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Compliments of

Natural Beauty Get a winning smile. page 41

Smart Supplements Do you need digestive enzymes? page 44

October 2018

nutrients v. breast


Celebrating Twenty Years

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Sustainable Seafood

Tips for choosing wisely, plus recipes!


Work to Protect Breast Health

Prevention is the best medicine when it comes to breast cancer.


The FODMAP Roadmap What to eat, what to avoid.


departments 6 Editor’s Note 10 News Bites

Omega 3s may prevent depression • Habits that promote longevity • Essential oils may reduce risk of infection • More

15 Weighing In

The evolution of the protein bar.

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27 Gluten Free Focus

Celebrate Halloween with Fair Trade treats.

30 Healing Herbs

Bitters aid digestion, soothe heartburn, and more.


32 Food for Thought 35 Hot Products 41 Natural Beauty

Keep teeth in top shape, naturally.

44 Smart Supplements

Feel young again with digestive enzymes.

48 Last Word Cover: Turmeric

For more health & wellness resources visit



Products advertised or mentioned in this magazine may not be available in all locations.

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@TasteforLife www.tas teforl i fe.com

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TFL Ed Note Head Celebrating Twenty Years

TFL Ed Note Letter Para 1 style. The tomatoes on this month’s cover remind me of the simple pleasures of the season. There’s Fall forbetter Newthan Rituals nothing a sandwich made with That beautiful image onsprinkled the coverwith is salt sun-ripened tomatoes, turmeric. We’ve on curcumin—a and pepper, andreported spread with a little mayo! compound of turmeric—a lot because of the All subsequent paragraphs indent with research its health-promoting style TFLuncovering Ed Note Letter Paragraph. My properties, range from reducing mother andwhich maternal grandmother used inflammation to exhibiting anti-tumor to spend summer afternoons sitting for activities against certain including hours, sipping their iced cancers, teas while my three breast cancer. You can read more aboutI siblings and I tore up the yard, playing. breast-protective page used to think hownutrients boring iton must be23. for Fall is many people’s favorite season. Not only does the them. weather make refreshing shift, it’s aatime traditions For them, of acourse, maybe it was littlefilled slice with of heaven. and rituals, some of which revolve around food. This month’s I thought of their iced tea ritual this weekend as I sat on issue delves below of some my back deck withthe my surface own drink. I wasobservances, literally doingshowing how taking a more mindful approach benefit the planet nothing. After about 20 minutes. I feltcan maybe I should be and its people. “accomplishing something.” But then a large gray fox walked Forthe example, Octoberto is National Seafood Month. We’ve got into yard, oblivious me. some delicious recipes for you that feature sustainable seafood Our lives often become crowded with responsibilities, but (page 18). As demand for the most popular types of seafood sometimes the most restorative, refreshing moments happen goes unabated, one of the unfortunate results is the depletion when our schedules (and we) have the time and space to of certain fisheries. By expanding the range of seafood you breathe. eat, you are joining a nationwide community whose purchasing At your leisure, get inspired by our seafood recipes (page power can influence the food supply in a positive way. 33) and learn how seaweed benefits health (page 39). Stay The same holds true when you buy Fair Trade chocolate safe this summer with healthy hydration (page 21), check out for Halloween treats. Most people would be horrified if they award-winning new foods on the market (page 44), learn how knew that slave labor is being used to cultivate this ingredient to strengthen bones (page 17), and enter a contest to win that Americans demand so much of. Read more about this nutrients for eye health (page 26). issue on page 27. Making the decision to buy Fair Trade sends May the summer bless you with many moments of peaceful a message to the stores in which you shop as well as food pleasures. And encounters with wildlife that weigh less than manufacturers. you. Making a few thoughtful shifts this fall can only add more meaning and richness to an already wonderful season. To your health, To your health,

Chief Content Officer and Strategist Lynn Tryba (Lynn.Tryba@TasteforLife.com) Contributing Editors Lisa Fabian, Rich Wallace Assistant Editor Kelli Ann Wilson Art Director Michelle Knapp Custom Graphics Manager Donna Sweeney Business Development Director Amy Pierce Customer Service: 800-677-8847 CustomerService@TasteforLife.com Client Services Director - Retail Judy Gagne (x128) Client Services Director - Advertising & Digital Ashley Dunk (x190) Western Brand Promotions Director Shannon Dunn-Delgado 415-382-1665 Group Brand Promotions Director Bob Mucci 978-255-2062 Executive Director of Retail Sales and Marketing Anna Johnston (Anna.Johnston@TasteforLife.com) Retail Account Manager Kim Willard Founder and Chief Executive Officer T. James Connell Editorial Advisory Board

Seth J. Baum, MD, author, Age Strong, Live Long Hyla Cass, MD, author, Supplement Your Prescription Ann Louise Gittleman, PhD, CNS, author of The Fat Flush Plan and 29 other health and nutrition titles Maria Noël Groves, RH (AHG), registered clinical herbalist, health journalist, and author of Body into Balance Clare Hasler, PhD, MBA, advisor, Dietary Supplement Education Alliance; executive director, Robert Mondavi Institute for Wine and Food Science Tori Hudson, ND, professor, National College of Naturopathic Medicine and Bastyr University Christina Pirello, MS, chef/host, Christina Cooks Sidney Sudberg, DC, LAc, herbalist (AHG) Jacob Teitelbaum, MD, author of best-selling books on integrative medicine Roy Upton, cofounder and vice president, American Herbalists Guild; executive director, American Herbal Pharmacopoeia Taste for Life® (ISSN 1521-2904) is published monthly by CCI, 149 Emerald Street, Suite 0, Keene NH 03431, 603-283-0034 (fax 603-283-0141); ©2018 Connell Communications, Inc. All rights reserved. Subscription rates: $29.95. This magazine is not intended to provide medical advice on personal health conditions, nor to replace recommendations made by health professionals. The opinions expressed by contributors and sources quoted in articles are not necessarily those of the editor or the publisher. Advertisers and advertising agencies assume liability for all content of advertising and for any claims arising therefrom. Information appearing in Taste for Life may not be reproduced in whole or in part without express permission of the publisher. Creative and Sales Offices: 149 Emerald Street, Suite 0, Keene NH 03431 603-283-0034

Lynn Tryba Lynn Tryba

A note on recipes Nutritional analysis from Edamam. Nutritional values vary depending on portion size, freshness of ingredients, storage, and cooking techniques. They should be used only as a guide. Star ratings are based on standard values (SVs) that are currently recommended: HHHHH Extraordinary (50 percent or better), HHHH Top source, HHH Excellent source, HH Good source, H Fair source

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Printed in the U.S. on partially recycled paper.

The inks used to print the body of this publication contain a minimum of 20%, by weight, renewable resources.

