2018 REPORT ON
AUTHORS & ADVISORS AUTHORS: Tanvee Varma Wellesley College ’18
Primary Author & Editor
Chelsea Kim Wellesley College ‘17
Amber Qin Wellesley College ’18
Alyssa Li Wellesley College ‘19
Housing & Chinatown
Riann Tang Wellesley College ‘19
Jennifer Mou Wellesley College ’18
Diana Lam Wellesley College ’20
Income & Labor
Vivien Lee Wellesley College ‘17
Income & Labor
Sabrina Choi Wellesley College ’20
Lydia Guo Wellesley College ’20
Cordelia Zhong Wellesley College ‘17
Grace Ming Wellesley College ’18
ADVISORS: Stephen Chen Assistant Professor of Psychology, Wellesley College Yoon Sun Lee Professor of English, Wellesley College Karen Shih Advisor to Students of Asian Descent, Wellesley College 2 | THE 2018 REPORT ON ASIAN PACIFIC AMERICANS IN BOSTON
TABLE OF CONTENTS WELCOME
HOUSING AND CHINATOWN
INCOME AND LABOR
CRIME AND VIOLENCE
SOURCES FOR FIGURES AND TABLES
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It is our pleasure to present the 2018 Report on Asian Pacific Americans in Boston! Asian Pacific Americans, or APAs, remain the fastest growing population in the United States, having grown by an average of 43% between 2000 and 2010. Despite this rapid growth, very little is known about the APA community. Although APAs continue to make formidable contributions to the economic, social, and political landscape of the United States, many members of the community experience language barriers, mental health issues, and poor economic and educational outcomes. These struggles are often masked by the model minority myth, the myth that Asian Pacific Americans are universally high-income and well-educated. Understanding the Asian Pacific American community in Boston requires understanding the rich diversity of this community. An immigrant gateway, Boston is considered one of the most progressive and educated cities in the United States. Yet, the city of Boston still has room for improvement. Housing is becoming increasingly unaffordable, forcing Asian Pacific American families out of their homes. Asian Pacific Americans in Boston are increasingly plagued by infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis and Hepatitis B. Economic disparities remain wide within Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s APA community. As twelve Asian Pacific American undergraduate students at Wellesley College, we came together to paint a more complete portrait of the contributions made and challenges faced by the Asian Pacific American community in Boston. With this report, we hoped to create an accurate and publicly-available resource about the state of Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Asian Pacific American community. This report includes comprehensive information in areas relevant to the APA community in Boston: overall demographics, immigration, housing, language, education, economic outcomes, physical and mental health, and violence. Data about APAs is not only presented alongside data of other races, but is also parsed by country of national origin to distill disparities within the APA community. We collected and analyzed secondary data from the U.S. Census Bureau and published reports from government agencies and civil society organizations to shape this report. Ultimately, this report was written to empower APA communities in Boston with data that reflects their lived experiences of poverty, housing insecurity, and physical ailments. We hope this report serves as a tool for advocacy, reform, and further research for APA community organizations, policy makers, government agencies, and researchers.
â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Tanvee Varma Primary Author and Editor
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DEFINITIONS ASIAN Asians are defined as people of Asian descent, or those who have origins in East Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. Asians include those who identify as the following: · · · · · · ·
Bangladeshi Bhutanese Burmese Cambodian Chinese Filipino Hmong
· · · · · · ·
Indian Indonesian Japanese Korean Laotian Malaysian Nepalese
· Pakistani · Sri Lankan · Taiwanese · Thai · Vietnamese
PACIFIC ISLANDER Pacific Islanders are defined as people who have origins in the Pacific Islands. Pacific Islanders includes those who identify as the following: · · · · · · ·
Hawaiian Samoan Tongan Guamian or Chamorro Marshallese Fijian Other Pacific Islands
BOSTON The city of Boston is defined by its neighborhoods. These neighborhoods include: · · · · · · · ·
Allston Back Bay Bay Village Beacon Hill Brighton Charlestown Chinatown Dorchester
· · · · · · · ·
Downtown East Boston Fenway Hyde Park Jamaica Plain Mattapan Mid-Dorchester Mission Hill
· · · · · · ·
North End Roslindale Roxbury South Boston South End West End West Roxbury
However, it is important to note that that there may be varying boundaries for the city of Boston in the data that is cited in this report. When data is presented about specific neighborhoods in Boston, the Greater Boston area, or Massachusetts, it is specifically noted in the text.
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DEMOGRAPHICS Boston is home to 60,588 Asians and 1,323 Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs), accounting for 9% and 0.2% of Boston’s population, respectively. Of the Asian population in Boston, more than a quarter (26%) are youth and 20% are seniors. The largest Asian American ethnic group in Boston is Chinese, totaling near 27,000, or 43% of Boston’s Asian population. The second largest Asian subgroup is Vietnamese, totaling near 11,670, or 20% of Boston’s Asian population. The neighborhoods with the largest Asian population include Chinatown, South End, Fenway, and Allston/Brighton.
