Dimensions 21

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Dimensions Twenty-One


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Dimensions Twenty-One Dimensions is the annual, student produced journal of the A. Alfred Taubman College of Architecture + Urban Planning that seeks to contribute to the critical discourse of architecture and architectural education by documenting the most compelling work produced by its students, faculty, fellows and visiting lecturers.

2.7855 006

Rachel Rush 006

2.9733 060

094 3.0112

Eric Olsen 094

Jason Carmello 016 128 3.4241

3.4439 016 3.5122 034

158 3.2046 176 3.2859

EXYZT 128 Joshua D. Bard 034 James Munk 146 Whitney Cooper 140 104 Moon Despina Stratigakos Joo Lee 042 Brittany Guercio 15 184 3.4895 146 3.6436

140 3.7453 3.8252170 152 3.8353

104 3.7638

3.7907 042

164 3.9289

2007 Award Winners

4.1939 070 108 4.3839

090 4.6341

Dimensions Twenty-One Editors

026 4.7989

Zain W. AbuSeir Jason Dembski Kamana Dhakhwa Stephen Killion Luis Felipe Paris Caitlin A. White 062 5.5818

Alex Jackson Jason Minor James Munk Faculty Advisor Zain W. AbuSeir 120 4.8495 Brittany Guercio Christian Unverzagt Lauren Hepner Alan Ulrich

Kathy Velikov 108

Borderlands: International Architecture Workshop 090 The Borderlands studio was a semester-long project 026 Erin Putalik Pugh + Scarpa 120 coordinated with the International Architecture Workshop, Faculty

an annual event through which a consortium of architecture students and faculty from Japan, Australia, Spain and France research issues of architecture and contemporary urbanism through design and teaching. Approximately fifty students explored this common project at their home institutions before traveling to Michigan to work collaboratively for two weeks at the Taubman College of Architecture + Urban Planning at the University of Michigan, TCAUP.

Daniel I. Jarcho 052

Keith Mitnick Dawn Gilpin Master of Architecture Thesis Eric Olsen Dimensions Twenty-One is printed in an edition of 1600 copies at University Lithoprinters, When the students arrived in the U.S., they were greeted The Beat of the Drum by Perry Kulper Schmidt at the Detroit Metro Airport by their TCAUP hosts— Ann Arbor, Michigan in CMYK on 80# Anthem Matte Text. The cover is printed onJoel 100# Lots of ways to launch it … revisiting letters of intent; recurrent a group of over thirty student volunteers from every level of Anca Trandafirescu Productolith Cover with Matte Laminate. patterns in one’s work; something totally outside; one, three, five the curriculum. The first event was a sort-of “architectural Kathy Velikov and ten year plans; identifying what it isn’t—the reverse manifesto olympics” wherein all of the students presented the work cultural debates and eternal questions; learning from Typeset in Avenir LT Std and Consola. Recently Avenir LT Std, with its pawn Consola, Paola Zellnertrick; current they produced at their home universities. Following a tour of

adjacent disciplines; a series of what ifs? Could one make a thesis Detroit led by Eric Dueweke, the students divided into groups out of interests in bio-morphism and the construction document, or, and started working on the project again—for one week exposé of a drawing type, or, from curiosities about 2007 Juryfrom a critical as a larger team and for the second week in smaller teams generic magic realism? of two or three. The experience was intense—negotiating 078 6.7698 languages, cultures, ages, backgrounds and importantly, Lawrence Scarpa Plenty of horizons for productive engagement were located: All Rights Reserved. ideas. The Borderlands workshop was an engine of social and re-thinking perception, experience and forms of embodiment; No part of this publication may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever withoutGerardo Caballero architectural energy that permeated the third floor studios. sustainability, the environment and ethical positioning; skins, Cheng permission in writing from the University of Michigan A. Alfred Taubman College Renee of surfaces and envelopes; materiality, in its varied forms—from craft The work completed during the workshop was presented Architecture + Urban Planning. to digital manufacture and all spaces between; landscape and publicly at the University of Michigan Detroit Center and its attendant urbanisms; social and political advocacies; narrative a symposium on contemporary urbanism was held at ventures and spatial tropes; rethinking programmatic typologies; ISSN: 1074-6536 the Museum of Contemporary Art Detroit, MOCAD. We remembering and forgetting; event logics, the anticipatory and Printed and bound in the United States of America. collaborated with several Detroit organizations including non-places; domestic cross-breeding; everyday, every other day the Greening of Detroit, the Mexicantown Community and the habitual; atmospherics; temporal shifts and split-sites; Dimensions, vol. 21 Development Corporation, the Detroit Riverfront contemporary and post-practices; authorship and the reader; Conservancy and the Bagley Housing Association. Copyright © 2008 parametrics and performativity; cross disciplinarity and the promise The Regents of the University of Michigan of bending and flexing, and so on.

overthrew the Vista Sans monarch. Together they now reign dominion over the sans serif font kingdom. Check.

Wallenberg

Lecturers

Borderlands

Thesis

2000 Bonisteel Boulevard Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2069 tel 734.764.1300 fax 734.763.2322 www.tcaup.umich.edu/dimensions d21@umich.edu

Fellows

A. Alfred Taubman College of Architecture + Urban Planning

Strangely familiar, and frequently an apparitional approximate, a thesis is a form of leadership, obsessive curiosity through evolving discipline. Knowing what, when and where to risk, the stakes … the promise of transformation, the delivery. Releasing pre-conceptions and developing a keen nose for the aroma of emergent trajectories—motivational. Here, unpacking the myth of novelty and invention with the hope of participating in the rich and varied history of ideas, space and humanity … at its apex, it is an act of disciplinary generosity.


Foreword Tom J. Buresh let x = x —Laurie Anderson In 1962, the Sisters of Mercy wore unadorned but authoritative habits of black and white. But one day, my teacher, Sister Maurice, came to class accessorized. Pinned to her gown, over her heart was a simple black button the size of nickel. On the button, in contrasting white was printed an equal sign. One of my more brash classmates asked, “Sister, why are you wearing an equal sign and what does it mean?” Her response was equal parts religious doctrine and a short course on civil rights. We quickly learned of Rosa Parks, Martin Luther King Jr. and the ongoing struggle for racial equality in the United States. Just days earlier, President Kennedy had ordered federal troops to Mississippi to quell the violence in the aftermath of the report that James Merideth was to become the first black student enrolled at the University of Mississippi. Given my age and my experiences to date the conflict seemed an abstraction, difficult to grasp and foreign to my understanding. In retrospect, it may have been the first time I became conscious of a more complex world beyond the borders of family, friends and my immediate environment. A year later Martin Luther King Jr. led the March on Washington and delivered the line that changed the world: “I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.” In the spring of 1964 a young James Chaffers graduated magna cum laude from Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. From 1964–1968 he was a Captain in the U.S. Army serving in both Europe and Viet Nam. He returned to his studies and earned a Master of Architecture degree from the University of Michigan in 1969. James became the nation’s first recipient of the Doctorate of Architecture degree in 1971. Over the ensuing 37 years Dr. Chaffers has been recognized with two Distinguished Faculty Awards, an Educator of the Year Award from Michigan Colleges and Universities, multiple Outstanding Teacher Awards, the Presidents Award from the Michigan A.I.A. and recently was named a Fellow of the American Institute of Architects. Fittingly, for the last several years he has labored on a memorial honoring the life and work of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. now in the final design stages before its placement on the National Mall in Washington D.C. Earlier this year Dr. Chaffers announced his intention to retire from the University of Michigan. Throughout his distinguished career he has brought honor, conviction, wisdom and grace to both the profession and the academy. Much work remains if we are to achieve the social and racial equality that he and so many have sought for so long. Yet in Dr. Chaffers we have an admirable model and a well-designed course. On behalf of the many faculty, staff and students that he has mentored and inspired—I offer Dr. Chaffers a heartfelt yet simple thank you. We will follow your lead. Professor Tom J. Buresh is Chair of the Architecture Program and Associate Dean for Academic Affairs at the Taubman College of Architecture + Urban Planning at the University of Michigan and a principal of Guthrie + Buresh Architects.


138

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Wallenberg

Lecturers

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Borderlands

Thesis

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Rachel Rush 006

2.9733

3.4439 3.5122

Jason Carmello 016

Joshua D. Bard 034 Moon Joo Lee 042

3.7907

4.1939

4.7989

Erin Putalik 026

Daniel I. Jarcho 052

5.5818

Master of Architecture Thesis The Beat of the Drum

by Perry Kulper Lots of ways to launch it … revisiting letters of intent; recurrent patterns in one’s work; something totally outside; one, three, five and ten year plans; identifying what it isn’t—the reverse manifesto trick; current cultural debates and eternal questions; learning from adjacent disciplines; a series of what ifs? Could one make a thesis out of interests in bio-morphism and the construction document, or, from a critical exposé of a drawing type, or, from curiosities about generic magic realism?

6.7698

Plenty of horizons for productive engagement were located: re-thinking perception, experience and forms of embodiment; sustainability, the environment and ethical positioning; skins, surfaces and envelopes; materiality, in its varied forms—from craft to digital manufacture and all spaces between; landscape and its attendant urbanisms; social and political advocacies; narrative ventures and spatial tropes; rethinking programmatic typologies; remembering and forgetting; event logics, the anticipatory and non-places; domestic cross-breeding; everyday, every other day and the habitual; atmospherics; temporal shifts and split-sites; contemporary and post-practices; authorship and the reader; parametrics and performativity; cross disciplinarity and the promise of bending and flexing, and so on. Strangely familiar, and frequently an apparitional approximate, a thesis is a form of leadership, obsessive curiosity through evolving discipline. Knowing what, when and where to risk, the stakes … the promise of transformation, the delivery. Releasing pre-conceptions and developing a keen nose for the aroma of emergent trajectories—motivational. Here, unpacking the myth of novelty and invention with the hope of participating in the rich and varied history of ideas, space and humanity … at its apex, it is an act of disciplinary generosity.


Noah Steffes 060

Michael Ezban 070

Nicholas Quiring 078

2007 Thesis Awards Erin Putalik Michael Ezban Nicholas Quiring

Faculty Perry Kulper Karen M’Closkey Neal Robinson Mireille Roddier Keith VanDerSys Gretchen Wilkins Jason Young

005


006 008 010 012 014

Rachel Rush

This is This sidewalk, collapsing its familiarity and foreignness, does not resonate with just one user but with multiple users. This dweller Almost every day for three years this author has walked the

This is This

same walk to her school. This walk defines a wider circle of dwelling beyond the Home. It is familiar and forgetful, a shared space and a private one. The author sketched a map of this walk and compared it to photographs taken at regular

Advisor: Jason Young

intervals along the way. Surprisingly, there were enormous gaps that were unaccounted for—parking lots and rows of When walking down my street I notice the rock wedged

buildings. But for some places, seemingly incidental objects

between two concrete barriers. I could not describe the

pricked her interest and encapsulated an entire block. In the

building behind it; but this rock pricks my interest and consumes my whole memory of that block. There is no symbolic or coded meaning behind it. This is This. Similarly, there are

neighborhood map, the unfolded planes of building façades, streets and sidewalks form a network of abstract lines. Moments of This is This are drawn in heightened color.

many houses in my neighborhood but only one Home. My own house operates on two scales—as part of a larger set

The neighborhood drawing illustrates the importance of

of houses (1:1000) and as a group of rooms specific to me

the creative user. Our perceptions are merely hypotheses.

(1:1). Spaces and objects that collapse the familiar and the

The space created through dwelling is an active space—one

other simultaneously assert This is This and This is That. This

based on our imaginations and preconceptions but also one

project redesigns my dwelling recognizing that architecture resides in the space between the building and the occupant.

based on movement. We must use space—mentally and/or physically to occupy it. Architecture is an extension of

It simultaneously explores representations that serve as

our perceptions and the body in dynamic relations

signifiers—This is That—while firmly asserting their own

with the space.

status—This is This. This drawing This architecture

The architectural representations we use to design, conjure

My home is a This to me but an Other space to someone

and create space usually do not hold the same status as the

else. How can we as designers capitalize on the familiarity of

thing itself. They do not carry meaning as distinct entities

the objects and places we design recognizing that the object

when separated from the signified. They are placeholders.

or place must be part of a larger set of Thats (a “sidewalk”, a “wall”, a “seat”) but also a This (a specific uncanny object that resonates with the user)? A sidewalk designed to be a

What happens when the drawing has an identity of its own? It is not merely a placeholder or go-between. Could an architectural representation assert both This is This and This is That, maintaining its own identity while suggesting and designing a second, or even third?1 When a drawing represents another object or place and maintains its own identity, the imaginary and the real collapse. Its role as signifier draws attention to its fragile status as mere illusion; it is less real than what it represents. But its material qualities assert its status as real—what is being designed is the imaginary. The simultaneous existence (even collapse) of the real and the imaginary only draws attention to each world, creating a hyper-reality. Fact and fiction are intertwined.



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Rather than reality, I propose hyper-reality. A heightened reality, corresponding with heightened fantasy. This Letter Objects that simultaneously assert This Is This and This Is That collapse the real with the imaginary, content with form and signifier with signified. The artifact on the right is a letter on ordinary 8.5x11 paper with embroidered x’s In place of text. It is immediately recognizable as a letter through its indents and blocks of gray lines but it is also unfamiliar. The intangible content of the ordinary-extraordinary letter finally tangible. It Is simultaneously hyper-materialized and hyper-imaginary, While most windows on + the walk have ledges only one window ledge is both deep enough and flat enough to rest a coffee cup on, making it stand out along the way.

collapsing the fictive with the familiar. This home Our homes serve as shells or a roomier second layer of clothing—providing shelter while maintaining a safe view of the Outside. We can occupy two places at once—our home’s interior and a safely separated outer world which we are connected to through windows, televisions, computers, letters and books. We are both Here and There. It is not surprising that dwelling is the key metaphor that Freud used to describe the uncanny.2 According to Freud, uncanny

During the winter this ++ roof collects a gridded pattern of snow. The same pattern must lie on the neighboring roofs but only this one is visible. The house is easily forgotten during other times of the year.

experiences occur in the place most familiar to us as a result of the simultaneous existence of the foreign and the familiar. The home allows us to safely be Here (in my bed reading the newest novel by Michael Chabon) while also There (freezing in an unfamiliar Alaska). “The art would be to feel homesick, even though one is at home. Expertness in the use of illusion is required for this.” —Sämtliche Werke Kierkegaard, 1914 cited by Benjamin, 1940 “This is the formula for the interior.”3 — Walter Benjamin

A wall layered with years +++ of use is exposed when the neighboring building is demolished. Bright orange plastic tops the steel rebar around the site. There is no coded meaning behind the paint and colors.

This co-presence of our immediate surroundings and an unfamiliar world characterizes objects that firmly assert both This is This and This is That. It is the little detail that stays with you. While seemingly benign and familiar (This is That); it also grates as different (This is This)—consuming your entire memory of the place. Another way to describe the dual relationship of This is This and This is That, or the simultaneous existence of the foreign and the familiar, is through scale. Our homes are generally ordinary; looking like its neighbors and your neighbors’ neighbors. Your home is generic, part of a

A tree’s bark pattern ++++ stands out more than the buildings which surround it.

larger set of homes and 1:1,000,000. But your home is also extraordinary and specific to you. It is your outer shell and 1:1.


+

++

+++

++++


006 008 010 012 014

The author unfolded her living room—her second skin—in a

The drawing also records the act of dwelling. Where the

drawing treating the walls, floor, ceiling and all their contents

occupant simultaneously inhabits both the Interior world and

as a single surface. Every surface is treated equally—from the

the world Outside her windows by watching TV, e-mailing or

remote control, to the bookshelves, to the floor. Surfaces which

reading a book, there is heightened activity in the drawing.

are imperceptible and unimportant to the occupant (the back of

These lines representing occupancy are not measurable; the

the television) are not represented. Since the Home is directly

drawing’s role as a signifier is fragile. This fragility is further

related to the body, the drawing is scalar unlike the cinematic

threatened when the drawing itself is occupied. As the drawing

perspectival unfolding of the neighborhood drawing. Its scale

is built as a layered, constructed object, it forms its own rules

enforces its role as a signifier that represents a

distinct from representing a room. Drafting tape and tracing

measurable space.

paper overlay the blue pencil lines. The 1:1 scale of the tape



006 008 010 012 014 The line is drawn + directly on the living room furniture and walls. It is both the drawing and another place outside of the drawing. The blue tape line/ plane represents the original home-site—a new home extrapolated from the site—and a site unto itself.

and trace enforce the Thisness of the drawing, reminding the viewer of its objectness. It is as real as the space and occupation it represents. The drawing is then refolded into a re-imagined home, using all the lines as instructions for cuts and folds. No distinction is made between lines originally signifying cuts and folds, occupation or dwelling in the drawing. The re-imagined home is both recognizable and completely foreign.

Notes 1. Edward Hill, Language of Drawing, (Englewood Hills: Prentice-Hall, 1966). +

3. Walter Benjamin, “The Interior, The Trace,” The Arcades Project. Translated by Howard Eiland and Kevin McLaughlin (Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University press, 1999).

Upstairs ++ apartment: My home is a This to me but a That to someone else.

The drawing refolded into a re-imagined home. Cut and fold decisions based on all the lines.

+++

++

A line drawn across the living room.

2. Hilde Heynen cited by Jonathan Hill, Immaterial Architecture, (London and New York: Routledge, 2006).


+++


An analysis of This is This illustrates the relationship between the drawing’s materials to its dual roles as signifier and signified. Traced copies of the original drawing operate at a 1:1 scale, mimicking their 1”=1’ originals. Redrawn “copies” of the traces, attempting to duplicate the faded quality of the trace paper become “new originals” or simulacra.


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Jason Carmello Advisor: Neal Robinson

Vacation Homes

“I am for portable houses and nomadic furniture. Anything you can’t fold up and take with you is a blight on the environment, and an insult to one’s liberty. I believe in the tent, the card table, and the trailer. The past two decades have witnessed a huge increase in nomadicism. For every housing development that carves up the land, a flock of houses on wheels and pontoons takes off somewhere else. Where is the great literature on the mobile home, the trailer park? American society has become mobile, yet it still depends, for the most part, on stationary dwellings. But while stationary, most new American houses are impermanent. Although a house in a subdivision is not portable, it is certainly interchangeable with any other house in any other subdivision—and the subdivisions themselves often evaporate. Nearly every American house I’ve lived in has long ago been demolished to make room for some other building. There is a delicious (though painful) paradox here. Americans long for stability, but all they get is stationary impermanence. No wonder, then, that many of us long to become permanent nomads, snails with houses on our backs. The nuclear family has long ago scattered, buying new houses every few years, always putting down shallow roots. Paradoxically again, then, a moving house becomes more permanent than a stationary house, and a better means of keeping connections between family members and thus a sense of rooted-ness: In your mobile dwelling you can visit your family all the time.”1 —Andrei Codrescu



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windows, parking, green space, square footage, cost per month and boundary. Surprisingly, it was found that there is no direct link between square footage and cost per month. However, there is a link between the cost per month and the amount of

material deployment - social impact

closet space and glass. Given these correlations, can the social stigma surrounding these FEMA units be changed if these units appearance paralleled that of a “modern home?” Exploring and altering the standard 49 sq. ft. total of glass in a standard FEMA trailer, has different architectural and social influences. Given the compact nature of a mobile home, there is little room to hide and the lack of storage puts the inhabitant’s possessions on display. The deployment of a singular large window creates perverse views into and out of the units. Rethinking the site The typical notion of the mobile home—detached 1’–6” from the ground—residing on a flat plane is questioned. Manipulation of this allows for both “permanent” and “temporary” living. The site, surrounded by the researched housing types of Ann Arbor, has a sloping terrain and varying water levels. These topographical changes of the land cause the water to rise and recede at different parts of the year, Fifteen percent of America’s population lives in some kind of

causing changes to the trailer layouts and increasing the need

mobile or manufactured home. Over 800,000 FEMA “travel

for mobility of the units. This movement allows for continuous

trailer and mobile home” units are currently occupying America’s landscapes—most deployed after national disasters—however in time, the possibility exists that the units

changing of view corridors outward and into mobile home units. These changes create a dynamic and unpredictable environment.

may become people’s permanent homes. While the term mobile is becoming incredibly popular and increasingly thought

The site’s user will vary. After a period of time following a

of as the ultimate in fashion and technologies (mobile phone,

national disaster, a home “rebuilt” using a FEMA unit, can be

mobile computers) this craving for flexibility has halted at the

purchased by the resident of the mobile home for anywhere

doorstep of mobile homes—with their attached stigma and

between $1,000 to $6,000 dollars. For some the residence

the stigma of their inhabitants. Current FEMA communities

becomes a permanent one, for others it becomes a cheap

overlook interaction with neighbors, landscape, and weather conditions. Many FEMA inhabitants have been diagnosed with depression and crime often runs rampant throughout the uninviting communities.

option as a getaway trailer. FEMA communities can then begin to house “vacatees” (people fleeing from disaster) and “vacationers” (people on vacation). The vacationers would presumably only use their homes during the summer—storing the homes on the site throughout the winter. These stored units

Deployment of materials

become winter wind blocks for the vacatees, increasing the

Within one square mile of land in Ann Arbor, MI, many different

protection of the units from cold weather, given FEMA units

types of housing exist—condos, apartments, mobile homes,

lack of proper insulation. The view corridors change depending

low-income housing. From these market-rate housing areas,

on density of units and season. Pathways of circulation around

a taxonomy was created. This taxonomy compared materials,

the units also change, resulting in new spatial experiences.


Electrical distribution influences the layout.

Stalkers

Walkers

Watchers

Blockers

Convergence

Unit distribution allows for surveillance of specific people within the landscape.

Units arrange picturesque views into the distant landscape.

Views are created to specifically monitor the weather.

Views are directed towards the television.

Layering of each view produces moments of overlap and intersection. These moments allow for the possible joining of homes into multifamily homes, increasing the density on the site to fulfill 288 unit minimum requirement.


paths paths

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adapts & changes over time adapts & changes over time

+

++

Vacationers reside in Michigan during the summer months.

+

Vacatees reside in Michigan year round. In the winter homes of vacationers who reside in Florida are used as wind blocks.

++

Vacatees reside in Michigan year round.

Generation of views The small size of FEMA units and unimaginative design leads to highly regimented and very bland views to the outside world for residents. Providing improved views to the surrounding landscape is essential to promoting positive physical, emotional and psychological health of FEMA community residents. Because people have different and unique desires for

views views

interaction, new types of FEMA units can generate preferential

views outward & into views outward into mobile home & units mobile home units

views. Blocker units exist on grade where the resident can be content sitting on their couch watching TV in their family room. Watcher units are for the resident who feels easily confined

views

and cramped.views These units provide views to the weather and outward & into

views views

mobile home units

growing vegetation surrounding the unit, but avoid views of

views outward & into mobile home units views outward & into mobile home units

dry

views

neighbors. Walker units are picturesque allowing the resident to gaze out into the landscape. Stalker units are for the vigilante& views outward

site site

rrain & rrain & er levels er levels

or people watching residents who want to observe noisy mobile home Views outward and into mobile home units.

neighbors or help increase the surveillance of the community. Each of these unit groups has a different relation to the ground, saturated other units and viewing goals.