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Exercise is KEY TO HEART HEALTH Older adults who spend less time sitting and more time exercising have healthier hearts and blood vessels, according to new research from the American Heart Association (AHA). Women showed particularly strong benefits. “The 60 to 64 age range represents an important transition between work and retirement, when lifestyle behaviors tend to change,” said lead author Ahmed Elhakeem, PhD. His research team studied the effects of light physical activity—such as slow walking, golfing, or gardening—and moderate-to-vigorous exercises like brisk walking, cycling, dancing, or tennis. They concluded that physical activity may lower cardiovascular disease risk by improving the function of blood vessels. The AHA recommends at least 150 minutes per week of moderate physical activity or 75 minutes per week of vigorous aerobic activity, plus muscle-strengthening exercises two or more days per week. “Cardiovascular disease risk is higher in older adults,” Dr. Elhakeem said. “We found it’s important to replace time spent sedentary with any intensity level of activity.” SELECTED SOURCES “Older Adults Who Get Physical Can Lower Their Heart Disease Risk,” AHA/ASA Newsroom, https://Newsroom.Heart.org, 8/2/18 n “Physical Activity, Sedentary Time, and Cardiovascular Disease Biomarkers at Age 60 to 64 Years” by A. Elhakeem et al., Journal of the American Heart Association, 8/8/18


Spearmint may boost memory Adults with age-related memory impairment saw improvements in memory and the ability to fall asleep after taking a spearmint extract, according to a new study. Participants received 600 or 900 milligrams (mg) of the extract for 90 days. 10 tasteforlife

Both groups saw significant improvements compared to those who took a placebo, with the 900 mg group seeing the most favorable results. Improvements were seen in working memory and spatial working memory. SOURCE “Spearmint Extract Improves Working Memory in Men and Women with Age-Associated Memory Impairment” by K.A. Herringer et al., Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 2018

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Omega 3s may ease depression Having higher blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids correlated to lower levels of cognitive depression in a group of heart failure patients. Cognitive depression includes sadness and pessimism; somatic depression would also include symptoms such as fatigue and disturbed sleep. Participants in the study had been diagnosed with both chronic heart failure and depression. They received 2 grams per day of a 2:1 EPA/DHA omega-3 supplement, a high EPA product, or a placebo. The two omega-3 products produced similar results. The study lasted 12 weeks. “Generally, we think of the function of omega 3s as preventive rather than as treatment,” said lead researcher Bill Harris, PhD. “If used as treatment, the dose must be fairly high (4 grams is a typical ‘drug’ dose).” SELECTED SOURCES “Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplements in Depressed Heart Failure Patients . . .” by W. Jiang et al., JACC Heart Fail, 8/7/18 n “New Study Shows Encouraging Correlations Between a High Omega-3 Index and Depression,” www.Eurekalert.org, 8/22/18


A LONGEVITY CHECKLIST Harvard Medical School has completed a large-scale, long-term study on the impact of health habits on life expectancy, looking at health measures of nearly 200,000 people over three decades. They identified five major factors that make a huge difference in the likelihood of living a long, healthy life. 1 A healthy diet, rich in vegetables, fruits, nuts, whole grains, healthy fats, and omega-3 fatty acids, and low in red and processed meats, sugar-sweetened beverages, trans fat, and sodium. 2 At least 30 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous exercise. 3 A healthy body weight, defined as a normal body mass index (BMI) between 18.5 and 24.9. 4 Not smoking. 5 Moderate alcohol intake, limited to no more than one 12-ounce beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1.5 ounces of distilled spirits per day. SOURCE “Healthy Lifestyle: 5 Keys to a Longer Life” by Monique Tello, MD, Harvard Health Publishing, 7/5/18

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Essential oils may make surgery safer Coating medical devices with certain plant extracts could prevent millions of infections, according to Australian researchers. The extracts appear to reduce bacterial activity and “biofilms” when converted into polymer coatings for the devices. In the US, more than 17 million such infections occur each year, according to researcher Mohan Jacob, PhD, of James Cook University. “It’s thought that about 80 percent of worldwide surgery-associated infections may be related to biofilm formation,” Dr. Jacob said. He added that the polymers are derived from essential oils and herbal extracts, and said “they have relatively powerful broad-spectrum antibacterial activities.” Tea tree oil is among the extracts being studied. SOURCE “Essential Oils to Fight Bacterial Infections,” James Cook University, 6/7/18

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Fine fish findings Researchers have determined another benefit from eating fatty fish: It appears to change the size and lipid composition of HDL cholesterol particles. Large HDL particles have been shown to lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Participants in the study had impaired glucose metabolism, which can be a precursor to Type 2 diabetes. Those who ate fatty fish four times a week during the study saw an increase in HDL particle size. Fatty fish include salmon, sardines, tuna, trout, and mackerel. Those species are high in beneficial omega-3 fatty acids. The study also found cardiovascular benefits from taking camelina oil. Camelina is a member of the mustard family, and it provides a different form of omega 3. SOURCE “Fatty Fish and Camelina Oil Are Beneficial for Your HDL and IDL Cholesterol,” University of Eastern Finland, 4/18/18


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Healthier Ingredients a “Must” One thing’s for sure: Consumers can expect some protein bars to emphasize healthier ingredients while staying a source of convenient energy. This change comes as some protein bars fall under the microscope for not being as healthy as advertised. The health and sports insurer Protectivity, for one, researched 56 protein bars and found that a third of them had more fat than a popular brand of doughnut while 10 of the bars had more sugar than the glazed treat. However, that’s not the entire protein bar market. Recognizing that many parents give their children protein bars as snacks, the food manufacturer Kind in 2018 launched a line of lower-sugar granola bars for kids. The bars feature a blend of oats, sorghum, and quinoa. Other brands are also trying to demonstrate their protein bars are more nutritious than a doughnut. Creation Nation believes that health-conscious consumers won’t mind making their own protein bars. Its DIY vegan mixes include flavors such as “PB & Jelly Get In My Belly” and “Peas Love and Cocoa”—the peas referring to organic pea protein. SNAAK Bar claims it’s selling the first hempderived-cannabidiol–enriched sports bar. The bar also contains superfoods.