IMMIGRATION Boston has one of the largest immigrant populations amongst major cities in the United States. Of the foreign-born immigrants in Boston, more than 20% identify as Asian. More than two thirds of Asians in Boston are foreign-born and half of them are naturalized citizens. Conversely, 70% of NHPIs identify as natives. Of all racial groups, Asians experienced the largest increase in population between 2000 and 2010. On the other hand, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders experienced the largest decrease in population during the same time period. Amongst Asian subgroups, Asian Indians saw the largest increase in population.
HOUSING AND CHINATOWN Boston’s Chinatown has experienced drastic changes in population and housing costs over the past 20 years. The share of family households has decreased sharply and the number of young adults aged 18 to 24 living in Chinatown has increased by almost 80%. Chinatown has become less affordable for families as the median household value in Chinatown increased by over 259% between 1990 and 2010. This increase in housing value is coupled by a decline in the number of Asian residents in Chinatown, from 70% in 1990 to 46% in 2010.
LANGUAGE Boston’s Asian Pacific American population speaks a variety of languages. Chinese and Vietnamese are the most common Asian languages spoken at home by Boston residents. However, many APAs struggle with limited English proficiency: less than half of those that speak Asian Pacific Island languages at home claim full fluency in English. In particular, a majority of those that speak Chinese and Vietnamese have limited English proficiency. Whereas there are English Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) services specifically for Chinese and Vietnamese, there are a limited number of other Asian language specific services provided.
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EDUCATION Asians tend to excel in Boston’s school districts and represent 9% of the students in the Boston school system. In state-wide standardized exams, Asian students tend to do the best in mathematics and only less than white students in reading and writing. Asian students have the highest graduation rates amongst high school students in the Boston school district. Three fourths of all Asians in Boston have a high school diploma and almost half of all Asians have a Bachelor’s degree. Amongst Asians, Indian Americans tend to have the highest educational attainment and Cambodian and Vietnamese Americans tend to have the lowest educational attainment.
INCOME & LABOR In 2015, Asians had a median income of $38,802 and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders had a median income of $41,392. While these values are higher than other racial minorities, they are less than the white median income and the median income of Boston. Indians and Filipinos have the highest median income amongst Asian subgroups, whereas Chinese and Koreans have the lowest. Asians also have a lower unemployment rate than Boston’s total population. Most Asians in Boston have occupations in management, business, science and art.
PHYSICAL HEALTH Asians have a life expectancy of 87.2 years, the highest of all racial groups in Boston. Despite generally good health, Asians are disproportionately affected by infectious diseases such hepatitis B (46% of all new cases in 2014) and tuberculosis (21% of latent TB cases in 2015). The leading causes of death amongst Asians is heart disease and cancer, particularly liver and bile duct cancer. Asians are less likely to be obese and more likely to be immunized than other ethnic groups. Asians in Boston are also more likely to be insured than Boston’s general population and are less likely to have public health insurance.
MENTAL HEALTH While statistics indicate that Boston’s Asian American population experience mental health illness at lower levels than other ethnic groups, this does not necessarily suggest that mental health is not a problem amongst the Asian American community in Boston. Almost 20% of Asian high school students in Boston report experiencing persistent sadness. Approximately 10% of Asians experience persistent anxiety. Yet, Boston is the hub for mental health research and mental health resources.
VIOLENCE Overall, Asians tend to experience less violence than Boston’s population. 32.2% of Asian parents report feeling that their child is not safe in their neighborhood, which is less than blacks (33.3%) and Latinos (34.8%), but more than whites (7.3%). Amongst other racial minorities, Asians were least likely to report being bullied in school and least likely to experience physical assaults and violent deaths. However, Asians report high levels of domestic violence, with significant disparities across Asian subgroups.
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DEMOGRAPHICS TANVEE VARMA & CHELSEA KIM
INTRODUCTION According to the 2015 U.S. Census Bureau, Boston is home to 60,588 Asians and 1,323 Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs). The Asian population makes up approximately 9% of Boston’s overall population, whereas the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander population only comprises 0.2% of Boston’s population. Boston is a city rich with diversity: Blacks, Asians, NHPIs, American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIANs) and Latinos together are a majority of Boston’s population. However, this diversity has implications for housing (Section III), education (Section V), health access (Section VII), and crime and violence (Section IX).
FIG 1.1 | BOSTON’S POPULATION BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2015) AIAN 0.35%
Asian 8.71% Latino 17.59% White 49.58% Black 23.58%
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THE ASIAN POPULATION MAKES UP APPROXIMATELY 9% OF BOSTON’S OVERALL POPULATION. TABLE 1.1 BOSTON’S POPULATION BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2015)
GENDER DISTRIBUTION There are more Asian Americans in Boston that identify as women (54%) than as men (46%). This ratio of women to men is slightly higher than that of Boston’s overall population (52% women to 48% men) and is similar to the gender breakdown of the national population of APAs.
AGE DISTRIBUTION The median age of Boston’s population is 31.6. Asian Americans have a very similar median age at 30.9. On the other hand, Pacific Islanders have a slightly higher median age at 39.2. However, this may be because of the limited number of Pacific Americans living in the city of Boston. More than a quarter (26%) of all of Asian Americans in Boston are youth (0-18 years of age) and 20% are seniors. Additionally, almost 25% of Asian Americans in Boston are between the age of 25 and 34.