SITE STRATEGIES

site site

site

terrain & water levels terrain & water levels

sloping terrain & varying water levels

dry

saturated

SITE STRATEGIES

into units

v


views views outward & into mobile home units

site

sloping terrain & varying water levels


016 018 020 022 024 Summer view + layout of electrical hook-ups. Winter view ++ layout of electrical hook-ups.

Electrical hook-up stations.

++

+

56’ max. electrical wire from hook-up stations.

Activity Daily activities and interactions from night-life to seasonal changes allow for new types of FEMA communities. Winter can provide a huddling of units by forming large open spaces for sledding, ice fishing and ice skating. Moving the vacated vacationer trailers into wind blocking positions increases the comfort level of the permanent residents throughout the winter. In the spring and summer, units can exist more freely providing

FEMA units in relation to wire hook-ups.

each unit with increased personal property—a yard or garden. Larger communal spaces in the spring or summer can become

Notes 1. Jennifer Siegal, Mobile: The Art of Portable Architecture—foreward by Andrei Codrescu, (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2002).

ball fields and play grounds, places of energy and activity. Ultimately, the project aims to stretch the boundaries of what Deployment of windows to provide specific views.

we have always known as mobile homes. A rethinking of site, ground plane, interaction, and activity provide options to what has always been a very regimented housing type. Or as Andrei Codrescu questioned, what exactly is mobile? And what is truly permanent housing anyway?

Bibliography Arther Bernhardt, Building Tomorrow: The Mobile Manufactured Housing Industry, (Cambridge: MIT, 1980). Margaret Drury, Mobile Homes: The Unrecognized Revolution in American Housing, (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1972). Samuel Hodges, Guidelines for Improving The Mobile Home Environment: Individual Sites, Mobile Home Parks & Subdivisions, (Washington: U.S. Deaprtment of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development Research, 1978). Mark Jarzombek. “Good Life Modernism And Beyond,” The American House in the 1950’s and 1960’s: A Commentary.

Views directed towards specific destination, point-generating interactions.

Points of visual, physical and social interactions.

Stephen Kieran & James Timberlake, Refabricating Architecture: How Manufacturing Methodologies Are Poised to Transform Building Construction. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004). Robert Kronenburg, Transportable Environments: Theory, Context Design & Technology, (New York: Spon Press, 2002).


Summer + spread-layout possibility with 56’ max electrical hook-up. Winter-huddle ++ layout possibility with 56’ electrical hook-up.

+

++

+++

+++ +

+++ ++

+++ +++

Summer-spread +++ layout possibility.

Winter-huddle +++ + layout possibility.

In warmer +++ ++ weather, the larger path allows more time to be spent outside and the large path increases global interaction.

In colder +++ +++ weather, less time is spent outside and smaller paths increase local interaction.


view to specific weather view

Watchers

trash cans

trash cans

Walkers

trash cans

WATCHE

view to specific w

trash cans

Blockers

summer section a - a

16’

16’

16’

16’

16’

16’

16’

16’

16’

16’

16’

16’

16’

16’

16’

16’

summer section a - a

summer section a - a

Stalkers path path neighbor

summer section a - a

- ACTIVITY

path path

trash cans

neighbor path path path

neighbor

WATCH

path

view to specifi

neighbor

- ACTIVITY

16’

16’

- ACTIVITY

- ACTIVITY summer section a - a

path

n

trash cans

summer section b - b


summer section b - b

025 023 021 019 017 winter section b - b


026 028 030 032

Erin Putalik

In an urban flooding scenario, our most basic assumptions about the constructed environment are overwritten by a new spatial model in which the city is functionally de-territorialized,3 and literally ungrounded. The so-called urban flood upends the very strengths and safeties of the built environment and calls for an

Control Joints for the Perpetual Breach

architectural reaction that will oversee a new condition of shifting foundations and terrestrial instability. The city of New York was recently mapped according to the likelihood of flooding in a Category Three hurricane, with low coastal areas in red and central high areas in white.4 Whether or not the ground is literally covered by water, in the cultural acumen of the myth, we are increasingly sensitive to its figurative threat; these flood maps are just the newest materials of an old mythological fear. Our footprints have always been faintly diluted by the rising potential of a flood, a sort of warning that we superimpose on our geographical present. On the streets of lower Manhattan, we are perpetually suspended between a supposed future of environmental calamity and a daily reality lived upon dry, solid hardscape. This project is sited in Red Hook, Brooklyn, on the corner of a

Advisor: Jason Young

man-made harbor that looks out to the Atlantic through the New York and Raritan Bays. This stretch of coastline typifies the sort of Amid the cultural fallout of Hurricane Katrina and the dire forecasts of global climate change, the flood has become a deeply contemporary allegory. It is also a deeply troubling paradox in which we find ourselves, simultaneously inured to and alarmed by the incessant rhetoric of calamity that suffuses

artificial threshold between the land and the water that defines nearly every port city in the world. Their geometries can be easily recognized from a simple aerial photograph; and yet, these lines of intersection are uniquely complicated by the cultural and industrial will of the city. These are severely unnatural lines,

our present relationship to the natural world. The extent to

harbors that are driven by use, by function, by economies …

which we acknowledge our threat to the environment is the

and sometimes even by symbolism.5 They represent a sort of

same extent to which we are profoundly intimidated by the

disregard for the natural shape of the water’s edge, preferring

possibility of its retribution.1

instead a geometry that has been optimized for its use. But while usefulness relies heavily upon geometry, the geometry in

We resurrect the myth of the flood as a “necessary monster”

2

of sorts that helps us to examine our anxieties about the uncontrollability of the environment and our increasingly critical

turn relies heavily on the stability of the water level. A reliable elevation is the axiom of harbor geometry; an unreliable water elevation is a total disaster.

relationship with it. And yet, we have already begun to question what this myth should mean to us and to look for creative

Because these lines of intersection can be seen to transform

and productive responses. As authors and designers, we are

with the ebb and flow of cultural and industrial demands, the

provoked to move beyond our environmental fears in order to shape and to suggest the next generation of our built (and unbuilt) mythologies.

initial action of this project was to excise it from linear time and to consider all previously mapped formations as existing simultaneously or preferentially at the discretion of the designer. This introduction of a “flickering time code”6 helps to further differentiate the discipline of the coastline from the temper of the ocean. As expected, the history of the site revealed the primary movement of its water-bound edge to be determined by human constructive/destructive forces. This project sought to invert7 that situation by imagining the built objects as static through time and the water as moving up (and down) through the site. Thus, the line of intersection between the water and the built form could still be intentionally designed, but would have



026 028 030 032

to anticipate the vertical movement of the water such that all previous and potential intersections would exist simultaneously, stacked on top of each other.

sequence. These control joints ensure that even the most catastrophic event follows a predetermined event structure8 and that this procedure is built into the very details of the Whether Station.

The forecasting center imagined on this Brooklyn pier, the “Whether Station”, reflects the deep ambivalence of its occupants towards the events they predict. The center

Although the inhabitants of the station live every moment in a space embedded with its own unmaking, it is imagined that

anticipates an episodic storm surge of enormous proportions

they do so with full awareness of which parts will seal off, flood,

and yet it is constructed to respond in a highly specific way to

implode, launch or sink … and in which order. A foreboding

the turbulence of such an event. The program is divided into two general categories, those that are grounded and those that

lends these spaces an experiential instability. Even in the calmest weather, Building 3 is spooky, as if already missing …

are mobile—or buoyant. The grounded program is locked to

or never absolutely there. It implodes at eight meters above

three heavy piers that support the weight of the superstructure.

sea level. In this way, the stability (or instability) of the spaces

During stable weather conditions and low water levels, there is

during an anticipated event begins to affect their stability in

a free range of movement between the two types of program

the present. It is as if the event is perpetually happening; the

and spaces are shared between the lower buildings and the

water always rising, the spaces always filling and the station’s

superstructure. However, as the water level rises, barriers between spaces of different relative stabilities are initiated,

inhabitants perpetually fearful and smug at the correctness of their projection.

eventually plugging these exchanges and fundamentally Water cube studies + of physical forms that control linear events.

reorganizing the character of the spatial/social inhabitation. The speed at which this occurs is immaterial; rather, the reconfigurations of the building are initiated solely by the elevation of the water surface. The strategically weak details, or “control joints,” give way at specific water levels in order to sacrifice certain parts of the building for the preservation of the greatest amount of the remaining whole. The degree of this sacrifice shifts according to the severity of the surge. As such, the unmaking of the building is highly choreographed. At the apex of its transformation, the superstructure completely detaches and is cast afloat, along with its annex, the Catamaran. The remaining grounded buildings either completely seals off during submersion or they implode according to a prescribed

+


Illustrations relating the event structure to the drawings.

1995 and 2005 combined contours: The water drawings serve the purpose of collapsing the interactive medium (surface of water) with the form being interpreted as a building. The building becomes the wave becomes the building.


026 028 030 032

A method of drawing an anticipated event was developed in

test case and its severity was amplified for effect. This method

conjunction with the building and its program. These “water

collapses the interpretive/activating medium (i.e., the surface

drawings” sample the intersection of the Whether Station

of water) with the form that is being interpreted/activated (i.e.,

and the surface of the water every two inches as the water

the building) over the course of the storm. The flattened image

rises. Similar to a time-lapse photograph, with time replaced

of the oceanic plane’s journey up through the building unlinks

by elevation, these drawings unfold the building’s response

the represented event from any specific time code. It has been rendered in the drawing as we experience it today, as the

throughout the event into a single figure. The only variable is

experience would be for the inhabitants of the Whether Station,

the storm surge itself. Hurricane Isabel was chosen as a

as an ongoing psychological catastrophe that occurs,

4.1

in perpetuity, at once and always, outside of time … a breach of epic architectural consequence.

4.1

5.2

Event Structure/ Anticipatory Architecture: 5.2

Plan of the upper level strath.

+

+

Elevation of the event scale.

++

++ 5.1

5 4 3

4.2

Plan of the lower level strath.

5.2

4.4

4.3

4.1

4.1

3.3

2 1 0

4.4

3.1

3.2

2.3

2.1

2.2

2.4 1.2

1.1

1.2

+++

+++

5.1

5 4 3

4.2 3.3

2 1 0

4.1

5.2

4.4

4.3

4.1

2.3

4.4

3.1

3.2

2.1

2.2 1.1

2.4 1.2

1.2

1.2 2.3 3.3 4.1

5.1

2.4

4.4 3.1

4.3

2.2

3.2 2.2


3.3

1.2

2.3

1.2: Infiltration through porous floor of building 3 initiates subfloor pump, which begins directing incoming water to exterior protective bladder 2.3: Bldg 1 interstitial membrane fills wall cavity and seals building against incoming water. 3.3: Bldg 1 interstitial membrane full enough to push vertical circulation into main space. Floor joints break away to accommodate circ. Program pulls inward to central core

4.1

4.1: Escape element 1 fully loosens and detaches, roof element sinks

2.2: Bldg 2 hydraulic pistons begin floor deformation process. Docking area lifts to bring visitors through to the Hull superstructure 4.3: Bldg 2 Piston rooms hit ceiling and cannot rise, all additional water pressure directed to Release Piston.

4.3

2.2

2.4: Bldg 3 protective bladder begins breaking strategically weak window mullions to seal bldg against upcoming surge.

2.4 5.1 Bldg 2 Release Piston is deployed—Hull superstructure is sent off at high speed, evading collision with the grounded buildings. 5.2 Stabilizing columns tear out, infiltration is loosely contained around column bases. 4.1 Escape element 1 fully loosens and detaches, roof element sinks. 4.2 Bldg 1 flexible lookout program moves to roof deck. 4.3 Bldg 2 Piston rooms hit ceiling and cannot rise, all additional water pressure directed to Release Piston. 4.4 Bldg 3 finally implodes from the external pressure of the protective bladder. Central structural core still supports weight of Hull superstructure. 3.1 Seal off of Bldg 3 from Hull superstructure initiates (internal walls in Hull body activated). 3.2 Bldg 2 auxiliary pump begins building up pressure for final repulsion. Piston rooms moving upward in unpredictable choreography. 3.3 Bldg 1 interstitial membrane full enough to push vertical circulation into main space. Floor joints break away to accommodate circ. Program pulls inward to central core.

4.4: Building 3 finally implodes from the external pressure of the protective bladder. Central structural core still supports weight of Hull superstructure.

3.2: Bldg 2 auxiliary pump begins building up pressure for final repulsion. Piston rooms moving upward in u n p re d i c t a b l e choreography

5.1

3.2 5.1: Building 2 Release Piston is deployed - Hull superstructure is sent off at high speed, evading collision with the grounded buildings.

2.1 Barge undocks and floats backwards from forecasting center. 2.2 Bldg 2 hydraulic pistons begin floor deformation process. Docking area lifts to bring visitors through to the Hull superstructure. 2.3 Bldg 1 interstitial membrane fills wall cavity and seals building against incoming water. 2.4 Bldg 3 protective bladder begins breaking strategically weak window mullions to seal bldg against upcoming surge. 1.1 Barge lifts to be accessed from interior garden. 1.2 Infiltration through porous floors of building 3 and 1 initiates subfloor pumps, which begins directing incoming water to exterior protective bladders. 0.0 Average water level. Whether station waits.

4.4

5.2: Stabilizing columns tear out, infiltration is loosely contained around column bases

4.1: Escape element 1 fully loosens and detaches, roof element sinks

4.1

5.2


Superstructure sent off at high speed

5.1

Bldg 1 Release Piston deployed

5.1 5.2

Stabilizing columns tear out

Three ungrounded elements dispersed across the coast

8

Re-emergence of grounded structures during ebb Bldg 3 gone, Bldgs 1& 2 dry and intact

7

Storm surge peaks and begins decline

6

Notes 1. For my working understanding of the term “environment” I credit Mike Davis’ text, The Ecology of Fear which discusses the social construction of the natural disaster, p. 9. 2. Jorge Luis Borges, preface to the 1957 edition of The Book of Imaginary Beings (then the Manual de Zoologia Fantastica). 3. James Williams, Deleuze on JMW Turner: Catastrophism in Philosophy— From Deleuze and Philosophy: The Difference Engineer, (Keith Pearson ed., 1997). 4. Teri Karush Rogers, “The Real Riddle of Changing Weather: How Safe Is My Home?”, The New York Times , (New York, NYT March 11, 2007).

Plan water drawing: The all-at-onceness of the water drawing resonates with the all-at-onceness of the anticipatory building (event has already happened, is always happening, whether it happens or not)—which both point back to the 1915, 1955, 2005 site drawing (site out of time), the hidden, inconsistent, flickering timecode. The expectant structure is that, built.

5. The palm islands and “the world” off the coast of Dubai are examples of when this line is more symbolically than functionally dictated. Escape Element 1 detaches

4.1

Bldg 3 implodes from presure of membrane

4.4

Bldg 3 seal off from Hull initiates

3.1

Bldg 1 interstitial membrane displaces circulation

3.3

Barge undocks and leaves

2.1

Bldg 3 apertures sealed off by membrane

2.3

Bldg 2 water intake displaces piston rooms

2.2 1.1

Barge lifts to be accessble from interior garden

6. I owe this phrase to the suggestion of my thesis advisor Jason Young. 7. This inversion is an intentional creation of what this thesis argues we have begun to deeply fear, which is complete loss of control over the environment (see notes 1 and 3). Working within the context of this assumed inversion enables one to speculate about the necessity of an architecture that is primarily adaptive. 8. I also owe the concept of event structure to the suggestion of my advisor Jason Young. While it is most commonly a computer programming term, it is used here to describe the belief that if the arrangement or sequence of the components of an event are controlled by a predetermined structure, then the entire event is shaped accordingly.


033 031 029 027


034 036 038 040

Joshua D. Bard Advisor: Keith VanDerSys

Entering the Fold

The ancient practice of origami habituates the hand, cultivating formal sensibility and material intuition; but much more than a literal collection of miniature architecture-like artifacts, origami sponsors methods of modeling and diagramming which begin to delineate new territories within contemporary design practice. In contrast to discourses dominated by technique, performance, or process; design is located in learned sensibilities which are acquired through making … through tacit knowledge. Architecture has proffered the biological dictum, “form follows function”1 and we have nearly all imbibed the proverbial bait. Enter parametric, circumscribing architectural discourse in logics of performance, efficiency, optimization … in short, a continuation of functional tactics, humming like a well-oiled machine. Consider Walter Netsch functionalism on speed, exhibiting a perverse logic history seems to have dismissed as an architectural aberration. Around 1965 Walter Netsch, then Principal at SOM, completed design and construction of UIC’s circle campus. The campus—renovated in 1996—affords an opportunity to reflect about Netsch’s potential influence on the discipline. To accomplish this, one must situate Netsch’s UIC campus squarely in the hyper modern factory that was Chicago— Chicago, the city that inherited Mies and turned his rational, sparse, functional sensibility into a slick corporate machine.



034 036 038 040 Much more than an analytic tool, the diagram has emerged as a generative tool. A small popup book gathers text and precedents of similar diagrammatic forms, evidencing an understanding of the diagram both at the level of praxis and poetics.


Origami folding diagrams generate three dimensional forms without literally describing them. Thus, the gap between generating form and describing form is bridged by intuition wrought by experience. The diagram does not describe the thing itself, but encodes a set of actions to approach the thing.


+

++

034 036 038 040


The rules of origami are simple: no cutting, no adhesive. Taxonomy of folds reveal the underlying structure, preliminary folds combine to construct the model base. From the base any number of figural models can be derived. In polyhedral origami, a angle unit is repeated to form a constellation of interlocking parts—simple rules; endlessly complex form. +, ++ Forms inspired by Ronal D. Resch.2


grid disinclined to align with interior partitions. Mies’ later use of the I-beam alters this condition and induces a state of receptive neutrality. Eventually superstructure evacuates the box and it becomes pure, rarefied surface—two planes

Field theory: the metaphysics of extrusion

hovering expectantly above each other. Origami provides a set of operations (different from the logics of rotation, symmetry and extrusion which diagrammatically sponsored Netsch’s rebellion) in order to begin to enable the surface to become expressive, structural and spatially compelling. Form is not merely embodied in efficiency. Rather, design must situate itself in learned sensibilities through making. A body of tacit knowledge via the practice of origami habituates the hand, cultivating sensibilities which interrogate Netsch’s functional grotesqueness and indirectly questions parametric tactics latent with Miesian

The evacuated box constitutes a moment of poise, tempting many toward rebellious formal deformations.

Mies in a box: structural permutations and spatial variations

UIC: the onion reconsidered

+

functionalism—in favor of developing something akin to One gets a sense of grotesque functionalism when you hear

++

spatial tact. Much more than a literal collection of miniature

Netsch’s guiding dictums for his UIC design: use minimal

architecture-like artifacts, origami sponsors methods of

reinforcing in concrete so that it expresses its structural load

behavioral modeling and diagramming which begin to

with integrity; fenestration should block enough sunlight to

delineate territories within design practice. Origami situates

eliminate the need for mechanical blinds; only use materials

the parametric in a larger, more layered territory of concern.

that are indestructible (i.e. concrete, granite, and brick).

+++

Like many projects with modern proclivities, Netsch maintained

I would like to dedicate this work to Nelson C. Spahr whose

grand ambitions for the campus, considering it a microcosm

passing last spring both cut this investigation shot, but also

of the city - an urban onion where program was organized

left a productive question mark hanging for the future. I will

concentrically around a dense core. Netsch also fostered

miss you Grandpa.

metaphysical ambitions based upon a form of rotated geometry at play, which he called field theory, evidenced in the architecture and behavioral science buildings. Field theory, according to Netsch, participated in the vast order of the cosmos on multiple scales from the atom to architecture to

Notes 1. Louis Sullivan, The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered, (Philadelphia: Lippincott’s Magazine, March 1896). 2. Ronald D. Resch

galaxies. Netsch’s hopes for UIC were largely unrealized, and the 96 renovation was an effort to ameliorate the cold logic of the original design. Netsch Plan

Proposed Plan

In an effort to pick up a different trajectory from the UIC renovation, a proposed restoration of Netsch’s original design re-imagines the system of skywalks and rooftop courtyards removed in the 1996 renovation, which were of central importance to Netsch’s initial plan. The restoration of Netsch’s UIC campus design affords an opportunity to investigate unorthodox functional logics encouraged as a reaction to Mies’ pure modern box. The Miesian box, a type that Colin Rowe rightly associates with highly classical tendencies begins as an elegant articulation of column and slab; the rarefied surface of the slab and the manipulation of the column compound in a number of spatial conditions (free plan, limitless grid etc.). The

Walkway at grade

column itself becomes charged with implied spatial potency.

Skywalk

Mies’ early cruciform column implies a continuous


+ intensive

extensive

++ free

misregistered

continuous

internal

registered

integrated

rarefied

generic

evacuated

articulated

specific

topographic

receptive

shed

collect

(plan)

contract

(elevation)

(perspective)

expand

he rip

city proper

nt ra

l

infrastructure

ce

ur e ct le

ge

ne

ra

l

pe

re s

sp e

ci

ea

fic

rc h

ra

l

inflect

architecture

concentric programming rings isolate buildings according to function, stranding faculty and students

spiral biases fluid, as opposed to hierarchical organization

spiral becomes connection point for disconnected programmatic rings

forum

concentric

conflated

UIC

micro-urban onion

041 039 037 035

+++

spiral


042 044 046 048 050

Moon Joo Lee

Conventional and functional programmatic structure in architecture has ignored users. The user has been reduced to the expected and predictable and this has often turned architecture into a passive “object” where the space conflicts with its use. To challenge this condition, users become the primary

Slaughterhouse Event

consideration in understanding space. Users themselves are conceived to have certain characteristics of actions and spatial effects. This allows for an exploration in the representation of the invisible field in terms of spatial conditions or effects which are formed by users’ occupation of a space. A developed mode of representation focused on exploring users, suggests possible spatial ramifications. Eventually, the emerging spatial quality developed through the notation of

Advisor: Perry Kulper

users is aimed at broadening possibilities of programmatic structure and formal elaborations. “Program is to be distinguished from ‘event’. A program is a determinate set of expected occurrences, a list of required utilities, often based on social behavior, habit, or custom. In contrast, events occur as an indeterminate set of unexpected

Event vs. program notation As an exploration into the disjunction between expected form and expected use, Bernard Tschumi opposed the expected

outcomes. Revealing hidden potentialities or contradictions

program and the form generated by the programmatic

in a program, and relating them to a particularly appropriate

structure which often conflicts with users. To include the Event

(or possibly exceptional) spatial configuration, may create conditions for unexpected events to occur. For example, one may combine or assemble programmed activities so that they charge a spatial configuration in such a way that, by mixing

(vs. program) in architecture, the notation method became necessary as shown in his projects—Manhattan Transcript and

Ritual, which both trace movements and interactions of users in a space.

otherwise common or predictable programmatic items.”1 —Bernard Tschumi

Tschumi’s first realization of theory, Parc de la Villette, was chosen as the site to utilize not only its context for specifying users, but also Tschumi’s concepts as supportive logic for expanding the notion of programmatic structure. The notation method is revisited as a tool for exploring the users of the park. As a way of specifying users and unveiling patterns—children, bongo drummers, sunbathers in the park—initiate the notation drawing with information of each user’s spatial occupation and existing patterns of use. Representation of spatial effect: gestural drawing After visualizing patterns of use in the overall park through the notation method, another set of drawings is investigates the spatial effects informed by modes of occupation. The notation method begins to concentrate on the characteristics of each user in order to visualize their spatial effects, which have barely appeared in architectural representation.