GoMacro combines some of its vegan protein bars with philanthropy. A portion of each sale of its popular Everlasting Joy flavor, for example, goes toward helping feed the homeless. The runaway success of protein bars has prompted some companies to tweak their products, as they hope to capitalize on the idea that you can’t have too much of a good thing. Protein bites and balls offer new shapes but essentially have the same ingredients as protein bars. These bites and balls are small enough to feel more like a snack than a bar does. They also feel like a boutique product of sorts, enabling manufacturers to try bold ideas, such as UNION, a meat- and plantbased protein bite. Time will tell if the protein bar market continues to diversify as it grows, and if the truly healthy products push out the less healthy ones. TFL SELECTED SOURCES “The Fitness Food Index,” https://www.Protectivity.com n “Global Protein Bar Market - Segmented by Type, Source, End Product and Geography (2018 - 2023),” www.ResearchandMarkets.com, 2/18 n “Kind Launches Chewy Granola Bar Range for Children’s Lunchboxes,” FoodBev Media, www.foodbev.com

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GMO LABELING UPDATE WHAT TO EXPECT IN 2020 IN RESPONSE TO CONSUMER DEMAND TO KNOW IF THE FOOD THEY’RE EATING CONTAINS GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS (GMOs), PRESIDENT OBAMA SIGNED A LAW IN 2016 REQUIRING THAT GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD BE LABELED AS SUCH. THE LAW REQUIRES FOOD MAKERS TO START USING THOSE LABELS IN 2020. Instead of sporting the term “genetically modified,” the labels will say “bioengineered” or “BE.” Early label prototypes include versions that look like smiling suns, but companies will have different options. Labels can use one-liners that state “contains a bioengineered food ingredient”; they can display whatever becomes the standard icon; or they can include a QR code that directs people to a company website with more information. There is still some debate about which foods need to be labeled.

What Is a GMO? A GMO is a plant, animal, micro-organism, or other organism whose genetic makeup has been modified with laboratory techniques that insert genetic material from one species into another in ways that can’t occur in nature or in traditional crossbreeding. For example, soybeans have been modified with a gene from a soil bacterium that makes the crop immune to glyphosate. GM soy is used to make soybean oil for cooking as well as an emulsifier called soy lecithin, which is found in many processed foods, including snack bars. GMO crops were first planted in the US in the mid ’90s. In addition to soybeans, other common genetically modified foods include alfalfa, apples, canola, corn, papaya, potatoes, squash, and sugar beets. These ingredients can be found in most processed foods— including cereal, soup, salad dressings, potato chips, and soda. In addition to being turned into corn starch and high-fructose corn syrup, GM corn is also used to feed livestock.

ified soybeans or corn, from the bioengineering labeling requirement, on the grounds that the refining process leaves these foods with no detectable recombinant DNA. Consumer groups argue that this means the vast majority of GMO foods may not end up being labeled—confusing consumers and defeating the intended aim of transparency. At press time, the labeling rules had not been finalized. TFL SELECTED SOURCES “Excluding Refined Ingredients from GMO Labeling Rule Would Confuse Consumers and Erode Trust in Brands, Warns the GMA” by Elaine Watson, www.FoodNavigator-USA.com, 7/3/18 n “These Charts Show Every Genetically Modified Food People Already Eat in the US” by David Johnson and Siobhan O’Connor, 4/30/15 n “G.M.O. Foods Will Soon Require Labels. What Will the Labels Say?” by Amy Harmon, New York Times, www.nytimes.com, 5/12/18 n “Mandatory GMO Labels Are Coming to Your Food” by Caitlin Dewey, www.WashingtonPost.com, 5/4/18

Still Up for Debate The USDA may decide to exempt highly refined sugars and oils, such as those made from genetically mod-

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Sustainable Seafood A SMART BUY

News concerning the seafood industry is bleak: Our oceans are overfished and polluted. Mercury levels in seafood are at all-time highs due to coal burning. One-third of the world’s fish population is in danger of being depleted. All of these pressing issues affect the seafood Americans enjoy. Much of this seafood arrives from China and Vietnam—places where strict fishery laws are not in place. When catch limits are not enforced, species can be exploited. With overfishing, the accidental capturing of other important ocean creatures (sea turtles, dolphins) can occur as well. The seafood imported into the US is increasingly farm raised. Fish are often raised in factory farm-like conditions where overcrowding is common. They are exposed to dangerous chemicals and antibiotics, some of which are banned in the US. Unfortunately, the US Food and Drug Administration inspects less than 5 percent of the seafood coming from overseas. One thing is clear: Immediate action against overfishing is necessary, or we risk losing marine habitats, other marine animals, and our favorite types of seafood. Fortunately, there’s a positive side to all the challenges we face: Consumers vote with their wallets. If there’s a greater demand for sustainably sourced seafood, this can be the necessary call for better management of the world’s fisheries and marine environments.

Here are some ways to make sure the seafood you eat is good for you and the planet’s oceans.  ecome an informed consumer. Ask the restaurant or store B you’re buying from where the seafood originated and if it’s been caught or farmed in an environmentally responsible manner. Download the Monterey Bay Aquarium’s Seafood Watch National Consumer Guide at www.SeafoodWatch.org. Carry it with you to know which types of seafood are best choices, good alternatives, and those to avoid.  ook for seafood labeled with the Marine Stewardship L Council (MSC) eco-label. It’s an easy way to know that the seafood you buy comes from well-managed sources. Visit www.MSC.org.  ommunity-supported fisheries are another sustainable C option. Similar to community-supported agriculture programs, customers pay to receive a regular share of seafood that comes from small-scale fishermen who fish sustainably. Check out www.LocalCatch.org to learn more. Broaden the types of seafood you eat. Americans favor salmon, shrimp, canned tuna, pollock, and tilapia. Because of the high demand for these species, overfishing can be an issue. Scup and mullet are species of fish that aren’t as well known. By buying more sustainable varieties, we are helping the more popular species rebound. TFL SELECTED SOURCES “Buy Sustainable Seafood,” World Wide Fund for Nature, wwf.panda.org n “Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch National Consumer Guide July-December 2018,” Monterey Bay Aquarium Foundation, www.seafoodwatch.org, 2018 n “The Smart Seafood Buying Guide” by Nicole Greenfield, National Resources Defense Council, www.nrdc.org, 8/26/15

Did You Know? The US is the top importer of seafood in the world—importing $20.3 billion a year, followed by Japan at $14.8 billion, and China at $8.5 billion. When it comes to the exportation of seafood, China tops the list, followed by Norway and Vietnam. SOURCE Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, SOFIA, www.fao.org, 2016

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Shrimp Tacos with TomatilloSunflower Salsa Verde dn From The Pesto Cookbook by Olwen Woodier ($16.95, Storey Publishing, 2018)

