healthy diet all the time, not just a few days before it is needed. Food that will help to provide energy for exercise includes protein and dairy products more than 3 hours before, complex carbohydrates found in bread and pasta 2 - 3 hours before, and healthy sugars found in fruits 1 - 2 hours before exercise. Foods should not be eaten less than 1 hour before exercise and water should be consumed before and during activities in small, regular amounts to replace fluids lost by sweat. “Energy” drinks sold in supermarkets can contain vitamins and amino acids, but often also large amounts of sugar and caffeine or guarana. Caffeine and sugar reduce the body’s ability to absorb water and can lead to dehydration. Caffeine is also an addictive stimulant which can affect sleeping patterns and ability to concentrate.

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Relevant Internet Links

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Create a life-sized poster by tracing around peers lying on butcher paper. Write ideas inside the body shape for activities which will keep the body fit, such as riding, running, skipping, aerobics, dancing, rollerblading. Cut out magazine pictures that relate to exercise and paste them around the outside. Videotape the class before, during and after fitness games. Ask students what sorts of things they may notice happen to their bodies after exercise. Play the tape back and discuss what the class sees, e.g. breathing faster, faces becoming red, students laughing and becoming more energetic.

www.kidshealth.org/kid/stay/healthy/index.html offers a range of information pages on exercise and nutrition.

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Activity 1 - Body Parts Legs - running, walking, skipping, dancing, skating; Arms - lifting, carrying, swinging, waving, holding, hugging; Eyes - looking, blinking, winking, squinting, shutting; Jaw - moving up and down, chewing, talking, singing, yawning, swallowing; Hand - writing, drawing, playing instruments, holding, typing, scratching, eating; Hips - swinging, hulahoop, attaches to legs (see above). Activity 2 - Energy Expenditure Food gives our body its supply of energy. Energy is used for sport, leisure, play, walking, chores, schoolwork and even sitting down, resting (in smaller amounts). Activities which require a lot of energy include sport, dancing, fitness at school, running, leisure such as skating, riding bike. Little energy is used whilst watching television, reading, sleeping, playing on the computer, colouring in. Activity 3 - Physical Activity Diary Students will list activities including means of getting to school (walking or riding), fitness and physical education activities, games played during breaks at school, sport or leisure activities after school and on the weekend. Recommended exercise for children is 2 - 3 times a week or more, for at least 20 - 30 minutes at a time. Students can become more active by joining a new club or team, walking or riding to school, playing on the trampoline instead of the computer, or even helping around the house more. Page 4

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Health Education Activities - Book 3 Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.2): Students discuss body parts and types of movements.

Activity 1

Body P ar ts and Movement Par arts Describe how these body parts move. Say what they are used for. Body Part

Types of Movement

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........................................................................... ........................................................................... ........................................................................... Arms

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Human Development

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Health Education Activities - Book 3

Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.6): Students identify and describe different levels of physical activity.

Activity 2

Energy Expenditure Complete the sentence by finding the missing word. Food gives our body its supply of ................................

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Make a list of the ways our body uses this energy.

Something which requires very little energy.

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o c . che e r o t r s super What are “energy drinks”? ............................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Why are some energy drinks bad for you? ...................................................... ......................................................................................................................... What could you drink instead? ........................................................................ Page 6

Physical Activity and the Community

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Activity 3

Health Education Activities - Book 3

Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.6): Students identify daily physical activity levels at home and at school.

Physical Activity Diary List all the physical activities that you do on every day of the week. (Include school activities.)

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Activities

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Monday

Wednesday

Thursday

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Saturday

Sunday

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o c . Which day are you most ..................................................................... chactive? e r er o t s super Do you think you do enough physical activity in a week?...............................

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Physical Activity and the Community

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Health Education Activities - Book 3

Teachers’ Notes Food and Health (Activities 4 - 9) Background Information

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A healthy diet consists of a balance of a variety of foods. Dietary guidelines for children suggest plenty of foods from the Bread & Cereal (containing carbohydrates for energy) and Fruit & Vegetable (containing many vitamins and minerals for body functions and immunity) groups, moderate amounts of Dairy, Meat &Proteins and minimal Sugars, Fats & Oils. Sugars and fats are still used in the body but are only needed in small amounts. Foods low in salt and high in calcium (which builds strength in teeth and bones) and iron (which forms part of haemoglobin to carry oxygen in the blood) are recommended, as is a regular intake of water. There are four tastes traditionally recognised - Sweet (lollies, cakes, fruit, soft drink, chocolate); Salty (chips, pretzels, crackers, seasonings); Sour (lemon, lime, sour cream, yoghurt, vinegar); Bitter (coffee, onion, tonic water, spinach). Recently a fifth taste, called Umami (a Japanese word), has been recognised. Umami is the rich and meaty taste found in soy sauce, sauteed mushrooms and cheeses. For taste to occur, food must be dissolved in water or saliva.

Use empty milk cartons or tissue boxes for students to decorate with magazine pictures of food in the five food groups. Construct pyramids by taping together and display in the classroom. Conduct class cooking sessions where students plan and make a food that contains several food groups (such as pitta-bread pizza). Use blindfolds and plastic cups containing a variety of different tasting foods. Students work in pairs or small groups to guess the foods and then place in order of favourites. Discuss the fact that taste preferences will differ. During this activity ask students to block their noses. It should be more difficult for them to distinguish the taste as taste is heavily reliant on smell. Use jellybeans to ask students (with eyes opened) what flavour they are tasting (such as orange, lemon, cherry) Then ask students to close their eyes and guess the flavours again. Discuss the impact of colour on taste. Alternatively use food colouring to change soda water or milk. Ask students to predict the taste.

