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Home reference manual Falconry: Hunting with Raptors Oliver Tomlinson - Spring term 2010


Contents Discovery phase Introduction and initial research  4 Reference book design  5 Falconry book design  10 Discovery conclusions  20

Transformation phase Task analysis: Hooding a falcon  22 Task analysis: Hunting a pheasant with a falcon  26 Editorial and design flows  28 Design influences  32 Design concepts  34

Making phase Final designs  42 Acknowledgements  48

Oliver Tomlinson - Spring term 2010


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DISCOVERY TRANSFORM

Home Reference Manual

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Introduction The aim of this project is to design a ‘blad’ for a home reference manual aimed at a general market; a home reference manual is not a textbook or technical manual, and a blad is a Book Layout and Design. The finished blad could be used to market the idea to a publisher, it acts as a sample and often shows finished spreads and cover artwork

Falconry I have some experience in falconry and have owned a number of birds before university. Books have always been a valuable tool in learning techniques and understanding the birds, but they contain little information on actual flights and flying environments. By designing a book for the general market I can re-order the conventional flow of a falconry book, and emphasise the requirement of understanding your environment before buying a potentially unsuitable raptor (the correct term for a bird of prey). I will mention a few falconry terms during this project, but can assume there will be a glossary in my final book.

Initial research Bryn Walls (1), former art director at Dorling Kindersley visited the department to give a talk; these are my notes: • Illustrations are often shown as steps with numbers. • It’s often useful to show an overhead shot of all the implements used in a particular task; this also helps the reader to perceive scale. • Use illustrations not TO, but WITH the text. • Bring text and images together at the creation of a document • Bryn mentioned an illustrator called Pierre Marchand (2) • There is a need to make things work for the ‘show me’ people as well as the ‘tell me people’. • In a spread you can have a number of elements in hierarchical order: • Main point/image (at the top) • Details of the image/annotations • Other stories/news • Think of creating ‘visual stories’ and ‘virtual tours’, i.e. walking around objects using multiple photos and captions to tell a story, as if the reader was there. Think of the 4th dimension as time.

The Beetle, Paris, Gallimard, “My first discoveries”, 1989. Artwork by Pierre Marchand

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The following notes were made from reading an audio script from an Open University course (3): • The cover plays an important part in the initial steps to ‘sell’ the idea/book to the publishers. • The author, designers and editors all work together in the same area. • Decide what and how items are going to be portrayed in the book, i.e. spreads and flow. Start with an editorial flow, them a more detailed ‘design flowchart’ illustrating what is to be on each spread (coding diagrams types, e.g. 3D, illustrations, photos etc). • Next stage is to work out the details on a particular spread, photo sessions (or sequences) are then decided, e.g. ‘ingredients photos’ - a pictorial list of equipment. • In diagrams think about visualising elements that people can’t see, e.g. pressure points or motion.

(1) Bryn Walls, Former Art Director at Dorling Kindersley. Visited Reading University Typography Department, 12/01/10 (2) A quote on Pierre Marchand from Hedwige Pasquet and Christine BakerGallimard Jeunesse: “He couldn’t suffer an error of visual taste or the sin of banality, in a color, a proportion, a line... his eye was truly laser sharp. He had to mold, to control: no project was ever less than a challenge; the ambition of the 18thcentury French encyclopedists was underlying every idea.” Pierre Marchand Remembered. URL: http://www.publishersweekly.com/ article/416501-Pierre_Marchand_ Remembered.php [14/01/10] (3) Notes from an Open University course on Communication and Education, where Rob Waller interviews a publishing manager, editor and designer from Dorling Kindersley (1987).

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Reference book design

Parker, S. (2007). The Human Body Book. London: Dorling Kindersley

Key features  A large format home reference guide explaining all elements of the human body. Also included is an interactive DVD. The size of the book allows a lot of information to be provided on each spread in an engaging way, with easy navigation using colour coding.

Relevance to potential users  Users of this book are most likely to be students up to A-level grade, or people interested in knowing more about the body. The younger reader would be used to the high amount of 3D diagrams, and also the DVD, however, older generations may find it difficult.

Cover messages  A large illustration gives the reader a flavour of the book contents, with a textured transparent sleeve adding to the feeling of exposed layers of the body. Bold typography highlights the areas covered in the book.

Use of diagrams  3D diagrams convey meanings and functions very well with clear annotation. Using a black background gives a feeling of internal space rather than dissection. Photos are added to show actual examples and are a clever way of providing the reader some realism.

Lavish 3D CGI spreads engage the reader and explain complex procedures. Home Reference Manual

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Hessayon, D.G. (1997). The New Lawn Expert. London: Expert Books

Key features  Full colour soft back in quite a small format, with most graphics being illustrations. Step-by-step guides are useful, as are the full page spreads, but pages feel a little cluttered with oversized banners. The fully justified text and poor spacing is sometimes confusing.

Relevance to potential users  Home owners with medium to large size gardens will find this useful, but only if they have a lawn laid to grass; this is unlikely in some foreign climates. Techniques are unlikely to change in lawn care, but the tools may.

Cover messages  The portrayal of a rather small lawn gives the reader indication of the subject, but the term ‘new’ is a big mistake. This book looks very dated now, especially with the illustrations. The heavy title text box blocks the main image and produces some distracting angles.

Use of diagrams  Hand rendered illustrations focus on particular tasks but now look dated, Motion paths on lawns are confusing and should be split into steps. Text spacing to the illustrations is not linking the diagram to the text.

Motion paths are not clear enough and produce distracting patters. It would have been better to break this one down into steps or phases.

Clear illustrations explain tasks, but text blocks are too far from the subject 6

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Reader’s Digest (2009). How to do just about anything on a computer. London: Reader’s Digest Association Ltd.

Key features  Hard-backed landscape format with colour coded sections, and full colour spreads. Lots of screenshots to explain processes and a heavy focus on finding the correct section quickly. It could become repetitive but large photos with text wrapping break up the steps by showing the reader the results or aspirations they seek.

Relevance to potential users  An introduction to PC based tasks, essentially for the novice user or older generation. A simple and engaging layout using a Windows format can be easy to understand. However, any book like this will date very quickly as new programmes are developed and screenshots are no-longer representative. Landscape is a good format when placed in front of your PC.

Cover messages  Highlighting ‘computer’ is good, but I think ‘PC’ should be made clearer as this is useless for MAC users. The words ‘just about anything’ are a little ambiguous.

Use of diagrams  Diagrams would not be very useful in this type of book, so the choice of screenshots is good. Too many screenshots can become a little repetitive though, but this book highlights certain elements well.

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Walker, C.F. (1979). The Complete Fly Fisher. 2nd Ed. London: Barrie & Jenkins Ltd.

Key features  Hard-backed with a colour sleeve. All internal pages are mono-chrome with a mixture of photos and illustrations. Body text is justified making it difficult to skim read, but captions are nicely placed under graphics. Many of the photos require the user to rotate the book, but this actually makes it quite engaging.