FIG 1.2 | AGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ASIAN POPUL ATION IN BOSTON (2015)
CHINESE AMERICANS MAKE UP ALMOST HALF OF ALL ASIANS IN BOSTON. 9
COUNTRIES OF NATIONAL ORIGIN According the 2010 American Community Survey, the largest Asian American ethnic group in Boston is Chinese, totaling near 26,000. The next largest Asian subgroups are Vietnamese, Indian, and Korean Americans. Chinese Americans alone account for almost half of all APAs in Boston (43.3%). The largest NHPI ethnic group is Native Hawaiian.
TABLE 1.2 ASIAN PACIFIC AMERICANS IN BOSTON BY COUNTRY OF NATIONAL ORIGIN (2010)
FIG 1.3 | ASIAN POPULATION IN BOSTON BY SUBGROUP (2010) Other 7.39% Vietnamese 19.47%
Chinese (except Taiwanese) 43.26% Korean 7.58% Japanese 3.96% Indian 14.17%
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APA POPULATION BY BOSTON NEIGHBORHOODS According to the City of Boston, the following list comprises of distinguished neighborhoods in Boston: Allston, Back Bay, Bay Village, Beacon Hill, Brighton, Charlestown, Chinatown, Dorchester, Downtown, East Boston, Fenway-Kenmore, Hyde Park, Jamaica Plain, Mattapan, Mid-Dorchester, Mission Hill, North End, Roslindale, Roxbury, South Boston, South End, West End, and West Roxbury. However, any data presented about Boston’s neighborhoods may be slightly vague because the boundaries of Boston’s neighborhoods are defined differently according to different sources. The Boston Public Health Commission Health of Boston Report presented the demographics of Boston’s neighborhoods from the 2010 U.S. Census. In 2010, the neighborhoods with the largest proportion of Asian residents included: Chinatown (48.3%), South End (21.2%), Fenway (17.3%) and Allston/Brighton (15.2%).
TABLE 1.3 | ASIAN POPULATION IN BOSTON BY NEIGHBORHOOD (2010)
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GREATER BOSTON AREA According to The Institute for Asian American Studies at the University of Massachusetts Boston, the cities in the Greater Boston Area with the largest Asian Pacific American populations in 2010 include Quincy, Lowell, Cambridge, Malden, Worcester, Newton, Brookline, Somerville and Lynn. However, the cities in Massachusetts with the largest population of Asians varies by Asian subgroup. After Boston, the cities in Massachusetts with the most Chinese Americans are Quincy, Malden, Cambridge, and Newton. The city with the largest Cambodian American population is not Boston, but Lowell.
TABLE 1.4 | CITIES IN THE GREATER BOSTON AREA WITH THE LARGEST ASIAN POPULATION (2010)
TABLE 1.5 | CITIES WITH THE LARGEST ASIAN POPULATION BY SUBGROUP (2010) Chinese
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IMMIGRATION AMBER QIN
The United States is becoming an increasingly diverse country every day because of immigration. According to The Mayor’s Office of New Bostonians, Boston has the 5th highest proportion of immigrant residents amongst the 23 largest cities in the U.S. In 2009, there were a total of 948,060 immigrants in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Boston alone accounted for 17.1 percent of the immigrant population and 16.4 percent of the immigrant households in Massachusetts. This influx of immigrants is relatively new and contributes to the growing diversity in Boston, especially in cultural and sociolinguistic terms.
BOSTON ALONE ACCOUNTS FOR 17.1 PERCENT OF THE IMMIGRANT POPULATION AND 16.4 PERCENT OF THE IMMIGRANT HOUSEHOLDS IN MASSACHUSETTS.
HISTORY OF ASIAN IMMIGRATION IN BOSTON
CHINESE Chinese Americans are the largest Asian American subgroup in Boston and Massachusetts. According to the Asian Task Force Against Domestic Violence, Chinese immigration into Massachusetts falls into five waves. Beginning in the 1800s, the first wave included mostly seamen and merchants. The second wave was comprised of laborers that were brought to Massachusetts to break a strike in North Adams. The third wave comprised of individuals who were attracted to the educational opportunities available in Massachusetts. The fourth wave included largely ethnic Chinese Americans who emigrated to Massachusetts as political refugees from Southeast Asia. The most recent wave of Chinese is from the rural province of Fukien.
CAMBODIANS According to the Asian Task Force Against Domestic Violence, Cambodians began immigrating to the United States in the early 1980’s to flee the genocide of the Pol Pot regime (1975-1979). Many Cambodians were resettled in urban areas in Massachusetts. In the mid-1980’s, many Cambodians began moving to Lowell for factory jobs and affordable rent. Currently, Lowell has the largest Cambodian population in Massachusetts and the second highest population of Cambodian Americans in the United States. According to an article published in The Boston Globe, 13% of Lowell’s population is of Cambodian descent. Similarly, Lynn has the second largest Cambodian population in Massachusetts and the third largest Cambodian population in the country.