042 044 046 048 050

The chaotic movement of children, the atmospheric music

Notational interpretation

environment created by the bongo drummer and the slow

Studying the characteristics of users as a subject of drawing

movement of a sunbather searching for a good spot on the

produced sets of marks which have more gestural qualities

grass are notated based on their context in the park. Especially for the bongo drummers, the production of spatial effect by

and require another level of interpretation to be formalized as architectural interventions.

bongo music enriches their representation. The marks are simply produced by listening to bongo music, and several marks from different music are overlaid onto the drawing which already indicates the drummer’s usual playing spot based on the park’s context.

The marks of bongo drummers were filtered and translated to have more notational qualities by being specific about the information each mark conveys. This notation starts to build up the spatial qualities of each user’s characteristics and unique voices. Finally, the developing notation drawing begins to suggest a series of fields which display fluctuating architectural qualities such as intensity vs. porosity and fast vs. slow. Event territories: decoded drawing The series of surface qualities created through notating spatial effects of users are understood as event territories which would accommodate different types of events. This begins to suggest architectural forms and interventions which have the potential to stimulate and reconfigure the existing event conditions in the park created by Tschumi’s design. Rather than formalizing the individual notation itself—which requires significant translation into architectural forms and space, the sets of marks from outside the drawing were created and borrowed to augment the emerging event territories. This provides the field for developing another set of decoded marks by allowing the notation drawing to react to the emergent event territories. The resulting decoded marks are perceived as the infrastructure for events to propose the new event condition into the park. Spatial sequence of the slaughterhouse For formalizing languages of the event structure, the study of users is expanded to include historical context—the old slaughterhouse on the site that was erased in designing the park. By applying the same method, re-notating and re-cording the old site of the slaughterhouse. The representation deals with double sites including interests in both the new—Tschumi’s Parc de la Villette and the slaughterhouse. Finally, the notation of the slaughterhouse’s spatial sequence is expected to build up a formalization language and draw out the new event condition of the park. Tschumi designed the “cinematic promenade” to amplify the event conditions incorporated with other elements of his design. Ten sequences through the cinematic promenade were set up, and each sequence has its own garden and boundaries defined by other paths and trees.


Previous spread Existing user patterns of children, bongo drummer and sunbathers at Parc de la Villette.

The bongo drummer’s music is chosen to be the most dominant subject of notation. Marks created by listening to bongo music are placed on Tschumi’s site drawing .


042 044 046 048 050

Gestural Formalization: slaughterhouse event structure Relating the spatial sequence of the old slaughterhouse to the cinematic promenade—which consists of ten frames as Tschumi’s design intent for event—the notation drawing started to be formalized in terms of the spatial characteristics of the slaughter house. Spatial characteristics and the sequence of slaughterhouse are implicated through the cinematic promenade in terms of spatial sequences. Gestural formalization is drawn out from a double site (current and past) and double users (Parc users and animals) by interacting with

park through the cinematic promenade. The series of gestural interventions react to existing elements (follies) of the park and have dialogues with Tschumi’s design intent. By projecting onto each other, elements exchange their color code and reconfigure the forms, creating interesting tensions. These tensions can inform intervention to attract users to establish new event conditions. Dealing with the color code of red follies, the follies themselves and the colors and forms of the formalized intervention interact with each other and create a tension of intervention.

each other and reacting to the set of representations. Formalization of interventions: new event condition At the entrance of the slaughterhouse is a linear, wooden

In order to regain the notational quality of drawing for

counting barrier. The linear marks in the notation drawing

formalization while maintaining the invisible spatial effect of the

implicate the counting barrier and beginning of sequences. The

user (bongo drummer), the gestural forms (by implementing

market’s roof structure in the slaughterhouse is referenced as a

spatial sequence of the slaughterhouse) react to an “invisible

large surface form in the drawing. These series of surfaces and

field” (suggested by the ramification of drawing) and is agitated

objects have the potential to create a new “event”. Therefore,

by the drummer’s spatial effect. This technique of integrating

the slaughterhouse is reconfigured by notating a spatial

notation quality from double sites and users finally produces

sequence and reintroduced as series of interventions to the

emergent forms of surface for events in the park.


Surface qualities were overlaid onto an analytical drawing, decoding the notational quality of the drawing and context of Parc de la Villette.

The sequence of slaughtering the beast describes the process from the main entrance, to market and across the canal to the building complex where the slaughtering occurs.



Gestural Formalization plan


In contrast to the conventional programmatic structure, which

While challenging ignorance of users in programmatic

deals with expected occurrences based on social behavior or

structure, the development of representation from an expanded

user habits—the event structure of the intervention invented

interest in the users of double sites proposes a possible form

through the development of notation drawings of users, attempts to build up potential for new event conditions by

generation process by establishing a process of developing representation for formalization.

providing interventions that allow a dialogue with existing elements in the park. The interventions have the potential for breaking up the accustomed event conditions of the park and reveal hidden possibilities for events in context of Tschumi’s design element

Notes 1. BernardTschumi, Event-cities 2, (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2000). Bernard Tschumi, Cinégram foile, (New Jersey: Princeton Architectural Press, 1987).

by restructuring and reconfiguring the existing spatial sequence forms by users. This would create new event conditions or stimulate unexpected events to occur. Formalization at folly L6: Vertically projected gestural forms onto the fluctuating surface, created by notating bongo drummers creates an event structure in-between the current ground of the site and surfaces of the old slaughterhouse.

Bibliography Isabelle Auricoste, Parc-Ville Villette: architectures, (Paris: Champ Vallon, 1987). Oscar Schwarz, Public abattoirs and cattle markets—From the German of Oscar Schwarz, (London: “Ice and cold storage” publishing company, ltd., 1903).


Construction of intervention at folly L6

051 049 047 045 043


052 054 056 058

Daniel I. Jarcho

naval outpost during World War II. Little Diomede to the East belongs to the United States. The small indigenous Eskimo village of Ignaluk occupies the southern shore of the smaller of the two territories. The village’s 146 residents thrive via a largely subsistence lifestyle. The Diomedes islands are politically and chronologically

The Hotel for Intercontinental Time Travelers

contentious. The islands straddle the International Date Line which bisects the Pacific Ocean from the North Pole to Antarctica. In essence, one can see across the straight, from today to tomorrow or from today to yesterday, depending on which island one finds them self on. Sited along the date line, directly between the two islands, is the Hotel for Intercontinental Time Travelers. At 486 feet and 416 feet above sea level, helicopter landing pads provide entry for visitors from the two sides of the Straight. At these precise heights, the opposite coastline is just visible before the earth’s surface curves out of view. Peering into tomorrow or yesterday and across political territory provides an immediate reminder of the visitor’s place within the bordered territory. Big and Little Diomede belong to different nations, different histories, and literally different times. If the site is imagined strictly in terms of its politics and chronology, it might be considered intensely bordered. However, the extreme remoteness and always volatile weather and atmospheric conditions render the site equally unbordered. By inserting

Advisor: Neal Robinson

the hotel into this unique situation and environment, notions Just south of the Arctic Circle, between the extremes of Russia and the United States, two small islands rise from the Bering Strait. Known as the Diomedes, these two islands stand as the most visible reminder of the strip of land that once bridged the intercontinental divide between Asia and North America. Big Diomede to the west, today abandoned, is part of the political territory of Russia and once served as a

of border rigidity and validity are called into question. Cantilevered halfway down the arrival tower to the hotel is the hotel bar. The bar floats back and forth with the wind across the political and chronological divide. Hovering within Russian territory, the bar is stocked with an assortment of fine Russian vodkas. However, when the bar swings into American territory, the bar menu goes non-alcoholic, for the Ignaluk of Little Diomede cannot handle their liquor. In an environment of wind, fog, darkness and shadow, borders seem to evaporate into thin air, leaving only the experience of such phenomena. Taking advantage of the nearly ‘round-the-clock sunlight during the summer months, shallow evaporation pools at the base of the tower are utilized to harvest salt from seawater on site. The salt is swept into hanging casts at the base of the tower structure. In winter the hotel sleeping pods, cast in salt, are released from the molds and become lodged in the ice sheets that freeze over the Straight. Once secure in the ice sheet, the pods are ready to be occupied by winter hotel guests.



052 054 056 058 Helicopter landing pads + well above sea level, are the entrances to the extreme remoteness of the Diomedes. The hotel’s bar ++ showcases the volatile movement of the changing winds.

Casts at the base of the +++ tower, harvest salt from swept-in seawater and create sleeping pods.

podCast


+ Altitude: 486’-0” View to Russian Coast

A

A Altitude: 416’-8” View to Alaskan Coast

++

B

B

+++

C

C


052 054 056 058 The hotel bar floats back and forth across the political and chronological divide between U.S. and Russian territory.

The hotel sleeping pods, lodged in the intercontinental ice sheet, drift slowly south along the straight. At the mercy of the winds and tides, hotel guests pass unconsciously across political and chronological territories. Steel rods cast into the pod roofs provide a local positioning system, attracting the electromagnetic energy so prevalent in the arctic air and creating local aurora borealis effects. Without the steel rods the stark white of the salt-cast pods would render them almost invisible within the landscape of ice, snow, and perpetual darkness. Inside the pods, boundaries between the public realms of nature collapse into the private realms of the hotel rooms, creating an intimate relationship between visitor, ocean and all the life contained within. After the visitors depart for home, the ice recedes, the pods dissolve and the salt returns to the ocean from which it came.


Hotel room pods implant their inhabitants in sheets of ice. After the visitors leave, the pods dissolve back into the ocean from which the salt was extracted.


9:00 am February 29

10:00 am February

11:00 am February


As the pods float out on the open sea, The public realm of nature is collapsed into the private realm of the hotel. Life within the pods and the sea life below are momentarily connected.

12:00 noon February 29

1:00 pm February 28/29

2:00 pm February 28

3:00 pm February 28


060 062 064 066 068

Noah Steffes

Operating as a media, architecture is allowed to borrow, steal and misuse graphical and technical operations that the nominal “rules” of architecture do not necessarily allow. In order to avoid an anything goes mode of operation within work that has the capacity to produce an infinitely diverse and undefined body of work, certain resistances were introduced to keep the

Detail Fetish

project aligned with a kind of tangible, accessible language and aesthetic. The main working agenda of this project is to redefine the use value of architecture and architectural production by

Advisor: Keith VanDerSys

transferring the inherent properties of accessories (mainly temporality and disposability) found in artifacts of mass-culture “Stay Up Late. Strange things happen when you’ve gone too

consumerism (specifically the t-shirt and the pulp magazine)

far, been up too long, worked too hard, and you’re separated

to the standard Construction Document Set. By “fetishizing”

from the rest of the world.” —Bruce Mau

the Document Set at the level of the Construction Detail, the project questions traditional architectural production (by manipulation of conventional architectural graphic standards

This project is a first attempt at formulating a “new” way of

and conventions as well as co-opting trans-disciplinary

working on architecture. The scope of the work should be

methodologies of graphic and information design) in order to

considered an initial investigation, or rather a first pass at

give the Document Set both practical and aesthetic use values

trying to reconcile the agendas of current, contemporary

as an artifact of architectural production and consumption.

notions of pop cultural currency and mass consumerism, with an aspiration to discover some kind of trans-disciplinary, cross cultural ideas of architectural production that are supposed to enable architects to assume different authorial roles in the production of the built environment, art, graphic design,

The Document Set is intended to serve as a means to produce some kind (or more ambitiously multiple kinds) of architecture or architectural construct; but for the purposes of keeping the scope of the thesis work manageable, that aspect of the

theoretical discourse, etc. To misappropriate an idea from

production has been suspended in favor of exploring the

Beatrice Colomina, this project is primarily concerned with

potentials of the Document Set itself. In other words, the

envisioning architecture as a type of media, rather than trying

Document Set is the architecture.

to study its various relationships with media. Whether or not these interests are necessarily aligned with each other (or even

The Document Set should attain a specific level of

anything besides disparate elements), is certainly debatable;

seduction that is routed through readily accessible architectural

but the importance of these desires within the work itself is that

conventions. For the purposes of the work presented, seduction

they allow (or try to allow) a kind of disembodiment of architecture from the hermetic environment of the institution.

has been defined as an aesthetic and graphic quality that creates a desire for ownership or possession of the object and elicits recognition of and an appreciation for that quality of seduction in the work. The main working methodology for the Construction Document Set is fetish—specifically a fetish at the level of the detail sheet. Using fetish as an overarching methodology, the work is then routed through a series of working operations that define ways of working on the Document Set.


ft.) sq. >3 .5

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1/8” aluminum prefabricated insulated wall panel system

3” wide finish wood flooring (typ.)

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5 1/2” thick R19 fiberglass batt insulation (typ.)

2 x 6 baseplate (typ.)

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3/4” plywood subfloor layer 2 (7 layers veneer/glue alternating)

Publication

3/4” plywood subfloor layer 1 (7 layers veneer/glue alternating)

Entertainment

2 x 12 floor joist (typ.)

2 x 6 top plate (typ.)

Digital Media

header - (3) 2 x 4 glue bond w/shims (typ.)

Prefabricated cast-aluminum window frame + unit Manufacture # N08141983

5 1/2” thick R19 fiberglass batt insulation (typ.)

A

0

-1

A-B A-2

3.) Architecture! 2.) Build. 1.) Read.

D

Directions:

2 x 6 sill plate

9’ - 0 3/4” (typ.) T.O. Subfloor to T.O. Subfloor

6’ - 0” R.O.

B A - 10

8’ - 0” T.O. Subfloor to B.O. Floor Joist (typ.)

3/8” gyp. wallboard (typ.) 4 x 8 std. size sheet w/ mud, tape, skim coat, primer, paint

ning (10 °)

6”

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3/4” plywood subfloor layer 1 (7 layers veneer/glue alternating)

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2 x 6 sill plate 1’ - 0” 3/8” dia. 9” anchor bolt + hardware Manufacture # J09041980

1’ - 0” thick conc. foundation wall poured on site - apply (2) coats waterproofing on grade side

Wall Section (typ.) Scale: 1” = 1’ - 0”

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sq.

ft.)

3” wide finish wood flooring (typ.)


060 062 064 066 068

a manual social interaction, where a dynamism is created by flipping through the pages and engaging the set one singular sheet at a time. By incorporating ideas of simultaneous narrative, circular reference and forcing redundancies, the Document Set circumvents a linear progression in favor of a more dynamic exploration of the space of the page. It should be noted that this discussion intentionally ignores the criticism that this type of construction document set loses a certain value as a set of contract documents in order to focus on the fetishization of the object of the Document Set itself. Unbound, however, the Document Set enables a different spatial interaction, one in which a dynamism is created by physically The fetishization of the detail—specifically the detail of one piece of hardware is considered within the conventions of

moving in and around a display surface in order to “read” the document narrative.

the standard Construction Document Set. This operation is important because it sets a baseline graphic standard and

By treating architecture as a media and removing the

drawing language that limits the scope of the work in terms of

normative operations traditionally embedded within the work

what is allowed, while simultaneously providing opportunities

of architectural production, the work is allowed to preoccupy

to exploit these conventions.

itself with a more aesthetic and cultural study of production. This enables an alternative mode of space making, ultimately

The implementation of the graphic diagram into the Document Set is important in the way that it introduces a new set of graphic conventions and operations into the work. These diagrams are necessarily limited by the conventions established in the first operation but add to the scope of the Document Set by detailing processes, as opposed to inventorying parts (this operation also adds dynamism to the Document Set by showing the processes as opposed to the end result typically shown in standard Document Sets). The operation has the language of the do-it-yourself, which makes construction and building information more readily accessible. The diagrams also takes on a storyboard aesthetic allowing an aggregate reading of a “narrative” over multiple sheets, providing the opportunity for fragmenting the traditional linear narrative of the construction set. The idea of quantifying and aestheticizing intangible aspects of building construction forces the architect to work as a visual researcher. In most cases the architect must develop a new notational system in order to work through a series of operations that are derivations of architectural study not traditionally included in the document set. This operation has the potential to work both purely as a device for the production of formal derivatives, and as a point of departure for the development of a new architectural notational system. The format of the Document Set charges it as an artifact in a unique way. Bound traditionally, the Document Set enables

extending the impact and influence of the architect as social and cultural producer.


3”

a-a A-2 Building

3/4”

pull to unlock

push to lock

Vaccum-sealed double pane (1/16” thick glass) window unit set in solid-cast aluminum frame

Product

Hardware Detail (typ.)

C

Rubber waterproofing bead seal (typ.)

Scale: 1’ - 0” = 1’ - 0”

Publication

A-2 A-9

Digital Media

Entertainment

D A-2

Hardware Section Scale: 1’ - 0” = 1’ - 0”

C A-2

3.) Architecture!

a-a A-2

Zinc-coated mild steel galvanized rough carpentry nail - composed of no more than 1.65% Manganese, .6% Silicon, and/or .6% Copper (typ.)

Window Latch Operation Detail B

B

Scale: 6” = 1’ - 0”

D

Scale: 6” = 1’ - 0”

A-2

Hardware Section Detail (typ.) Scale: 3’ - 0” = 1’ - 0”

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Directions:

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Total : 1.64 ft-lb

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B A - 12

E A - 10 E A-2

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A-4 A-5

Impact / Trajectory Mapping Scale: 3” = 1’ - 0”

Building

A-1 A-2 A - 10

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Entertainment

Publication

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Scale: 6” = 1’ - 0”

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I A-2

Hardware Installation Detail I Scale: 1’ - 0” = 1’ - 0”

Feti$h

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Directions:

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Hardware Installation Detail G

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A A - - 12 13

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Hardware Installation Detail J Scale: 1’ - 0” = 1’ - 0”

K A-2

Hardware Installation Detail K Scale: 1’ - 0” = 1’ - 0”

L A-2

Hardware Installation Detail L Scale: 1’ - 0”” = 1’ - 0”


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Scale: 1’ - 0” = 1’ - 0” 2.) Build.

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Hardware Installation Diagram

NTS

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Digital Media

Entertainment

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Building Product Publication Entertainment

Feti$h

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Directions:

2.) Build.

3.) Architecture!

Digital Media

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Plywood Manufacturing Detail (typ.) NTS

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Batt Insulation Installation Detail (typ.) NTS

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Impact / Trajectory Mapping (Wall Section) Scale: 1” = 1’ - 0”

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060 062 064 066 068

A A - 13

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Drywall Dimple Mapping (Axonometric) NTS


A-2

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NTS pulp architecture detail set

Feti$h

1.) Read.

Directions:

2.) Build.

3.) Architecture!

Digital Media

Entertainment

Publication

Product

Building


00 : 42 : 47 ; 18

00 : 42 : 47 ; 14

00 : 42 : 48 ; 00

00 : 42 : 47 ; 26

00 : 42 : 48 ; 12

00 : 42 : 48 ; 08

[Pure] Efficiency Degredation : f(x) D = (x1 - x 2 )^

(1 + (n X .001))

[n = nail number]

00 : 42 : 47 ; 22

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pulp architecture detail set

Feti$h

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Directions:

2.) Build.

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Digital Media

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Product

Building

The degradation of efficiency in building is fetishized by mapping drywall dimples created by impact trajectories of a hammer.


070 072 074 076

Michael Ezban

Fluctuating gardens and a domestic scaffold An abandoned gas station in Ypsilanti, MI serves as a brownfield site on which to explore the design of a domestic architecture that emerges over time through acts of gardening. Four distinct gardens types will be cultivated on this site over the course of seven growing seasons: a remediation garden, a

Better Homes and Gardens

community pumpkin patch, a potager and a native wildflower garden. During this time, various domestic architectural and programmatic elements will be erected on the site in such a way that they are compliant with gardening operations. Roofs, bathrooms, kitchens, windows, crawlspaces and wall framing will all multifunction; serving for years as gardening “tools” before they coalesce into a dwelling. This collection of architectural elements and program is considered a domestic scaffold, a temporal armature for gardening and living. Construction and cultivation The soils of this site are saturated with petroleum hydrocarbon Advisor: Karen M’Closkey

toxins, requiring remediation prior to legal occupation of The act of gardening is animated by an evocative lexicon of terminology and time-honored techniques; it is a world of whip and tongue grafting, double digging, trap cropping

the land for domestic purposes. Thus the first garden on the site is “toxic” and will leach contaminants from the ground for over seven growing seasons. For remediation to occur

and “maypoling.” Alongside these established techniques, a

effectively, the roots of fescue, alfalfa and hybrid poplar trees

new set of ad hoc, creative gardening practices is emerging.

must extend to the petroleum plumes suspended at various

The gardening section of local newspapers, blogs and

depths in the soils below. In this “upside-down” garden plants

magazines increasingly encourage gardeners to reconfigure

are encouraged to grow downwards rather than upwards

and modify familiar domestic objects for use in the garden; a

and the gardener cultivates the unseen the root zone. The

strategy of misusing the ‘familiar’ towards unintended ends.

roots will naturally follow moisture downward, necessitating

As a result, the conventional taxonomy of gardening tools

a vertical irrigation technique as opposed to a conventional

should be broadened to include coat hangers, salvaged

horizontal system deployed at the soil surface. Iconic gable

windows and telephone books; the contemporary garden

roofs are inverted to become the water reservoirs of a vertical

should now be viewed as a landscape cultivated with plastic

gravity-fed drip irrigation system. These roofs float above the

milk jugs, dinner plates and panty hose. Gardening as the

site, but shadow casting on the plants below is minimized by

“domestication of nature” has never seemed so literal. Thus,

coordinating the inverted roof pitches with the highest sun

a particular dialogue now exists between the domestic realm

altitude angles of the year and by perforating the roofs with

and the garden, but this has been a one-way conversation.

skylights and dormers. Typically a roof is the last aspect of

Gardening techniques and acts of gardening can be co-opted

a residence to be framed; here it becomes the first element

by architects in an attempt to critically examine the domestic

of domestic architecture on the site, preceding the walls by

realm and to transform domestic architectural conventions.

several years. The roofs are supported by 30 ft. long gas station fuel tanks that have been excavated and are now cantilevered out of the ground, serving as a conduit for water between the “attic” and the garden. These water channels are the logical location for future bathrooms. Sinks, toilets and shower heads are distributed vertically within the tanks. Far from static water closets, these bathrooms are positioned as spatially dynamic lynch pins between a suspended water reservoir and gardening operations below.