40 minutes prep time + 30 minutes marinate time n serves 4

1N lb medium shrimp* (30–35 count), peeled and deveined N c Tomatillo-Sunflower Salsa Verde, plus 2–4 tablespoons per taco for serving (recipe follows) 8 (8- to 10-inch) flour tortillas, warmed 2 avocados, pitted and thinly sliced 4 scallions (include both white and green parts), thinly sliced, or K small sweet onion, diced 4 medium tomatoes, diced 2 c shredded lettuce 1. Combine shrimp and N cup of the salsa verde in a medium bowl and stir to coat. Cover and refrigerate for 30 to 60 minutes. 2. Preheat a large skillet or grill pan over medium-high heat. When hot, add shrimp and cook for about 2 minutes per side. 3. Transfer cooked shrimp to a serving bowl. Serve with tortillas, avocados, scallions, tomatoes, lettuce, and extra pesto to drizzle. Let diners fill their own soft tacos. Per serving: 446 Calories, 28 g Protein, 41 g Carbohydrates, 13 g Fiber, 22 g Total fat (3 g sat), 842 mg Sodium, HHHHH Vitamin C, K, Phosphorus, HHH Vitamin B3 (niacin), B6, Magnesium, Potassium, HH Vitamin A, B12, E, Zinc, H Vitamin B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), Calcium, Iron

*The most sustainable choice for shrimp is US farmed. Good alternatives are wild Canadian and wild US shrimp varieties and Ecuador- and Honduras-farmed shrimp. Avoid other imported sources. Kitchen Note: Feel free to substitute steamed shrimp for pan-grilled shrimp if you prefer. Simply marinate them longer so they absorb the flavors of the salsa verde. This is also a wonderful way to serve a salad—all wrapped up in a soft tortilla. If you are buying shrimp with shells, look for those labeled “easy peel,” which are already slit and deveined.

Tomatillo-Sunflower Salsa Verde dGnV From The Pesto Cookbook by Olwen Woodier ($16.95, Storey Publishing, 2018)

10 minutes prep time n makes about 2 cups

4 medium tomatillos, husks and stems removed, roughly chopped 1 c cilantro leaves and tender stems or basil leaves L c shelled roasted sunflower seeds 3 large garlic cloves 2 jalapeños, seeded and cut K c sliced scallions (include both white and green parts) K tsp sea salt K tsp freshly ground black pepper K tsp ground cumin L c olive, canola, or grapeseed oil 2 Tbsp mild vinegar (white balsamic, apple cider, or rice) or lime juice

1. Place all ingredients in a food processor and pulse until nearly smooth or to desired consistency. Kitchen Note: Serve any extra amounts of this salsa with beans, eggs, chicken, or fish. www.tas teforl i fe.com

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Blue Crab, Apple, and Horseradish Salad dn From Soul by Todd Richards ($35, Oxmoor House, 2018)

40 minutes prep time + 30 minutes chill time n serves 4

1 large fresh horseradish root (about 1 lb), peeled 1 Tbsp kosher salt 2 medium-size red apples, peeled and diced 2 Tbsp mayonnaise 1 Tbsp red wine vinegar 1K tsp coarse-grain mustard 1K tsp Worcestershire sauce N tsp coarsely ground black pepper 1 Tbsp lemon zest (from 1 lemon) 1 lb fresh blue crabmeat or jumbo lump crabmeat*, drained 8 fresh chives (about N bunch)

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1. Grate horseradish root to equal K teaspoon, and set aside. Place remaining horseradish root in a stockpot. Add water to cover and the 1 tablespoon of salt. Bring to a boil over high. Reduce heat to medium-low, and simmer until horseradish is tender and a paring knife can be inserted easily into root, 15 to 20 minutes. Drain and let stand 5 minutes. Dice into small pieces. 2. Combine horseradish, apples, mayonnaise, vinegar, mustard, Worcestershire sauce, pepper, lemon zest, and grated horseradish in a medium bowl. Pick crabmeat, removing any bits of shell. Gently fold crabmeat and chives into diced horseradish mixture. Refrigerate salad 30 minutes before serving. *Look for King, Snow, and Tanner crab or Dungeness sourced from Canada and the US. Avoid crab from Asia, Argentina, and Russia. Kitchen Note: Fresh or pasteurized crabmeat is the best to use for this recipe. Frozen crabmeat tends to hold water and often has more bits of shell remaining in the mix after processing. This dish pairs well with braised greens; breakfast, potato, egg, bean, or smoked dishes; and mixed green or tomato salads. Per serving: 270 Calories, 22 g Protein, 28 g Carbohydrates, 6 g Fiber, 8 g Total fat (1 g sat), 873 mg Sodium, HHHHH Vitamin B12, C, HHHH Phosphorus, HH Potassium, Zinc, H Vitamin B3 (niacin), B6, K, Calcium, Magnesium


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First, the bad news: Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers. About one in eight American women will develop this disease. The good news: By shedding excess weight, improving one’s diet, and getting more exercise, about 30 percent of all cancer diagnoses could be avoided, according to the American Cancer Society. Read on for helpful tips. q M ELATONIN. If you’re chronically sleep deprived or work a night shift, you may be at higher risk for developing breast cancer. Melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland in the brain to regulate sleep cycles, inhibits breast cancer cell growth. “Melatonin does more than regulate the sleep-wake cycle—it can save your life,” states Ann Louise Gittleman, PhD, CNS. “Melatonin enhances the effectiveness of your body’s immune cells to fight off foreign invaders, including mutated cells, stimulating the body’s immune response.” Supplementing with melatonin to get the sleep you need may support your immune system and help your body restore itself.

r V ITAMIN D3. Low levels of this vitamin have been shown to increase breast cancer risk. Research indicates a link between low levels and the progression and metastasis of breast cancer. “Women with a higher vitamin D intake may be a quarter less likely to die from breast cancer than women with lower levels,” says Jacob Teitelbaum, MD. In addition to supplements, vitamin D is found in fortified food items and naturally in egg yolks, salmon, tuna, and beef liver. Your body also produces it after sun exposure. An August 2017 study showed that vitamin D works with omega-3 fatty acids to increase the death rate of breast cancer cells.

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Overweight and obese women have an increased risk for breast cancer, as do women who don’t get enough exercise. The American Cancer Society recommends a weekly minimum of 150 minutes of moderate aerobic activity or 75 minutes of highintensity aerobic exercise. Good news for coffee drinkers: Postmenopausal women who drink four cups of coffee daily have a 10 percent reduced breast cancer risk, “no matter body mass index,” reported naturopathic physician Tori Hudson, ND, on her popular health blog— DrToriHudson.com.



SELECTED SOURCES “Can I Lower My Risk of Breast Cancer?” American Cancer Society, www.Cancer.org n “Coffee Intake Decreases Risk of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer . . .” by A. Lafranconi et al., Nutrients, 2018

s O MEGA 3s. DHA and EPA, two essential fatty acids found in oily fish,

We don’t have to.

fight against inflammation and protect against breast cancer and breast cancer recurrence. One study found women who took fish oil supplements for six years had a 32 percent lower risk of breast cancer than nonusers. Flaxseed provides a plant-based omega 3 called alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). Animal and clinical trials show that consuming several daily tablespoons of flaxseed can protect against breast cancer.