MORE THAN TWO-THIRDS OF THE ASIAN AMERICANS IN BOSTON ARE FOREIGN-BORN. From 2000 to 2010, the Chinese population in Massachusetts increased by 46%. As of 2010, there were approximately 15,000 Chinese living in Quincy. From 2000 and 2010, the Quincy Chinese population saw an increase of 46%. KOREAN Korean immigration to the United States Korean immigration to the United States began as early as the late 1880s, when a Korean student attended Dummer Academy in Byfield, Massachusetts, becoming the first Korean student to ever enroll in school in the United States. According to the Asian Task Force Against Domestic Violence, Korean immigration to Boston was minimal until the Korean War from 1950 to 1953. Additionally, a change in national immigration policy in 1965 allowed entire Korean families to emigrate to the United States. According The Boston Globe, there were 1,600 Koreans in Allston and Brighton as of 2010, making up over one-third of the Koreans in Boston. The number of Koreans in Allston and Brighton increased by 54% between 2000 and 2010. SOUTH ASIANS According to the India Abroad Center for Political Awareness, three distinct waves of immigration to United States occurred from South Asia, predominantly from India. The first wave of immigration comprised of indentured servants. Beginning in the late 19th century, the second wave of immigrations included poor laborers drawn by the promise of jobs in the west coast of the United States. The third wave began after anti-Asian immigration laws were repealed in 1965. This last wave drew immigrants with academic and professional backgrounds. Of all cities in Massachusetts, Boston has the largest population of Indian Americans. VIETNAMESE According to the Asian Task Force Against Domestic Violence, Vietnamese immigration into Massachusetts falls into three waves, all of which included many refugees. The first wave began in 1975, at the end of the Vietnam War. Spanning 1977 to 1989, the second wave involved the mass migration of Vietnamese on fishing boats. The third wave comprised of former re-education camp detainees and the children of American servicemen left behind by their fathers. The largest concentration of Vietnamese Americans in the state of Massachusetts is in the city of Boston. While Boston only saw a 2.6% increase in the Vietnamese American population between 2000 and 2010, Braintree and Randolph saw a 238.5% and 182.2% increase, respectively.
BETWEEN 2000 AND 2010. THE ASIAN POPULATION GREW BY ALMOST 25%. 14 | THE 2018 REPORT ON ASIAN PACIFIC AMERICANS IN BOSTON
NATIVE AND FOREIGN-BORN ASIANS Asian Americans and Latinos are the two fastest growing immigrant communities in Boston. Immigrants in Boston are almost 6 times more likely than natives to self-identify as Asian: 23 percent of immigrants identify as Asian whereas only 4.1 percent of natives identify as Asian.
FIG 2.1 | BOSTONâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S NATIVE AND FOREIGN POPULATION BY RACE (2015) Native Born Population AIAN 0.4%
2 or more races 4%
Foreign Born Population 2 or more races 7.2%
Other 10.7% AIAN 0.3%
White 29.6% Black 28.1%
More than two-thirds of Asian Americans in Boston are foreign-born. Of those that are foreign-born, almost half are naturalized citizens. 30% of Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders are foreign-born. Of those that are foreign-born, all are naturalized citizens.
FIG 2.2 | NATIVITY OF ASIAN PACIFIC AMERICANS ASIANS
Foreign Born 29.7% Native 70.3%
Foreign Born 67.9%
NATURALIZED VS. NOT CITIZENS AMONG FOREIGN BORN ASIANS Not a US Citizen
Naturalized Citizen 52.2%
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IMMIGRANT DEMOGRAPHICS Boston’s racial “minorities” have now become the “majority,” representing 50.50% of the city’s total population. According to the New Bostonian’s Demographic Report, Boston’s Asian population increased by 46.7% between 1990 and 2000. Of all racial groups in Boston, Asians saw the largest increase in population between 2000 and 2010. The Asian population grew by almost 25%. On the other hand, the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander population in Boston decreased by a similar amount.
FIG 2.3 | POPULATION CHANGE BY RACE FROM 2000 TO 2010
Amongst Asians, Boston’s Indian Americans experienced a 68% increase in population from 2000 to 2010, which is more than any other Asian subgroup. On the other hand, Boston’s Japanese population decreased by 32.7%.
FIG 2.4 | POPULATION CHANGE BY ASIAN SUBGROUP FROM 2000 TO 2010
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NORTH END, ROXBURY, AND CHARLESTOWN HAVE SEEN THE MOST GROWTH IN THE ASIAN POPULATION.
GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION In Boston, immigrants are more geographically concentrated than natives to close suburbs and in other urban areas in the eastern part of the state. Amongst Boston’s neighborhoods, North End, Roxbury, Charlestown, and West Roxbury, have seen the largest amount of growth in the Asian Pacific American population. For example, The Boston Globe has been tracking the population of the Chinese community in the Boston metropolitan area, citing that suburbs in the Greater Boston area have seen a 50% increase in Chinese immigrant population between 2000 and 2010. However, there is general opaqueness around the number of newly arrived immigrant breakdown by ethnic groups and years. Further studies should be done to inform the trends of immigration, and such data should be made more transparent, as they are critical to making public services, such as hospitals more accessible to immigrant communities.