Relevance to potential users  Flyfishing techniques have not changed for many years, and equipment requirements are also very similar. All types of casting and rivers are mentioned, with diagrams guiding the reader from many different viewpoints.

Cover messages  The cover image is a little saturated but this may be due to the age of the book; and the title needs a little more room. I do like the use of a typical scene and the use of the word ‘complete’.

Use of diagrams  Some of the diagrams look almost scientific, but once the reader understands that many show the casting of the fishing line, they become very understandable. Time series is aided by letters or numbers, and illustrations of the fisherman highlight motion. I would like to see a few more elements in the illustrations to show the context of the image, e.g. the river bank or foliage. As the photos are mono-chrome, it can be difficult to see the details.

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A requirement to rotate the book to see the photos actually breaks up the rather repetitive text layout.

Scaling the hand in this illustration highlights the area of discussion.

Illustrations are quite scientific, but accompanied with the text, make the process easy to understand by using clever scaling and timeframe overlays.

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Falconry book design Due to the age of some of these falconry books I shall not scale them in the same way as the previous ones; instead I have made notes on particular characteristics. I continue to scale the later ones.

Frederick II of Hohenstaufen. (1250). The Art of Falconry. Translated and Edited by Casey A. Wood and F. Marjorie Fyfe (1943), Stanford University Press

The Art of Falconry was one of the first guides produced on the subject. Though written in 1250, elements of the diagrams still give a good indication of current falconry processes. It was produced by hand in full colour and this would explain why there are only two examples left today.

It is interesting to see illustrations of scenes; far right shows a potential cause of ‘bating’ (the bird flapping from the fist or perch) in the form of a window cleaner.

‘It is a scientific book, approaching the subject from Aristotle but based closely on observation and experiment throughout, Divisivus et Inquisitivus, in the words of the preface, it is at the same time a scholastic book, minute and almost mechanical in its divisions and subdivisions. It is also a rigidly practical book, written by a falconer for falconers and condensing a long experience into systematic form for the use of others.’ Haskins,C.H, The Latin Literature of Sport (Speculum) Vol.2, No 3 (Jul.,1927), P.244. Cited from Wikipedia 10

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Salvin, F.H & Brodrick, W (1873). Falconry in the British Isles. 2nd Ed. London: John Van Voorst

A large hand-coloured spread showing falconry equipment and providing templates for hoodmaking. Focussed diagrams of equipment fitted to the bird help the reader understand the usage, as do different angles of the hoods. Most of the elements are shown actual size.

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A very small an intricate format gives this guide a note-book feel, especially with its leather binding.

Latham. S. (1633). Lathams Falconry: or, The Faulcons Lure, and Cure. London: Thomas Harper

Hand written notes show an interaction with the book; these notes look like a list and could be an indication of the user working out some costs. The inner cover is centrally aligned with an interesting diagram showing equipment used in falconry - this revolves around the focus, a hawk.

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A table of contents shows the book it to be used as a reference guide, allowing navigation to the desired chapter. Also interesting to note the acrostic poem on the left page.

A mixture of roman and italics are used to define different text groups, with each main section introduced with an ornate banner across the top and a large initial letter. A large outer margin is left for notes.

Tailing-off the text is an interesting method of finishing a section, with an image defining the new section; in this case the Goshawk (Goshawke in old spelling).

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The inside front cover of this book contains a fold-out graphic depicting falconry choices and options. Being a reprint, it is produced in black and white, but the original can be seen on the opposite page.

Blome, R. (1929). Hawking or Faulconry. London: The Cresset Press Ltd

This spread depicts a hunting scene on the left (Partridge Hawking), however, the subject on the right is not connected with the image. I think it is useful to have the text put into context but it needs to be near the image.

The falconry bag shown on this page is not a generic one, but a bag belonging to someone in particular. Adding a personal touch to the book and giving it a historical feel. 14

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The poster below is the original version, first printed in 1686, and would have been folded and placed in the first edition of Blomes’ Hawking or Faulconry. I think it is a great example of an early information graphic on the subject of falconry. Starting from the left it flows as a family tree, asking questions and drilling down to answers on flying environments, quarry, and applicable raptor choice. Images of quarry, raptors and equipment (unlabelled) flow around the outside of the diagram, which in turn is placed in a training environment at the bottom. This diagram is engaging and informative, but more importantly follows a pattern that anyone new to falconry should follow; this is the method of access structure I’d like to follow in my manual.

I like the title style, mixing lower and upper capitals; this may be an interesting way of styling my own manual. The connections between the bubbles are also very nice, using calligraphic thicks and thins portray motion and may be an interesting approach to illustrating flight lines.

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Glasier, P. (1998). Falconry & Hawking. 3rd Ed. London: Batsford (original 1978)

Key features  The 3rd edition of this book has a modernised hardback cover sleeve, but the contents remain relatively unchanged from the original 1978 version. It is a guide on all aspects of falconry for newcomers but also contains information on making equipment more applicable to the experienced. Using photography in step by step processes is very useful in explaining complex tasks, however photos are often from the same angle.

Relevance to potential users  Known as a key text in falconry circles, it has excellent sections on training, but due to its’ age equipment is dated and few people make their own in current times. It’s publication also straddles a key period in modern falconry where it used to be legal to take hawks from the wild with a permit, but now this practice is illegal.

Cover messages  The large image is eye-catching but could be confused for a general ornithology book; the title is placed well enough to counterbalance this issue. It is difficult to date the book from the cover so the reader may be disappointed to see the age of the content.

Use of diagrams  A mixture of line diagrams and step by step photo sequences are used throughout to aid understanding by highlighting key points in the process. Being monotone does not effect the usability as few processes require colour differentiation.

The author of this book is the father of Jemima Parry-Jones, the author of the book on the opposite page. There are a number similarities in the step by step photo series style. 16

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Parry-Jones, J. (1994). Training Birds of Prey. Newton Abbot: David & Charles

Key features  This book is very much aimed at the beginner and includes a section on training owls (this is not falconry in the true sense). It has a mix of colour and monochrome photos accompanied by explanatory line drawings. There is little mentioned on hunting strategy but a very thorough section on equipment with a couple of well laid out ‘ingredients’ pages.

Relevance to potential users  For beginners to falconry this book is ideal for an introduction, but fails to take the reader to a more advanced level. The inclusion of owls is an unusual addition and may not be relevant to true falconers.

Cover messages  The Buzzard is very much a beginners bird, so using this raptor in a falconry setting provides the reader with an idea of the content. This is only applicable if the reader has prior knowledge that a Buzzard is a beginners bird, and it does not give any indication of owls. Mixing upper and lower-case capitals was seen in the older falconry manuals and may be a way of illustrating the ancient roots of the sport.

Use of diagrams  Photos have been carefully planned, using beginner birds, and focussing on key elements of particular tasks from different angles. Line diagrams are useful in providing exploded information but the typography could be placed around them in a more intuitive way.