Relevant Internet Links

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www.heartfoundation.com.au facts and information on nutrition for students and teachers (students may require guidance at this age).

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Activities 4/5 - Food Groups 1 and 2 The five food groups are listed here with the answers for correct pasting of pictures: Meat/Protein - fish, nuts, eggs, steak; Dairy - milk, yoghurt, butter, cheese; Fruit/Vegetables - apple, lettuce, potatoes, pumpkin, pear, peas; Cereal - pasta, rice, bread, Weetbix; Fats and Oils - oil, margarine, butter. Activity 6 - Tasty Sensations Sour - grapefruit, lemons, grapes; Sweet - chocolate, strawberries, fruit yoghurt, grapes; Bitter - tart pineapple; Salty - potato chips, olives (some may fall into two categories) Activity 7 - In Balance Responses will vary according to individual habits. Activity 8 - Menu Making A healthy breakfast for an energetic girl may include fruit, cereal with milk, toast, a glass of milk , fruit juice or water, English muffins. Lager amounts of food as well as inclusion of some fatty/sweet foods such as bacon, pancakes or can be allowed here as the energy is used up. A less active girl will require smaller amounts of food, with less focus on carbohydrates (grains) and fatty or sugary foods. Activity 9 - Investigating Foods Suggested words used to describe: Type - fruit, vegetable, dairy, grain, fats, oils, sugars; Taste - sweet, salty, sour, bitter, savory, rich, delicious, scrumptious, mixed; Texture - juicy, crunchy, crumbly, soft, fluffy. Page 8

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Health Education Activities - Book 3

Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.8): Students classify a variety of foods using the five food group model.

Activity 4

Food Groups - 1 What are the five food groups? .........................................................................................................................

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Label and then cut out the following food items. Classify them into the five food groups and glue them onto the table on the next page.

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People and Food

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Health Education Activities - Book 3 Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.8): Students classify a variety of foods using the five food group model.

Activity 5

Food Groups - 2 Fats and Oils

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Meat / Protein

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Fruit / Vegetables Fruit / Vegetables

Paste the food items from the last page in their correct groups.

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People and Food

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Health Education Activities - Book 3 Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.7): Students explore the four taste areas.

Activity 6

Tasty Sensations Classify the foods below according to the taste area as shown on the diagram of the tongue. The Tongue

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sweet

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grapefruit potato chips natural yoghurt tart pineapple Tick (

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chocolate grapes fruit yoghurt

lemons olives strawberries

)your favourite taste: sweet salty

sour bitter

Draw a food that has your favourite taste: Ready-Ed Publications

People and Food

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Health Education Activities - Book 3

Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.8): Students identify the relationship between food intake and physical activity.

Activity 7

In Balance Write U for Usually, S for Sometimes or N for Never to describe your daily diet and exercise.

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My diet is NOT well balanced.

Eat wholemeal breads

Drink milk

Eat fresh fruit

Drink water

Exercise for 20 minutes

Eat chocolates or chocolate bars

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Eat toast & drink juice & nothing else for breakfast Eat lollies and ice creams

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Morning

Breakfast

Lunch

Dinner

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List your typical daily diet on the left side of the scales and some usual activities on the right. Can you balance your food intake with your activities?

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Snacks

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People and Food

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Activity 8

Health Education Activities - Book 3

Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.8): Students identify the relationship between food intake and physical activity.

Menu Making

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Plan a breakfast for a girl aged 8 who ...

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Look at the pictures of this girl’s activities.

. te o Write an email to the girl. How could she be more active? What should c . che e she eat? r o t r s s r u e p ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Ready-Ed Publications

People and Food

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Health Education Activities - Book 3

Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.8): Students describe sensory responses to food and discuss food preferences.

Activity 9

Investigating F oods Foods List five of your favourite foods. Describe each according to the classification table. Food 1. 2. 4.

Taste

Colour

Texture

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From the results your favourite ...

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Draw some foods which you do not particularly enjoy eating.

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Is it healthy? ....................................

Why don’t you like one of these?

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People and Food

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Health Education Activities - Book 3

Teachers’ Notes First Aid (Activity 10) Background Information

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First Aid is taught with the intention of providing people with some strategies for initial medical attention. This may or may not need to be followed up by seeking further medical assistance or advice. One of the most important rules to remember when applying First Aid is to ensure that the injured person and the First - Aider are out of danger before carrying out further steps, e.g. moving away from a busy street. Guidelines on First Aid for the following include: Cuts and grazes - Apply pressure with a clean cloth or bandage, gently wash the wound to remove dirt or glass if present, use antiseptic wash if available, cover with a clean seal such as a band - aid and replace this every day or two. Falls - Keep the injured person calm and still and remove all dangerous objects nearby. Check the consciousness and breathing of the person and call for help if you are unsure of their injuries. Minor Burns (also called first degree burns) - remove clothing around the area, run cool water over the area or use a clean cold compress. Cover with a sterile gauze pad. Seek medical help if needed. Creams such as aloe vera may help for minor burns such as sunburn. Watch for blistering. Bites and Stings - Find out what has bitten the person as medical help is needed for some spiders, scorpions, etc. Also find out it the person has any allergies such as bee allergies as these will need immediate contact with professional medical help. Remove the sting carefully, making sure no part remains in the skin. Insect sting spray or cream, or a cold compress will help to reduce swelling and irritation. Keep the person still so that toxins from the sting are kept isolated to the area.