TABLE 2.1 | ASIAN POPULATION CHANGE IN BOSTON’S NEIGHBORHOODS FROM 2000 TO 2010
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HOUSING & CHINATOWN ALYSSA LI
INTRODUCTION Over the past thirty years, Boston’s Chinatown has been subjected to numerous undesirable urban renewal projects that have demolished almost 1,200 housing units. In particular, the construction of two major highways, Interstate 93 (I-93) and the Massachusetts Turnpike, had a significant impact on reducing the availability of housing in the Chinatown district. Furthermore, Tufts University and the New England Medical Center now currently occupy almost one-third of the total area of Chinatown and have further contributed to the reduction of housing in the area. Lastly, several generations of central city redevelopment in Boston have also contributed to the destruction of affordable housing and commercial spaces in Chinatown.
TRENDS IN POPULATION STRUCTURE AND LAND USE
Boston’s Chinatown has traditionally consisted of multi-generational immigrant family households. Over the past twenty years, however, the share of family households in Chinatown has sharply decreased from 73.5% in 1990 to just 47.4% in 2010. Boston’s Chinatown has also experienced a dramatic increase in the share of individuals living in group share quarters (e.g., roommates that share a multi-bedroom suite) and in the share of individuals living in nonfamily households (e.g., common law households). According to the Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund (AALDEF) and American Community Survey, the number of individuals living in group share quarters has increased by over 757% between 1990 and 2010; the number of individuals living in nonfamily households has increased by over 155% between 1990 and 2010. It is also worth noting that the age group composition of the Chinatown population has evolved significantly between 1990 and 2010. The number of individuals aged 18-24 has increased by more than 400% over a period of two decades. On the other hand, the number of individuals under the age of 17 has remained relatively constant between 1990 and 2010.
IN CHINATOWN, THE NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS AGED 18-24 HAS INCREASED BY MORE THAN 400% OVER A PERIOD OF TWO DECADES.
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FIG 3.1 CHANGE IN HOUSEHOLD STRUCTURE IN BOSTON’S CHINATOWN (1990–2010)
FIG 3.2 CHANGE IN AGE GROUP COMPOSITION IN BOSTON’S CHINATOWN (1990 2010)
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THE MEDIAN HOUSING VALUE IN CHINATOWN HAS INCREASED BY OVER 259%, BETWEEN 1990 AND 2010. These changes in population age composition appear to be consistent with changes to household structure in Boston’s Chinatown during the period of 1990-2010. For instance, the large share of nonfamily households and group share quarters can be primarily attributed to the large proportion of individuals aged 18-24, who are at the appropriate age to be college students, post-graduate students, and young professionals. These individuals are more likely to seek private rentals/leases close to their institutions or workplaces with common law partners and other individuals of similar age and education (e.g., classmates, colleagues). It is worth noting that the influx of young adults into Boston’s Chinatown is largely motivated by changes to local land use. In particular, the expansion of academic centers, such as Boston University, Tufts University, and the Tufts Medical Center (previously the New England Medical Center) continues to draw students and young professionals from across the United States and contributes to the shift in household composition and age distribution in the Chinatown area. In contrast to the dramatic increase in young adults, the share of individuals over the age of 65 years decreased from 19.6% in 1990 to just 14.6% in 2010. This trend is also observed among individuals under the age of 17 living in Chinatown. The decline in the share of these two age groups also reflects changes in family household structures. In most East Asian cultures, elderly parents often live with their children and grandchildren, rather than in retirement communities; therefore, the decrease in the share of elderly individuals and children in Chinatown is an indication of the decline of family households.
TRENDS IN POPULATION COMPOSITION AND HOUSING COSTS The shift from predominantly family households, which have traditionally been thought of as the identifying feature of Chinatown since the mid-1900s, to nonfamily households and group quarters can also be attributed to the influx of young professionals and students seeking private rentals, thereby driving up the cost of living in the area and forcing families to find housing elsewhere. This trend is supported by changes in housing costs in Boston and the Chinatown area between 1990 and 2010.
TABLE 3.1 | HOUSE VALUE AND RENT COSTS IN BOSTON AND BOSTON’S CHINATOWN (1990–2010)
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While the median cost of rent in Chinatown has been consistently lower than the median cost of rent in the rest of Boston, the median housing value in Chinatown has increased by over 259%, while that of Boston has only increased by 129% between 1990 and 2010. This increase has made living in Chinatown less affordable for many families, resulting in the decline of family households in Chinatown. Furthermore, starting in the 1990s, community development corporations (CDCs) supported building family-size housing units to support the diversification of housing options in Chinatown at the expense of cheaper low-income units. While residents argued for the stabilization of the housing market for low-income renters, the CDC’s strategy to diversify housing ultimately prevailed. As a result, many more high-priced housing units were introduced into the Chinatown area to subsidize the construction of family-size units within the same housing projects. Despite the initial push for family-size units, the construction of high-priced units has only contributed to rising housing costs and the decline in family households in Boston’s Chinatown. The increases in the cost of housing in Chinatown can also be attributed to the development of luxury high-rises. While Chinatown’s Community Master Plan has traditionally limited the height of new buildings in the area, developers and builders have succeeded in introducing an increasing number of luxury condominiums to the area.