070 072 074 076

In the fourth growing season, a second topography, hosting Previous Spread Varying framing densities envelope the living and bedroom spaces, encouraging unconventional trajectories.

a community pumpkin patch, is layered in six foot wide rows over half of the site, its soils isolated from the toxins using raised bed planting techniques. Toxic garden and community garden commingle for three seasons. Each October families arrive on site to pick the fattest of the pumpkins that they had been tending since early April, after a few seasons, the raised beds are replanted to serve as a domestic potager—or kitchen vegetable garden. The planting beds are raised to 3’–0”, which aligns the soil surface with table-tops, cooking surfaces and appliances to create a direct relationship between food production, food preparation and food consumption. The “kitchen work triangle” which dictates the plan relationships of nearly all American domestic kitchens, is replaced by a strategy of appliances and work surfaces dispersed among the rows of the vegetable garden. The family meal may now be influenced by seasonal crop rotations occurring within the residence; a stand of tomatoes planted within arms reach of the stove could inspire the quest to create the perfect marinara. An adjacent composting area completes the domestic food cycle—the waste of meals becomes

Legal residential occupation of site soil contamination levels MtBE: 1.5E+6 Benzene: 1.8E+5 Toulene: 2.5E+5 Ethlbenzene: 1.4E+5 Xylene: 1.5E+5

nutrient-rich humus, which in turn lines the planting beds. In the sixth growing season, the alfalfa and fescue that had been planted at the north end of the site have brought the toxicity levels in the soils down to a level where the land can legally be occupied. At this point the walls of the residence are erected, providing the opportunity to reconsider the

Legal commercial occupation of site soil contamination levels MtBE: 5.9E+6 Benzene: 4.0E+5 Toulene: 2.5E+5 Ethlbenzene: 1.4E+5 Xylene: 1.5E+5

doorway and the window as domestic apertures. The paths one can take to move through a typical residence are limited and unchanging, determined by wall and doorway placements. Similarly, the garden, in which seeds are sown in rows, anticipates a fixed, linear circulation once the plants have grown. The seed broadcasting technique, on the other hand, creates random planting densities—a garden where any number of paths can be forged in any direction. This technique and the resulting circulation, inform the design of this dwelling’s walls. Variable stud frame densities challenge the convention of framing at 2’–0” on center and the singular door frame is usurped as the primary enabler of circulation. Here, one moves between spaces the way one moves through any house under construction—slipping between the studs with a freedom that evaporates once the drywall is hung. These studs however, will never be clad, allowing for a multiplicity of spatial sequences and encouraging random trajectories. The layers of framing are stacked to provide variable degrees of visual privacy and enclosure. At times this framing is stacked so thick that the only occupiable space occurs within the hollows of the walls themselves, creating further spatial ambiguity.


door frames are replaced by framing densities

raised bed planting brings food production and preparation, and food cosumption to 3’–0”

pole-planting technique allows raised bed planters to encroach on drip line of poplar trees

gravity feed vertical drip irrigation system

one hundred sixty-eight hybrid poplar trees 8’0” o.c. (pole-planting technique brings roots to 14’–0”) alfalfa and jasmine random planting pattern (seed broadcasting creates a pathless garden) petroleum hydrocarbon contamination plume 0’–0” to14’–0” petroleum hydrocarbon contamination planes 0’–0” to 1’–0”


070 072 074 076 Under ground storage tanks are cantilevered out of the ground to serve as water conduits between roof reservoirs and contaminated soils.

Raised bed planters create a cross grain of gardening on the site, allowing toxic gardening and food production to occur simultaneously.



For instance, there could be a moment upon entering the

to create low slung, miniature greenhouses, creates a

house that a visitor is unsure whether they are standing in a

pattern of double hung sashes and divided lites across

hall closet, on the front porch, within an exterior wall, or in

the living room floor. Rather than directing views to the

the middle of a wildflower garden. Just as the walls are not

street or to a neighbor’s property, these apertures privilege

framed for any singular door aperture, the walls also do not

vertical views down into crawlspace gardens and up into

accommodate windows. Instead, windows are set only in the floors, providing access and light to gardens under the house. This approach, derived from the cold frame gardening technique in which gardeners use salvaged residential windows

the inverted, water-filled attics. The typically marginalized spaces of a residence become evident, and the eye is carried directly to the raw elements of gardening: soils, plants, water, and light.


Windows are not accommodated by walls and are set within the floor, providing access and light to the gardens below.


078 080 082 084 086

Nicholas Quiring

We live in the act of shifting from one scale perception to another. Gurdjieff wrote somewhere in ‘Beelzebub’s Tales to his Grandson’ that, “you cannot grasp any philosophical concept without understanding it in relative scale.”2 The discipline of architecture mandates the architect to operate in multiple scales—simultaneously working between measured physical spaces and unmeasured imaginative spaces. Using painting and imprinting as

A Heteronymic Study of Scale moving through visually, moving through physically

a departure point, architectural conventions of scale representation are questioned. By proposing new ways to imagine scale, using notions such as retrofit, scalingup, scaling-down and one-to-one; our scale vocabulary can be widened both intuitively and quantitatively. In utilizing the following explorative studies and notions of human perception, scale at the bedrock of design has the possibility of becoming more imaginative, nuanced and more carefully considered. Scale experienced through body movement and memory The body measures the world as it relates to its surroundings using immediate perception and memory perception, between which it can be difficult to find a boundary. Our reading of scale might be thought of as a continuity that acts to ground us within our surroundings. Immediate perception In 1960 when Joseph Kittinger fell from the edge of space (102,000 feet) into the earths atmosphere, he physically realized one of Einstein’s theories. Due to the ambiguity of scale in relation to the body, the only way Kittenger could perceive that he was falling (moving) was to turn and look back at the balloon from which he jumped to see his relative scale change. The immediate perception is one of growth, reduction, rate of change, and is always relative to

Advisor: Perry Kulper

a perceptive source. III

Memory perception

I measure myself

When a figure is seen in a space our memory affords

Against a tall tree.

us a sense of scale. As Alvaro Siza draws, the human

For I reach right up to the sun, With my eye; And I reach to the shore of the sea With my ear. Nevertheless, I dislike The way ants crawl In and out of my shadow.1 —Wallace Stevens

is morphologically connected to its surroundings and provides a scale in flux, able to occupy multiple scales at once. For Siza, the figure is a tool to generate multiple scales in drawn space. This transformative sense of scale is elastic, almost enigmatic. One wonders about the potential for this sense of scale to be studied and utilized in the production of architecture. Sense memory recalls from past experience and also draws comparisons.



078 080 082 084 086

From here I see a bird at rest

The notion of scale perception in architecture is in the bedrock

on a masthead. I have seen

of the discipline and is intrinsic to the distance that lies between

this kind of bird before and

any representation and the object it seeks to represent. Josef

I am able to compare this

Albers’ notion of “actual and factual” in art might help frame

one with that one. Gradually

the way scale is intuitively measured relative to how it is

I gain a sense of the depth

factually measured. The French sculptor Marino Marini once

of space between me and

held his hand out to me with a minute plaster sculpture in his

the bird as well as the

palm and said, “This building is a kilometer tall.”

quantities of its immediate surroundings. Our memory

As Stan Allen contends, the architect is always at a distance

experience, compares and

from the architecture, producing scaled representations but

reduces, and ultimately

never the final product.3 The painting, on the contrary, is the

becomes an instinctive act. Spatial experience through the suggestion of simultaneous scales. Paul Cezanne, Cupid with Apples, 1893.

Scale and painting: visual intuition and measurement

perception taps into our

final product—to scale. It is only when entered through the visual imagination that alternative scales might be discovered

It is clear that as we change, so does our sense of scale. Simply

and navigated from the inside out.

revisit a once familiar place—a home, a school, a street—to observe the collision of experience and memory abstraction.

A claim of Euclidean space is that all things are quantifiable,

To what do we refer in order to deepen our scale perception?

an idea that cannot be true for the painter. The painter denies

Do we each have a unique sense for scale which can be studied

fixity and contributes a sensibility that can provide viable tools

and tuned? Can it be stretched, abstracted, and re-imagined?

for the design of an architecture of multiple scales. One moment to the next is a reconciliation of changing visual

The leap Architects take perceptive leaps between how scale is perceived and how it is represented—between measured

quantities. Nearly every morning for the second half of his life, Le Corbusier was in his studio painting, most often from a still life, developing a sensibility for scale relationships built

scale and intuited scale. The scale-less, simultaneous scales,

out of form and color. While an architect may conventionally

scale flux and scale derived spaces, to table a few, are used

work within the parameters of measured scale, a painter may

frequently in architecture but hardly understood relationally.

forward the thinking of intuitive scale as visually perceived in

While paintings can be the final one to one production, architecture fumbles between what it finally becomes and how it is expressed, limited by its own conventions of representation and discovery.

the production of the painted space, working from the inside out. Cezanne’s painting Cupid with Apples represents a spatial experience through the suggestion of simultaneous scales. The cupid’s cheeks bubble out as though it has just eaten the beach ball sized apple in the background and the legs of the

Like the experience of figure ground, the perception of scale

figure painting deep in the background proportionally contest

relationships is an ambition, an aspiration—not a given.

the legs of the sculpture in the foreground. The far is suddenly

Our habits have dulled our sensitivity to the profundity of what

near. This painting demands the viewer to engage everything

it means to perceive scale. To the extreme end, Chip Lord’s

in the space, constantly moving between relationships of

poem says it well:

relative scale—one can hardly think “nice apples” before having to visually reconcile a tilted plane. To counter, when the

I’d like to say A few words about scale In architecture and other places. Look at a postage stamp Like a branch bank And you begin to grasp Piero della Francesco’s painting, Adoration of the Child, 14 provides a more measured and scaled experience among constantly moving relationships of relative scale.

The infinite vastness of the universe.4

composition is fragmented from the whole into independent parts, all that is realized is a series of mistakes that bring you in visually, only to force you out just as quickly.



078 080 082 084 086

++

heteronym a

heteronym b

heteronym c

+++

utilitarian objects that is more like a landscape with a central architectural focus; a house on the plane or a cluster of boats on the water. The utilitarian objects can also be read as a means of drawing in the hand, pulling in the body along with the eye. His canvases jump from the grandeur of the horizon and the landscape to the tactility of the hand. While we may not be able to touch the horizon, Morandi asks that we see it in relation to

+

the body. The heteronym as an architect’s tool Piero della Francesca provides similar scale experiences to Cezzane’s work but in a much more measured and narrative manner, most notably in his painting Adoration of the

het·er·o·nym [het-er-uh-nim] – noun, a word spelled the same as another but having a different sound and meaning, as lead (to conduct) and lead (a metal).

Child. Some of those findings can be seen in the geometric breakdown of the composition; notice the relative dimensions

Fernando Pessoa, Portugal’s most revered poet of the last

of the two birds with the head of Mary and the head of the baby

century, used the notion of the heteronym as a means of

Christ. The weeds in the foreground are precisely the height

locating and relating multiple contradictory perceptions

and shape of the enormous trees in the background. Lines of vision also become significant, tying one scale to another.

and accepting them all as valid truths. His body cast many shadows, to which he gave privilege over the common place. Heteronyms may contradict each other in opinion, style and

For Albers, measurement and precise scale relationships allow color boundaries to speak more clearly and directly,

voice; this contradiction is the source of conversation, between heteronyms, to generate a view that does not synthesize

as in the works of Homage to the Square. The grid structure

contradictions, but rather allows them to exist simultaneously.

simultaneously acts to modulate the two-dimensional surface

In his lifetime, he authored seventy–two different authors—the

and quantify color relations. The movement through this

four predominant being Ricardo Reis, Alberto Caiero, Alvaro de

painted surface is constantly shifting between the emphasized

Campos and Fernando Pessoa himself. The plot of his only play,

flatness of the canvas and the color quantities. In this case,

The Mariner, details the encounter of these authors and their

scale is numbed by the two dimensional grid then freed for

multiple interpretations of the ocean’s horizon.

movement by visual depth-relationships of figure ground that speak clearly through this scale modulation.

The shedding of the single author in favor of multiple authors is preceded by a need for being many people and in many places

Morandi’s still life The back edge of the tabletop acts as the horizon line, which,

at a single time. Somewhere between the Renaissance architect and Rem Koolhaas’s schizophrenic architect, heteronymous

from painting to painting, subtly shifts on the vertical axis while

authorship foregrounds the triumph of disunity over unity.

remaining perfectly level. He thus generates a still life of

Imaginative potential is expanded through multiplying the


+

++

+++

heteronym a: a central wall, the vertical spine of the shoreline, folds in and out to become the framing architectural edge of the horizon.

heteronym b: the horizon is followed on a path, a map links three distinct reference points that align the horizon with a specific elevation. The crows nest of the ship, the mental map of the city.

heteronym c: nested scales, the false horizon is followed to zero degrees, the architecture registers the descent below the horizon.


078 080 082 084 086

+

Eakins, the false + horizon is produced by an altered vanishing point leading deep into the water, slicing a cut through the earth instead of the atmosphere.

++

+++

+++ +

The false horizon ++ in heteronym c is produced by a ridgeline of trees that front the site; one of a series of anticipatory scales derived from landscape. Representation of +++ the utilitarian object impresses the surface of the paper, making it’s physical presence nearly one to one. Early world maps +++ depict the body in + measure with the world. Over time one observes the disappearance of the human until only bare facts remain.

single author, through living both here and there and occupying more space than skin permits. While the process may be critical in its own right, the work that is produced through each

and the scale of the horizon, there is an opportunity to densify the quality of scale perception. Drawing from their horizon generated obsessions, each heteronym is spatialized.

heteronym can be evaluated apart from its means of production and in the context of architectural discourse.

Program two: fishing The act of looking mandates the casting out of ones view and

Site strategy Site: coastline of Lisbon, Portugal

the retrieving of information. Focusing on the transition from the city to the horizon, Fishing falls between as an activity that mitigates the scale of the hand and the scale of the horizon.

Program one: the mariner At some time when sea travel was an act of wandering into the

Architectural strategy

unknown, the word “saudade” emerged in Lisbon. It expresses

Scales collapse and nest; the city transitions into the landscape,

the longing felt for not knowing what lies beyond the horizon, the homesickness or nostalgia that plagues the wandering traveler. The world discoverers put down the first “western”

landscape anticipates false horizons and casting stitches the shoreline. The near future of architecture mandates a new sensitivity to scale perception.

map lines of continents and sometimes returned home with never before seen objects from beyond the horizon.

Urbanization and the transition from the rural landscape to the

Representation, somewhere between the scale of the daily

context of the city, as one of many issues, calls forth our ability

activity and the horizon induced emotion of saudade, always pointing to the existence of something else.

to adapt living habits and psychological needs to a more dense, interwoven environment that must relate the miniscule, the haptic, the gargantuan and the infinite in a sensitive, intentional

At the edge of the setting for Pessoa’s four characters in The

Mariner, the architecture and each occupant burn their presence into the shoreline. Between the scale of the hand

manner. We still depend on age-old methods to design scale relationships—dependencies that must be reconsidered. Scale perception is an ambition, not a given.


Architectural strategy at multiple scales, the three heteronyms take on the space of the folded shoreline, set between the approach toward the horizon and the horizon itself. Retired conceptions of scale are stored and discovered below ground. heteronym a

heteronym b

heteronym c


“On the table before me sit a number of common instruments useful in measuring—useful in evaluating the environment. On the table before me sit a tape, a yardstick, a stopwatch, a watch, a goniometer and an arm protractor, a clinometer, a map measure, a compass, a wall thermometer, a pocket thermometer, a percentage protractor, a level, a plumb, a light meter, a camera, a pocket scale, a postage scale, a barometer, a measuring cup, a set of measuring spoons, a pedometer, a stud finder and a passle of questionnaires ... All of them have told me, or promised to tell me, about my world, and since this I would know of, I am not eager to part with these instruments ... There is another instrument in this room and I am it.”5 —Denis Wood

Notes 1. Wallace Stevens, The Collected Poems: Six Significant Landscapes (London: Faber, 1955). 2. G.I.Gurdjieff, Beelzebub’s Tales To His Grandson (London: Routledge & K. Paul, 1950). 3. Stan Allen, Points + Lines: Diagrams and Projects for the City (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999). 4. Frank Orr, Scale In Architecture (New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1985). 5. Denis Wood, The Student Publication of the School of Design, North Carolina State University—Moving: An Interaction Analysis of Man-Environment Relations (New York: Wittenborn and Company, 1977. 38–49).

Bibliography Gaston Bachelard, Air and Dreams, an essay on the imagination of movement (Dallas: Dallas Institute Publications, 1988). Thomas Eakins, A Drawing Manual (Philadelphia: Philadelphia Museum of Art, 2005). Silvia Montiglio, Wandering in Ancient Greek Culture (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005). George Monteiro, The Man Who Never Was—Essays on Fernando Pessoa (Providence: Gávea-Brown, 1982). Charles Olson, Selected Writings (New York: New Directions, 1967).

Thank you Perry


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088 090 4.6341

Borderlands: International Architecture Workshop 090 The Borderlands studio was a semester-long project coordinated with the International Architecture Workshop, an annual event through which a consortium of architecture students and faculty from Japan, Australia, Spain and France research issues of architecture and contemporary urbanism through design and teaching. Approximately fifty students explored this common project at their home institutions before traveling to Michigan to work collaboratively for two weeks at the Taubman College of Architecture + Urban Planning at the University of Michigan, TCAUP. When the students arrived in the U.S., they were greeted at the Detroit Metro Airport by their TCAUP hosts— a group of over thirty student volunteers from every level of the curriculum. The first event was a sort-of “architectural olympics” wherein all of the students presented the work they produced at their home universities. Following a tour of Detroit led by Eric Dueweke, the students divided into groups and started working on the project again—for one week as a larger team and for the second week in smaller teams of two or three. The experience was intense—negotiating languages, cultures, ages, backgrounds and importantly, ideas. The Borderlands workshop was an engine of social and architectural energy that permeated the third floor studios. The work completed during the workshop was presented publicly at the University of Michigan Detroit Center and a symposium on contemporary urbanism was held at the Museum of Contemporary Art Detroit, MOCAD. We collaborated with several Detroit organizations including the Greening of Detroit, the Mexicantown Community Development Corporation, the Detroit Riverfront Conservancy and the Bagley Housing Association.


Borderlands students: Australia Nicholas Agius Jacqui Alexander Charlotte Algie Andre Bonnice Grace Hung Anna Jankovic Matthew McDonnell Steve McKay Melissa Thong Suby Ziao France Mélanie Brunel Cédric Druetta Sabrina El Ferchichi Valerie Hoareau Jérôme Koswoski Coralie Labbe Thibault Machu Julien Moillet Clément Pascal Clément Rabourdin Stéphane Robiquet Japan Atsushi Abe Tomofumi Abe Ulrika Blom Shingo Eno Pernilla Matilde Hagbert Kazuya Hamanura Roma Ishinabe Takeshi Kawakami Akihiro Kawamura Saki Koida Hiroaki KoikeJin Byoung Moon Nozomu Onodera Maja Helena Peterson Tomoaki Todome Spain Rafaél Parga Guille Santomà U.S. Charles Alwakeel Emily Corbett Kristen Dotson Ben Foster Sean Goodemote Emmett Harrison Denise Huang Julie Kim Megan McBride Scottie McDaniel Juan Mercado Obiamaka Ofodile Amanda Olczak Heon Ju Seo

Borderlands faculty: Melbourne, Australia Paul Minifie, RMIT University, Minifie Nixon Architects Jan van Schaik, RMIT University, Minifie Nixon Architects Montpellier, France Jacques Brion, École Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture de Montpellier (ENSAM), NB Architects Elodie Nourrigat, École Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture de Montpellier (ENSAM), NB Architects Sendai, Japan Tohru Horiguchi, Tohoku University Masashige Motoe, Tohoku University Senhiko Nanada, Miyagi University Yasuaki Onoda, Tohoku University Osamu Tsukihashi, Tohoku Institute of Technology Barcelona, Spain Ignasi Pérez Arnal, Director, Sustainability and Architecture Department, EsArq_UIC, Universtitat Internacional de Catalunya Silvestre Castellani, ese studio Josep Cargol, Architectural Design Studios, EsArq_UIC, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya Ann Arbor, U.S. (host) Gretchen Wilkins, Taubman College of Architecture + Urban Planning at the University of Michigan Invited guests: Introductory Lecture: November 26, 2007 Jason Young, Associate Professor of Architecture, University of Michigan and co-editor, Stalking Detroit) Jerry Herron (Professor of English, Director of the American Studies Program, Wayne State University and Author, After Culture: Detroit and the Humiliation of History) Dan Pitera (Associate Professor of Architecture. University of Detroit, Mercy and Director: Detroit Collaborative Design Center) Eric Dueweke, TCAUP Outreach Coordinator, Lecturer in Urban Planning, University of Michigan Final symposium: December 8, 2007 Museum of Contemporary Art, Detroit: Andreas Ruby, Textbild, Berlin, Germany Michael Speaks, writer and consultant, Los Angeles, CA Hitoshi Abe, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA

089


090

Borderlands: International Architecture Workshop

A particularly contested and complex example of this erasure and territorial re-configuration exists within a two-square-kilometer tract of land in southwest Detroit. It is bound on the east by the tree lined Rosa Parks Boulevard, on the west by Detroit’s historical city limit—West Grand Boulevard, on the south by the Detroit River and on the north by Michigan Avenue—one of the original central radial streets which extends all the way through downtown Chicago. The site includes both active and obsolete industrial facilities, new low-density suburban housing, an abandoned railway depot and the entrance/exit to the Ambassador Bridge—a privately owned international border crossing and the busiest commercial link between the U.S. and Canada. It also includes Mexican Town, one of the few neighborhoods experiencing a population growth within the city, and St. Anne’s Church, a historic landmark. Filling in the gaps between these pockets of development are large expanses of abandoned property and under-utilized infrastructure. Only one kilometer from the downtown center Detroit is both an anomaly and a paradigm. The extreme clarity through which it demonstrates the reciprocal conditions of ubiquitous suburban growth

and immediately adjacent to the Detroit River and Canada, the Borderlands site is both prominently emerging and impossibly contested. The multiplicity

and post-industrial vacancy is unmatched by other

of border conditions which regulate land in this

cities along the American “Rust Belt”—the strip of

area, including international, national, state and city

industrial cities stretching from Buffalo to Chicago.

jurisdiction—sometimes all on one lot, preclude the

The radical demographic transformations effecting

possibility or relevance of a single all-encompassing

Detroit over the past 100 years have produced

“master” plan. Rather, the form of urbanism implied

equally radical re-configurations of its physical and organizational structures. As people migrate outward to the periphery space within the city is continually

here is about architectural resiliency on “multiple distributed sites that are both collectively and individually adjustable.”

re-territorialized through processes of abandonment, appropriation, development or reclamation. As the

The goal of the Borderlands workshop was to

city simultaneously shrinks (in terms of population)

posit new architectural and urban practices which

and expands (more open space), it does not do

acknowledge the strange and unique urbanism of

so evenly. Rather, strange and incongruous urban

Detroit at this moment without wholly replacing it

patterns emerge; small discrete parcels mutate into large, vague tracts, cohesive blocks disintegrate into island-buildings and landscape becomes the

for something “imageable” and complete. What is the shadow-brand to Detroit’s recently unveiled brand? What form of urbanism is suggested in a

dominant form of urbanization. The boundaries that

city of such contested territorial organization? And

once existed between architecture and landscape

how might alternative design practices account for

or city and citizen, for example, are increasingly challenged, erased or redefined.

the exception as a rule? Further, as the city moves beyond the singular form of production that created it (and, ironically, destroyed it), what mode of production replaces it?