The full-bleed ‘finished’ image on the right page is a useful method of portraying the completed process of hooding. Home Reference Manual

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Exposing hidden elements of hooding using illustration.

Fox, N. (1995). Understanding the Bird of Prey. Surrey: Hancock House

Key features  A book of two very comprehensive sections, one on the anatomy and understanding of raptors, and the other on training and flying. There is a full colour section in the middle but all other illustrations are black and white. All text is justified in two columns, and with few navigation aids it’s difficult to use as a reference manual. The book is almost trying to do too much without having a clear target audience.

Relevance to potential users  This book is aimed at the experienced falconer or ornithologist and it caters for each individuals’ need well, However, putting the two together is often confusing as there is no distinct difference in layout or styling.

Cover messages  Using a young falcon indicates the books focus on understanding raptors at all stages. The background looks like a domestic environment so the reader will ascertain the subject is not wholly wild raptors. The colour choice for the title does not work on the mottled background.

Use of diagrams  The data graphics are rather uninspiring and often too large, but the illustrative flights and environments are very clear, by showing flight lines and elements a photo can’t depict (e.g. wind flow) the reader can follow step processes easily.

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Illustrations of flying environments place the reader in the picture, they are a great method for highlighting a flight, but the use of a dotted flight path may be difficult to follow.

Some tables could be improved with the addition of shading.

Numbers on a diagram link to steps in the text.

Data graphics are often too large for the spread

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Discovery conclusions Due to the niche market of falconry manuals, modern books on this subject do not seem to have a very large budget for publishing and design. When compared with guides like The Human Body, and How to do Just About Anything on a Computer, the falconry manuals I’ve researched are bland and uninspiring; the complete opposite of the subject they refer to. Examples from the 17th century are intricate and personal, giving a feel of the regal origins of the sport; this is something I would like to adapt for my own manual.

Imagery Birds of prey are such beautiful animals I would like to use as many detailed photos as possible, likewise, the bond between the trainer and their bird is very strong so I would like to represent this also. The environments and equipment are key features of falconry, with most of the equipment being handmade from leather a lot of the imagery is quite ‘earthy’.

Tasks Dealing with live animals, a number of the tasks involved in falconry need careful application, so illustrating tasks needs clear steps from different viewpoints.

Flights Flying a bird has many steps and eventualities but still follows a defined path. The most interesting examples of flights appear from a user perspective, actually taking the reader to the field.

Key points • Create a visual story • Visualise elements the reader can not see • Double spreads with full bleed images engage the reader • Create a new access structure that represents how falconry decisions should be made, e.g. understand your environment before deciding which bird to fly. • Style elements from ‘older’ falconry times can demonstrate it’s noble roots. • Illustration works best when applied with photography to demonstrate nonvisual themes, e.g. flight lines and wind direction.

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SCOVERY TRANSFORMATION MAKIN

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Task analysis: Hooding a falcon In order to design a step by step process it is necessary to understand the subject thoroughly. Within my manual on falconry I would like to illustrate the technique for hooding, and give details on a particular flight. I spent a weekend with a falconer and took the following photo sequences. Notes were taken and key points highlighted.

Key steps are highlighted in red

From the front

1 A raptor is always held on the weakest arm to allow the falconer to carry out tasks with his dominant hand.

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2 The hood is held by its’ plume (located on the top).

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The hood opening is facing upwards as the hood is brought upwards from a low position in front of the bird.

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5 As the hood chin strap meets the lower beak, the beak passes through the opening and the hood is rolled over the birds’ head.

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The hood is gently pushed into place.

Wait for a moment to allow the bird to settle.

To tighten the hood in place, the longer straps (braces) need to be pulled.

One of the braces are held by the teeth by using the right hand to put it in the mouth.

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The opposite long brace is taken in the right hand.

Both braces are pulled apart at the same time, this tightens the hood without causing any discomfort to the bird.

Removal of the hood is done by reversing the steps and pulling the shorter straps.

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From the back

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Bringing the hood towards the bird at a low angle.

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5 Rolling the hood over the head.

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10 Pushing in place.

11 Pausing for a moment

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‘Drawing’ the braces.

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Hooding in the field

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3 A low approach in front of the bird

IDEA: It is not necessary to see the whole bird, or the falconer, during this process; it may be better to focus the picture on the subject, i.e. a close-up of the hood, falcon and hand motion.

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Rolling the hood over the falcons’ head as the beak passes through the hood opening.

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Pushing in place.

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11 Drawing the braces.

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Task analysis: Hunting a pheasant with a falcon Drive to the flying ground

1 Before setting off in your car, check that all equipment is packed.

2 Fitting a tail-mounted telemetry transmitter (this sends a signal to a receiver so you can find a lost bird).

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3 Placing the hooded falcon on a specially made perch in the rear of the vehicle.

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Tieing the ‘leash’, the cord that is attached to the leather jesses via a swivel. The removable jesses are attached through eyelets to the falcons’ legs.

Drive past the quarry to a suitable place to ‘cast off’ your bird, preferably down wind behind some cover.

6 Once at the flying ground the falconer will drive around looking for suitable quarry to fly at; in this case we are looking for pheasants.

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When the falcon is at her highest point the falconer signals to her to prepare for the ‘flush’.

21 Here you can see the falcon releasing the pheasants’ feathers she caught from the first stoop.

26 In level flight the pheasant is faster than the falcon who has lost her height advantage and her speed.

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13 The falcon takes flight.

17 The dog is released and looks for the quarry to flush (to push into flight).

22 The falcon is actually inverted in this image, turning in the air for another stoop.

27 The pheasant reaches the safety of cover; this is exactly the same place where the falcon was cast off from.

9 Take the falcon from the vehicle (keeping noise to a minimum). Prepare for flight by removing the leash, swivel and jesses.

A pheasant is spotted feeding out in the open field.

Casting off the falcon. The bird is now free to fly but will often take her time, assessing the conditions and preparing for flight by ‘ruffling’ her feathers.

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18 As the quarry flushes the falconer gives a shout, but the falcon has such quick reflexes she will have already started ‘stooping’ (a dive).

23 Closing in...

28 Having missed her chance, the falcon rings up and looks for the quarry.

14 The falcon now ‘rings up’ to gain height by flying in circles above the falconer. On site of the airborne raptor the pheasant will stay in place, crouching low to the ground.

19 The aim of the falcon is to strike the quarry with closed feet, raking it with her huge back talons. As a stoop can reach speeds in excess of 200mph this can kill the quarry outright.

24 The pheasant jinks out of the way and the falcon misses.

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10 Remove the hood and store it in a safe place.

15 The falconer will walk towards the quarry keeping his eye on the falcon above.

20 In this case the falcon is a young bird so did not strike the pheasant accurately. He momentum carries her up for another attempt.

25 A tail-chase ensues as the pheasant heads for the nearest dense cover.

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The falconer now calls the falcon back to him by throwing out a lure with meat attached to it.