FIG 3.3 | LOCATIONS OF LUXURY RESIDENTIAL PROPERTIES (BLUE) IN BOSTON’S CHINATOWN (BORDERS IN RED)
In addition to dwarfing the neighborhood’s rich history and culture, the development of these luxury high-rises underscores a far more serious trend in the makeup of Chinatown’s population. Traditionally, ethnic enclaves, like Boston’s Chinatown, are communities of migrants and have historically helped new immigrants achieve economic mobility and strengthen cultural identity. Trends in city development, like the introduction of luxury high-rises, alienate new migrants by increasing the cost THE 2018 REPORT ON ASIAN PACIFIC AMERICANS IN BOSTON | 21
FROM 1990 TO 2011, THE PROPORTION OF FOREIGN-BORN INDIVIDUALS LIVING IN CHINATOWN HAS DECLINED FROM 62% TO 47%. of living beyond their means and increasing the cost to conduct business in the area. The lack of affordability is reflected in shifts in the proportion of foreign-born individuals living in Chinatown. From 1990 to 2011, the proportion of foreign-born individuals living in Chinatown has declined from 62% to 47%, while the proportion of foreign-born individuals living elsewhere in Boston has steadily increased from 20% to 27% within the same time period. In other words, fewer new immigrants are settling in Chinatown and are forced to look for housing elsewhere, thereby losing the sense of cultural and economic security that immigrants enjoy within this ethnic enclave.
FIG 3.4 | PROPORTION OF FOREIGN-BORN INDIVIDUALS LIVING IN BOSTON’S CHINATOWN AND BOSTON (1990–2011)
*This figure is from the American Community Survey
It is worth noting, however, that the increase in housing value and the introduction of new luxury developments have attracted a different demographic of immigrants to Boston’s Chinatown. Young Asian immigrants with higher income status now account for nearly one-third of all units sold in a yetto-be-finished luxury condominium, The Hayward Place, located on Washington Street in Chinatown. The lack of regulation of foreign buyers has also contributed to rapid increase in housing prices in Chinatown and the rest of Boston. These trends in city development in Chinatown also reveal a surprising shift in the racial composition of Boston’s Chinatown. Notwithstanding the constant fluctuation of students and young professionals in the area, there has generally been an increase in the proportion of non-Hispanic white residents 22 | THE 2018 REPORT ON ASIAN PACIFIC AMERICANS IN BOSTON
in Chinatown and a decrease in Asian residents in Chinatown. The proportion of non-Hispanic white residents has increased from just 19% in 1990 to over 41% in 2010. On the other hand, the proportion of Asian residents has decreased from 70% in 1990 to just over 46% in 2010.
FIG 3.5 | CHANGE IN THE RACIAL COMPOSITION IN BOSTON’S CHINATOWN (1990–2010)
THE PROPORTION OF ASIAN RESIDENTS IN CHINATOWN HAS DECREASED FROM 70% IN 1990 TO JUST OVER 46% IN 2010.
The decline in Asian residents in Chinatown can be primarily attributed to rising housing costs. Gentrification in the area has made it extremely difficult for working class Asian residents to live and conduct business in Chinatown, a traditionally Asian community. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the non-Hispanic white population in Chinatown is projected to surpass the Asian population within a few years.
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THE DECLINE IN ASIAN RESIDENTS IN CHINATOWN CAN BE PRIMARILY ATTRIBUTED TO RISING HOUSING COSTS.
EDUCATION LEVELS Access to high-quality education remains challenging for working class immigrants because the quality of schools in different neighborhoods in Boston can vary significantly. To ameliorate issues of access, the Boston School Committee moved to redesign how students are assigned to schools in 2012. In an effort to ensure that all children have access to high-quality schools regardless of their zip code, community groups and residents from Chinatown have worked closely with parents across the city to voice their concerns to their respective district. These efforts have culminated in the creation of the School Quality Working Group, a body of parents, community leaders, and other community members, who advise the Boston School Committee and Superintendent on issues related to school quality and choice.
INCOME The median household income of non-Hispanic White residents in Chinatown has steadily increased from $40,554 in 2000 to $84,255 between 2005 and 2009. In stark contrast, the median household income for Asian residents in Chinatown has steadily declined from $16,820 in 2000 to just $13,057 between 2005 and 2009. Indeed, the poverty rate for Asians in Chinatown has increased from 39% in 2000 to over 44% between 2005 and 2009. These income disparities, coupled with rising housing costs in Chinatown (discussed previously), predict that working class Asian immigrants may be displaced from Chinatown due to its unaffordability.
CRIME AND VIOLENCE In 1974, Boston decided to concentrate and formally establish the â&#x20AC;&#x153;adult entertainment districtâ&#x20AC;? on lower Washington Street, thereby moving all adult entertainment that had previously existed elsewhere in the city to the border of Chinatown, threatening the neighborhood daily with prostitution, drugs, and other associated petty crime.