Assorted work produced during the Borderlands studio.

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3.7638

4.3839

Eric Olsen 094

Despina Stratigakos 104

Kathy Velikov 108


Architecture Fellows Fellows spend one academic year at the University of Michigan. Appointed as lecturers in architecture, they are given teaching responsibilities and time to devote to other creative activities, scholarship and design work. Fellows present the result of their activities to the College at the end of their tenure.

Eric Olsen The William A. Muschenheim Design Fellowship offers design instructors early in their career the opportunity to develop a body of work in the context of, or in relation to teaching. Design fellows play a significant role in the definition of studio culture while pursuing their own creative endeavors to be presented and exhibited in the school gallery at the end of the year. Proposals for the Design Fellowship may focus either upon the development of a specific project either individually or with students outside of teaching, or center upon a particular set of pedagogical themes to be engaged in the studio context. Despina Stratigakos The Walter B. Sanders Research Fellowship supports individuals with significant, compelling and timely research agendas dealing with architectural issues. Research agendas could be based in such fields as architectural, urban, landscape or cultural history or theory; architectural or environmental technology; or design studies. These agendas could emerge from recently-completed doctoral dissertations or any other intense and rigorous research format. The fellowship will support both the continuation of research and the development of research-related curriculum. Kathy Velikov The William A. Oberdick Project Fellowship facilitates the development and realization of a significant exploration into some aspect of architectural speculation and production. Fellows are provided with resources for the execution of a project that may take the form of an exhibit, publication, installation or any other material construction. Projects may range from the exploration of emergent building, fabrication and environmental technologies to the realization of architectural works and endeavors typically unsupported within conventional models of practice.

093


Eric Olsen

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Surface Tension In physics, surface tension describes the affinity of a liquid to assume the shape with the least surface area. It is the physical property that causes water to bead on waxed surfaces and allows insects like the water strider to stand on the surface of a pond. It is a behavior that resists the mixing of materially different substances and privileges the continuity of the surface.

Surface Tension, a collection of work created under the 2006–07 Muschenheim Fellowship, represents a focused investigation into the possibility of material invention as a function of re-imagined manufacturing processes. It engages contemporary manufacturing practice as a point of departure and seeks to explore the performative and transformative potential of new and recombinant material strategies.



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New materials have tremendous capacity to augment the way we inhabit and interact with buildings. From the luminous and phenomenal qualities of emerging material effects to reconceptualized structural and infrastructural components, material innovations allow us to question anew the perfunctory nature of our collective “architectural standards.” Contemporary manufacturing paradigms play a significant role in shaping the design and construction of our built environment. Digi-Lath allows for an infinitely variable wall surface.

One need only walk down the aisles of a local home improvement store to

current manufacturing processes to produce materials that are more intelligent and adaptable?

understand the totalizing nature of uniform building practices in the United States.

Digi-Lath

The construction and building material

The currency of mass-variation, the tool

industries have defined the dominant

path, has reordered our understanding

standard for material practice; luminosity,

of standardization and modularity. Using

materiality, and geometry are scripted by

digitally designed lath, formal properties

the standardized construction materials as

usually assigned to intense processes like

defined by these industries.

casting and carving can be fabricated with a high degree of precision and thinness in the

Is it possible to imagine an architecture that

context of gypsum wallboard surfaces.

is more materially opportunistic? Can we transform or strategically intervene in

With Digi-Lath, CNC manufactured framing systems fit into typically framed drywall construction. They may be deployed only where needed, offering optimal economy. A digitally designed form can be seamlessly incorporated into conventional drywall system and maintain continuity of surface and finish. Like standard wallboard construction, Digi-Lath can be easily installed, replaced and blended.

Digi-Lath transposes the material constituent parts of typical gypsum wallboard. Rather than a paper laminate on the exterior, paper is fabricated as a lath using CAD/CAM techniques. The lath acts as an armature for the plaster and allows non-uniform geometry to be seamlessly blended into typical gypsum wallboard assemblies.


Digitally designed and CNC manufactured framing system.


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Evolving Infrastructure Light switches have been a part our built surroundings since electrical infrastructure was first introduced in buildings. Essentially unchanged, they are ubiquitous to the point that they are rendered invisible. Is it possible to imagine evolving this infrastructure? By incorporating capacitance switch technology, materials like gypsum wallboard can be manufactured with latent switching capabilities fully integrated into the material—one need only touch the wall and the switch is activated. Voids in the wall reveal + hidden poché, emit light and air, and expose the depth of an assembly often perceived as a purely superficial condition.

The hollow space of the wall is often ignored yet this residual space represents a significant portion of a building’s total volume. It is possible to grant new status to this overlooked space. +

Emerging fabrication technologies LED integrated plaster illuminates a field of light transmitting material. This material is reordered within the hollow space of the wall assembly and arranged on the opposite wallboard surface in an anamorphic pattern. Movement on one side of the wall is communicated to the other side of the wall as a varying pattern of light.

necessitate a new ethic of material intelligence. By manufacturing light transmitting material into gypsum wallboard, digitally controlled equipment can be used to strategically reveal embedded material.



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New solid-state lighting technologies approach the same useful lifespan of many building materials. LED integrated building materials radically alter the way we think about architectural lighting strategies and render obsolete conventional notions of the light fixture. Electro-conductive gypsum wallboard It’s time to rethink the wall outlet. For as long as electricity has been part of the built environment, electrical outlets have been the primary means of accessing power in buildings. Appliances large and small aggregate around the plastic outlet,

As global manufacturing practice continues to consolidate and unify our power

sixteen inches above the surface of the floor.

requirements, new universal paradigms

While revolutionary changes have occurred

for building infrastructure must emerge.

among the other categories of building infrastructure, the outlet, originally invented by Hubbell in 1904, remains little changed.

Change the wrapper. Intervening in conventional gypsum wall board manufacturing processes through the

Let’s move toward a shared standard. Political distinctions currently script access to electrical infrastructure.

utilization of new role-to-role manufacturing paradigms and emerging flat membrane technologies endows the modern wallboard surface with new possibilities. From our personal technology accessories to the shrinking profile of our entertainment devices, electro-conductive gypsum wallboard changes our relationship to the wall. The surface is free to be appropriated by all manner of electrical device at any location. Re-imagine the wall. Much of our energy requirement comes in the form of low-demand low voltage appliances; the majority of these appliances rely on point-of-use voltage transformers. Electrified wallboard consolidates direct current transformers creating considerable energy savings. The flexibility of the conductive surface means that the arrangement and deployment of light and power are no longer predicated on fixed relationships. Mobile phones and iPods need not cluster near power strips, lights need not gang on articulated tracks; they are liberated from a predetermined infrastructure.


Electricity is transferred from the wall to lights via magnets.


Seamlessness is possible. With conductive wallboard, design and building practice move closer to the modern ideal of the uninterrupted, uniform surface. Electrified wallboard condenses fire resistant cladding and electrical infrastructure in a single product without compromising gypsum wallboard’s considerable economic efficiencies both in manufacturing and end-use assembly. The transmissive surface is full of possibilities. Users are invited to arrange a field of light fixtures in any configuration imaginable. Illumination can be concentrated in an area to provide task lighting or evenly distributed to create an ambient effect. Like the revolution in wireless data infrastructure, the conductive surface can change the way we live in buildings.

+ Lights can be arranged in any number of configurations and illuminated by simply pushing them into the conductive wallboard. Electrical infrastructure is condensed into a flexible surface.


+

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Despina Stratigakos Architect Barbie Barbies rarely appear amidst the models, drawings and other props of an architectural studio. Teaching architecture is a serious business, and although we may “toy” with buildings, we generally do not play with dolls. Hoping to spark discussion about the role of gender in the formation of professional self-identities Architect Barbie was chosen as the theme for the Sanders Fellowship exhibition. Students and faculty of Taubman College’s T-Square Society developed prototypes of Architect Barbie based on their own experiences, fantasies and perhaps frustrations. Making and displaying the dolls created a space within the college (both conceptually and spatially) to address the crucial issue of diversity from an unexpected and playful angle. “I am grateful to the students and faculty of Taubman College for helping to create new blueprints for Barbie.”1 Mattel, Inc. first introduced the “I Can Be” career series in 2001, in which Barbie® went to work for the first time as “Baby Doctor,” subsequently followed by “Baby Photographer.”



Given the dolls power to nurture

When women began to enter the field

professional self-images, the announcement

of architecture a hundred years ago, the

in 2002 of a voting competition to

profession responded by articulating an

determine Barbie’s next career move aroused enormous public interest. Parents and children were encouraged to visit

image of the architect defined by traits culturally coded as masculine. The ideal architect possessed a will and body of

barbie.com and vote on one of three

steel, a heroic sense of individuality and a

possible career choices for Barbie: architect,

creative genius that shunned cooperation.

librarian and policewoman.

So strong was this insistence on masculinity

After weeks of a fierce electronic voting war,

that cultural authorities warned women who

Architect Barbie won with an overwhelming

aspired to become architects that their

majority of the vote. However, much to

minds and bodies would mutate if they

the disappointment of women architects

pursued their dreams, transforming them

who had voted for “their” Barbie, Mattel

into hermaphrodites.3

announced that it would not produce an architect in the“I Can Be” series.

Today, we cannot comfortably claim that a professional history of exclusion lies

Mattel spokesperson Julia Jensen,

behind us. Although the number of female

interviewed by construction.com editor

students averages about 40 percent in

Judy Schriener, claimed that Barbie’s target

Bachelor of Architecture and Master of

audience (girls aged three to eleven) could not understand the complexities of

Architecture programs, these women have not found their way into licensed

an architect’s career. When they imagine

practice, which remains about 87 percent

Mommy going to work, they think “she

male, according to recent statistics from

drinks coffee; she wears a dress to work; she is on the phone all day.” A professional architect “is not in their lexicon,” which is

the AIA.4 A 2003 report issued by the Royal Institute of British Architects on the difficulty of retaining women in the field

also the reason why Mattel’s first “I Can Be”

cited the continuing “macho” culture of the

Barbie was a Baby Doctor, not

profession as one of the factors contributing

a pediatrician.

to job dissatisfaction.5 As we confront these complex issues, we might well begin by

As a scholar and educator deeply concerned with making architecture not only relevant to little girls, but also relevant to women in architecture, I hope to persuade Mattel to reconsider the viability of Architect Barbie. Perhaps the limitations here lie more with the company’s marketing strategies than with the imaginative capacities of their clientele. Would Mattel sell more Barbie doll houses, for example, +

if it encouraged little girls to build them? There are no stereotypical images of the woman architect to build upon, despite Hollywood movies having provided a stable of male “architypes.”2 But the absence of a female Howard Roark may prove to be advantageous in imagining new professional identities.

examining our own stereotypes about the people who we think make “good” architects. Notes 1. I would like to thank Tom Buresh, Caroline Constant, Paige Hammerschmidt and Caryn Schadegg for their help with the exhibition, as well as the Architect Barbie makers. 2. Nancy Levinson, Tall Buildings, Tall Tales: On Architects in the Movies, Architecture and Film, (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2000), p. 11–48. 3. Despina Stratigakos, The Uncanny Architect: Fears of Lesbian Builders and Deviant Homes in Modern Germany, in Negotiating Domesticity: Spatial Productions of Gender in Modern Architecture, (London and New York: Routledge, 2005). 4. Suzanne Stephens, Not Only Zaha; What Is It Like to Be a Female Architect with a Solely Owned Firm in the U.S. Today?, (New York: Architectural Record 194.12, 2006), p. 58. 5. Ann de Graft-Johnson, Sandra Manley, and Clara Greed, Why Do Women Leave Architecture (Bristol: University of the West of England, Bristol; London: Royal Institute of British Architects, 2003), p. 20–21.


Previous spread Barbie by: Mashawnta Armstrong

Barbies by: Gera Feigon Enesh Eastlick Kristen Murphy Carrie Genualdi and Winnie Lam

Barbies also by: + Jen Hermsen, Lauren Rock, Mallory Scholl, Taylor Stein and Anca Trandafirescu.

107 105


Kathy Velikov

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Office Project | Project Office Office project | project office is an installation concerned with the way in which the nature of space is transformed as a result of its production, re-materialization and displacement. The work is a meta-project reflecting on the intellectual positioning of process and project within academia.



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+

++ Corridor of faculty offices The project office Latex process Office surface anomalies and their cast ‘others’

+ ++ +++ ++++

Site: host The site for office project | project office is the generic academic office space, specifically the fellowship project office itself. The architectural characteristics of the office are entirely the result of other decisions related to the building. It is the space produced from the simple acts of allocation and equal division of available space and resources. Architectural documentary The office corridor is on the third floor of the art and architecture building, it is approximately 4’ wide and 200’ long. Thirty-five offices are distributed on either side along its length—each of the offices measures approximately 9’–6” x 9’–8” and each is 9’–2” high. Office 3127, the project +++

office, has a 2’ deep alcove for half the space of the north wall, coinciding with the end of the service cavity along that wall; this occurs in several of the other offices as well. The east, west and south walls of the office are homosote, painted white with 4” brown vinyl baseboard and brown aluminum trim at the ceiling. The north wall is concrete masonry block, also painted white. The floor is oatmeal colored vinyl tile, the ceiling is acoustical panels hung from a t-bar grid, with four 2’x1’ florescent lights. Even though only one of the lights is functioning, the light is too bright. The door is wood veneer with a rectangular viewing window; most of the windows along the corridor have been blocked. Above the door is a 2’ high transom light; natural light may penetrate the office through the transom window in the office across the hall. Across from the door, on the masonry wall, are the outlets for power and data. A data cable emerges from the northwest corner and plugs into one of the data sockets; it is unclear what


++++


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it is connected to. This office contains the thermostat for the northwest wing of offices.

Material translations: losses and effectual gains

Air constantly blows from the strip grille in

While still maintaining the exact dimensions,

the ceiling; however, if one remains in the

proportions and texture of the space,

office with the door closed for too long, one often develops a headache and a sense of fatigue. On weekends, the air shuts off at approximately 10:00 p.m. in the evening; it is unadvisable to remain after that. Furniture

the project office is now completely transformed by the method of its re-materialization through casting and register. An assembly of generic materials is now a monolithic seamless surface, a soft

consists of a desk made from a plastic

space, whose enclosing walls stretch with

laminate solid core door spanning two

gravity and droop on the floor.

cream colored filing cabinets; three 9’ long wood veneer shelves, supported by steel

Displacement: translation

brackets hung from steel mounting strips

The solid surfaces of the walls become a

screwed to the wall; a grey metal shelving

fabric, a thin formless skin. Every physical

unit 7’ high, an office chair, upholstered in

surface detail is recorded; previously unseen

lavender fabric; and a garbage/recycling can. A maple chair is later acquired for meetings with students. A cream colored telephone is located on the desk; its

and the detail of the masonry wall are exposed and can now be enjoyed. The latex facsimile of the project office is transposed

message light does not stop flashing, even

to the site of the project gallery and hung

when there are no messages. An aluminum

within the space, in a spatial displacement

coat hook is located behind the door and

of 35’–10” north, 33’–0” east and 12’–0”

previous occupants have left several coat

down. The desktop, cabinets and wooden

hangers in the room. There are also a number of filing trays, three tape dispensers and a number of thumb tacks on the walls. Eventually, a computer will be provided. Facsimile: cast

Latex skin is removed from its host site.

spaces such as the depth of the pinholes

chair are also relocated, still encased in latex. The lower height of the gallery creates a mis-registration of the height of the office project. A generic fluorescent fixture illuminates the

Latex is deployed to form a facsimile of the

space and its light penetrates through the

walls of the project office. The use of latex

thinness of the latex. The interior surfaces

allows for the entire surface to be replicated

are now an exterior facade; interior space

in one continuous and seamless material.

and surface are no longer experienced

Nine coats of a low ammonia cream latex

simultaneously. The formed has become

create the cast. The ammonia latex remains

formless, displaced from its context, its

off-white and opaque as it vulcanizes. It

surfaces become absurd. The quotidian

reacts with some of the metals, causing local

useful is now useless and has slipped from

discoloration. After it has cured, it is slowly

the mundane to the uncanny. The generic

peeled off the wall.

surfaces of CMU (concrete masonry unit) and wallboard seem like some sort of fetish. The overall effect borders between the sublime and the mildly unpleasant. Reader The office project | project office reader is located on the office project desk. Presented as a course reader, it is a collection of essays, literature and other text



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fragments which create a constellation of cultural contexts within which the project is situated. These range from cultural critiques of institutional space, to parallel practices in art and architecture.

Bibliography Making space Georges Perec, Species of Spaces and Other Pieces, (London: Penguin, 1999), p. 2–39. Gaston Bachelard, “The dialectics of outside and inside” The Poetics of Space, (New York: Orion, 1964; 1958), p. 211–231. Martin Heidegger, “Building, Dwelling, Thinking” Poetry, Language, Thought,(New York: Harper and Rowe, 1971), p. 145–161. Henri Lefebvre, “Plan of the Present Work” sections XV-XXI, The Production of Space, (Malden and Oxford: Blackwell, 1991; 1974), p. 31–65. Contexts Herman Melville, “Bartelby” (the Scrivener), The Complete Stories of Herman Melville, (London: Eyere and Spottyswoode, 1951; 1853), p. 3–47. Robert Musil, The Man Without Qualities, (New York: Vintage, 1996; 1952), p. 3–38. Herbert Marceuse, “The Closing of the Universe of Discource,” One-Dimensionsal Man, (Boston: Beacon, 1991; 1964), p. 84–120. Richard Florid and Wesley M. Cohen, “Engine or Infrastructure? The University Role in Economic Development” Industrializing Knowledge, (Cambridge and London: MIT Press, 1999), p. 589–607. Tactics Henri Le Febvre, Critique of Everyday Life,(Paris: Verso, 2002; 1961), p. 193–244. Pierre Bourdieu, “The Objective Limits of Objectivsm, Part 1: Analysis”, Outline of a Theory of Practice, (New York : Cambridge University Press, 2007, 1972), p.1–3. Michel de Certeau, “Introduction” and “`Making Do’: Uses and Tactics”, The Practice of Everyday Life, (Berkley, LA, London: University of California, 1988; 1984), p. xi–xxiv and 29–42. Hal Foster, “Art of Cynical Reason” and “The Artist as Ethnographer”, The Return of the Real, (Cambridge and London: MIT, 1996), p. 99–124 and 173–203. Parallel Practices Donald Judd, “Specific Objects” Complete Writings 1959–1975, (Nova Scoria and New York: Nova Scotia Press and New York University Press, 2005, 1975) p. 181–189. Rosalind Krausss & Yve Alain Bois, “The Use-Value of Formless”, “Qualities (Without)” and “X-Marks the Spot” Formless: A User’s Guide, (New York: Zone. 1997) p. 13-40, 169–172 and 214–219. Robert Smithson, “A Provisional Theory of Nonsites,” Robert Smithson: The Collected Writings, (Berkley: University of California, 1996) K. Michael Hays, “Contra the Bourgeois Interior: Coop Zimmer” Modernism and the Posthumanist Subject, (Cambridge: MIT, 1992) p. 55–81.


The generic is transformed into the fetish through re-materialization and displacement.


+


The project is displaced and installed. Luminous experience of the project + surface.

Thank you: Geoffrey Thün, Andrew Herscher, Despina Stratigakos, Eric Olsen, Mirr eille Roddier, Mason White and Julianna Lieu … for critical input, support and advice.

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2007 Visiting Lecturers Winter Lee Bey Marshall Purnell Emily Talen Michael Kelly Allison Williams Phillip Enquist Joshua Clover Ira Katznelson Ray Manning Dan Solomon Franz John Mark Wigley Lawrence Scarpa Phillipe Rizzotti and François Wunschel (EXYZT)

Fall C. J. Lim Neil Spiller William McKibben Marjora Carter Joe Valerio Teddy Cruz Robert Yaro Steven Moore Yolande Daniels and Sunil Bald Robert Somol

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Pugh + Scarpa The Material Inquiry of Construction Pugh + Scarpa of Santa Monica is an architecture, engineering, interior design and planning firm founded in 1991. Pugh + Scarpa has grown to include over 20 professionals and is currently working on a variety of commissions for public, private and institutional clients. Pugh + Scarpa maintains offices in Santa Monica, CA and Charlotte, NC where Gwynne Pugh, AIA, ASCE, LEED AP, Lawrence Scarpa, AIA, and Angela Brooks, AIA, LEED AP, are the sole principals. Lawrence Scarpa was a jury member in the Wallenberg competition studio and the Eliel Saarinen Visiting Professor in 2007. This article was composed by Lawrence Scarpa and Christopher Ghatak specifically for “Dimensions.” “As we are first and foremost involved with the daily practice of architecture, the invitation to consider the results of our labors after the fact presents an opportunity for which we are grateful.”



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When a job came into the office in our formative years, its completion would occur so rapidly, that the energy of the design was naturally sustained through the end of construction, buoyed by the adrenaline that came from producing at a blistering pace and through direct physical contact with the actual materials involved. The present day situation is quite different; the size, number and complexity of projects we handle have all increased. As the duration of these projects frequently spans three to four years from inception Jigsaw’s lobby, presents a pair of luminous textured façades, that bathe the room in light diffused by double glazed panels filled with ping-pong balls and acrylic beads.

to completion, our operative words are now “vigilance” or “diligence” and certainly “tenacity.” Our work emphasizes the experience of making things. The building is treated like a drawing at full scale. This means not only making models in the studio but also learning something about the “What happens when I do this?” The object is important but the experience also has a profound impact, leaving something that lasts beyond the physical existence of the object. We are acutely aware not only of materials, but in particular also the making both in design and in the field. Our approach to each project is open. We protect our interest in not only learning something about design but also about ourselves. The social climate and business environment we work in is much altered from that of earlier days, and yet we are in some ways much the same. We remain dedicated to the investigation and transformation of the processes and materials shaping the construction. John Dewey described our preoccupation (and that of most architects) as “controlled or directed transformation of an indeterminate situation into one that is so determinate in its constituent distinctions and relations as to convert the elements of the situation into a unified whole.”1 What we engage as “materials of construction” are only sometimes tangible. The projects presented here demonstrate a kind of continuity in the core values of our work when, over the span of a decade the scale, “materials” and programs all changed. Where in the earlier project the materials are literally physical, later work is more deeply involved with social and environmental conditions and financial models for affordable development. As always, the matter of building and the expressive potential of its materials is open for inquiry. Early on, we discovered it was possible to bring a kind of electricity to fairly generic spaces through the use of common materials transformed beyond immediate recognition in the service of a practical, usually programmatic goal. These projects operate primarily from the principle that the quality of a design is more closely correlated with one’s ability to identify viable materials and deploy them dynamically than it is related to the available budget. Insistence on simplicity and the confidence to maintain that the best solution is available only in the course of the experiment yields opportunities for expression and invention. An existing 1940s bow-trussed structure (ubiquitous in Los Angeles) was transformed into a space fit for invention and creation for the film editing company Jigsaw. Their work requires small, dark environments free from distraction and light reflection.