Our new gummies are made with only two grams of sugar or less. They’re high-fructose corn syrupfree, gelatin-free, GMO-free, and made with real foods with real flavors you’ll love. So you can boost your day with a little extra good. Have you tried them yet?

t COENZYME Q10 (CoQ10). “CoQ10 supplementation has been

linked to tumor reduction in some breast cancer trials,” says Dr. Gittleman. “University of Miami researchers suggest that CoQ10 inhibits cancer cell division, leading to the programmed death of these dangerous cells. As we grow older, our bodies produce less of this vital antioxidant, making it advisable to take 100 to 300 milligrams (mg) of CoQ10 daily.”


u IODINE. Iodine deficiency has been linked to breast cancer. “High-


iodine cultures such as Japan have 70 percent lower rates of breast cancer than low-iodine countries like the US,” says Dr. Teitelbaum. Try adding iodine-rich sea veggies such as nori to your diet.

v EGCG. Research has shown epigallocatechin gallate, a polyphenol found in green tea, is protective against the development and growth of breast cancer cells.

w O LIVE OIL. Eating a Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil is linked to a lower risk of breast cancer.

x CURCUMIN. New in vitro research is pointing to curcumin’s ability to impede tumor growth in breast cancer. TFL

So real you can taste it. *

To learn about our seals, please visit megafood.com/standards. *This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

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SELECTED SOURCES “Association of Vitamin D Level with . . . Breast Cancer” by S. Thanasitthichai et al., Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2015 n “Curcumin: The Spicy Modulator of Breast Carcinogenesis” by U. Banik et al., J Exp Clin Can Res, 7/19/17 n “The Effect of Flaxseed in Breast Cancer . . .” by A. Calado et al., Front Nutr, 2/7/18 n “Epigallocatechin Gallate Inhibits the Growth of MDA-MG-231 Breast Cancer Cells . . .” by O. Hong et al., Oncol Lett, 7/14/17 n “Melatonin Decreases Estrogen Receptor Binding to Estrogen Response Elements Sites on the OCT4 Gene in Human Breast Cancer Stem Cells” by J. Lopes et al., Genes and Cancer, 8/16 n “Melatonin, an Inhibitory Agent in Breast Cancer” by E. Nooshinfar et al., Breast Cancer, 1/17 n “The Role of Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) in the Control of Obesity and Metabolic Derangements in Breast Cancer” by A. Molfino et al., Int J Sci, 4/16 n “Vitamin D Enhances Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids-Induced Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells” by J. Yang et al., Cell Biol Int, 8/17

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Discovering the truth behind the production of the chocolate we consume is an important consideration, and not just during Halloween. In the US, approximately $13 billion dollars was spent on cocoa products in just one year. Despite this high figure, many cacao farmers are impoverished, and thousands of child slaves work on cacao farms—particularly in West Africa. Many large chocolate manufacturers insist that due to the manner in which chocolate is exchanged in global markets, it’s impossible for them to know which cocoa has been grown by slave labor and which has not. Unfortunately, it’s estimated that up to 40 percent of cocoa may be grown with unfair labor practices. Facts and statistics like these are shocking. But knowledge of the industry is essential for initiating change, which can be as simple as choosing Fair Trade Certified products.

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Here are some reasons why fairly traded products are so important to the health of the planet and the well-being of the people who create the products we enjoy. ● Democratically organized fair trade–certified farm groups receive a guaranteed minimum purchase price for their products. Trade practices for the product are fair at each level of the supply chain. Those who harvest certified organic products are given an additional premium. ● Since they are paid fair wages, fair trade– certified cocoa producers can avoid cost-cutting practices that damage the environment. Instead of clear-cutting fields, farmers can grow cocoa under the shade of rainforest canopies. ● Funds are returned back to the farming communities. The money goes into leadership training, organic certification, scholarships, and schools.

● Fair trade–certified farms offer workers safe and humane working conditions. Forced child and slave labor is forbidden. ● Genetically engineered ingredients are not allowed in fair trade– certified products. How do you know if something was produced fairly? Look for the Fair Trade Certified label on the chocolate and cocoa products you purchase. Items such as spices, sugar, coffee, tea, rice, fresh fruit, honey, flowers, and clothing can also be Fair Trade Certified. TFL SELECTED SOURCES “5 Reasons Why You Should Buy Fair Trade” by Kaye Spector, www.EcoWatch.com n “Fair Trade Chocolate,” by Michelle Sharp, http://Facts-About-Chocolate.com

Chocolate Popcorn with Almonds and Raisins dGV From the Taste for Life test kitchen

15 minutes prep time + 1 hour set time n makes approximately 10 cups

2 Tbsp Fair Trade Certified coconut oil K c popping corn 1K c Fair Trade Certified dark chocolate, chopped

1 c Fair Trade Certified almonds, chopped 1 c raisins Salt to taste

1. In a large shallow saucepan, heat oil over medium-high heat. Drop 2 kernels of corn in pan and cover with a lid. When corn begins to pop, add remainder of kernels. Cover pan and remove from heat for 30 seconds. Return covered pan to heat and shake covered pan constantly while corn pops. When popping slows to almost a stop, remove pan from heat. Let pan sit off heat for 1 minute to allow any remaining kernels to pop. Transfer popcorn to a large heatproof bowl. 2. Heat chocolate in a small saucepan set over medium-low heat, stirring constantly until chocolate is melted. Immediately remove pan from heat and pour half of chocolate over popcorn. Stir to coat popcorn with chocolate. 3. Mix almonds and raisins into popcorn. Add remaining half of melted chocolate and stir to combine. Season to taste with salt. 4. Spread popcorn on a parchment-lined baking sheet. Cool in refrigerator until chocolate has set. Store popcorn in an airtight container. Kitchen Note: Feel free to swap out your favorite nuts and dried fruits for the almonds and raisins. Or substitute in gluten-free pretzels, and season with your favorite Fair Trade Certified spices. Per serving (1 cup): 332 Calories, 6 g Protein, 30 g Carbohydrates, 6 g Fiber, 22 g Total fat (9 g sat), 147 mg Sodium, HH Vitamin E, Iron, Magnesium, Phosphorus, H Vitamin B2 (riboflavin), Potassium, Zinc

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But taste is not their only perk. Research has shown that bitters may also be a natural way to soothe an upset stomach and aid in digestion. As a result, there’s recently been a surge of interest in their potential healing power. Bitters can help reduce bloating, gas, food sensitivities— even heartburn. There is some evidence that they help cleanse the liver and prevent yeast overgrowth, while also contributing to regular bowel movements. And they’ve been known to help with weight loss by controlling food cravings.