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Write First Aid emergencies on pieces of card for students in small groups to role-play strategies and solutions. This can be mimed as well for the other class members to guess.

Activity 10 - Get Well Responses will vary according to students’ experiences. The First Aid listed should be applied for the following situations: Wash to clean - cuts and scratches, grazes, sand/dust in eye, glass in feet or fingers, bites and stings; Hold under water - minor burns, jammed fingers; Remove the object - sand/ dust in eyes, glass in feet and fingers, bites and stings ; Apply disinfectant - cuts and scratches, grazes, glass in feet or fingers, bites and stings; Seek an adult - all could apply here.

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Health Education Activities - Book 3 Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.12): Students demonstrate basic first aid principles.

Activity 10

Get W ell Well Tick any of the minor accidents below which have happened to you. cuts and scratches

sand / dust in eyes

falls

jammed fingers glass in feet or fingers

bites and stings

burns (minor)

Draw the one that was most painful for you.

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Show how the accident was treated.

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Think about the appropriate first aid necessary for each of the minor accidents above. List them below to show what action needs to be taken. Some may need to be listed in more than one column. Wash to clean

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Hold under water Remove the object Apply disinfectant

Safety

Seek an adult

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Health Education Activities - Book 3

Teachers’ Notes Pollution (Activity 11) Background Information

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Pollution exists in our environment largely due to human waste, industrial fumes and toxins and products of urban dwelling filtering into the air, water and land around us. Current waste concerns in Australia include littering of rubbish such as cigarette butts, plastics (including shopping bags) and larger items such as car bodies and building rubble. Current water issues include runoff from road-sides, rubbish being dumped in or near waterways and sewerage treatment. Air pollution occurs in the layer of the atmosphere closest to the ground called the troposphere by gases such as sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone and particles such as dust, smoke and odours.

Contact the local airwatch organisation (see website address below) and take part in monitoring of air quality around the local environment. Use masking tape doubled over and placed in strips on card, or Vaseline rubbed over Alfoil on card to hang in places around the school and left for several hours to collect and observe dust and particles found in the air (best done on a dry, windy day). Sit in a safe area, such as the edge of the school oval, near a busy road and tally the number of cars with one, two and more people inside. Discuss results and suggest alternatives to driving alone, e.g. public transport, cycling, car pooling.

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www.airwatch.gov.au information and school projects on air pollution monitoring and reduction. www.keepaustraliabeautiful.com.au information on state projects to minimise pollution. www.cleanup.com.au national projects that schools can become involved in.

Activity 11 - Pollution Cars produce exhaust fumes including carbon monoxide which prevents oxygen from being transported around the body. Car exhaust also often produces unpleasant odours when not properly managed by a well - maintained vehicle. Industrial smoke can contain many toxins as well as nitrogen oxide, which can increase chances of respiratory infection. Cigarette smoke contains a range of poisonous chemicals that can lead to respiratory problems, heart disease and lung cancer, as well as being an irritant for many people. Passive smoking can affect non -smokers in the same room as someone who is smoking. Smoke from burn-offs can produce particles which are small enough to enter the lungs, causing irritation and damage. Pollution can be reduced by laws or rules, signs, advertisements, using alternatives to burning, car pooling, giving up smoking.

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Health Education Activities - Book 3

Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.11): Students identify the short term effects of harmful gases on their health.

Activity 11

Pollution

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Describe the way in which the air is being polluted in the pictures below and how it could affect you.

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What can be done to stop this type of air pollution? ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Page 18

Health of Individuals and Populations

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Health Education Activities - Book 3

Teachers’ Notes Safety Hazards (Activities 12 - 20) Background Information

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Safety Hazards may exist in the home, at work, school or in the community. They may present a risk of falling, tripping or slipping, electrocution, being hit by objects, being cut, coming into contact with poisonous substances, burns or smoke inhalation, damaging the eyes or ears, etc. Hazards can generally be avoided or dealt with before people are injured, and most workplaces and schools have safety officers or representatives who are trained in hazard awareness and management. Regular safety checks, adhering to safety rules, practising regular evacuation drills, knowing first aid procedures and keeping a first aid kit can reduce the risks and injury caused by hazards. Protective gear when working or during certain activities can reduce the risk of injury. Head injury is the most common cause of death in cyclists and research shows that proper helmets reduce the likelihood of head injuries, although caution and following road safety guidelines always applies. Australian standards provide a sticker that is evident on all approved bicycle helmets. It is recommended to select a lightweight helmet with a secure fit, adjustable straps and adequate ventilation. Tape sections of the nightly news on television or cut out newspaper or magazine photographs that involve an accident resulting from an avoidable safety hazard. Appoint class members as “safety officers” and ask them to identify the hazard and provide a solution to avoid or reduce the risks. Keep a record of all playground injuries over a two week period. Present the list to the students and brainstorm ways that these accidents could have been avoided. Visit specialist areas in the school, such as the art room, wet areas, technology room and sports areas. Discuss what rules need to be recognised in each room to reduce safety hazards. Make a poster advertising a rule in one of these areas.