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The building’s warehouse shell is a horizon or envelope within which to locate a large interior public area containing two enigmatic work spaces. The design uses discrete forms and reinvents their immediate context to mediate inventively between public and private spaces. Part sculpture, part envelope, oblong skewed boxes hover over a placid reflecting pool A photovoltaic array of 199 solar panels on the building’s façade and roof capture sunlight that provides most of the peak-load energy demand while the living units capture prevailing breezes, using a disposition functionally equivalent to that of a wind scoop.

enclosing the editing studios and offices. Facing the lobby, they present a pair of luminous textured façades, which upon closer inspection reveal themselves as double glazed panels filled with ping-pong balls and acrylic beads. Bathing the rooms in a soft and diffused light, they afford privacy and minimize distractions while allowing glimpses of the space beyond. The volumes undulate above the shimmering plane of water while a sunken circular fountain fills the space with the sound of moving water. It is possible to generate a building of any size or type simply by adhering to the guidelines set forth by state and municipal regulatory agencies, and with specific knowledge of common construction practices. Evidence of this is all around us of course. This is not to say that the making of a building is ever a simple process, only that the bigger and more publicly sited the building, the simpler it is to arrive at a foregone conclusion as the rules of engagement with regulatory agencies and by extension the public are spelled out that much more clearly. With Colorado Court it was our objective to synthesize environmental pro-activity with aesthetic intent within the scope of a design for low-income housing. By incorporating passive and active strategies for sustainability, and far exceeding standard building practices to optimize building performance and reduce energy consumption at all times, it was the first building of its type in the United States to be one hundred percent energy independent. The building’s shape and disposition of living units capture prevailing breezes like a wind scoop, cooling the building and eliminating the need for air conditioning. One hundred percent of storm water runoff of not only the project but of the entire block is retained on site. A natural gas powered micro-turbine/heat recovery system generates the base electrical load for the building while the solar electric panel system integrated into the façade and roof meet most of the peak electrical load. The cogeneration system also captures waste heat to produce hot water for the building throughout the year as well as space heating needs in winter. The return of excess power from the solar panel and micro-turbine systems to the electrical grid during daytime hours requires the inclusion of a “net-metering” system—an electrical meter that runs both backward and forward. Net-metering unfortunately, was at the time prohibited by public utility regulations. Through public process, and energized by a fight for project viability, Colorado Court momentarily became a central figure in the policy making of the California legislature.



In drawing on the principle that the material of the situation is always raw at the outset, the design of a building serving the public at times requires that even regulations be “cooked” to taste. “If architecture is completely overwhelmed by politics and absorbed into its processes, it cannot transform them.” writes Hashim Sarkis in his essay On the Line Between Procedures and Aesthetics, “In order to become engaged effectively, architects must maintain the strategic possibility of remaining partly disengaged.”2 One must have the material in hand, which is to say—be intimately informed. The design lies in the transformation of the material. It takes a special sort of client to entertain the risk of pursuing zoning variances, let alone challenge the practices of the major utility companies in the pursuit of maximum sustainability, however the benefits to a community and benchmarks established can be significant. To take the idea of partial disengagement one step further, consider the legacy of our own discipline, for a moment, as both fundamentally required working knowledge and also knowledge that may be usefully “suspended” in the effort to manifest and support our needs as a culture. As Ed Dimendberg writes: “From the single-family home with its elaborate codings of public and private to museums with their implicit and explicit relations to notions of heritage and tradition, architecture can never escape the fate of cultural significance. Acknowledging the radically historicist character of architectural knowledge, that our spatial understandings and predilections have a history, that they ceaselessly change, and that the absolute truth remains elusive constitutes [a] requirement for a culturally reflective practice.”3 The temporary suspension of our architectural inheritance is fundamental to the process of re-envisioning an improved environment for ourselves particularly as the forces shaping change in the world’s major metropolitan centers reach well beyond the discipline of architecture and out into the worlds of public policy, transportation, education and so on. In this light it even seems useful to initially suspend our claim to disciplinary autonomy, and to forego efforts at aesthetic expression in order to engage the full scope of the “material” at hand knowing that both historical knowledge and authorship in the present inevitably return to inform the built work in the end.

Notes 1. John Dewey, Logic: The Theory of Inquiry. (New York: Holt, 1938) p.108. 2. Hashim Sarkis, “On the Line Between Procedures and Aesthetics,” in The Pragmatist Imagination: Thinking About Things in the Making. (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2000), p.103. 3. Ed Dimendberg, Excluded Middle: Toward a Reflective Architecture and Urbanism. (Houston: Rice School of Architecture, 2002), p.39. 4. Lewis Mumford, Sticks and Stones: A Study of Architecture and Civilization. (New York, 1924). All images provided courtesy of Pugh + Scarpa.

As Lewis Mumford wrote, “Our Architectural development is bound up with the course of our civilization. To the extent that we permit our institutions and organizations to function blindly as our bed is made, so must we lie in it. The future of our civilization depends on our ability to select and control our heritage from the past, to alter our present attitudes and habits, and to project fresh form into which our energies may be freely poured.”4 The statement affirms so much of what we identify as our own disciplinary responsibility; fully riddled with multiple and conflicting forces, bound together and driven forth by our own optimism.



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EXYZT l’architecture du collectif The collective project EXYZT is a non-profit organization that showcases a platform of multidisciplinary ideas, creations and actions.Through this project the members defend the idea of manufacturing together as a vehicle to deliver a strong message to the society in which we live and act. Within this objective, the EXYZT project must incarnate and marinate the richness of the individual ingredients in order to serve a coherent message. Philippe Rizzotti and François Wunschel of EXYZT were invited to give the Alpha Rho Chi lecture in Winter 2007.



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Manifesto Be utopian. We want to build new worlds where fiction is reality and games are new rules for democracy. We want to encourage creativity, reflection and renew social behaviors. If space is made by dynamics of exchange, then everybody can be the architects of our world.

“Unitary Urbanism envisages the urban environment as the terrain of a participatory game.” —Constant Nieuwenhuys and Guy Debord

“The whole complex—in both the activity it enables and the resultant structure it provides—is in effect a short-term toy to enable people, for once, to use a building with the same degree of meaningful personal immediacy that they are forced normally to reserve for a limited range of traditional pleasures.” —Cedric Price

Experiment. Architecture can expand into a transdisciplinary field, where new tools can be explored. Our current recipe: marinate construction with video, music, graphic design, photography and gastronomy, without forgetting to leave space for interaction, freedom, informality and unpredictability. Our projects result in spatial video games, architectural buildings, musical environments and/or thematic food feasts. Even if we refuse to enter the current architectural practice (which is under economical and political constraints) we do deal with the reality of construction. We design and build ourselves, live in our constructions and leave freedom for visitors to appropriate our designs. What we produce is open source architecture. We collaborate to give free access to a structured living program and an interface for exchange. We only offer a framework for a direct and immediate emulation between people and space. Our projects are always in motion. It is this dynamic process based on interactions between people and their environment that really make our projects. We exist to incite you—be conscience of your environment. React and act.


République Ephémère, Roubaix, France July 2004–August 2004.


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Action Methods Site detection. We usually choose sites that are not regulated by real estate economy or social control. Among them: wasteland, leftover spaces and “The most significant application of mobile architecture. A spatial structure raised up on piles which contains inhabited volumes, fitted inside some of the voids, alternating with other unused volumes. This structure may span certain unavailable sites and areas where building is not possible or permitted (expanses of water, marshland) or areas that have already been built upon.” —Yona Friedman

abandoned spaces. We also work on flexible/neutral spaces offered by events like festivals or exhibitions. In situ action. Even if we usually use identical materials like scaffolding, textiles, photo, video and sound material, our projects are non reproducible product; they are designed and built in the context of location, place and participants. Temporary intervention. Architecture is an adventure in time. We like it short and dense so as to focus more on the project (and also because we want to create multiple projects around the world). Explore new media tools. We experiment with endlessly different tools for our interventions like video games, short (video) cuts and video jockeys. We attempt to translate media into physical space. A video projection can constitute a façade, a video game becomes a spatial interactive game and films exists as memories of our constructions.

Metavilla, Venice, Italy September 2006–November 2006.



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Un jeu A game. An open invitation to create a dialogue about the collective, “A Home is not a House.” —Reyner Banham

within the collective. The result: a conversation pieced together from the contributions of three of the collective’s members: Roland Gerbier, Julien Beller and Philippe Rizzotti. “To look for pleasure, to avoid pain, is the general act, others would say law, of the organic world. It’s the essence of life itself. Without this quest for the agreeable, life itself would be impossible. The organism would disintegrate, life would stop.” —Pierre Kropotkine EXYZT is a collective that has a varying definition. EXYZT is a sequence of actions in an urban context, built environment or inhabited territories. EXYZT is a series of ephemeral landscapes, of intertwined arts, of constructed contexts and unlikely encounters. EXYZT is a means of action. EXYZT proposes alternative projects. EXYZT tries to develop a proposal on the city. EXYZT is alive only during projects and should not exist in between acts. EXYZT is the possibility of gathering a group of people together in order to intervene. EXYZT can die because it consists of human relationships above all. EXYZT is friends. The concept of EXYZT’s architecture is festive—an architecture of emergency and an interaction of proximity. EXYZT is a spectrum of diversity and abilities that form short-term and mid-term diffracted architecture, without consuming space. The EXYZT projects are situated between the proposal and the event, between the experiment of a new way of inhabiting the city and the image of an architectural act of a group of human beings. The collective has explored a multitude of modes of simultaneous creation and habitats. The self-construction, self-management and self-structuring of each project welcomes individuals to walk through a temporary installation—an expression of and compliment to the diversity of its inhabitants. One missions of the EXYZT collective is to invent the fireworks of tomorrow. The fireworks market represents roughly one third of the cultural expenses of municipalities. Why not re-inject all of the money that goes up in smoke into huge collective gatherings? Gatherings based on fireworks of images staged by hordes of graphic designers so that they might project themselves onto the façades of all the cities in a 360 degree outdoor danced cinema.



EXYZT must stay autonomous and democratic. The heterogeneous expectations of the members allows for complexity in the projects. We are well on our way to witnessing an increase in the number of homeless people, illegal immigrants and political and economical refugees. What Don Quixote accomplished with his tents, the EXYZT collective must attempt to do with its scaffoldings. The Multidisciplinarity of the collective always allows for new discoveries. In every field, each person’s skills can express itself and nourish the proposal. Rather than a city sketched by architects, it is one sketched by its inhabitants. In the meantime, let’s start by gathering all of the skills available in order to create a lively city. Architect-Carpenter, Plumber-Woodsman, Electro-Musician, Mechanic-Drafter, Video-Driver, Idiots-Geniuses—they all cultivate multitasking and reinvent and recreate their world daily. The experiences of each multiply and become linked to one another, either in small groups or all at once. Today, the city is a mark of temporary construction, which most of the time serves in restoration of existing buildings or in the construction of new edifices. The infrastructures of these constructions and events constitute another species of ephemeral landscapes. It is within the temporality of spatial interstices that the collective’s interventions exist. I sense behind the collective the potential of the Royal de Luxe Company of French street theatre, but in a more high-tech dimension … Maybe it is not the role of the EXYZT collective to initiate the movement by being the Abbés Pierre of the twenty–first century; but EXYZT needs to at least suggest the idea to one or two listening ears. Our action as the EXYZT collective is an invitation into the exploration of investing and occupying of spaces under-exploited times, artistically, legally, economically and humanly … It’s not easy getting old, especially for a collective. Aging implies following a certain path and along the way some will abandon that path. Aging implies the implementation of a sort of hierarchy, more or less assumed, more or less accepted. The hierarchy implies the implementation of an administrative and financial management system, which can easily asphyxiate and dry-out “Architecture is maybe the best media to join Art Fields together.” —Yona Friedman Bibliography All quotes copyright Swiss Architecture Museum: Instant Urbanism, Exhibition, (Basel: Swiss Architecture Museum, 2007). All images provided courtesy of EXYZT. Thank you: Yona Friedman, Archigram, Dada, Fluxus, hybrid architecture of the world (observed on our trips to Vietnam, Japan, Eastern Europe, Africa). We owe you.

the beauty taken from the past. This is why it is important to find the right people who will know how to be both strong and limber at the same time. It is necessary to take the implied route of aging in order to continue to create a path through the immense possibilities that you have. The EXYZT collective has already made people dream and will continue to make us dream. All we need to accept is, growing old. S.E.T. Barcelona, Spain October 2005.



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James Munk 146 Whitney Cooper 140 Brittany Guercio 152

3.9289

2007 Award Winners Alex Jackson Jason Minor James Munk Zain W. AbuSeir Brittany Guercio Lauren Hepner Alan Ulrich

Faculty Keith Mitnick Dawn Gilpin Eric Olsen Joel Schmidt Anca Trandafirescu Kathy Velikov Paola Zellner

2007 Jury Lawrence Scarpa Gerardo Caballero Reneé Cheng


Sean Billy Kizy 158

Zain W. AbuSeir 176 Jason Minor 184

Rachel Villalta 170 Michelle E.Miller 164 Raoul Wallenberg Studio Raoul Wallenberg, a 1935 graduate of the University of Michigan College of Architecture and Design, has been called one of the 20th century’s most outstanding heroes. In 1944, as First Secretary of the Swedish delegation in Budapest, he is credited with saving more than 100,000 jews from death at the hands of the Nazis. In his memory and in honor of his courageous actions, the Raoul Wallenberg Endowment was established by the Benard Maas Foundation. At the college, Wallenberg’s legacy lives through our aspirations for architecture as a humane social art. Each year the architecture program exhibits and juries the best work from the final undergraduate design studio. Awards, funded by the Raoul Wallenberg Endowment are offered in the form of a stipend for international travel. It is expected that students would return with a broadened understanding of the world and an appreciation and feeling for the people they encountered.

Architecture + Deceit by Keith Mitnick Deceit has long been associated with architecture in many forms, ranging from perceptual musings upon the optical mechanics of sight, distance, scale (and apparent contradictions between the relationship of the ways things appear visually to the way we know them to be intellectually), to more politically charged mis-directions and representations of dominant political ideology (in the guise of “truth”). Sometimes deceit can be value-free, that is, it befuddles ones expectations as a source of pleasure rather than manipulating appearance towards explicit interests. Other times architectural deceits are concocted to uphold a biased view of things, people and values that enforce a particular outlook without appearing to do so. In all cases, buildings are predicated upon a provisional set of truth-based beliefs, or assumptions, that it serves to reify and validate. From ideas about the “nature of materials” to claims about the “directness” of sensory experience, innovative architectural practices stand to revamp, reveal and prescribe new natures for materials and the changing cultural sensibilities through which significance is projected upon the sensory, spatial, and political realm. In different ways, each of the Wallenberg Studios took on the notion of deceit as it pertained to ideas, design processes, new terms and propositions for architecture in our ever-changing world.

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Whitney Cooper Studio Critic: Paola Zellner

Memorial of Reality

The spectacle is defined not by what it is, but by its moments of non-existence—the moments of boundary and edge that produce realities. The realities of starvation, war and disease can be considered amongst the most “real” pockets within the spectacle. These realities are recorded through those affected by the spectacle—those who do not benefit from it, but become a consequence of it. The Memorial of Reality with its seven sites of consciousness was formed to provide a space in which an awakening of the mind can be undertaken. The memorial is not intended to record and express these specific realities in a literal way, but aims to create slow space and stillness of mind which is obtainable in a heightened state of consciousness. These seven sites—created by “hiccups” within the pedestrian flow of the landscape at Museum Park in Chicago, IL.—are embedded in close proximity to existing paths, increasing the opportunities for free engagement and spontaneous experience. These “hiccups” can be visited without a predetermined narrative or sequence, allowing for multiple readings through time.



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1,000 10,000 malaria 100,000

land disappearance

1,000,000

10,000,000

children soldiers

100,000,000

bad water

hunger

AIDS/HIV

AIDS/HIV - orphans

Pedestrian flow within Chicago’s Museum + Park provides opportunities for free engagement and spontaneous experience. ++ Moments of non-existence created by starvation, war and disease are recorded through those affected by the spectacle.


++


The seven “hiccups” are independent of meaning, with directed views to the sky, the body of water and the horizon, they intend to evoke a sensorial experience in which one is able to embark on a cosmological and phenomenological journey through contemplation and reflection. The spaces become significant through the experience of the individual and their own ability to tap into a state of self-awareness within the cosmic realm. In linking consciousness with cosmological and archetypal elements such as water and the sky, the sites of consciousness are able to transcend their context and their form. This enables the possibility for an existential experience in which individual realities connect to the whole.

The seven “hiccups” direct views to the sky evoking a sensorial experience.


The seven “hiccups” transcend their context and become significant through the experience of the individual.

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James Munk Studio Critic: Anca Trandafirescu

Crossing Perspectives

Borders are interesting illusions; they gain their power by virtue of their believers and the extent to which we physically and architecturally reinforce them. They are a lie incarnated by concrete, cameras, guards and guns. Borders attempt an absolute divide where none exists. They separate economies, nations and entire bodies of people; they divide us from them … good from evil. Studying borders in general and the border crossing at the Detroit, MI and Windsor, ON port of entry led to early mapping studies. Maps have a strong power to propagate notions of delineation. Mapping studies of the site dealt with recording variable information through mathematical functions; designing equations that through Microsoft Excel™ enumerated lines of integers. As integers increase in numerical value their graphic size also grows, allowing for information to be modeled simultaneously though numeric and graphic means, creating linear functions that reveal information through their densities. Lines were used as recorders and lines of sight as a tool to obscure and reveal information. Lines were deformed to indicate densities proportional to the distance from their original trajectories. This became a way to model the urban fabric of the project’s site in Detroit. From these linear studies the theme of gradation emerged as paramount to the project as well as a vocabulary of informative densities, deformation as indication and visual reveal. Furthermore, these studies informed design aspirations of a linear building that changes by virtue of its use; in this case, vehicular immigration. Information was to be revealed and hidden, pushed out or allowed in. These changes were allowed to manifest on the surface and to be experienced by the user.


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84

86

88

90

92

94

94

94

2256

4324

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94

94

94

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36848

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40717040

308286160 2080931580 1.2717E+10 7.1214E+10 3.6902E+11 1.7836E+12 8.0948E+12 3.4692E+13 1.4108E+14 5.4668E+14 2.0259E+15 7.2034E+15 2.4643E+16 8.1322E+16 2.5946E+17 8.0196E+17 2.4059E+18

72

74

76

78

80

82

84

86

88

90

92

92

92

2162

4140

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92

92

92

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267569120 1772645420 1.0636E+10 5.8497E+10

70

72

74

76

78

80

82

84

86

88

90

90

90

2070

3960

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90

90

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2.978E+11

1.4146E+12 6.3112E+12 2.6597E+13 1.0639E+14

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1.4793E+15 5.1774E+15

1.744E+16

5.6679E+16 1.7813E+17

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68

70

72

74

76

78

80

82

84

86

88

88

88

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88

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66

68

70

72

74

76

78

80

82

84

86

86

86

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86

86

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64

66

68

70

72

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78

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82

84

84

84

1806

3444

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84

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26488

297990

2741508

21475146

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3.164E+10

1.5245E+11 6.8601E+11 2.9024E+12 1.1609E+13 4.4116E+13 1.5992E+14 5.5502E+14 1.8501E+15 5.9397E+15 1.8413E+16 5.5239E+16 1.6069E+17 4.5414E+17

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3.951E+14

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4.0896E+15 1.2473E+16 3.6826E+16 1.0546E+17 2.9344E+17

62

64

66

68

70

72

74

76

78

80

82

82

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60

62

64

66

68

70

72

74

76

78

80

80

80

1640

3120

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80

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58

60

62

64

66

68

70

72

74

76

78

78

78

1560

2964

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78

78

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21320

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521865630 2725298290 1.3081E+10 5.8272E+10

56

58

60

62

64

66

68

70

72

74

76

76

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76

76

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54

56

58

60

62

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66

68

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72

74

74

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74

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52

54

56

58

60

62

64

66

68

70

72

72

72

1332

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72

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290017026 1417861016 6380374572 2.6682E+10

2.428E+11

1.27E+12

4.808E+12

1.7309E+13 5.9499E+13

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4.219E+13

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1.8799E+17

1.96E+14

6.2065E+14 1.8946E+15 5.5891E+15 1.5969E+16 4.4277E+16 1.1936E+17

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1.274E+15

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3.8586E+11 1.3505E+12 4.5017E+12 1.4349E+13 4.3891E+13 1.2924E+14

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1.0101E+15 2.6935E+15 6.9787E+15 1.7598E+16

50

52

54

56

58

60

62

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66

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70

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48

50

52

54

56

58

60

62

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46

48

50

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56

58

60

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44

46

48

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44

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40

42

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48

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38

40

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32

34

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40

42

44

46

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28

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24

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18

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22

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14

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AC

V

AC + 73’ 1”

U AB

AB

+ 44’ 2”

T AA

146 148 150

AA

S

+ 79’ 1”

Z

Z R

Using the linear language previously defined, the final

Y

Y

+ 44’ 4”

Q

design concerns the American side of the Ambassador

X

X

P

Bridge. Traveling South to North, three major nodes of

+ 83’ 10” W

W

program—immigration check point, Duty Free shop and O

V

V

gas station—reveal themselves through structural and

+ 45’ 2”

U

U

architectural densities. These major program nodes are the + 88’ 5”

N

pregnant sectors of the linear function that allow access to

T

T

M

and from Detroit. Likewise, lines of traffic are deformed by

S

S

+ 48’ 9”

these densities becoming a fluid homage to the

R

L

R

programs they pass.

+ 92’ 8” Q

Q K

Through perspective manipulation and simple fins, a

P

P

+ 53’ 5”

“welcome” sign and the feigned wall of an absolute

O

J

O

border are presented to those attempting to enter the

+ 96’ 4”

U.S. With movement, this wall—and welcome—fades and

N

N

I

+ 58’ 3”

becomes individual security carrels. After passing through

M

M

the security carrels, the traveler is able to look back and

+ 99’ 5”

gain a more complete understanding of the complexity of H

L

L

the U.S. border.