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LANGUAGE RIANN TANG
Asian Pacific Americans in Boston speak a variety languages, often, in addition to English. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 45,000 Bostonians speak an Asian language at home. This makes up 6.8% of Boston’s population, putting Boston a little higher than the national average. Of the Asian Pacific Island languages spoken, Chinese (including all dialects) is the most popular, with 4.2% of Boston’s overall population speaking Chinese at home. The second most popular language is Vietnamese, with 1.7% of the overall population speaking the language at home. Vietnamese is followed by Korean, Hindi and Japanese. However, the multilingualism of many APAs presents a problem. Of those that speak an Asian language at home, many struggle with English proficiency. Data from the U.S. Census Bureau shows that less than half of APAs in Boston claim full fluency in English. This statistic is somewhat surprising considering the high educational attainment of APAs (Section V) and points to the diversity within this group. Of those with limited English proficiency (LEP), the most popular languages spoken are Chinese (all dialects), Vietnamese, Korean, Cambodian, Japanese and Hindi. According to the 20062008 American Community Survey, 61% of all that speak Chinese in Boston are LEP. 81% of all that speak Vietnamese in Boston are LEP, the highest of any immigrant group in Boston.
FIG 4.1 | ENGLISH PROFICIENCY AMONGST BOSTON RESIDENTS WHO SPEAK ASIAN AND PACIFIC ISLAND LANGUAGES (2015) Speak English less than “Very Well”
Speak English “Very Well”
ESOL AND TRANSLATION SERVICES In Boston’s public schools, APA students made up 17% of native speakers of another language and only 3% of native English speakers, meaning that English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) services are very important to the success of APAs in Boston’s schools. 14% of Asian Pacific American students in Boston identified as LEP, yet only 13% were enrolled in ESOL/English Language Learners (ELL) programs, suggesting that some students are being left behind. Of those children participating in ESOL/ELL services in Boston public schools, 24% are Asian Pacific American. Of this group, 87.5% are foreign-born, originating in an Asian/Pacific Island country and 12.5% are American-born. For APA groups with large enrollment in ESOL services, such as Chinese and Vietnamese groups, Boston Public Schools offers language-specific ESOL programs. 25
45,000 BOSTONIANS SPEAK AN ASIAN LANGUAGE AT HOME.
For adults in Boston, there are a reasonable number of ESOL services. A number of non-profits including Action for Boston Community Development, the Asian American Civic Association, the Boston Chinatown Neighborhood Center, the Vietnamese American Civic Association and many others provide such services. The City of Boston also provides ESOL services at the Boston Public Library. Although there are many ESOL options available, there are fewer language-specific programs; the only programs offered that are specific to Asian languages typically offer Chinese and Vietnamese language programs. It is difficult to find language specific ESOL programs for Korean and Japanese, even though both languages are in the top twenty of languages spoken by low English proficiency individuals in Boston.
FIG 4.2 | TOP LANGUAGES SPOKEN BY LEP IMMIGRANTS IN THE GREATER BOSTON AREA (2006â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2008) % of Immigrants that are LEP
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FIG 4.3 | LANGUAGES SPOKEN BY ESOL STUDENTS IN BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS
* * * * *
Asterisk indicates that language-specific programs are available.
For those not proficient in English, many Boston area hospitals offer translation services; however, it can be hard to find translators for Asian languages. For example, Massachusetts General Hospital only offers Chinese medical interpreters on site. Other area hospitals offer similarly limited translation services, though there are more languages offered by off-site translators via phone.
61% OF BOSTON RESIDENTS THAT SPEAK CHINESE AND 81% OF BOSTON RESIDENTS THAT SPEAK VIETNAMESE HAVE LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY.
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EDUCATION JENNIFER MOU & TANVEE VARMA
INTRODUCTION Historically, the majority of students enrolled in Boston public schools have been African American, followed by Hispanic or Latino and White. The percentage of enrolled students that identify as Asian has never exceeded 10% and has rarely gone over 5%, indicating that Asian Pacific American students are a minority in the Boston schooling system. During the 2016-2017 school year, only 9% of students in the school district of Boston identified as Asian.
FIG 5.1 | BOSTON SCHOOL DISTRICT ENROLLMENT BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2016â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2017 ACADEMIC YEAR) AIAN 0.3%
ENROLLMENT DROPOUT RATE White 14.8%
According to data from the Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, the high school dropout rate in Boston during the 2016-2017 academic year was 4.4%. The average high school dropout rate of Asian students was 0.6%. The average high school dropout rate of Pacific Islanders was 0% (there were only 22 Pacific Islander high school students in the 2016-2017 school year).
Black 31.8% Hispanic or Latino 41% Asian 8.8%
THE 2016 GRADUATION RATE FOR ASIAN AMERICAN STUDENTS WAS 88.2%, WHICH IS HIGHER THAN WHITE STUDENTS (82.5%), BLACK STUDENTS (69.3%), AND LATINO STUDENTS (67.1%). 28 | THE 2018 REPORT ON ASIAN PACIFIC AMERICANS IN BOSTON
GRADUATION RATES High school graduation rates for all racial and ethnic groups have been rising throughout the years, with Asian students consistently graduating at higher rates than students of other groups. The 2016 graduation rate for Asian American students was 88.2%, which is higher than White students (82.5%), Black students (69.3%), and Latino students (67.1%).