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www.pedalpower.org.au comprehensive site on the benefits of cycling. Activity 12 - Hazards Beware 1 Possible safety hazards in the school are: low hanging or broken tree branches, cracked, uneven pavements or potholes on bitumen, blind corners, play areas close to roads, damaged building structures, balls caught up trees or on the roof, splintered wood on playground equipment, rocks near high play equipment, dry leaves that could catch alight, broken glass or discarded lighters left by others, slippery floors in wet areas, sharp equipment such as scissors or cutting blades in the art room, large holes dug in junior sandpits. Solutions could include regular checking of grounds by cleaner, gardener or safety officer, following rules such as walking on concrete or bitumen and not leaving school grounds to retrieve balls, safe storage of sharp or heavy equipment, plenty of bins to discard dangerous rubbish, broomsticks available to pull balls from high areas (by the teacher). Activity 13 - Hazards Beware 2 Responses will vary widely here, however general prompts for unsafe situations could include types of hazards listed in Background information at the top of this page. Students can help by avoiding the hazard themselves, notifying others in the area and telling an adult or employee in the area. Activity 14 - Skylarks in the Park Students’ responses may include telling an adult, going to a safety house nearby, moving away from the area, observing the teenagers quickly to get a description of their appearance. Many students may suggest telling the teenagers to stop, although this may be unadvisable due to the destructive behaviour of the teenagers indicating that they may not be safe to approach.

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Health Education Activities - Book 3

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Activity 15 - Protective Head Gear Helmets are worn by: Cyclist to protect from hitting head if falling off bike; Firefighter to protect from falling objects when putting out fires; Builder or carpenter to protect from falling tools or materials when working on buildings. A fire officer’s uniform is specially designed to protect the body from falling objects and poisonous, toxic or dangerous gases. Protective gear available for cyclists and skateboard riders include: helmet, wrist, elbow and knee guards, long - sleeved or tight - fitting clothing, enclosed shoes with good tread, wrap - around sunglasses. Activities 16/17 - Skate Away, Scrape Away 1 and 2 Suggested sequence: Bradley and Susan ignore the warnings and decide to skate down the driveway; Bradley loses control and falls over; Susan tries to help Bradley up and takes him home; Bradley is injured and shows his mum the wounds when she gets home; Mum helps to clean up the wounds; Bradley rests in bed and decides never to ignore warnings again (some students may also suggest that the children are sent to bed early as a consequence of not following rules). Discussion Questions: Do you think Bradley deserved to get hurt? What do you think Bradley learned? What will happen next time? Activity 18 - Danger Zones Land excavation is dangerous as piles of sand can leave large holes and suddenly collapse. Heavy machinery is also loud, with unpredictable movements. Leaving children in a locked car on a hot day is dangerous due to rapid dehydration and overheating. Car temperatures can soar inside cars very quickly. Children could also panic and try to get out or be seen by a stranger. Uncovered holes in construction sites could risk someone falling, although the site is well marked and sectioned off. Riding a bike without hands reduces the control and the rider could fall easily. They are not watching where they are going and could ride into traffic or a pole. An abandoned building could have materials that break and fall easily, and are also a possible home for dangerous snakes and spiders. Storm drains could produce a sudden rush of water during wet months, and anyone who has walked alone inside it may not have time to get out. In drier months they are cold, damp, unhealthy places that may be a “stranger danger” area. Activity 19 - No Accidents Here Accidents happen around the home when people are rushing, not concentrating, untidy, lazy, too busy (doing several things at once), not following rules, or in rooms where most hazards exist such as the kitchen, laundry or shed. The pictured accidents could be prevented by keeping toys in a toy box, storing chemicals in a locked pool cupboard and closing the fence, stacking the rake in a shed and keeping the lid on the snail pellets, storing it in the shed. Activity 20 - Fire Emergency 1. Dial 000 2. Ask for the Fire Department 3. Tell the person your name and age, your address and where the fire is (perhaps a brief description e.g. how big it is or what rooms does it look like it is in), who may be in the house where the fire is and if you can hear or see anyone inside.

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Health Education Activities - Book 3 Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.12): Students discuss safety hazards in their school environment.

Activity 12

Hazards Beware - 1 Take a walk around your school and its surrounding grounds. Make a list of any safety hazards you notice.

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Try to think of a way you could improve the safety of each. Location

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Health Education Activities - Book 3 Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.12): Students discuss safety hazards in familiar environments.

Activity 13

Hazards Beware - 2 Select one of the locations below that you visit regularly. You may choose to nominate one not on the list.

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Park / Reserve

Shopping Centre

Sporting / Recreation Area

Unsafe situation

How I could help improve the situation

Who else needs to be involved?

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List any unsafe situations that you have noticed. Think about how they could be improved. State what you could do in improving their safety.

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Draw someone fixing one of the hazards you noticed.

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Health Education Activities - Book 3 Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.12): Students outline ways to deal with unsafe situations.

Activity 14

Skylarks in the P ark Park Jeremy and his friends, Rod and Coby, had decided to ride their bikes to a nearby park where they would have some afternoon tea and play on the equipment. It was a great spot for a game of hide and seek.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u What do you Sthink Jeremy and his friends should do?

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As they approached they noticed that a group of teenagers already occupied the roundabout and the swings. They could clearly hear the sound of breaking glass.

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Health Education Activities - Book 3

Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.12): Students discuss the need for protective clothing in a range of situations.

Activity 15

Protective Head Gear Complete the table below. Worn by

To protect from ...

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Protective head gear

In the space below draw some of the Complete this sentence. items of protective gear available for A fire officer’s uniform is specially designed to protect the body from ... cyclists and skateboard riders.

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Colour the fire officer’s outfit.

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Activity 16

Health Education Activities - Book 3

Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.12): Students understand why it is important to act safely in familiar environments.