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31 Gliding in towards the falconer.

32 Landing on the lure.

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37 Taking a moment as the falcon eats meat from the lure, the falconer talks about the flight, and the dog has a rest.

41 Once she has finished her reward, the falcon is hooded ready for the journey home.

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42 Returning to the vehicle.

34 Eating meat from the lure.

38 Picking up the falcon from the lure is achieved by offering her food on the fist.

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35 Approaching the falcon, the falconer stays low and does not make any sudden movements.

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Equipment is replaced (jesses, leash and swivel).

43 Dog and falcon safe in the vehicle. Being hooded in the car keeps the falcon calm and undisturbed by traffic.

Task analysis conclusions There are only a few steps, in the hooding and flight, that need to be shown in my book design. The hooding procedure should only require four images, focussing on key points and accompanied with text descriptions. The flight is more complicated as it involves a process occurring in different times and places, with the falconer taking actions in parallel with the falcon. This will be a challenge to design, possibly requiring a mix of photos, illustrations (to show flight paths) and text descriptions.

INSPIRATION: The style of Nigel Holmes’ work is simple but extremely understandable. Motion is illustrated using simple arrows, curved in the scarf instructions (far right), and time-frame transparencies (in the conductor). They may be a little too sterile for my purpose, as I would like flight paths and motion to be more natural, maybe using thicks and thins of a brush stroke. Home Reference Manual

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Editorial & design flows The flow of my book will allow for a slightly different access structure than is often used within falconry books. The book shall be laid out in the same manner that a falconer should approach their sport, i.e. understanding what environment is available to them before working out what kind of bird to fly. Having spoken to experienced falconers, they often state that a beginner or novice will chose a bird to fly that is unsuitable to the environment and quarry they have available.

Double page photo spread to introduce the environment section.

Layout for introduction and history.

Environments contents page (Concept 1): photos and colour coding on falcons’ tail, flight lines linking to page numbers.

Historical timelines.

Environments contents page (Concept 2): large photo, bird flight, colour coding and key to flights.

1) Introduction and history • What this book is for • Definition of falconry • Historical timelines (linked to location in the world)

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2) Flight and theory • Start with an environment map (link to others) • Arable farmland • Large plains • Woodland • Highlands • Desert • Individual maps: each one to have a focus on the birds that can be flown; Long wings (falcons), Shortwings (hawks), Broadwings (buzzards/harris hawks), Eagles • Maps to link to prey types (rabbit, hare, squirrel, pheasant, grouse, partridge, water birds, hedgerow quarry, rooks/crows, magpie)

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Double page photo spread for each environment section.

Environments contents page (Concept 3): photos, colour coding and descriptions.

Specific flight details (Concept 1): Text process on left, flight on right, quarry and bird details on footer.

Environments contents page (Concept 4): An Alternative for concept 3

Specific flight details (Concept 2): Spread dominated by the flight, with step details as annotation. Flight from different angles.

More options for illustrating an individual flight.

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Double page photo spread for section.

Double page photo spread for section.

Layout for training as per introduction. Also inclusion of step by step processes and diagrams.

Layout as per introduction but including large hero shot of theraptor.

Timeline spreads may be useful to depict training but could be too prescriptive - some birds are more difficult than others.

3) Bird choice • Different sub-species of the groups e.g. Peregrine under Longwings, Sparrowhawk under Shortwings etc. • Also include details of quarry types and their characteristics.

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4) Training methods • By bird type then hunting desire

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Double page photo spread for section.

Layout similar to bird choice, with inclusion of hero image and also step by step process.

IDEA: The reader of this section may be carrying out the actions as they read, using each spread as a reference while they perform the task. For this reason I would like to use a different stock of paper, heavier and more resilient. To differentiate from the rest of the book I’d also like to give the whole section a colour wash.

5) Specific tasks • Hooding • Using the lure • Coping and imping • Food types and feeding • Bird handling (including knot tying) • Lost birds and telemetry • Housing and perches • Fitting equipment • Travelling

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Design influences

Longwing stoop at game Typography based on old scripts and texts, Bickham and Sabon.

Longwing stoop at game

The regal history of falconry.

Early falconry information graphic; hand drawn, flowing, motion.

Rich scenes with bright colours.

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Oliver Tomlinson - Spring term 2010


DISCOVERY TRANSFORMATION MAKING

Simple line drawings tell a story and explain a flight path, taking the reader to the environment.

Capturing motion and flight in still images; apply this to diagrams.

Relationship between falconer and his bird is very deep and is forged over a number of years.

TYPEFACES: Baskerville is a classic typeface but I’d like to use something more modern. Quadraat is a little too squat, but Sabon is nice and airy and would make a good representation of bird flight.

Baskerville Regular 10pt/11.5 Before even considering which bird you would like to fly you should analyse the environment you have available to fly in. There are some species of raptor that are totally unsuited to certain environments or flying style. Sabon Roman 10pt/11.5 Before even considering which bird you would like to fly you should analyse the environment you have available to fly in. There are some species of raptor that are totally unsuited to certain environments or flying style. Quadraat Regular 10pt/11.5 Before even considering which bird you would like to fly you should analyse the environment you have available to fly in. There are some species of raptor that are totally unsuited to certain environments or flying style.

Equipment is a mix of new technology and methods used for thousands of years.

Recurring patterns and earth tones.

The bird uses it’s own lethal equipment to survive.

Home Reference Manual

33


Design concepts

Greyscale image ages the spread. Poor mix of typefaces. Key misunderstood.

Concept 1

F Flying lyingenvironments environments

Arable Lowland

B

efore even considering which bird you would like to fly you should analyse the environment you have available to fly in. There are some species of raptor that are totally unsuited to certain environments or flying style. This should be the first thing the falconer assesses, as a clear understanding of what you want to achieve will not only dictate the best bird for you, but also the kind of equipment required and the type of quarry available.

Woodland Highlands The Plains Desert

This section of the book is split into five different environments you may encounter as a falconer, then within each environment you will find examples of possible flights and the quarry and raptor best suited to that style; from grouse hawking in the Highlands with a Longwing, to Lowland hare hawking with a Shortwing. Where a flight is described you will find helpful links to specific tasks in the task section of this book; these may be step by step guides or simple reference tools that are a common feature of many flight types.

J F M A M J J A S O N D

Picking up

p. 266

Telemetry: Wherever you decide to fy, telemetry is essential. This is a tail-mounted transmitter manufactured by Marshal. It is not something to allow the falconer to take risky slips with a half trained bird, but more a fall-back incase anything unforeseen happens and you end up losing your bird. Don't forget, always check the batteries before fying.

Links to the task section of this book accompany fight instructions.

Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus Details of quarry are given with information on environmental characteristics. Hunting dates are also shown.

Lanner Falcon page 125 Page references to birds of prey best suited to the environment.

22

23

1.1 - Flying environments title spread

Key to prey and birds is not clear.