A History of Bitters Bitters were invented thousands of years ago when the Chinese brewed grapes, rice, honey, and hawthorn berries into a bitter-tasting liquid for medicinal purposes. According to Mark Bitterman, author of Bitterman’s Field Guide to Bitters and Amari, bitters were big in the 1800s, before Prohibition put the nail in the coffin of most bitters brands. Two survivors from that time are Peychaud’s and Angostura, a brand best known for the unique aromatic flavor it imparts to Old-Fashioned and Manhattan cocktails. Many bitters brands now exist, thanks in part to a cocktail renaissance. “Bitters are to cocktails as salt is to food,” Bitterman says. “They help accentuate flavor and they bring their own flavors.” And like salt, only a dash is needed to enhance a drink. While cocktail bitters are used in drinks, digestive bitters are often consumed with a few drops on the tongue. They can be taken by dropperful, spoonful, or spray.

How Do They Work? Registered dietitian and consultant Amy Goodson, MS, RD, CSSD, LD, says, “The claim is that bitters trigger receptors in the mouth that stimulate the secretion of saliva and other digestive enzymes that help break down your food so you can absorb its nutrients.”

Goodson notes that while there isn’t a lot of evidence-based research around bitters, a few scientists theorize that they stimulate blood flow to the digestive organs to aid in digestion. “With so many people suffering from digestive issues these days, bitters might be worth a try,” she adds. While our taste buds can sense five different flavors: salty, sweet, savory, sour, and bitter, the latter has been pushed aside in favor of sweet and salty, which have overtaken our pantries and our palates. But this comes at a cost. Many nutritionists believe the lack of bitter foods in our diets may be contributing to chronic digestive issues. Shannon Sarrasin, ND, is one of them. “Bitter is an uncommon flavor that has largely disappeared from our modern palate,” says Dr. Sarrasin. “Bitter foods and herbs were a common part of the ancestral diet and are still used in Chinese medicine and Ayurveda with huge benefits to body and mind.”

A Bitter Diet Choosing naturally bitter foods such as radicchio, asparagus, grapefruit, dandelion, arugula, citrus, hops, olives, and vinegar can help put your digestive tract on the road to recovery. Bitter herbs including burdock, gentian, milk thistle, motherwort, goldenseal, and angelica also promote good health. If you prefer a supplement, bitter tonics such as cascarilla, cassia, orange peel, and cinchona bark can be found at health food stores. Most bitters contain alcohol, but you are using just a few drops at a time. There are also nonalcoholic types available. No matter how you prefer your bitters, drink up. Your body will thank you. TFL SELECTED SOURCES “Is Bitter Better?” www.DrWeil.com n “I’ve Tried Every Digestion Trick and This Is the (Surprisingly Cheap and Easy) One That Actually Works” by Liz Moody, www.MindBodyGreen.com, 6/8/17 n “Learn About Bitters,” www.UrbanMoonshine.com n Personal communication: Amy Goodson, 8/18; Shannon Sarrasin, 8/18 n “Powerful Plants Bitter for Your Bowels,” Bastyr University, www.Health.Bastyr.edu n “What Are Bitters and How Should I Use Them?” by Janet Rausa Fuller, www.Epicurious.com, 7/7/16 n “What Is Candida?” by Sally James, www.AskANaturopath.com, 2/2/18

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Moodtopia by Sara-Chana Silverstein, RH (AHG) with Susan K. Golant ($17.99, Lifelong Books, 2018)

Forest Therapy by Sarah Ivens ($16.99, Lifelong Books, 2018) Forest bathing, trending from Japan to Scandinavia, boasts many health benefits. Besides better emotional well-being, spending time in nature can improve immunity, sleep quality, and energy levels, and even sharpen our focus. As we spend more of our lives plugged in and stressed, it’s important to make time to reconnect with nature. Sarah Ivens, a journalist, life coach, and author of eight lifestyle and wellness books, offers a guide to making outside time a part of our lives again in Forest Therapy: Seasonal Ways to Embrace Nature for a Happier You. Ivens offers hundreds of activities that will help you reintegrate the natural world into your life, ranging from simply looking out the window to determine the day’s weather to creating your own spa treatments. With this guide, you can learn to be calmer, more joyful, and more connected to the natural world, no matter the season.

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Stressed? Grumpy? Feeling out of control? When emotions are running high, even minor inconveniences can seem overwhelming. If you’re looking for ways to handle mood swings that don’t require a prescription, consider Moodtopia by master herbalist and homeopath Sara-Chana Silverstein with medical consultant Susan K. Golant. Making use of herbs, aromatherapy, intuition, and color therapy, Silverstein offers a powerful alternative to pharmaceutical solutions that is both efficacious and free of side effects. Silverstein combines different methods, weaving together herbs and oils, exercises, and other practices to lower stress-related cortisol levels and boost serotonin and dopamine (the body’s “feel good” chemicals). If negative moods keep interrupting your life, you may find relief by adopting the multidimensional approach taught in this book.

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Stephanie Tourles’s Essential Oils by Stephanie L. Tourles ($16.95, Storey Publishing, 2018) Essential oils are gaining in popularity, and consumers are looking for safe, effective ways to use this powerful form of plant medicine. Certified aromatherapist Stephanie Tourles offers just that in Stephanie Tourles’s Essential Oils: A Beginner’s Guide. As the title suggests, Tourles’s book covers the basics, focusing on familiar oils—chamomile, lavender, and peppermint—while introducing more exotic and less well-known scents such as myrrh. Tourles offers practical and useful information for beginners, explaining the properties of the 25 most popular oils, including their many health benefits. She also provides 100 aromatherapy blends targeting specific health concerns and covering everything from cold and flu relief to anxiety and more. Beautiful, full-color photography throughout the book enlivens Tourles’s advice and makes the practice of aromatherapy a joy to learn.

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Friends Forever Wherever Whenever by Karen Salmansohn ($12.99, Ten Speed Press, 2018) Friends are the unsung heroes of our lives—their contributions to our wellbeing are often taken for granted. Artist Karen Salmansohn offers us a chance to show our friends just how much we appreciate them with Friends Forever Wherever Whenever. Salmansohn brings her signature humor and gorgeous illustrations to her latest work, showcasing a selection of 50 reasons to appreciate our nearest and dearest. Loaded with encouragement and inspiration for our friends on their birthdays, their favorite holidays, or times when they’re down and need a pick-me-up, this lovely collection of words and pictures is a gift that will keep on giving. Popping with color and offering a range of sentiments and reflections on the value of friendship, this book would make a great gift for a treasured friend.

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The FODMAP Roadmap

Fine-tune your food intake to reduce gut distress Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols. Betcha can’t say that three times fast! Luckily, you don’t have to. That string of technical word salad is commonly known as FODMAPs—a collection of carbohydrates that can cause serious gastric distress to people with conditions like irritable bowel syndrome.