Skate A way way - 1 Away way,, Scrape A Away Bradley and Susan loved to ride down their neighbour’s driveway on their skates despite having been warned by their parents that this was a dangerous thing to do. The driveway was steep and they could gather great speed as they skated down towards the road.

r o e t s Bo r e p ok u S in order to show what happened. Put these pictures

One morning during the holidays Bradley and Susan’s mother had to go out. As her business would take only about 30 minutes she thought that the two children would be quite safe left at home on their own.

Cut them out and glue them onto the next page.

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After giving the children instructions their mother drove off.

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Health Education Activities - Book 3

Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.12): Students understand why it is important to act safely in familiar environments.

Activity 17

Skate A way way - 2 Away way,, Scrape A Away

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Glue the pictures from Part 1 to show the correct sequence. Write a sentence for each, telling what happened.

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Health Education Activities - Book 3 Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.12): Students identify unsafe areas of their environment.

Activity 18

Danger Zones Give a reason why each of these pictures shows a potentially dangerous situation. ..........................................................

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Health Education Activities - Book 3

Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.12): Students discuss ways to prevent accidents in the home by removing hazards.

Activity 19

No Accidents Here Many accidents occur around a house. What are some reasons? ........................................................................................................................

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Activity 20

Health Education Activities - Book 3

Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.12): Students identify the need for an action plan in emergency situations.

Fire Emergency Imagine ... You and your older brother are home alone. You notice smoke billowing from your neighbour’s house. An elderly man lives alone in the house. You both race to the house and your brother bangs on the door but can get no answer.

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r o e t s Bo r He sends you to raise thee alarm by ringing from home. p o u k Fill in the steps below. S

1. Dial ...............................................................................................

2. Ask for the .................................................................................... 3. When the Emergency Service answers, there are at least three vital points of information you must give.

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Health Education Activities - Book 3

Teachers’ Notes Community Health W orkers (Activities 21 - 22) Workers Background Information

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School Health nurse duties in Australia include health screening, assessment and follow-up of all referred students in their catchment schools. They also provide health education and information to students, parents and teachers and take part in health promotion activities within schools. They may address some social or family issues that arise. Dental Health Nurses or dental therapists examine and provide routine treatment of teeth under the general supervision of dentists, and also help to promote preventative dental practices amongst school children and the broader community by educating and motivating children to maintain good dental hygiene habits, cleaning, scaling and polishing teeth, taking X-rays of teeth, extracting baby teeth, and referring more complex dental problems to the dentist. Roles of dental practitioners may vary and it is best to check your local clinic for more specific information.

Invite the school health nurse or local dental therapist into the classroom. Students prepare inter view questions in advance and act as “journalists”, taking brief notes during the visit. Following the visit, a recount or job description can be produced. This would be a good introduction for the School Health Nurse activity page.

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Activity 21 - School Health Nurse School health nurses may check: eyesight, hearing, weight, height, pulse, blood pressure, spine alignment, head lice. Equipment used by the school health nurse may include stethoscope, sphygmomanometer (blood pressure), thermometer, eye chart, tongue depressor, scales, height chart, ear torch. Activity 22 - Dental Health Nurse Dental surgery equipment: Drill, scaler, gas, syringe/needle, mirrors, x-ray, chair. Dental therapists may: demonstrate correct brushing, provide information on diet and dental care, extract (baby) teeth, show and explain equipment, locate dental decay, carry out minor dental work, mix chemicals for fillings, give disclosing tablets to show plaque.

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Health Education Activities - Book 3 Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.10): Students understand the role of the school health nurse.

Activity 21

School Health Nurse The school health nurse who visits our school is ... ......................................................................................................................

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Write a list of some of the things she checks. The school health nurse checks ... ............................................................... ...............................................................

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Draw her.

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Draw some of the equipment she uses.

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Health Education Activities - Book 3 Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.10): Students understand the role of the dental health nurse.

Activity 22

Dental Health Nurse Our nearest school Dental Clinic or Dental Therapy unit is located in ... ......................................................................................................................

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Draw some of the special equipment you find in each surgery unit.

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Draw a picture of the outside of the building as you approach it.

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demonstrate correct brushing of teeth

give injections

give information on diet and dental care

carry out minor dental work

extract teeth

carry out major dental treatment

show and explain dental equipment

mix chemicals used for fillings

locate dental decay

give ‘disclosing tablets’ to show plaque on teeth

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Health Education Activities - Book 3

Teachers’ Notes Disease and Medicine (Activities 23 - 24) Background Information Primary school students are susceptible to may common illnesses due to lack of built-up immunity, sharing seating and objects in close proximity, and often due to poor hygiene habits. Information can be found in the answers below on common illnesses, their symptoms and treatments. Medicines can either be purchased over the counter in chemists or prescribed by a doctor. Today, additional precautions are provided to ensure that medicines are more safe, e.g. tamper seals and child-proof seals.

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Show students a variety of examples of medication (using empty containers, etc.). Point out safety features such as safety lids and discuss safe storage of medicines. Explain what a prescription is and why it is important to read directions on the labels. Allow students to use teaspoons and medicine cups to measure out water so that they have an understanding of millilitres (ml). Encourage students who have conditions such as asthma or allergies to share their knowledge with the class, so that peers have a better understanding of why they need medication.