34

Oliver Tomlinson - Spring term 2010


DISCOVERY ď ˇTRANSFORMATION ď ľMAKING

The flight path works well and includes the reader in the scene.

Portrait format, even though a good shape to show flights may not stand out in a bookshop - look at a landscape format

Real elements clutter the spread.

L Longwing ongwingstoop stoopat atfeathered featheredgame game r Pe J F M A M J J A S O N D

Bells: A vital piece of equipment when fying in lowland areas. On a falcon they are best mounted on the tail and will help you find her on the ground or in deeper cover.

Also known as the French partridge, these birds can be found in very large coveys, giving the falconer an opportunity for excellent slips.

Red-legged Partridge Alectoris rufa

Peregrine Falcon page 119

d ng overhea Followi Once a common site but now the Grey, or English, partridge is a rare site. They are much more wary than the Red-Legged so a careful approach is required.

oop

4

Grey Partridge Perdix perdix

O

u tc

t

oin

ome A

tp

The Mallard Anas platyrhynchos

pac

Mallards can be found in small ponds and ditches in lowland areas. A dog is a necessity as they are very difficult to fush; river ducks should be avoided all together.

Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus

Lanner Falcon page 125

Gaining height

Im

J F M A M J J A S O N D

the fush

e st

J F M A M J J A S O N D

d by llowe

Th

J F M A M J J A S O N D

fe c

fo tion os i tp

Arable Lowland

Outcome B

Pheasants are a large quarry requiring a heavy falcon to catch them. In level fight they are very fast.

1 Casting off 2

5 Q ua r ry fu sh

3 s appro Falconer

1. The game is spotted from a car or other

distant location, often using binoculars. Upon spotting a covey or singular bird in the open, the falconer will remove the hood, and cast off the falcon from suitable cover, allowing the bird to gain height overhead.

2. On site of the falcon overhead the quarry

should stay in position and lie flat to the ground. It is now time for the falconer to

approach calmly with the dog on a lead. Signalling to the waiting falcon will make sure she stays overhead.

Spotting game Hooding Flushing game

p. 235 p. 260 p. 232

3. When the falcon is upwind of the hiding quarry it is time to let the dog off and flush the game under her. The quarry will undoubtedly fly towards the nearest cover and this should be anticipated by the falconer.

4. Now it is all down to the falcon; upon

seeing the flush and hearing the shouts from below she will stoop at great speed to intercept the quarry before it reaches cover. Outcome A: The falcon will strike the game with closed talons, causing it to tumble to the ground. She will loop over and tackle her prize on the ground, often dispatching it with a bite to the neck. Outcome B: The falcon will strike but inac-

ach

curately, or miss all together as the quarry jinks to avoid the stoop. In this scenario the clever quarry will very often out-fly the falcon in a tail-chase, beating her to cover.

Picking up

p. 266

5. Pick up the falcon, either from her caught

quarry (outcome one), or by calling her to a lure thrown out onto the ground by the falconer (option two).

35

34

1.2 - Flight details Links to the task section feel detached.

Steps are difficult to link to the image.

Home Reference Manual

35


Concept 2

to 720 BC, now rising in popularity as newcomers experience the deep bond between man and bird once reserved only for the regal and gentry of the land. This book acts as a guide to the newcomer, and a reference to the experienced falconer or austringer. You variety of environments found in the UK and beyond.

tasks are shown in rich photos and described by leading falconry professionals.

R a p tor s

Raptor characteristics, training methods, and falconry

with

will find step-by-step illustrations of possible flights in a

Hu n t i ng with R a p tor s

Hu n t i ng

Falconry; a noble sport with a history dating back

History • Flights & Theory • Raptor Choice • Training Methods • Falconry Tasks www.tomlinsonbooks.com

2.1 - Back, spine and cover

Tomlinson

Banner is dated.

Good falconry reference.

Spacing needs adjusting.

Arable Lowland Woodland Open Flatlands Highlands

Before even considering which bird you would like to fly you should analyse the environment you have available to fly in. There are some species of raptor that are totally unsuited to certain environments or flying style. This should be the first thing the falconer assesses, a clear understanding of what you want to achieve will not only dictate the best bird for you, but also the kind of equipment required and the type of quarry available.

Flights & Theory

This section of the book is split into four different environments you may encounter as a falconer, then within each environment you will find examples of possible flights and the quarry and raptor best suited to that style; from grouse hawking in the Highlands with a Longwing, to Lowland hare hawking with a Shortwing. Where a flight is described you will find helpful links to specific tasks in the task section of this book; these may be step by step guides or simple reference tools that are a common feature of many flight types.

2.2 - Flying environments title spread

Flight much better in colour, adjust for fold.

Too close to image.

Arable Lowland

Flights & Theory

The most common environment has a lot to offer The most common environment that most falconers will experience in the UK, Lowland Arable has many different characteristics and therefore many different birds can be flown at a variety of quarry. However, like all areas, it has it’s own dangers such as power lines, and an enclosed landscape adding to the possibility of losing sight of your bird. Once permission has been given by the landowner, the falconer may choose the sort of flight that best suits the land they are on and the quarry they wish to hunt. Some quarry such as rabbits and squirrels may be caught all year, but feathered game such as pheasants and partridge are seasonal. A licence must be obtained before flying at gulls and corvids. Potential flights are described step-by-step over the next few pages, but remember, you are dealing with animals and innumerous possibilities of variance so be prepared for all eventualities.

2.3 - Specific environment title spread

36

Longwing stoop at feathered game

p. 34

Longwing flight at gulls from the fist

p. 36

Longwing flight at corvids from the fist

p. 38

Shortwing / Broadwing at fur and feather

p. 40

Shortwing at small hedgerow game

p. 44 

Broadwing following on

p. 46

Indents are confusing.

Remove ‘p’ or write ‘page’. Change to a sans serif do add difference.

Flight here is lost in background colour.

Oliver Tomlinson - Spring term 2010


DISCOVERY TRANSFORMATION MAKING

Numbers need to be less obtrusive.

Guide to quarry and raptors is not understood.

Longwing stoop at feathered game 3

1

Peregrine Falcon

Gyr Falcon

Pheasant

Partridge

Duck

5

Falconers approach

On site of the falcon overhead the quarry should stay in position and lie flat to the ground. It is now time for the falconer to approach calmly with the dog on a lead. Signalling to the waiting falcon will make sure she stays overhead.

2

The stoop

Upon seeing the flush and hearing the shouts from below she will stoop at great speed to intercept the quarry before it reaches cover. Outcome A: The falcon will strike the game with closed talons, causing it to tumble to the ground with her looping over to dispatch. Outcome B: The falcon will strike but inaccurately, or miss all together as the quarry jinks to avoid the stoop; this results in a tail-chase often finishing as the quarry beats the falcon to cover.