+ 63’ 6”

K

K

In this proposal, entrance to the U.S. is obscured, alluded G

+ 102’ 2”

to, then finally realized by traversing the construct—a

J

J

gradient architectural response to the definiteness of

+ 69’ 1”

our borders. Rejecting the current condition as outright

I

I

+ 104’ 9”

F

deceit, this proposal reveals the gradient in a zone that feigns absolutes. Rather than the current condition of

+ 75’ 4”

a perpendicular barrier, this design functions parallel

H

H

to the crosser’s direction of travel. Whereas crossing a E

+ 107’ 2”

perpendicular line allows for the exclusion of all but one G

point, traversing along a line reveals complexity, ambiguity G

+ 82’ 7”

and gradation. D

A

F

B

C

F

+ 91’ 1”

0’

100’

300’

500’

+ Rolling Floor Plan One Exiting to Canada E

E + 100’ 9”

D A

300’

B

D

C

A

500’

0’

100’

++ Rolling Floor Plan Two Entering the U.S.

B

300’

C

500’


+ 0’

+ 0’

BF

BF

+ 0’

+ 9’ 4”

BE

BE

+

+ BD

+ 2’ 7”

BD

+ 17’ 9”

BC

BC

+ 7’ 11”

+ 24’ 10”

BB

BB

BA

BA

AZ

AZ + 13’ 3”

+ 30’ 1” AY

AY

AX

AX

AW

AV + 18’ 6”

AV + 34’ 1”

AU AT

AU AT

AS

AS

AR AQ

AR AQ

AP

AP

AO AN

AO AN

AM + 23’ 10”

AM + 37’ 11”

AL

AK

AJ AI AH AG

AJ AI AH AG

AF

AF

+ 29’ 4”

+ 42’ 3”

AE

+ 37’ 4”

AL

AK

AE

AD

+ 44’ 1”

AC

AD

AC

AB

AB

+ 49’ 3”

+ 44’ 2” AA

AA

Z

Z

Y

Y

+ 62’

+ 44’ 4”

X

X

W

W

V + 73’ 1”

V + 45’ 2”

U

U

T

T

S + 79’ 1”

S + 48’ 9”

R

R

Q

Q

P + 83’ 10”

P + 53’ 5”

O

O

N

+ 88’ 5”

N

+ 58’ 3”

M

M

L

+ 92’ 8”

L

+ 63’ 6”

K

K

J + 96’ 4”

J + 69’ 1”

I

+ 99’ 5”

I

+ 75’ 4” H

H

+ 102’ 2”

G

+ 82’ 7”

G

+ 104’ 9”

F

+ 91’ 1”

F

E + 107’ 2”

E + 100’ 9”

D

D


+

Traversing along the line created by the border crossing reveals the complexity, ambiguity and gradation of the absolute divide that borders attempt to create.


Looking to Canada.

+ Lines are used to record site information through varying densities and deformations.


152 154 156

Brittany Guercio Studio Critic: Paola Zellner

Performer Spectator

By definition, the spectacle is a sight or show—something of an impressive kind. The spectacle of society is the power that uses imagery and false representation to influence an idea or product. We, as society fuel its existence as we become insatiable consumers. Through movement and sound, actors simulate society. Society “acts” and portrays its appearance in a particular way, in an attempt to survive the spectacle. If all acting is a simulation of society and society performs every day, why are the two architecturally separate? The existing typology of a theater that represents society is no longer accurate. Blurring the relationship between the performer and the spectator creates a space that allows the occupants to simultaneously observe and perform within the spectacle; to see and to be seen. Rather than defining a program, flexible and continuous spaces have been created combining large urban and human scale moves that invoke moments of spontaneity and allow for variety in performance and “spectatorial” experience.



152 154 156

cirque d u

so le

il s h

ow s

beg in

as a

creativ ally with elem ents of a central story line, a d e conc pt, usu esign concept an e

Possible relationships between the performer and the spectator were studied through a series of paintings representing the level of interaction they may have with one another.

d the se lection of

a comp ser for the music. o

Through time, the structure will be covered with plant growth as a way to camouflaging the building into the ground.

a ballet dancer must appear to defy gravity [while working within constraints]

a classical dance form demanding grace and precision and employing formalized steps and gestures set in intricate, flowing patterns to create expression through movement...

ballet

opera

ut s ch, b nting another world, whose inhabitants have no spee a play represe

ong


acts include contortionists, jugglers, feats of strength, clowning and trapeze artists. their costumes are very colorful.

+

for a moment, the dancer appears suspended in air... the fall must be performed carefully

ly through music and singi lly or predominat drama is conveyed who

ng

+ Site plan and respective floor plans

Mapping the movement of intentional performance studies occupied space unveils the strict separations between the performer and the audience. u no motions b

t gestures and no postures but a

ttitudes . al

l acting is

simulation.


Slipping the structure into the ground creates an entrance/ exit from the subway, while also providing a space of spectatorship. Cantilevering parts of the structure engage the city with the site through views. Within the structure itself flexible space can be molded by human activity. As in a score or a script, the occupants activate the structure as they become aware of their role in the spectacle. The concrete structure is layered and wrapped with a mesh ground cover on some areas that allows plant growth, blending in time with the existing grass landscape of the site. Wood slats run horizontally through spaces and alternate between wrapping the floors, walls and ceilings. Each skin slips past the other, allowing not only the material to blur, but the sight through the spaces as well. The proposed urban landscape weaves itself into the city questioning the distinction between public and social space, city and building, modeled by the desire of limiting without enclosing. When there is no longer a distinction between these relationships, camouflage is engaged.

The concrete structure is wrapped with horizontal wood slats that transition from floor to wall and in some cases fold to become seating. Similarly, the ground cover folds down creating another layer of transparency that one can observe as they look out.


157 155 153


158 160 162

Sean Billy Kizy Studio Critic: Keith Mitnick

Parallax Player

Parallax Player is played similar to both playing cards and tarot cards. Tarot cards arrange a series of characters that help someone begin to analyze their own concerns and interests, while playing cards incorporate strategy that builds on probability within a set number of categories. Parallax Player acts as an instrument to help develop design within a framework that constantly propositions the player to make decisions at predicted intervals. Directions Draw a hand of seven cards composed of one Value Card, one Profile Card, one Image Card, one Narrative Card and three Program Cards. Flip over the Value Card immediately. Pick both a PIN Card and Program Card to be played as a single combination. Issue remaining PIN and Program Cards to build combinations as required. Pure difference Conducting different projects of parallax with the overlapping of truth and deceit, exercises demonstrated parallax perceptions of truth and deceit both conceptually and formally. By studying truth and deceit through the human body a supposedly true and objective view of the body is juxtaposed against society’s false and narcissistic perception. Factual medical documents depicting the human body were manipulated to give a new perception of the body as a generated physical form different from the abstract metaphysical understanding of a person’s mind. Both perceptions of the body can be described as truthful or deceitful. Parallax player attempts to characterize a new understanding of the body by positioning both ideas together, forming an understanding of the body with the reasoning of pure difference. Pure difference is not the difference between one element from other elements, but the difference of the element from itself. By comparing the immediate narcissistic understanding of the body and the



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} } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } } }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5GQDD BNLONMDMSR L@JD TO @ RHMFKD TMHS "R RHLHK@Q BNLONMDMSR EQNL RDO@Q@SD TMHSR BNKKHCD SGDX BQD@SD @ UNHC 5GDHQ NOONRHMF NQHDMS@SHNM @KRN DRS@AKHRGDR @M NAKHPTD FDNLDSQX @S SGD UNHC 4DBSHNMR S@JDM @KNMF SGD HMSDQRDBSHNM DWONRD SGD CHUHRHNM @MC OQNFQDRRHNM EQNL SGD CDUDKNODC RO@BD

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

:NT G@UD MN MDDC SN RDD VG@S KHDR NEE SGD NSGDQ RHCD NE SGD V@KK ADB@TRD SG@S CNDR MNS DWHRS ENQ XNT NQ * :NT VHKK FDS VG@S * FHUD XNT

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

130'*-& " EHAQNTR L@SDQH@K RDO@Q@SDR @MC BNMMDBSR @S CHEEDQDMS KNB@SHNMR 5GD QHOOKDR OQDRR @F@HMRS NMD @MNSGDQ SN SGDM QHBNBGDS @V@X @MC HLOKX LNSHNM 8GDM @OOKHDC @R SGD RJHM NE @ RSQTBSTQD SGDX @QSHBTK@SD EHRRTQDR VGDQD KHFGS DRB@ODR @MC DMSDQR 5GDHQ RNKHC UNHC QDK@SHNMRGHO @KRN KDMCR ENQ RDLH OQHU@SD RO@BDR VHSGHM

5GD RSTEEDC AD@Q @MC SGD VNL@M RDDL SN AD KHUHMF HM CHEEDQDMS VNQKCR ADB@TRD SGDX CNM S LNUD 5GDHQ OQDRDMBD HR B@TFGS HM RSHKK EQ@LDR @R HE SGDX @QD RHLOKX EHFTQDR &WBDOS SGD HMRDBS HR BNMRS@MSKX LNUHMF @MC B@MMNS RSNO )HR HL@FD HR AKTQQDC QDK@SHUD SN SGD AD@Q "WHKK@QX @MC VNL@M #D@Q VNL@M HMRDBS CHRSHMFTHRG 3DFHNM %DDO SVN CHEEDQDMS O@SGR 5GD AD@Q @MC VNL@M -@XDQ BNMRS@MSKX BNMMDBSDC OGXRHB@KKX ADB@TRD SGD AD@Q HR HLLNAHKD @MC BG@HMDC SN SGD VNL@M 4GD K@XR TMBNMRBHNTR @MC TMCDQ RTQFDQX VGHKD SGD AD@Q QDL@HMR ENQBDETKKX KNX@K @MC AX GDQ RHCD )HR LHMC V@MCDQR @MC QDKHRGDR VHSG SGD HCD@ NE DRB@OD 5GD RDBNMC O@SG HR DRS@AKHRGDC AX SGD EKX SG@S LTRS @KV@XR QDL@HM HM LNSHNM *SR PT@QJX LNSHNM ENKKNVR SGD DXDR NE SGD AD@Q SG@S BNMSHMTD SN C@QS DQQ@SHB@KKX 5GD AD@Q R NMKX CDRHQD HR SN AQD@J EQNL SGD G@MCBTEE VDKCDC SN GHR @QL )D JMNVR SGDQD LTRS AD @ V@X SN QDKD@RD GHLRDKE

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

130'*-& 5VN NOONRHMF CHQDBSHNM@K OK@MDR RSQHJD NMD @MNSGDQ @S BNMSQ@RSHMF @MFKDR 5GDHQ HMSDQRDBSHNM KD@UDR @ KHMD@Q SD@Q VHSG @ ADMS RO@BD HM RHW CHQDBSHNMR "S D@BG ONHMS @KNMF NMD DCFD SGDQD HR @ BNQQDRONMCHMF ONHMS NM SGD NOONRHSD RHCD NE HMSDQRDBSHNM 5GD SVN ONHMSR U@QX HM CHRS@MBD @MC GDHFGS CTD SN SGDHQ RDO@Q@SD @MFKDR

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

130'*-& 5GD NMD RSQTBSTQD HR SGD NSGDQ RSQTBSTQD ATS L@X CHEEDQ HM NQHDMS@SHNM CHQDBSHNM L@SDQH@KHSX DSB 5GDHQ @KLNRS DW@BS HMUDQRD QDK@SHNMRGHO B@TRDR @M HMSDMRHEHDC @V@QDMDRR "R NMD ODQRNM UHDVR @MNSGDQ @BSHMF NTS SGDHQ R@LD DWODQHDMBD SGDX ADBNLD LNQD RDKE @V@QD " ENQDHFM QDEKDBSHNM HR LNQD QDUD@KHMF SG@M @ QDEKDBSHNM NE NMDRDKE

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


Previous spread 5 sets of 9 cards: 9 Values 9 Profiles 9 Images 9 Narratives 9 Programs

understanding of the body as a physical element, a new understanding develops of the body different from itself. The projects of parallax give new understanding to these anatomical documents. Architectural form is negotiated from them, resulting in generic diagrams of architectural moves. The medical documents take on a new understanding in narrative form as both an event and image and a truth. Embedded in the writing are parallax

1 hand of 7 cards: 1 Value 1 Profile 1 Image 1 Narrative 3 Programs

perspectives of the documents. Three cards developed that are the same element. The cards are each other and different from themselves—event, object and truth become the profile, image and narrative cards. Proposition Architecture is traditionally discussed in different canons that are latent in work. We tend to talk about architecture as ambient or natural, but architecture and design can be dissected to create an external context for discussion. Parallax Player attempts to withdraw from the presumed intentionality and implicit value-driven approaches of design and set up multiple ideologies as a game in itself. Cards imply organization, probability and sequence. Design is a personal process where your own thoughts and ideas are materialized. Parallax Player describes a physical organization for an assumed process of design. These assumptions provide a forum for architectural discourse and develop an exchange between setting up a process and allowing it to produce what is not calculated. With the Profile, Narrative and Image Cards, Parallax Player assumes a finite number of moves and descriptions of how one plays their hand. The value cards are critical in engaging the player to make decisions. By playing a value, the player begins to understand how a single move translates differently when looking through a specified lens. Program Cards provide the necessary medium.

Bibliography Johannes W. Rohen, Color Atlas of Anatomy: A Photographic Study of the Human Body, (Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2002). Slovaj Zizek, Parallax View, (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006). Matthew Ritchie, Proposition Player, New York: Distributed Art Publishers, 2003).

A supposedly true and objective view of the body is used to negotiate architectural form.


163 161 159


164 166 168

Michelle E. Miller Studio Critic: Keith Mitnick

Erasing the Multiplex

For the moviegoer, the theater erases context to facilitate raptness in the alternate reality projected on screen. Here, the mechanism of erasure acts in two directions: the black box of the theater erases all outside context; the outside context works to erase the movie theater. The project is not only to question an architecture that provides viewing spaces, but to re-imagine the multiplex—the massive, cheaply constructed conglomeration of theaters that is only at home between the Wal-Mart® and Burger King®, near an exit from the main highway and in the center of a sea of parking lot lines. Premise In order to challenge an architectural institution, the established order must be deconstructed. This demands a reevaluation of how we perceive architecture and more fundamentally, how our preconceived notions of the physical world manipulate our understanding of it. The movie screen—hiding in the dark with two dimensions and four defined edges—is honest about its deceit—that what it presents is fictitious. The physical objects that populate the built environment have no such edges. Is our reading of them any truer? Can an investigation of how the current episteme defines the physical object inform alternative ideas for designing conventional building typologies? Site The multiplex is an institution ingrained in the banal suburban construct. With an almost unbroken boundary between interior and exterior, the typical multiplex sits as an object placed upon the site. These typical conditions are erased, the site (located on Washtenaw Avenue outside the downtown campus center situated among strips



164 166 168

+

of shopping plazas) is developed in opposition to the hegemony of the “big box” and the basic elements of the suburban landscape—grass and pavement define the building itself. Diagram The diagram of the ha-ha facilitates a staged experience of the site. Viewed from the street, the multiplex makes no strong formal statement. Instead, it appears as a sloping, grass covered ground plane punctuated by large screens and voids. The parking lots, a lower level for standard parking and an upper level that serves the drive-in theater, hide behind the crest of the slope. Only upon entering the site is the building experienced as such. Views from the covered parking into the social spaces and from within the lobby spaces to outside courtyards disrupt the standard relationship between interior and exterior. In creating an alternative to the big box structure, the building becomes part of the suburban landscape of sod and asphalt. Taking advantage of the slight downward slope of the site, the roof begins at the level of the sidewalk and slopes gradually upwards. The “roof” is accessible from the street and becomes a public space for viewing films or other social activities.

+ ha-ha n. (hähä) –a type of boundary to a garden or park, designed not to interrupt the view and to be invisible until closely approached.

Erasing the black box allows the spectator to become the spectacle.


wash tenaw ave

rooftop theater

drive-in parking

ts

wash

ke

tic

tenaw

ave

Level 3

viewing

h

e pat

loye

emp

-in drive ng parki

tenaw

ts

ke

tic

drop-off covered parking cafe

wash

Basic suburban elements of grass and pavement are used to erase the typical conditions, creating an alternative to the big box.

ave

Level 2

snacks

ets

k tic

Level 1


Organization The idea of erasure also guides the treatment of program and internal organization. The expansion of the program arises from erasing the “black box” of the theater. A theater without walls becomes an open viewing area—here, a rooftop pavilion. A theater without walls and lacking the experience of sitting near strangers is interpreted as a drive-in movie theater. Viewing on the upper level of the lobby allows patrons within the multiplex to view the drive-in theater’s screen. When the projected image is not present, the social interactions of the café’s patrons become the spectacle. Additionally, the distinct separation between public and support spaces is blurred. The support spaces leading to projection rooms, normally running unperceived above the public circulation, are now exposed to occupants of the main lobby.


Support spaces that usually run unperceived are exposed revealing workers moving in between theaters. Similarly, the café patrons are exposed in between movies, making the occupant of the multiplex the spectacle.


170 172 174

Rachel Villalta Studio Critic: Anca Trandafirescu

ReaLINEing the Border

The line is a fundamental component of any complex construction. A straight line is the shortest distance between two points of travel. A single line is the essence of a boundary, a separator and mediator between two worlds. A border crossing in Detroit, MI seeks to unravel a simple line, the passage between Canada and the United States, in order to reflect the complexities and complications that arise when one crosses from one world into the next. The Detroit River is just one of the territorial lines that separate the two countries that define North America. As it stands presently, the subterranean border crossing between Windsor, Ontario into Detroit, MI does not reflect a strong association with either city. One’s first sight of Detroit upon exiting the current crossing is dictated by the imposing Renaissance Center Towers. This initial orienting view does little to impress the entrant with the rich history of the city. This problem of initial orientation is remedied by actually pulling the new border entrance in line with Woodward Avenue, the main artery of the city.



170 172 174

Woodward Avenue is the centerpiece of the Radial Plan constructed by Detroit’s Augustus Woodward in the early 19th century and currently runs from the suburbs of Detroit into the heart of the city. Like a piece of thread, Woodward has many strands and layers, that when pulled apart, would better serve the experience of unraveling that occurs at the border crossing. The new proposed crossing, relocated to the upper west side of Hart plaza, continues the linearity started from Woodward Avenue and carries the passenger through one unraveling subterranean path. The main building is nestled into an urban ha-ha: a crossing which in the larger

crossing of hart plaza allows for the landscape to understanding

remain unchanged in perspective, while cars pass through the tunnel just out of immediate sight. Pedestrians may cross the slightly triangulated roof of the tunnel and still utilize Hart Plaza as a civic and public space, while encountering the contrast of fast paced vehicles racing under their feet on the series of unraveling roads. The roads are expressed as a series of elevated highways

construction

under a controlled body of water. The water is carried into the urban ha-ha from the River as a means of completing the connection between the underwater passage and the land above; a transition which the existing site tends to neglect. The elevated roads also allow for multiple views into the city of Detroit. Before the passenger was focused on one grandiose piece of architecture, now the passenger can experience multiple views of the city skyline while traversing the elevated roadways.

connection

Highways, bridges, tunnels and roads create transportation and event conditions that make up the unraveled strands that form the border crossing.

highway bridge


Elevated roads unravel the singular view created by the existing border crossing into multiple views of the city.


574’ above sea level

571’ above sea level 584’ above sea level 570’ above sea level

572’ above sea level

575’ abov

5 580’ above sea level

573’ above sea level

560’ above sea level

4

Roof/grade

1 5

4

4 4

3 2 2

2 3

4

Level 1

Section


A series of checkpoints throughout the building allow for the traffic to keep at a steady pace; while also creating multiple levels of security.

2

565’ above sea level

573’ above sea level

573’ above sea level

ve sea level

579’ above sea level

585’ above sea level

565’ above sea level

3

1

Level 0

175 173 171


176 178 180 182

Zain W. AbuSeir Studio Critic: Kathy Velikov

Coded Space

Grids are often used in architecture to organize and map out spaces. However, the potential of design is sometimes limited by the repetitive nature of the grid. Exploring the use of grids and sequences in architecture—ones that are not made up of equally spaced lines, but still have a mathematical rhythm—can affect program and form to a great degree. By removing the repetitive grid, architecture can harmonize with site conditions and go beyond expected layouts. The Veil A rigid sequence of nails becomes the beginning and departure of the vertical elements (threads) in the “veil” construct. The Veil is a strung object—a start to the exploration of the use of sequences. However rigid the nail sequence is, the density and patterns of the layers of the vertical elements still vary randomly. In the “veil” construct, a fixed equally spaced sequence is used as a first layer in order to ensure the balance of filtration amount of light and view information. Patterns and colors of thread are then overlaid changing the quality of the veil. They play with depth perception, colors and the qualities of light. As a result, a closer look was taken at the use of sequences in design. “We move towards finding the magic of numbers and that special point, which though full of movement itself, remains unmoving and stationary; just as a fixed point in the wind.”1 Research from Cecil Balmond’s book on magical numerical sequences,

Number 9 influenced this work. Cecil Balmond is a structural engineer, who studied the history and mysteries of the magical Number 9. Number 9 has religious associations and, it appears in sequences, and mathematical applications resulting in the appearance and vanishing of code and symmetry. Balmond believes the Number 9 controls the fate of the other numbers.


HO

H2O

H2O

H2O

H2O H2O H2O

H2O

HO

H2O

H2O H2O H2O H2O

HO

O

HO

H2O

H2O

H2O

H2O

H2O

H2O

HO

HO HO H2O

2


176 178 180 182

The Mask The Mask is a cube where information is both filtered and encoded in the sequence of strings. The balance in the cube is of the encoded information and connection of the string sequences on the cube sides. The sequences used are the sigma sequences, where the multiples of a number are simplified to the secret code, the sigma value, which is always a one digit number between one and nine. Here, the nails are arranged using the sigma sequences and numerical values of the Arabic alphabets are used to spell out the Arabic words. The numeric value of each letter is simplified to its sigma value, and then translated into a series of lines. The words on each of the sides form a phrase. One letter from each word is taken to form the

Numerical values of arabic alphabets

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

‫ﻕ‬ ‫ﺭ‬ ‫ﺵ‬ ‫ﺕ‬ ‫ﺙ‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫ﺫ‬ ‫ﺽ‬ ‫ﻅ‬ ‫ﻍ‬ ‫ﻱ‬ ‫ﻙ‬ ‫ﻝ‬ ‫ﻡ‬ ‫ﻥ‬ ‫ﺱ‬ ‫ﻉ‬ ‫ﻑ‬ ‫ﺹ‬ ‫ﺍ‬ ‫ﺏ‬ ‫ﺝ‬ ‫ﺩ‬ ‫ﻩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺯ‬ ‫ﺡ‬ ‫ﻁ‬

second word in the phrase, so the sides of the cube are

connected by the meaning of words as well as numerically. Library pavilions The Number 9 and the sigma sequences are used as a method of design, mapping and form generation. Layers of effect are no longer random, but actually have hidden meaning which can be easily decoded. Sigma sequences from the Number 9 are used as a reference, setting up varied conditions throughout the site. The site is green space caught in the middle of Huron River and a small lake in Huron Park, MI. The site receives a lot of light, and is surrounded by beautiful trees. The sequences are not taken as is, but are edited in order to respond to program and site conditions. The previously fixed sigma sequences become responsive and specific to the program and the site. Here, lines from the sequences are filtered. The three library pavilions are peeled off of the landscape, their walkable roofs acting as a continuation of the park.