Activity 23 - Diseases Asthma (reduced ability to breathe when airways narrow and lining becomes swollen and coated with mucus, often triggered by excessive activity, allergies or stress); treatment includes use of an inhaler or nebuliser (which helps to return the air passages to a normal state) or preventative medication. Most students learn to use the Ventolin themselves when they notice signs of a potential asthma attack. Chickenpox (runny nose and cough, red, itchy spots); treatment includes tablets or capsules to reduce fever, lotion to reduce irritation of spots). Parents will usually monitor treatment. Colds and Influenza (sore throat, runny nose, sneezing, chills, aching muscles); medication includes cold and flu tablets (decongestants shrink swollen nasal passages, antihistamines dry up mucus), aspirin, cough mixture, medicated throat lozenges. Many of these medications have quite strict dosage guidelines and are best monitored by an adult. Eczema (scaly and itchy allergy on the skin - not contagious); a variety of creams can be used - sometimes prescribed by a doctor. Children are also advised to avoid allergens, wear natural fibres, etc. Gastroenteritis (diarrhoea, vomiting, headache, fever); usually small amounts of fluid is the only thing required here to prevent dehydration. Head Lice (small parasites in larval and adult form living on the skin in hair); medicated shampoos can be purchased over the counter. Usually 1 - 2 shampoos will remove all of the lice. Conjunctivitis (eyes that are red, itchy, burning, pussy or watery); eye-drops or cream can be applied every few hours. Some can be purchased over the counter but more effective and stronger drops are prescribed by doctors. Ringworm (itchy, flaky skin with a red, ring-like rash caused by fungal infection on the skin); medicated creams can be used, or sometimes oral medication prescribed by a doctor. Usually applied or taken once or twice a day. Activity 24 - Medicines Some illnesses that students may have taken medicine for include colds and flu, head lice, chicken pox, eczema, asthma. People take medicines to help them recover faster from illnesses and to prevent further complications and spreading of the disease. People should NOT take medicine when they are prescribed for someone else; when the medicine is out of date or the label is not able to be read; when the person has allergies to something in the medicine such as penicillin; when they are too young or frail for certain dosages; sometimes when pregnant.

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Health Education Activities - Book 3 Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.9): Students discuss the safe use of medicines to treat diseases.

Activity 23

Diseases Survey some common illnesses or diseases in your class. You may wish to add them to this table. Complete the table after class discussion. Disease (Note details/ symptoms)

Frequency of doses

Given by ...

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1. Asthma

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2. Chicken pox

3. Colds and flu

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Activity 24

Health Education Activities - Book 3 Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.10): Students identify diseases that can be treated with medicines; Discuss the correct procedures for using medicines.

Medicines

List some of the illnesses you have had in the past twelve months. Try to name or describe the medicine that was used to treat each illness. Indicate whether or not the medicine was prescribed by a doctor. Medicine Prescribed r o e t s Bo Yes rantibiotic ointment e e.g. conjunctivitis p ok u S

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Disease

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Health Education Activities - Book 3

Teachers’ Notes What Should I Do? (Activities 25 - 27) Background Information

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It is important for children to develop strategies to make appropriate choices. Although the process of making decisions will depend on the circumstances, some general rules of thumb can be applied: Clarify what the choices are, e.g. I can join a football team or I can join scouts. Gather all of the information that relates to each choice, e.g. When do I go, what do I need, where do I go, who do I go with, how much does it cost? Asking who, what, where, when and why questions may help here. Write a list with advantages and disadvantages (good points and bad points) for each choice, e.g. football is further to travel but is less expensive, scouts sounds like hard work but my best friend attends. Talk to family and friends, asking them to give you more facts about the decisions instead of telling you what to choose. If one choice seems most appealing, ask yourself “What will happen if I choose this?”. Make the decision and begin to take steps towards that choice. Evaluate your choice, asking yourself if you made the right decision and why or why not? Remember that everyone makes mistakes or wrong choices at times, and this is part of learning. Today’s statistics indicate that people are changing jobs more frequently than they did in the previous generation. A change of job or career can not only be a stressful time for parents, it can also cause feelings of stress and insecurity in children. Chores and responsibilities around the home may need to be adjusted as parents change their work hours.

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Provide students with sample choices, such as whether to get a pet dog or a fish, and ask them to work in small groups to consider advantages and disadvantages by writing them in a chart. What would happen if we had too many choices? Give some examples to the students and discuss the outcomes, e.g. What might happen if we could wear anything we liked to school? What might happen if we could eat any food we wanted all of the time? Allocate roles and responsibilities within the classroom. Encourage students to become completely independent in ensuring that the job has been carried out, e.g. watering plants, changing the date, etc. Rotate these roles on a regular basis. Hold a class “busy bee”. With the students, plan how the classroom can be made into a better place. Set out certain tasks and establish a time-frame. Students then spend an afternoon cleaning, decorating and re-organising the classroom. Evaluate the success of this.

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Activity 25 - Decisions, Decisions Students may describe choosing a sport or hobby, what they do for their birthday, what they want for Christmas, which friend they want to spend time with. Activity 26 - Changes Everywhere Families might change after divorce or separation, older siblings leaving home, parents losing or obtaining work, death of grandparents, moving house or moving to a new city/town, new baby brother or sister. Example One: Dad - may feel angry or upset, may need to look for a new job, might start to do some jobs around the house, might become bored; Mum - may need to look for more work, might feel upset for her husband, may need to try and save money; You - may not have as much pocket money or be able to go on family outings, may need to help Dad feel better. Example Two: Mum - may feel more tired and find it harder to get things done, may feel happy that she has a new job; Dad - may be able to give up some work time and spend more time with the family, may have to help more with the housework; You - may have to spend time at after school care or with friends, may have more money in the family. Page 36

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Activity 25

Health Education Activities - Book 3 Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.13): Students demonstrate the steps involved in basic decision making.