Spot the quarry

The game is spotted from a car while driving over the hawking ground or on foot from a distant location. Binoculars are required to prevent the quarry flushing early. Spotting game

Arable Lowland

Lanner

p. 235

Picking up

Picking up

4

Casting off

p. 260

p. 266

Flushing the quarry

When the falcon is upwind of the hiding quarry it is time to let the dog off and flush the game under her. The quarry will undoubtedly fly towards the nearest cover and this should be anticipated by the falconer.

Upon spotting a covey or singular bird in the open, the falconer will remove the hood, and cast off the falcon from suitable cover, allowing the bird to gain height overhead. Hooding

6

Pick up the falcon, either from her caught quarry (outcome one), or by calling her to a lure thrown out onto the ground by the falconer (outcome two). An experienced falcon can now be flown again on the same day, or the falconer can call it a day and reward their bird for a good flight.

Flushing game

p. 232

Stooping falcons have been known to reach  speeds in excess of 200 mph; you can quite  literally hear them tearing through the air. 

You can see in this photo the tail-mounted  telemetry transmitter. It doesn’t matter what  environment you fly in, use telemetry if you  don’t want to lose your falcon. It is a good  idea to fit the transmitter before arriving at  the flying ground to prevent rushing when you  spot quarry.

1

2

3

4

5

34

35

2.4 - Flight details

Flight time series works well but needs to be enlarged.

Steps and images need aligning better.

Flushing game Lost birds and telemetry Using the lure

Falconry Tasks

Flushing game

p. 232

Spotting game

p. 235

Using the lure

p. 254

Lost birds and telemetry

p. 256  

Hooding

p. 260    

Picking up

p. 266

Bird handling

p. 270 

Food types and feeding

p. 278 

Coping and imping

p. 280

Housing and perches

p. 282

Fitting equipment

p. 286

Travelling

p. 288

Hooding

Food types and feeding

Picking up

Fitting equipment

2.5 - Tasks section title spread

Do not align numbers and replace with sans serif.

Hooding

Falconry Tasks

The hood is used in the manning process (acclimatising to humans and the human world) and to keep the raptor in a calm state, both in the early part of its training and throughout its falconry career. Out of all the falconer’s aids the hood is the most important piece of equipment. There are various styles and types of hood for raptors within falconry. The hood is hand made, often from kip leather or suitable kangaroo leather. There are two standard types used in American/ European Falconry; the Anglo Indian hood (non-blocked) and made from one piece of leather. The Dutch Hood, that is a three piece hood blocked on a special mould called a “hood block”, which is designed to best represent the shape of the raptor’s head, also allowing space for the eyes with an adequate neck width. It is essential that the hood fits the raptor in a comfortable way or the raptor will reject the hood outright, making training very difficult.

1

Low approach

Hold the hood by it’s plume and approach from below with the beak opening facing the bird.

Hood types A good hood should meet a number of  criteria: the hawk should not be able to get it  off. The hawk should be able to feed and cast  through it safely. It should be light in weight,  sit comfortably on the hawk’s head without  causing condensation, irritation or trailing  braces which annoy the hawk. It should be  light-tight. It should not cause sores around  the gape or pinch the nape feathers. It  should be tough, durable, weather-proof,  and easily cleaned or renovated.

2

3

Roll over

As the chin strap of the hood meets the beak, use a rolling motion and follow the shape of the falcon’s head.

Push in place

Gently push the hood down into place with the tips of your fingers. Leave for a second or two. It is vital to have a falcon that will sit with the braces undone.

Arab style

Home Reference Manual

Draw the braces

Hooding as seen in The Art  of Falconry, by Frederick II  of Hohenstaufen (1250)

Dutch hood

Soft and light-weight but  can lose it’s shape

Well fitting but often heavy

Blocked Arab A great fit and hard  wearing, especially  with synthetic braces

Anglo-Indian Easy to make and often used for  hawks rather than falcons

261

260

2.6 - Specific task

4

Use one hand and your teeth to close the hood by pulling the longer braces in a swift motion.

Images have a good focus on hooding but everything can be moved up.

37


Concept 3 Text too small

This book acts as a guide to the newcomer, and a reference to the experienced falconer or austringer. You will find step-by-step illustrations of possible flights in a variety of environments found in the UK and beyond. Raptor characteristics, training methods, and falconry tasks are shown in rich photos and described by leading falconry professionals.

Hun ting with R ap tors

Falconry; a noble sport with a history dating back to 720 BC, now rising in popularity as newcomers experience the deep bond between man and bird once reserved only for the regal and gentry of the land.

H U N T I NG with

R A PTORS

history flights & theory raptor choice training methods falconry tasks www.tomlinsonbooks.com

3.1 - Back, spine and cover

Leather is a nice reference to older books and equipment.

Tomlinson

Leather On the cover may be better on the image below.

Hun ting with R aptors History • Flights & Theory • Raptor Choice • Training Methods • Falconry Tasks

3.1A - Cover alternative

Arable Lowland The most common British environment has a lot to offer Longwing stoop at feathered game page 34 Longwing flight at gulls from the fist page 36 Shortwing / Broadwing at fur and feather page 38 Shortwing at small hedgerow game page 42 Longwing at small game page 44 Broadwing following-on page 46

The most common environment that most falconers will experience in Britain, Arable Lowland has many different characteristics and therefore many different birds can be flown at a variety of quarry. However, like all areas, it has it’s own dangers such as power lines, and an enclosed landscape adding to the possibility of losing sight of your bird. Once permission has been given by the landowner, the falconer may choose the sort of flight that best suits the land they are on and the quarry they wish to hunt. Some quarry such as rabbits may be caught all year, but feathered game such as pheasants and partridge are seasonal, with some requiring a licence. Potential flights are described step-by-step over the next few pages, but remember, you are dealing with animals and innumerous possibilities of variance so be prepared for all eventualities.

Sep

Oct

Nov

Sep

38

Nov

Jan

Feb

Dec

Jan

Feb

Apr

May

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Jun

Jul

Aug

Red-legged Partridge Alectoris rufa

European Rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus

Also known as the French partridge, these birds can be found in very large coveys, giving the falconer an opportunity for excellent slips.

A common quarry for the Broadwings and Harris Hawks, numerous in many locations and available all year round.

Sep

Oct

Nov

Sep

Oct

Dec

Jan

Feb

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Mar

Apr

May

Nov

Jun

Jul

Aug

Jun

Jul

Aug

Grey Partridge Perdix perdix

Brown Hare Lepus europaeus

Once a common site but now the Grey, or English, partridge is a rare site. Being more wary than the Red-Legged a careful approach is required.

Large Broadwings and Goshawks are needed to take a Hare which can reach speeds of 45mph. Seasons are dependant on area so please check.

Sep

Oct

Nov

Sep

Oct

Dec

Jan

Feb

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Mar

Apr

May

Nov

Jun

Jul

Aug

Jun

Jul

Aug

The Mallard Anas platyrhynchos

Skylark Alauda arvensis

Mallards can be found in small ponds and ditches in lowland areas. A dog is a necessity as they are difficult to flush; river birds should be left alone.