What’s the Deal with FODMAPs? Why do FODMAPcontaining foods wreak havoc on some people’s GI tracts? There are a couple of reasons. FODMAPs can draw extra water into the digestive system, causing bloating or diarrhea. Also, intestinal bacteria can ferment FODMAPs (hence the initial “F,” for “fermentable”), producing gas and causing bloating.

Three Steps to Relief Most of us consume FODMAPs every day. They’re found in a long list of foods including milk, apples, garlic, onions, broccoli, wheat, soy, and honey. For people who suffer from chronic symptoms including gas, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, and/or abdominal pain, eliminating FODMAP triggers can lead to relief. That’s where the low-FODMAP diet can help. The low-FODMAP diet isn’t a menu plan. Rather, you might think of it as a set of guidelines for performing an experiment on yourself. It’s a three-step process:

q  FODMAP restriction r  FODMAP reintroduction s  FODMAP personalization

All Unhappy Guts Are Not Alike The idea behind the low-FODMAP diet is to figure out which FODMAPs, if any,

are causing the gastrointestinal symptoms. Phase one in the low-FODMAP experiment is to remove high-FODMAP foods from your diet for six to eight weeks. A dietitian can help you find healthy substitutes so you’ll continue to get the nutrition you need. If FODMAPs are causing or contributing to your GI issues, symptoms should go away. While it may be tempting to just continue eating this restricted diet indefinitely, it’s not a good idea: You need some high-FODMAP foods to keep gut bacteria in balance. That’s where phase two comes in. With your system now symptom free, you can try eating one high-FODMAP food at a time to see which ones cause you distress. Start with small amounts to see how much you can tolerate before your symptoms are triggered. For instance, an apple a day may not suit your system, but you may be able to get away with half an apple every other day. Phase three: Personalize. With the experiment complete—you’ve done all the testing in a controlled environment and have your results—you can create a diet tailored to your gastrointestinal tract as well as your nutritional needs. A dietitian can help with this too.

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Foods to Avoid & Foods to Eat Be sure to see a healthcare practitioner if you suspect you have a chronic gastrointestinal condition, and check in with your doctor or dietitian if you plan to strictly follow a FODMAP diet. She can provide you with a complete list of foods to eliminate any foods that might cause symptoms. See the chart to the right for examples of high-FODMAP foods. TFL


foods to eat


Apple Cherry Grapefruit Mango Peach Pear Plum Prune Watermelon Canned fruit

Banana Blueberry Cantaloupe Cranberry Grape Lemon/lime Orange Pineapple Raspberry Strawberry


All-purpose flour Barley Bulgur Couscous Pasta Rye Wheat

Gluten-free bread Polenta Rice Quinoa Sorghum Sourdough bread

Legumes + Nuts

Cashew Chickpea (more than ¼ cup) Pistachio Soy bean

Lentils (½ cup or less) Peanuts Pumpkin seeds Tofu (regular, not silken) Walnuts


Asparagus Broccoli Brussels sprouts Butternut squash Corn Garlic Leek Mushrooms Onion Tomato paste

Bell pepper (red and green) Carrot Eggplant Green bean Olives Parsnip Potato Spinach Tomato Zucchini


Chamomile tea Fennel tea Oolong tea Rum

Coffee Tea (except chai, oolong, fennel, and chamomile)

Sugars + Sweeteners

Agave syrup Fructose Fruit juice concentrate Honey Molasses Sorbitol Xylitol

Beet, brown, and cane sugar Maple syrup Stevia



Poultry, beef, pork, seafood Egg Seitan Tempeh


Lactose-free dairy products. Cottage cheese Brie, Camembert, Cream cheese and hard cheese Gelato Ice cream Milk (from cows, goats, sheep) Yogurt


Carob Textured vegetable protein

Mobile Help FODMAP apps can be a great way to track your FODMAP diet progress, stay on top of which foods are OK to eat and which aren’t, and get suggestions for menu plans. An app that gets high ratings is the Monash University LowFODMAP Diet App, which offers helpful resources, recipes, a shopping list creator, and a place to chart your symptoms—in addition to a regularly updated database of low- and high-FODMAP foods. The app is available for both Apple and android devices.

foods to avoid

Almond and hemp milk Kefir

SELECTED SOURCES “High FODMAP Foods”; “Low FODMAP Foods”; “What Is the Low FODMAP Diet?”; “Why Do I Feel Symptoms?” University of Michigan Health System, www.myginutrition.com n “Low-FODMAP Diet Catches on Among People with Digestive Misery” by Kim Painter, www.USAToday.com, 2/5/17 n “The Low FODMAP Diet in the Management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome . . . in Clinical Practice” by K. Whelan et al., J Hum Nutr Diet, 4/18 n “The Monash University Low FODMAP Diet App Review” by Barbara Bolen, www.VeryWellHealth.com n “What Is a Low FODMAP Diet?” by Emer Delaney, www.BBCGoodFood.com, 8/15/17

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Meet Protective Herbs Calendula (Calendula officinalis) has antibacterial properties and reduces oral inflammation associated with gingivitis. Mouthwash made with calendula helps heal wounds and trauma to gums following tooth extractions. Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) is helpful for treating infections in the mucous membranes and for reducing bacteria that cause everything from gingivitis to strep throat. When used as a mouthwash it can help treat periodontal disease and thrush. Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) is a strongly scented shrub of the mint family. It has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. It promotes wound healing, so it may be helpful following oral surgery. Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) is resin from trees native to Northern Africa. It has pain-relieving and

antimicrobial properties. It’s especially useful for treating gum disease, mouth ulcers, and sore throats, and is often found in natural mouthwashes. Peppermint (Mentha piperita) serves as a topical anesthetic for the treatment of toothache. Menthol—a volatile oil—and peppermint essential oil, both derived from the peppermint plant, have antibacterial properties. Peppermint adds a pleasant, refreshing taste to mouthwashes. Tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) is one of various species that share the name tea tree. A member of the myrtle family, tea tree is known for its antimicrobial activity and is especially powerful against drug-resistant fungal and yeast infections in the mouth. It’s also useful for treating gingivitis and mouth ulcers.

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Protect with Xylitol

Good to Know

Xylitol is a sugar alcohol found in birch trees and many plants, fruits, and vegetables. It’s also naturally produced by the body; normal metabolism can produce up to 15 grams (g) daily. Xylitol is a low-calorie sweetener, equal in sweetness and volume to table sugar. In granular form, it can be used in a similar manner, such as sweetening cereals and hot beverages and for baking that does not require sugar for yeast to rise. It’s also available in chewing gums, mints, toothpastes, and other natural products.

To reap the full benefit of xylitol, a total intake of 4 or 5 grams (g) a day is suggested. That’s about three to five mints or pieces of gum daily, for example. The gum should be chewed for about five minutes; mints should be allowed to dissolve in the mouth. Be aware that high doses may cause an upset stomach. And although it is considered safe for humans, xylitol is extremely toxic to dogs, so exercise caution around pets.