Decisions, Decisions Think about the hardest decision you have ever had to make. What was it? .....................................................................................................

r o e t s Bodecision. r Describe the steps you went through to make your e p o u k Step 1 ....................................................................................... S

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Health Education Activities - Book 3 Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.13): Students examine changes in family units and family roles.

Activity 26

Changes Everywhere Make a list of the ways a family might change. ...........................................................................................................

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Imagine ...

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Your dad has just lost his job and at this stage doesn’t have a new job to go to. How will this affect ... Dad?

Mum?

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Your mum has decided to take a job. She has always stayed at home before.

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Health Education Activities - Book 3 Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.13): Students examine their roles and responsibilities within the family unit.

Activity 27

Fish ‘n ‘n’’ Chores Think carefully about your responsibilities around your house. Colour the fish in the tank ...

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red if you rarely do this task blue if you sometimes do this task

Play with younger brother or sister.

Bring in the wood for the fire.

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yellow if you regularly do the task orange if it is not possible to do this task

Go to the shops. Organise yourself for school.

Make mum and dad breakfast.

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Put away your toys.

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Set the table.

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Pull the weeds.

Put away your clothes.

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Health Education Activities - Book 3

Teachers’ Notes Interacting With Others (Activities 28 - 31) Background Information

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Communication is used by people to let others know facts (“I have finished my work”), opinions (“I do not like maths”) and feelings (“ I am angry that Sally is not talking to me”). Communication can be in the form of verbal (face to face or telephone, distinguished by the content of what is said and the tone in which it is said), non-verbal (body language such as folded arms, shuffling feet, gestures such as pointing, nodding, eye contact and facial expressions such as a smile), written (email or letter). The way that a situation is responded to can be categorised into passive (no eye contact, nervous shuffling or closed body position, quiet voice, not expressing how you feel), aggressive (invasion of personal space, yelling, angry tone of voice, threatening others, using inappropriate contact such as pushing, not listening to others) and assertive (using appropriate eye contact and firm, clear and confident voice. Listening to others but stating how you feel in a pleasant manner). Assertive communication will usually result in the best outcome for all. Play some simple communication games such as Chinese Whispers, Charades, etc. Allow students to experience how it feels to try and communicate without words or without seeing the other person. Use a soft ball to throw around the room when holding a class discussion. Only the student holding the ball is allowed to speak. This will encourage others to listen. Record a variety of “secret sounds” onto a tape. Students must listen carefully to guess the sounds. When holding discussions, ask students to distinguish between fact, opinion and feelings - ask “do you know this, think this or feel this?”

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Relevant Internet Links

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www.storyarts.org/classroom demonstrates how storytelling can be used to improve communication skills.

Activity 28 - Communication Breakdown People can communicate by person-to-person, telephone, email, television, radio, miming or gesture, letter, mobile phone, text messages, facial expression, postcard. Picture 1 - One boy is being left out of the conversation and is feeling upset. He might walk away or get angry with the other two; Picture 2 - The girl is thinking about something and feeling confused or worried. She might try to solve the problem that she is thinking about; Picture 3 - The two boys have their arms around each other as if to say “You are my friend”. They both seem happy. Activity 29 - Speaking Out Examples of how students could respond to the statements focus on assertive communication: 1. “I don’t think Tom would like that. Let’s go and ask him to play with us instead.” 2. “That may not be a good idea. Your mum works hard for that money and she might catch you out. What you want to do is stealing.” 3. “I think Sue might feel upset if she finds out. What is the harm in asking her to come with us?” 4. “I don’t think I am stupid. You can choose whoever you want to play with. I have other friends.” It can be hard to say what you mean if you are feeling upset or the person is acting like a bully and scaring you.

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Health Education Activities - Book 3

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Activity 30 - Listen Here! Good listening skills involve stopping what you are doing so you can focus on the person, looking at them, nodding and smiling, not interrupting, asking questions where appropriate, taking turns in speaking, respecting feelings and opinions. Students can help to get others to listen to them by simply asking them “Please listen”, by speaking clearly and by showing others that they will listen too. Equipment that enables people to listen includes speakers, microphones, headphones, hearing aids.

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Health Education Activities - Book 3 Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.13): Students identify different ways of communicating feelings.

Activity 28

Communication Breakdown Write a list of all the ways we communicate. ..................................

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What is happening?

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r o e t s Bo r .................................. e pcommunicate to you? ok What do these pictures u S

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Name: .................................................

Health Education Activities - Book 3 Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.13): Students demonstrate different ways to assertively communicate their feelings.

Activity 29

Speaking Out What would you say to a person who said the following things to you? “Let’s go pinch Tom’s hat and throw it on the roof.”

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“No one will know if we take some money from mum’s purse.”

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons ......................................................................................................................... •f orr evi ew pur posesonl y• ......................................................................................................................... “Don’t tell Sue we are going to the movies. We don’t want her to come.”

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“You’re stupid. I don’t want to play with you!”

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......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Role play each situation with a friend. Ready-Ed Publications

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Health Education Activities - Book 3 Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.13): Students demonstrate rules for basic listening skills.

Activity 30

Listen Here! Make up a list of rules on ... “How to be a good listener .” listener.”

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Some equipment that enables you to listen

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Health Education Activities - Book 3 Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.13): Students use interpersonal skills to communicate their feelings to others.

Activity 31

Think How Others F eel Feel What thoughtful words would you say if you were in each situation? Someone in your class has drawn a very detailed picture which has been displayed.