Lark-hawking with a Merlin is a short but intense time. A licence is required to catch a limited number before they get too strong on the wing.

Sep

Oct

Nov

Sep

Oct

Dec

Jan

Feb

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Jun

Jul

Aug

Nov

Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus

Gulls (e.g. Herring and Lesser Black Backed)

Pheasants are a large quarry requiring a heavy falcon to catch them from a stoop, or a Goshawk from the fist. In level flight they are very fast.

Like Skylarks, the falconer requires a licence to take any gull. A large falcon flown from the fist can provide great sport; look for ploughed fields.

33

32

3.3 - Specific environment title spread

Oct

Dec Mar

Body text could be better on left page so it is not so sparse.

Information is too heavy and text doesn’t stand out enough.

Oliver Tomlinson - Spring term 2010


DISCOVERY TRANSFORMATION MAKING

Lines crossing over are distracting.

Flights better at this size.

Longwing stoop at feathered game

1 Spot the quarry The game is spotted from a car while driving over the hawking ground or on foot from a distant location. Binoculars are required to prevent the quarry flushing early. Spotting game

page 235

You can see in this photo the tail-mounted telemetry transmitter. Whatever environment you fly in, use telemetry if you don’t want to lose your falcon. It is a good idea to fit the transmitter before arriving at the flying ground to prevent rushing when you spot quarry.

2 Casting off Upon spotting a covey or singular bird in the open, the falconer will remove the hood, and cast off the falcon from suitable cover, allowing the bird to gain height overhead. Hooding

page 260

Arable Lowland

3 Falconers approach

4 Flushing the quarry

On site of the falcon overhead the quarry should stay in position and lie flat to the ground. It is now time for the falconer to approach calmly with the dog on a lead. Signalling to the waiting falcon so she follows above.

When the falcon is upwind of the hiding quarry it is time to let the dog off and flush the game under her. The quarry will undoubtedly fly towards the nearest cover.

Signalling the falcon can be done by raising the arm, or even by showing the palm of your hand. This silent message will keep the falcons interest and inform her of the imminent flush, without disturbing the quarry.

Flushing game

page 232

5 The stoop Upon seeing the flush and hearing the shouts from below she will stoop at great speed to intercept the quarry before it reaches cover. Outcome A: The falcon will strike the game with closed talons, causing it to tumble to the ground with her looping over to dispatch. Outcome B: The falcon will strike but inaccurately, or miss all together as the quarry jinks to avoid the stoop; this results in a tail-chase often finishing as the quarry beats the falcon to cover.

Home Reference Manual

Picking up

page 266

Stooping falcons have been known to reach speeds in excess of 200 mph; you can quite literally hear them tearing through the air.

A cock pheasant may weigh as much as five pounds, but the average is probably closer to three pounds. They have relatively short wings for this weight, which accounts for their slow takeoff. However, once a pheasant levels-off, they can fly at speeds of up to 40 miles an hour.

35

34

3.4 - Flight details

6 Picking up Pick up the falcon, either from her caught quarry (outcome one), or by calling her to a lure thrown out onto the ground by the falconer (outcome two). An experienced falcon can now be flown again on the same day, or the falconer can call it a day and reward their bird for a good flight.

Frutiger has been used for the page references, it matches Sabon well.

Cut out images break up the spread in a good way.

39


40

Oliver Tomlinson - Spring term 2010


DISCOVERY TRANSFORMATION MAKING

NSFORMATION MAKING

Home Reference Manual

41


Final designs

This book acts as a guide to the newcomer, and a reference to the experienced falconer or austringer. You will find step-by-step illustrations of possible flights in a variety of environments found in the UK. Raptor characteristics, training methods, and falconry tasks are shown in rich photos and described by leading falconry professionals.

www.tomlinsonbooks.com

Hun ting with R aptors

Falconry; a noble sport with a history dating back to 720 BC, now rising in popularity as newcomers experience the deep bond between man and bird once reserved only for the regal and gentry of the land.

Tomlinson

30

Flights & Theory

42

Oliver Tomlinson - Spring term 2010


DISCOVERY TRANSFORMATION MAKING

The cover design has been redesigned from the version below. When printed and assembled as a blad, the previous cover was too busy, as the elements did not work together. The chosen version (left) is a more minimal approach, and exaggerates the shape of the birds’ wing. H U N T I NG with

R A PTORS

history flights & theory raptor choice training methods falconry tasks

Hun ting with R aptors History • Flights & Theory • Raptor Choice • Training Methods • Falconry Tasks

31 Before deciding which bird you would like to fly you should analyse the environment you have available to fly in. A clear understanding of what you want to achieve will not only dictate the best bird for you, but also the kind of equipment required and the type of quarry available. This section of the book is split into four environments you may encounter in Britain. Within each environment you will find examples of possible flights; from grouse hawking in the Highlands, to Lowland hare hawking.

Arable Lowland Woodland Open Flatlands Highlands

Where a flight is described you will find helpful links to specific tasks in the task section of this book; these may be step by step guides or simple reference tools that are a common feature of many flight types.

Home Reference Manual

43


32

Arable Lowland

Sep

Oct

Nov

Sep

Oct

Dec

Jan

Feb

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Jun

Jul

Aug

Gulls (e.g. Herring and Lesser Black Backed) Like Skylarks, the falconer requires a licence to take any gull. A large falcon flown from the fist can provide great sport; look for freshly ploughed fields.

Sep

Oct

Nov

Sep

Oct

Nov

Sep

Oct

Jan

Feb

Dec

Jan

Feb

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Mar

Apr

May

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Jun

Jul

Aug

Jun

Jul

Aug

The Mallard Anas platyrhynchos Mallards can be found in small ponds and ditches in lowland areas. A dog is a necessity as they are difficult to flush; river birds should be left alone.

Nov

Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus Pheasants are a large quarry requiring a heavy falcon to catch them from a stoop, or a Goshawk from the fist. In level flight they are very fast, reaching speeds up top 45mph.

Sep

Oct

Nov

Sep

Oct

Nov

Sep

Oct

Dec

Jan

Feb

Dec

Jan

Feb

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Mar

Apr

May

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Jun

Jul

Aug

Jun

Jul

Aug

European Rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus A common quarry for the Broadwings and Harris Hawks, numerous in many locations and available all year round. In Arable Lowland it can be difficult to find them away from cover.

Red-legged Partridge Alectoris rufa Also known as the French partridge, these birds can be found in very large coveys, giving the falconer an opportunity for excellent slips at a choice of birds.

Nov

Grey Partridge Perdix perdix Once a common site but now the Grey, or English, partridge is a rare site. Being more wary than the Red-Legged a careful approach is required, and coveys are often smaller.

longwing stoop at feathered game

Spotting game

3 falconers approach

2 casting off

1 spot the quarry The game is spotted from a car while driving over the hawking ground or on foot from a distant location. Binoculars are required to prevent the quarry flushing early. page 235

You can see in this photo the tail-mounted telemetry transmitter. Whatever environment you fly in, use telemetry if you don’t want to lose your falcon. It is a good idea to fit the transmitter before arriving at the flying ground to prevent rushing when you spot quarry.