Numerical values of the Arabic alphabets. The Veil

Multiplication Table

1 2 3 4

x1 1 2 3 4

x2 2 4 6 8

x3 3 6 9 12

x4 4 8 12 16

x5 5 10 25 20

x6 6 12 18 24

x7 7 14 21 28

x8 8 16 24 32

x9 9 18 27 36


Multiplication Table

Numerical values of arabic alphabets

x1 1 1 100 2 2 200 3 3 300 4 4 5 5 400 6 5006 7 7 600 8 8 700 9 9

x2 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

800 9001 1 2 2 1000

x3 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27

x4 4 10 8 20 12 30 16 20 40 24 50 28 60 32 70 36

x5 5 10 25 20 25 30 35 40 45

x6 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54

80 490 5

x7 7 14 21 28 35 43 49 56 72

x8 8 1 16 2 24 3 32 40 4 48 5 56 6 64 7 72

8 89

Sigma code values of the multiplication table

2 4 6 8 1 3 5 7 9

3 4 5 6 7 8 9

3 4 5 6 7 8 9

3 6 9 3 6 9 3 6 9

8 3 7 2 6 1 5 9

6 3 9 6 3 9 6 3 9

1 6 2 7 3 8 4 9

7 5 3 1 8 6 4 2 9

The multiples of a number are simplified to the secret code—the sigma value, which is always a one digit number between one and nine.

x9 9 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81

“The sigma value of a number is the ultimate essence of a number. It is the hidden mark which lurks within the greater construction; in this sense it is a primary code, a blueprint.”2 —Cecil Balmond

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 9

sigma sequence of the multiples of the number 3

what

‫ﻉ ﻝ ﺍ‬ 1 30 70 13 7

are you

looking for

1 700 1 40 1 7 14

500 8 2 400 5 4 2 4

‫ﻡ ﺍ ﺫ ﺍ‬

‫ﺙ‬

1 7 12

3

7

1

3

7

9

8

6

1

6

9

6

1 8

6 9

6 6

2

3

1

6

4 3

9

4

3

2 5

6

7

6 7

9 97

1

8 3 5

2

9 6

3 9

9 1

4

8

9

3 4

6

seq

6

7

seq

7

4

seq

8

seq

9

2

3

3

6 8 6

2 9

5 76 8

9 9

6

3

9 3 1

4 5

1

5

2

2

2

5

2

2

2

5

2

2

2

5

2

2

2

5

2

2

2

5

2

2

2

1 2

4

3

1 5 6 4

5 6

6

3

2

seq

5

9 8

seq

seq

6

5

1

seq

8

5

seq

5

9

7 7

6

6

4

52

3

7

3

9

8

2

4

5

3

3

1

3

1

8

2

6 8

1

2

8 6

3

6

1 4

7 3

3

2

2

4

6

8 1 9

1

7

3

7

7

9 5

3

9

1

9

7

76 85

2

7

6

6

5

3 1

4

1

9 1

5

3

9

3

9

9

6

9

1 8

5 6 47

5

1

2

9

8

9

7

2

3

8

4

1

6

6

9

44

9

3

3

2

9

5

7

6

4

1

7

9

3

9 2

2

5 2 2 2

7

8

6 9

1

3

2

6

4

2

8

6

1

5

9

1

3

9

9

1

6

5

3

9

5

1

7

7 9

1

‫ﺕﺏ‬

7 8 9

mixing sequences and therefore starting/end points of lines


176 178 180 182 shelving cabinets in open access (7.2m) standard library grid.

Sigma edited sequences used to layout out subjects of books and digital media.

The pavilion locations are mapped out based on the densities of the edited sequence lines creating a direct visual connection to the outside. Path and sitting areas of the site blend in with the groundscape. Each library pavilion is long and low, creating a slow procession from ground level to the top of the library. The separation between inside and outside becomes less apparent allowing the library users to interact with the site.

6

2 health

history

The sequences are also used to rethink the elements in a library are arranged. In most libraries, books are arranged in plan according to subjects. The furniture, reading spaces, books and the digital media are arranged using the sigma sequences instead of a fixed grid. This causes the books and other media of the same subject to reside in a larger area. The sequences are overlaid on top of each other, allowing the elements to interweave. As a result, each shelving cabinet has four shelves on each side of

sigma sequence grid

different subjects. Users come to the library with a specific 5

3 arts and literature

interest, but leave with an increased awareness of other subjects because they are simultaneously exposed

college

to different topics, and not just the topic they originally had in mind. Site contour lines are reflected and multiplied editing each other and becoming another tool of editing the library elements. For example, a line of the lake is reflected, falling inside the pavilion, as a result deleting book shelves and creating a small reading area enhancing reader’s experience of the library.

7

4 genealogy

biography

sigma sequence grid broken by site sequences and contour lines

arts and literature cd player

cd cd college

business

8

7

Shelving cabinet A, side 1.

legal

science

science

dvd

history

legal

1

4 business

Shelving cabinet A, side 2.

dvd cd

biography

dvd player


Sigma sequences of the numbers one through nine are assigned to site characteristics. The line is deleted if the assigned characteristic of the sequence does not fall or apply to it (as a physical line and line of sight). After the elimination process, new sequences result. 4

8

3

7

2

6

1

5

9

4

8

3

7

2

6

1

5

9

4

sigma sequence of multiplication table of the number 4

tree-tree element exists

sequence resulting from drawing lines from sequence where element on site existed

some of the areas that do not fall under sequence, so no lines drawn from sequence tree-tree element exists

no lines drawn from sequence

5

1

6

1 1

2

3

4

8

2

1

1

1


The three library pavilions “deceive” visitors in a literal, experiential and physical sense through the use of veils. The veils inside the pavilions are similar to the initial veil construct. They are made of thick metal rods of varying alloys. They filter information by altering one’s depth perception and their view of the image behind the veil. They divide the space by creating privacy without blocking out the light and view completely. The deception is a quality of a coded space which alters and enhances the experience and organization of the space.

Three pavilions peel off the landscape, minimally disrupting the nature of the park.

Notes 1. Cecil Balmond, Number 9, (Munich and New York: Prestel, 1998), p. 23. 2. Ibid., p. 66.


The walkable roof is a continuation of the greenscape of the park. Each library pavilion is long low, allowing a slow procession from the ground level to the roof. The roof folds in slightly forming protective edges and surrounds the users with greenery.

183 181 179 177


184 186 188 190

Jason Minor Studio Critic: Paola Zellner

The Games We Play

The new baseball stadium for the Florida Marlins sits half a mile off the coast of Miami Beach. The new stadium is highly aware of its environmental impact. It recycles by converting damaged oil rigs into the venue’s structure and takes full advantage of abundant renewable energy sources, while maintaining Miami’s taste for fashion, motion and fantasy. The stadium provides a unique experience for fans; in many cases a free one. Successful venues allow the non-paying fan a glimpse of the game. This venue allows multiple opportunities for free glimpses of the game—should the fan wish to boat, raft, jetski or swim to a position behind the outfield. However, paying customers will not be disappointed. Tickets are re-imagined, no longer a piece of paper, they are reusable, wearable seats that double as flotation devices and attach to the seating platforms that cantilever over the Atlantic. Customers paying for luxury accommodations can view the game in ultimate comfort, style and mobility by booking a luxury box or ticket on a synergized cruise line. Fueled entirely by solar, wind, tidal and surface-wave power, the stadium recognizes and measures larger climate changes. The fact is not ignored that catastrophe is just around the corner. Right-field slopes into the ocean and the boundary is demarcated not by an outfield wall, but by where water meets field. This line may fluctuate through the venues lifetime, providing a visual measure of water levels. Assuming that water levels will rise significantly in the future, and Miami is threatened by flooding, baseball becomes all the more spectacular as home runs are easier to hit and water becomes an increasing obstacle for outfielders.



184 186 188 190

TV, fade in On Air—news anchors Red, Blue and Green. A new reality program is debuting later that evening and is billed as being environmentally conscious. Red claims it will raise mass awareness of climate change and fuel participation in recovery. Blue claims the issue is irrelevant. Green gets twenty seconds.

Camouflage a piratical tactic favoring masquerades in order to leverage change and resist spectacle Spectacle when tokenism is adequate, profitable and inevitable

Green “The planet will be drastically affected by the recent progress of the human project. But can this project change course? I think such a question is too sensational to be

Tokenism when complex issues are condensed into a script

seriously considered. I don’t believe survival will be of mass

Spectacle map infotained-consumeractivsts

Rather, we need to think about …”

interest until we discover that we are truly living Survivor©.

Pan over Blue glares into the camera and interrupts with a retort. The camera pans and tracks across the set, finding an open door, it hurriedly tracks down a hallway and enters …

Sports Illustrated board room Writers and editors argue over the cover for an upcoming weekly issue. The issue focuses on professional sporting venues and the threat of global warming … Editor “This photoshopped cover is supposed to be unapologetically obvious! It reinforces the fact that the spectacle of sports is an escapist venture and that the idea of an environmental catastrophe invading our climate controlled, fantasy world is absolutely surreal.” Formatting on screen is a close approximation.

3600 ‘

south beach


Previous spread Wrigley Neighborhood social map, illustrating Wrigley Field and its non-paying customers.

Inspiration for this project was taken from the “March 12, 2007” Sports Illustrated© issue cover image by Jeffrey A. Salter, (106.11, 2007).

In honor of our Sports & Global Warming special issue, we commisioned the design of a professional sports venue for the city of Miami. The resulting proposal for the Florida Marlins of Major League Baseball is sited half a mile off the coast of Miami Beach. It recycles - converting damaged oil rigs into the venue’s structure. It also takes advantage of abundant renewable energy sources. But most impor importantly for us, it does not lose Miami’s taste for fashion, motion and fantasy. The stadium provides a unique experience for fans, and in many cases it’s free. “Successful venues allow the non-paying fan a glimpse of the game and this venue would allow many such experiences should the fan wish to boat, jetski, or swim to a position behind the outfield.” But paying customers will not be disapointed. Tickets are reimagined. No longer a piece of paper, but a re-usable wearable seat that doubles as a floatation device and will attach to platforms that cantilever over the Atlantic. Or for the luxury accommodations, view the game from the stadium’s inclusion of Miami’s “image of permanence” by booking a ticket on our synergized cruise lines!

Siting a stadium off the coast provides a variety of alternative energy sources (sun, water, wind). The siting would be the first of its kind, a spectacular escape that interacts with popular Miami representation of beach+ocean. It provides opportunities for addressing Miami’s motion - most notably the cruise ships, shoreline resorts, and immigrant arrival - while the surface conditions allow varieties of public experience.


184 186 188 190 Cruising spectators view the game from the ship.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Tidal wave power turbines Electrical storage / mechanical systems control Jetski / small boat / raft marina Restroom / scoreboard control booth Godzillatron Foul pole / vertical lift Marlins dugout Away dugout Cruise ship dock Concessions concourse Tram connection to Miami Restaurants & retail / post-game fan collectors Coaching offices Owner / corporate lounges Luxury suites


13

15 14

4

Management Level (+8 fathoms) 4

9

11 10

4

15

Pier Level (+5 Fathoms) 4

9

8

7

6

4 5 3

2

2

1

2

Submarine Level (–8 Fathoms)


Atlantic Ocean lat 25° 47’ N, long 80° 17’ W The floating playing surface, tied down to a water temperature monitor, has been tripped and released; allowing the field to relocate. Field motors away Fade out. End scene. Anticipated level where team and city fold

Measure of progress / indicator of denial Original water level

N

Helipad

Owner’s box Pier playing surface Water surface

Water temperature monitor/release mechanism

Tidal power generator


With stadium view accommodations, ocean view is no longer the top priority.

Spectators swim, paddle and motor to catch the game on the Godzillatron.

Its limit has been met and the field motors off.

191 189 187 185


Postscript Lasting Impressions

Christian Unverzagt

“Derive happiness in oneself from a good day’s work, from illuminating the fog that surrounds us.” —Henri Matisse Sitting down to write the closing remarks for Dimensions, I asked myself how a few hundred words could possibly do justice to the immeasurable effort put forth by the six editors and designers that worked to produce this journal. The fact is they can’t. After twenty years it may be taken for granted that the journal just happens; but this is anything but the case. As each new year dawns, I never know if any students are going to appear having perhaps witnessed the never ending frenzy in the tiny third floor “green space.” And if they do show up, there’s the potential issue of their group interests and abilities. Nonetheless, a handful of energetic and talented students always emerge, and bring with them the desire and resolve to figure out this thing called Dimensions, fill in their gaps and get it done. The process of design then produces a vicious cycle: the more time the staff invests, the more they realize they need to do—or want to do—in order to make the journal as good as it can be. All on top of schedule conflicts, technical glitches, overflowing in-boxes, a full load of course work and the glaring eyes of the many instructors that also want to know when it will all be over. As they find their voice they inevitably question their role as editors and what makes Dimensions what it is. In order to find the threshold between contributor and editor or the individual submissions and a cohesive collection of works they must test the limits­—to reach the point where a contributor pushes back. It is never pretty and always appears at the last possible moment: calls of overstepping the line bringing out a frustrated sigh or an exasperated throwing up of arms—before digging back in and renegotiating the line’s position. As an undergraduate, I was also involved in Dimensions: first as an all around assistant on vol. 7, and then as one of the managing editors for vol. 8. The process completely consumed me. It was demanding and intense—at times overwhelming. Some of my other work suffered, as did relationships with friends who were working on the journal alongside me. In fact, the shakeout strained the relationship between myself and a good friend so much that by the end we were no longer speaking to one another. Other issues were ultimately at the root of our silence, but Dimensions was the immense hurdle that prevented us from properly addressing it (just as it prevented me from properly addressing my Structures homework). We worked through it later that summer and fifteen years on, she is one of my few friends from that time, and a dear friend. Editing Dimensions is a thankless task and perhaps even a cruel one. Year after year, they emerge again at the end: tired and strained; a little less energetic but all the more talented. Dimensions 21: Thank you for entering the fog and spending some time there so that you could illuminate it for us all. Thank you Caitlin Thank you Luis Thank you Stephen Thank you Kamana Thank you Jason Thank you Zain Christian Unverzagt is the principal of M1/dtw, an award winning multidisciplinary studio based in Detroit. He has been the Dimensions’ faculty advisor since volume 17.


Borderlands students: Australia Nicholas Agius Jacqui Alexander Charlotte Algie Andre Bonnice Grace Hung Anna Jankovic Matthew McDonnell Steve McKay Melissa Thong Suby Ziao

AbdurRahman AbdulBasir Joshua D. Bard Beth Berenter Laura Brown Tom J. Buresh Janice Harvey Douglas S. Kelbaugh Perry Kulper Megan Lee Keith Mitnick Bill Manspeaker Jason Minor Eric Olsen Sandra M. Patton Nicholas Quiring Philippe Rizzotti Anne Schoen Despina Stratigakos Brian M. Taddinio Beverly Turner 184 Jeanette Turner Christian Unverzagt Kathy Velikov Victoria White Gretchen Wilkins

Melbourne, Australia Paul Minifie, RMIT University, Minifie Nixon Architects Jan van Schaik, RMIT University, Minifie Nixon Architects Montpellier, France Jacques Brion, École Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture de Montpellier (ENSAM), NB Architects Elodie Nourrigat, École Nationale Supérieure d’Architecture de Montpellier (ENSAM), NB Architects

France Mélanie Brunel Cédric Druetta Sabrina El Ferchichi Valerie Hoareau Jérôme Koswoski Coralie Labbe060 Thibault Machu Julien Moillet 158 Clément Pascal Clément Rabourdin Stéphane Robiquet

Noah Steffes Sean Billy Kizy

Acknowledgments

Borderlands faculty:

Sendai, Japan Tohru Horiguchi, Tohoku University Masashige Motoe, Tohoku University Senhiko Nanada, Miyagi University Yasuaki Onoda, Tohoku University Osamu Tsukihashi, Tohoku Institute of Technology Barcelona, Spain Ignasi Pérez Arnal, Director, Sustainability and Architecture Architecture Fellows Department, EsArq_UIC, Universtitat Internacional de Catalunya Silvestre Castellani, ese studio Fellows spend one academic year at the University of Josep Cargol, Architectural Design Studios, EsArq_UIC, UniverMichigan. Appointed as lecturers in architecture, they are sitat Internacional de Catalunya given teaching responsibilities and time to devote to other creative activities, scholarship, and design work. Fellows Ann Arbor, U.S. (host) present the result of their activities to the College at the end Gretchen Wilkins, Taubman College of Architecture + Urban of their tenure. Planning at the University of Michigan 170 164 Invited guests:

Zain W. AbuSeir 176 Jason Minor

Japan Atsushi Abe Tomofumi Abe Ulrika Blom Shingo Eno Pernilla Matilde Hagbert Introductory Lecture: November 26, 2007 070 Kazuya Hamanura Jason Young, Associate Professor of Architecture, UniversityRaoul of Wallenberg Studio Roma Ishinabe Michigan and co-editor, Stalking Detroit) Takeshi Kawakami Jerry Herron (Professor of English, Director of the American Raoul Wallenberg, a 1935 graduate of the University of Michigan Akihiro Kawamura Studies Program, Wayne State University and Author, After College of Architecture and Design, has been called one of the Eric Olsen Saki Koida Culture: Detroit and the Humiliation of History) The William A. Muschenheim Design 20th century’s most outstanding heroes. In 1944, as First Secretary Hiroaki KoikeJin Dan Pitera (Associate Professor of Architecture. University ofof the Swedish delegation in Budapest, he is credited with saving Fellowship offers design instructors early in Byoung Detroit, Mercy their career theMoon opportunity to develop a and Director: Detroit Collaborative more than 100,000 jews from death at the hands of the Nazis. In Design Center) body Nozomu of work inOnodera the context of, or in relation his memory and in honor of his courageous actions, the Raoul 2007 Visiting Wallenberg Lecturers Helena Peterson Dueweke, TCAUP Outreach Coordinator, to Maja teaching. Design fellows playEric a significant Endowment was established by the Benard Maas Todome Lecturerwhile in Urban Planning, University of Michigan role inTomoaki the definition of studio culture Foundation. pursuing their own creative endeavors to Winter Fall Spain Final be presented and exhibited in thesymposium: school At the college, Wallenberg’s legacy lives through our aspirations Parga gallery Rafaél at the end of the year. Proposals Lee Bey for architecture as a humane social art. Each year the architecture C. J. Lim Guille Santomà 8, 2007 for the Design Fellowship mayDecember focus either Marshall Purnell program exhibits and juries the best work from the final Neil Spiller Museum of Contemporary Art, Detroit: upon the development of a specific project Emily Talen William McKibben undergraduate design studio. Awards, funded by the Raoul U.S. students Andreas Berlin, Germany Dimensions is grateful either individually or with outsideRuby, of Textbild, to Endowment all of its supporters It isfor especially thankful Michael Kelly Wallenberg are offeredpast in theand formpresent. of a stipend Marjora Carter Charles Alwakeel Michaelset Speaks, writer consultant, Losfor Angeles teaching, or center upon a particular of Allisonand Williams is expected students wouldThis return withwas established the supportinternational of the The travel. VictorItGondos, Jr.that Archives Fund. fund Joe Valerio Hitoshiin Abe, Los Angeles, Emilythemes Corbett pedagogical to be engaged the UCLA,Phillip Enquist CA as a broadened of the world and Gondos an appreciation Teddy Cruz a memorial to Dr. Gondos understanding (’25) by his widow, Dorothy Beers.and Dr. Gondos, was Kristen Dotson studio context. Joshua Clover feeling for the people they encountered. Robert Yaro a distinguished archivist and historian who served 23 years with the National Archives Ben Foster Architecture + Deceit by Keith Mitnick Ira Katznelson Steven Moore SeanDeceit Goodemote Despina inranging Washington, D.C. Mrs. Gondos Beers’ intention was that the fund be used to assist has long been Stratigakos associated with architecture in many forms, Ray Manning Yolande Daniels Emmett Harrison The Walter B. Sanders Research Fellowship from perceptual musings upon the optical mechanics ofarchitecture sight, Dan Solomon students in exercising and improving their writing skills, and the fund has been and distance, Sunil Bald Denise supports individuals with contradictions significant, scaleHuang (and apparent between the relationshipRobert ways Franz John Somol used of forthe many years to support the publication of this journal. When she died, Mrs. Gondos Julie Kim compellingthings and timely research appear visuallyagendas to the way we know to be intellectually), to Markthem Wigley Beers left a substantial bequest for the Victor Gondos, Jr. Archives Fund which generously Megan McBride dealing with architectural Research more politically issues. charged mis-directions and representations of dominant Lawrence Scarpa Scottie McDaniel agendas could be based in such fields funds writing projects like Dimensions. political ideology (in the guise of “truth”). deceit can be 078 Phillipe RizzottiSometimes and Mercadothat asJuan architectural, urban, or value-free, is, itlandscape befuddles ones expectations as a source of pleasure François Wunschel (EXYZT) Obiamaka Ofodile cultural history or than theory; architectural or rather manipulating appearance towards explicit interests. Other Amanda Olczak ordeceits environmental designare studies. timestechnology; architectural concocted to uphold a biased view of things, Heon Juand Seovalues These agendas could that emerge froma particular outlook without appearing to people enforce recently-completed dissertations do so. doctoral In all cases, buildings are predicated upon a provisional set of or any other truth-based intense and beliefs, rigorousorresearch assumptions, that it serves to reify and validate. format. The fellowship will support both the continuation of research and the development 2007 Thesis Awards From ideas about the “nature of materials” to claims about the of“directness” research-related curriculum. of sensory experience, innovative architectural practices stand to revamp, reveal and prescribe new natures for materials and the Erin Putalik Kathy Velikov through which significance is projected changing cultural sensibilities Michael EzbanProject Fellowship The William A. Oberdick upon the sensory, spatial, and political realm. In different ways, each of the Quiring facilitates Nicholas the development and realization Wallenberg Studios took on the notion of deceit as it pertained to ideas, of a significant exploration intoprocesses, some aspect design new terms and propositions for architecture of architectural speculation and production. in our ever-changing world. Fellows areFaculty provided with resources for the execution of a project that may take the form of an exhibit, publication, installation Perry Kulper thank you cu. or any other material construction. Projects Karen M’Closkey may range from the exploration of emergent [wink] Neal Robinsonand environmental building, fabrication technologies Mireille to the realization Roddier of architectural —D21 Editors works and endeavors typically unsupported Keith VanDerSys within conventional models of practice. Gretchen Wilkins Jason Young

Michelle E.Miller

Rachel Villalta

Michael Ezban

Nicholas Quiring

005 087

089 091

093 117

119 137

191 139



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