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Your younger brother has just learnt to build a tower with blocks.

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Your sister has dressed in the new outfit she was given for her birthday.

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Teachers’ Notes Being a Good P erson (Activities 32 - 36) Person Background Information It is often difficult for students to recognise abstract qualities about themselves that they like. For example they may know that they are good at reading or sport, but do not think about being a good friend, a good son or daughter, etc.

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During newstelling sessions, encourage students to bring in awards, hobbies and interests. Send a note home to parents asking them to notify you if their child has received something special like a trophy or certificate, so that individual achievements can be shared with the class. Students decorate, cut out and fold a small paper or card cube with their name on the lid. These can be kept in a safe place and students can “post” friendly messages or compliments to each other. Monitor what goes in and encourage students to post to students they do not usually talk to.

Activity 32 - My Favourite Things Responses will vary. Favourite things might change due to students growing up, losing or breaking the items, following different fads or fashions, responding to peer pressure. Activity 33 - The Me I Like Positive attributes may include: Friendship qualities (friendly, caring, funny, happy, generous); Good at ... (school subjects, sport, hobby); Nice... (hair, eyes, skin, smile). Activity 34 - Friendly Features Responses will vary but generally accepted qualities of a good friend include someone who you enjoy talking with, understands your feelings and problems, plays games fairly, enjoys the same interests as you, helps you do things. The other responses may be acceptable at times but should not be the primary reason for a friendship. Students can get others to be their friend by being happy, honest, caring, talking to them, inviting them to play, etc. Students should not get someone to be their friend by giving away money or their toys, telling secrets about others, playing cruel jokes or teasing. Activities 35/36 - Oh! What is the Matter with Me? 1 and 2 Forgotten library book: You feel - silly, embarrassed, angry at yourself, upset, nervous. The librarian might - yell, keep you in at lunchtime, give you a final warning. The librarian should - give you a written reminder or note to take home, help you find it, give you a reason to bring it back (getting out another book). You can - Always keep your book in a library bag or in your school bag, keep a diary, write a message on your hand, ask your family to remind you, keep a school timetable so you know when library day is coming. Forgotten money: You might - miss out on the show, get a warning from the teacher, have to ring your mum or dad to get the money You might feel - embarrassed, angry, left out, upset. Broken trophy: You feel - shocked, nervous, upset, guilty, scared. Dad might - yell, take your cricket gear away, forgive you. You could - save money to help fix the trophy, apologise, promise to find a new place to play cricket, offer to do extra chores. New sneakers: You feel - surprised, shocked, scared, embarrassed. Mum might say - “Now we will have to spend more money on new sneakers. I am disappointed”. You were not breaking any rules (mum did not say you could not remove your sneakers) but you should have remembered them.

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Health Education Activities - Book 3

Outcome (Related to Outcome 1.15, Level 1): Students identify their interests and discuss how these can change over time.

Activity 32

My F avourite Things Favourite My favourite games are ... ........................................

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My favourite toys are ... ........................................ ........................................ ........................................

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The things I like to do most ...

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My favourite books are ...

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Put a tick near those you think will still be a favourite interest next year. What might be some of your reasons for change? ..................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Ready-Ed Publications

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Health Education Activities - Book 3 Outcome (Related to Outcome 1.15, Level 1): Students identify feelings of self-worth.

Activity 33

The Me I Like

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Write in the outlines the things about yourself that you like or feel good about.

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Health Education Activities - Book 3 Outcome (Related to Outcome 1.15, Level 1): Students explore their relationships with their friends and discuss the qualities of close friends.

Activity 34

Friendly F eatures Features A visitor from outer space is confused about what qualities are important in a friend. Colour the ‘space shapes’ which you feel show things most important in a friend.

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... helps you to do things.

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I think a friend should be someone who ...

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... giv o r es y o t h ou er l t r e ollies ats .

... shares lunch with you.

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... invites you to his or her party.

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Something I would do to get someone to be my friend is ... .......................... ......................................................................................................................... Something I wouldn’t do to get someone to be my friend is ... ...................... ......................................................................................................................... Ready-Ed Publications

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Activity 35

Health Education Activities - Book 3

Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.13): Students examine basic self-management skills in everyday situations.

Oh! What is the Matter with Me? - 1 You have forgotten your library book for the third week in a row. The librarian is rather annoyed. How do you feel? .............................................................................................

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......................................................................................................................... List some ways that might help you to be a little more organised.

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You have arrived at school only minutes before school starts. The money you needed to attend the puppet show is still sitting on the bench at home. There is no time to return home for it.

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Activity 36

Health Education Activities - Book 3

Outcome (Related to Outcome 2.13): Students examine basic self-management skills in everyday situations.

Oh! What is the Matter with Me? - 2 You have been practising cricket in the lounge room after your parents had suggested that this should be done outside.

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Your dad’s very special trophy has just been knocked over and broken.

What do you think dad will do? ........................................................................ ......................................................................................................................... What will you do?.........................................................................................

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© ReadyEdPubl i cat i ons •f orr e vi e wjustp ur pyou os spair on y• You Mum has bought ae new of l sneakers.

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wear them for the second time to the park.

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While there you decide it is much faster to slide without them, so you take them off. You go home without them and the next morning when you return to collect them they are gone.

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How do you feel? ..........................................................

What will mum say? .........................................................................................

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Health Education Activities - Book 3

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Health Education Activities: Book 3 - Ages 7-9  

Health activities for Australian primary students. Buy now: http://www.teachersuperstore.com.au/product/health-physical-education/health-ed...