44

Skylark Alauda arvensis Lark-hawking with a Merlin is a short but intense time. A licence is required to catch a limited number before they become too strong on the wing.

Dec

Brown Hare Lepus europaeus Large Broadwings and Goshawks are needed to take a Hare which can reach speeds of 45mph. Seasons are dependant on area so please check with your local wildlife agency.

34

Nov

Upon spotting a covey or singular bird in the open, the falconer will remove the hood, and cast off the falcon from suitable cover, allowing the bird to gain height overhead. Hooding

page 260

On site of the falcon overhead the quarry should stay in position and lie flat to the ground. It is now time for the falconer to approach calmly with the dog on a lead. Signalling to the waiting falcon so she follows above.

Signalling the falcon can be done by raising the arm, or even by showing the palm of your hand. This silent message will keep the falcons interest and inform her of the imminent flush, without disturbing the quarry.

A cock pheasant may weigh as much as five pounds, but the average is probably closer to three pounds. They have relatively short wings for this weight, which accounts for their slow takeoff. However, once a pheasant levels-off, they can fly at speeds of up to 40 miles an hour.

Oliver Tomlinson - Spring term 2010


DISCOVERY TRANSFORMATION MAKING

33

The most common British environment has a lot to offer The most common environment that most falconers will experience in Britain, Arable Lowland has many different characteristics and therefore many different birds can be flown at a variety of quarry. However, like all areas, it has it’s own dangers such as power lines, and an enclosed landscape adding to the possibility of losing sight of your bird. Once permission has been given by the landowner, the falconer may choose the sort of flight that best suits the land they are on and the quarry they wish to hunt. Some quarry such as rabbits may be caught all year, but feathered game such as pheasants and partridge are seasonal, with some requiring a licence. Potential flights are described step-by-step over the next few pages, but remember, you are dealing with animals and innumerous possibilities of variance so be prepared for all eventualities.

Longwing stoop at feathered game  34 Longwing flight at gulls from the fist 36 Shortwing / Broadwing at fur and feather 38 Shortwing at small hedgerow game 42 Longwing at small game

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Broadwing following-on

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Arable Lowland

4 flushing the quarry When the falcon is upwind of the hiding quarry it is time to let the dog off and flush the game under her. The quarry will undoubtedly fly towards the nearest cover. Flushing game

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5 the stoop Upon seeing the flush and hearing the shouts from below she will stoop at great speed to intercept the quarry before it reaches cover. Outcome A: The falcon will strike the game with closed talons, causing it to tumble to the ground with her looping over to dispatch. Outcome B: The falcon will strike but inaccurately, or miss all together as the quarry jinks to avoid the stoop; this results in a tail-chase often finishing as the quarry beats the falcon to cover.

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6 picking up Pick up the falcon, either from her caught quarry (outcome one), or by calling her to a lure thrown out onto the ground by the falconer (outcome two). An experienced falcon can now be flown again on the same day, or the falconer can call it a day and reward their bird for a good flight. Picking up

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Stooping falcons have been known to reach speeds in excess of 200 mph; you can quite literally hear them tearing through the air.

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Falconry Tasks

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hooding The hood is used in the manning process (acclimatising to humans and the human world) and to keep the raptor in a calm state, both in the early part of its training and throughout its falconry career. Out of all the falconers’ aids the hood is the most important piece of equipment. There are various styles and types of hood for raptors within falconry. The hood is hand made, often from kip leather or suitable kangaroo leather. There are two standard types used in American/European Falconry; the Anglo Indian hood (non-blocked) and made from one piece of leather. The Dutch Hood, that is a three piece hood blocked on a special mould called a “hood block”, which is designed to best represent the shape of the raptor’s head, also allowing space for the eyes with an adequate neck width. It is essential that the hood fits the raptor in a comfortable way or the raptor will reject the hood outright, making training very difficult.

1 low approach Hold the hood by its plume and approach from below with the beak opening facing the bird. A low approach prevents startling the hawk.

Hood types

Once accustomed to the hood, a falcon will be at complete ease when wearing one, becoming so relaxed as to fall asleep. A well fitting quality hood may be expensive but is a real investment in the wellbeing of your bird.

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A good hood should meet a number of criteria: the hawk should not be able to get it off. The hawk should be able to feed and cast through it safely. It should be light in weight, sit comfortably on the hawks’ head without causing condensation, irritation or trailing braces which annoy the hawk. It should be light-tight. It should not cause sores around the gape or pinch the nape feathers. It should be tough, durable, weather-proof, and easily cleaned or renovated.

Oliver Tomlinson - Spring term 2010


DISCOVERY TRANSFORMATION MAKING

231 Flushing game 232 Spotting game 235 Using the lure 254 Lost birds and telemetry 256 Hooding

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Picking up 266 Bird handling 270 Food types and feeding 278 Coping and imping 280 Housing and perches 282 Fitting equipment 286 Travelling 288

Falconry Tasks

2 roll over As the chin strap of the hood meets the beak, use a rolling motion, following the shape of the falcons’ head, to roll over and down.

Arab style Soft and light-weight but can lose it’s shape

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3 push in place Gently push the hood down into place with the tips of your fingers, then pause. It is vital to have a falcon that will sit with the braces undone.

Blocked Arab A great fit and hard wearing, especially with synthetic braces

4 draw the braces Use one hand and your teeth to close the hood by pulling the longer braces in a swift motion. Don’t worry, a well fitting hood can’t be over tightened.

Dutch hood Well fitting but often heavy

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Hooding as seen in The Art of Falconry, by Frederick II of Hohenstaufen (1250)

Anglo-Indian Easy to make and often used for hawks rather than falcons

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Acknowledgements Throughout this project I referred to a number of sources; this section gives details on these materials.

Copy Text within the spreads is a mix of my own, falconry books seen in the discovery stage, and Wikipedia.

Photos Most photos of hunting scenes, equipment and hooding practice have been taken by me with the kind permission of the people detailed below. Other photos of quarry and raptors (including the cover image) have been taken from flickr and bought from iStock.

Tony James has been a falconer for 33 years and treasurer for the British Falconers Club for 4 years. The photos taken for this project were of his first year Peregrine Falcon. He was kind enough to let me handle and photograph his fantastic collection of falconry books and antique hawking equipment.

The Hawk Conservancy kindly allowed me to take close-up photos of the hooding process.

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The Hawk Conservancy Trust is a conservation charity and visitor attraction that has for many years worked in the fields of conservation, education, rehabilitation and the research of birds of prey, both in the UK and overseas.

Oliver Tomlinson - Spring term 2010


DISCOVERY TRANSFORMATION MAKING

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Falconry Manual