A Natural Sugar—for Your Teeth? Research supports using xylitol to prevent cavities, plaque, and tooth decay. One recent study showed that adults at high risk for cavities effectively prevented cavities from forming just by using xylitol chewing gum for a year. Bacteria can’t utilize xylitol to grow; therefore, fewer decaycausing bacteria survive on the tooth’s surface over time, reducing plaque formation. Studies show that mothers who regularly chew xylitol gum are less likely to pass bacteria associated with cavities to their children.

Note Natural remedies can go a long way toward providing relief for minor discomfort, but serious pain and infections should be treated by a dental health professional. Unless otherwise indicated, essential oils shouldn’t be swallowed. TFL SELECTED SOURCES “Anticariogenic Potential of . . . Xylitol Chewing Gum, and Black Tea” by P. Gul et al., Eur J Dent, 4-6/18 n “The Caries Preventive Effect of 1-Year-Use of Low-Dose Xylitol Chewing Gum. A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial in High-Caries-Risk Adults” by F. Cocco et al., Clin Oral Investig, 12/17 n Herbal Therapy & Supplements by Merrily A. Kuhn and David Winston ($46.95, Wolters Kluwer, 2008) n “Is Mother-Child Transmission a Possible Vehicle for Xylitol Prophylaxis in Acute Otitis Media?” by J.L. Danhauer et al., Int J Audiol, 8/11 n Natural Beauty edited by Rebecca Warren ($25, DK Publishing, 2015) n “Xylitol: The Decay-Preventive Sweetener,” California Dental Association, www.cda.org

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DIGESTIVE ENZYMES YOU’VE HEARD IT YOUR ENTIRE LIFE: YOU ARE WHAT YOU EAT. RIGHT? WELL, IT’S TRUE AS FAR AS IT GOES. YOU CERTAINLY WANT TO BUILD YOUR BODY FROM GOOD QUALITY RAW MATERIALS, BUT EATING HEALTH-PROMOTING CHOICES IS ONLY PART OF THE EQUATION. You also want to be sure that you are able to digest and absorb the nutrients from your foods. And while people who have been diagnosed with an inflammatory bowel disease or pancreatitis are well aware of the impact digestive disturbances can have, it is also possible for digestive troubles to sneak up so slowly that you hardly notice them.

How digestion works Very simply, digestion takes place through mechanical and chemical means. Mechanical digestion involves actions including chewing and the stomach churning and squeezing each bite into smaller and smaller bits. Similarly, chemical digestion starts in your mouth and takes place throughout your digestive tract. Chemical

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digestion incorporates a plethora of solvents and acids as well as vitamins and enzymes. Enzymes are protein catalysts for every single chemical action and reaction that occurs in your body. When it comes to digestion, the chemical catalysts are known as digestive enzymes or pancreatic enzymes and, for the most part, are produced in the pancreas. Saliva contains the digestive enzyme known as amylase, which helps to break down carbohydrates in your mouth. You will find that the longer you chew a mouthful of a carbohydrate food, the sweeter it will taste. After being swallowed, food travels to the stomach, where protein digestion begins. Pepsinogens help to break down peptide bonds, and proteins are reduced

to amino acids with the help of protease enzymes. In fact, nearly 80 percent of pancreatic enzymes by weight are proteases, which reflects the sheer number and complexity of dietary proteins in our diets. Fat absorption also begins in the stomach with the help of gastric lipase, which releases 10 to 30 percent of dietary fatty acids before entering the intestines. There, bile and pancreatic lipases continue to digest dietary fats. Lipase is the most fragile enzyme and is most easily destroyed by gastric juices. When it comes to digestive enzyme shortages, a deficiency in pancreatic lipase is noticed first as steatorrhea (fatty stool). Steatorrhea appears as pale, bulky, malodorous stools that float in toilet water and are

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continued from page 44

difficult to flush. Long-term deficiency in pancreatic lipase will interfere with the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients.

Enzyme boost

Digestive enzyme deficiency can occur in people who have been Signs your digestion diagnosed with cystic fibrosis, may need support chronic pancreatitis, diabetes, Crohn’s disease, and celiac dis Belching, gas, or ease, but age, gender, and diet all bloating after eating affect the manufacture of pan Heartburn or acid reflux creatic enzymes. Adults produce Bad breath more digestive enzymes than children do, but elderly adults Sweat has a strong odor lose about half of their enzyme Stomach upset by production. As a result, researchtaking vitamins ers have studied the impact of Sleepy after meals supplemental enzymes on digestive power. Papain (from papaya) Fingernails chip, peel, and bromelain (from pineapple) break, or don’t grow are proteolytic, or protein-digest Acne, eczema, or ing, enzymes, and in fact, they psoriasis are often used for tenderizing Diarrhea shortly after meat. meals In terms of breaking down dietary fats, however, the enzyme Undigested foods in story becomes complicated, stool because lipases are deactivated by gastric juices, yet they must also survive the switch to the alkaline environment of the intestines. Researchers are focusing their attention on bacteria. Lipases derived from bacteria such as Aspergillus niger are highly resistant to both acid and alkaline deactivation, stable in the presence of both proteolytic enzymes and bile salts, and remain active without requiring bile salts. Look for these enzymes in enteric or delayed-release capsules that will survive the acidic environment of the stomach. Although plant foods do provide some enzymes to aid in their digestion, these enzymes are destroyed during cooking or processing. Consider taking supplemental digestive enzymes with every cooked meal, especially when eating red meat. TFL ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲

Lisa Petty, ROHP, is a nutrition and healthy living expert for TV and radio, an award-nominated journalist, and an author who has shared her unique perspective with thousands of people through her workshops, lectures, coaching, and extensive writing. She is author of Living Beauty: Feel Great, Look Fabulous & Live Well, a modern guide to feeling younger at any age. SELECTED SOURCES “Antibacterial Activity of Papain and Bromelain on Alicyclobacillus spp.” by M.D. Anjos et al., Int J Food Microbiol, 1/16 n “Enzyme Replacement Therapy for Pancreatic Insufficiency: Present and Future” by A. Fieker et al., Clin Exp Gastroenterol, 5/4/11 n “Human Pancreatic Digestive Enzymes” by D.C. Whitcomb and M.E. Lowe, Dig Dis Sci, 1/07 n “Malabsorption Clinical Presentation: History, Physical Causes,” http://eMedicine.Medscape.com, 2016 n “Maldigestion from Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency” by S. Pongprasobchai, J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 12/13 www.tas teforl i fe.com

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autumn “It was a beautiful, bright

day, with air like cider and a sky so blue you could drown in it.” —Diana Gabaldon

For more inspirational quotes, visit TasteforLife.com/words-for-life

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