FIG 5.2 | HIGH SCHOOL GRADUATION RATES BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2006–2016) 88.2
STANDARDIZED TESTS TRIAL URBAN DISTRICT ASSESSMENT (TUDA) AND NATIONAL ASSESSMENT OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS (NAEP) Developed in 1969, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), also referred to as the Nation’s Report Card, is the largest nationally representative assessment of what America’s students know and can do. The Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) was started in 2002 as part of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Boston participated in the grades 4 and 8 reading and mathematics assessments in 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013 and 2015, in the Science assessments in 2005, 2009 and 2011 (Grade 8 only), and in the Writing assessment in 2007. Historically, Asian students have done fairly well on the reading assessment. Asian students have seen a four-point drop in score since 2013; however, the decrease was not statistically significant. While White, African American, and Hispanic students have seen statistically significant increases in score since 2003, Asian students have not.
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In math, Asian students tend to perform better than White, Hispanic, and Black students. Asian students saw a 16 point increase in math score from 2003 to 2015, similar to the gains seen by students of other races. Despite these improvements across all groups, the performance gaps between Asian/ White and Hispanic/Black students remain unchanged. There was no NAEP score data available for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander students in Boston.
FIG 5.3 | NAEP GRADE 4 READING AND MATHEMATICS ASSESSMENT SCORE BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2003â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2015)
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FIG 5.4 | NAEP GRADE 8 READING AND MATHEMATICS ASSESSMENT SCORE BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2003–2015)
SCHOLASTIC APTITUDE TEST (SAT) SCORES According to data presented by the Massachusetts Department of Primary and Secondary Education, Boston’s Asian students do better than average on the SAT across all sections. The average score for Asian students on the reading, writing, and mathematics section of the SAT is 495, 498 and 579, respectively. Asian students have higher scores than black, Latino, and AIAN students, across all sections. While white high school students outperform Asian students on the reading and writing section, Asians score higher on the mathematics section. There was no SAT score data available for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander students in Boston.
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FIG 5.5 | AVERAGE SAT SCORES OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN BOSTON BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2015-2016 ACADEMIC YEAR)
ADVANCED PLACEMENT (AP) COURSES Asian and white students tend to be overrepresented in the population of AP course-takers. While Asian students represented 20% of AP course-takers in the 2015-2016 school year, they only represented 10% of the 11th and 12th graders enrolled in Boston Public Schools. However, the gap between Asian/ White students and Hispanic/Black students seems to be closing.
FIGURE 5.6 | 11TH AND 12TH GRADE STUDENT ENROLLMENT IN AP COURSES BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2015-2016 ACADEMIC YEAR) AP COURSE ENROLLMENT
TOTAL ENROLLMENT IN GRADES 11 AND 12
White 21.2% Asian 10.1%
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AMONGST ASIAN AMERICANS, INDIAN AMERICANS TEND TO HAVE THE HIGHEST EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT, WHEREAS CAMBODIAN AND VIETNAMESE AMERICANS TEND TO HAVE THE LOWEST EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT. EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT In general, Boston is one of the most educated cities in America. Over 43% of Boston’s population above the age of 25 has a Bachelor’s degree or higher, as opposed to only 28% of the general U.S. population. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 75.6% of Asians in Boston have a high school diploma, less than both Whites and Blacks. 48.7% of Asians have at least a Bachelor’s degree degree, which is more than any other racial and ethnic minority. Although all Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders in Boston have a high school diploma, only 21.5% of NHPIs have a bachelor’s degree.
FIG 5.7 | EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2015)
Amongst Asian Americans, Indian Americans tend to be the most educated. According to U.S. Census data compiled by the Institute for Asian American Studies at the University of Massachusetts Boston, 93.8% of Indian Americans are high school graduates, only slightly less than Korean Americans (96.5%). Indian Americans are also most likely to have bachelor’s degrees (82.3%) and graduate or professional degrees (52.6%). On the other hand, Cambodian and Vietnamese Americans tend to be the least educated. Only 25.9% and 14.9% of Cambodian and Vietnamese Americans, respectively, have graduate or professional degrees.
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For Indian Americans, the percentage of those in Boston who are at least high school graduates is relatively similar to the percentage of those who are at least high school graduates in the state of Massachusetts, 94.6% and 93.8%, respectively. In contrast, the percent of Chinese Americans in Massachusetts who have a high school diploma or higher is 82.3%. Chinese Americans in Boston, on the other hand, have a lower percentage of those who were at least high school graduates (68.2%). Additionally, while 68.9% of Vietnamese Americans in Massachusetts are high school graduates or higher, the percentage of Vietnamese American high school graduates in Boston is 58.7%.
TABLE 5.1 | EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT BY ASIAN SUBGROUP (2014)
TERTIARY EDUCATION In college, Asian Pacific Americans are more likely to study certain fields. APAs are more likely than any other race to study science, engineering, or related fields, and least likely to pursue education.
TABLE 5.2 | FIELDS OF STUDY IN COLLEGE BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2015)
APAS IN BOSTON ARE MOST LIKELY TO STUDY SCIENCE & ENGINEERING AND LEAST LIKELY TO STUDY EDUCATION IN COLLEGE.
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BEYOND COLLEGE A study done by the Boston Private Industry Council and Abt Associates exploring college completion rates found that 82.7% of Asian females who graduated from high school in 2009 had completed college six years later, the highest amongst all other groups. 66.7% of Asian males who graduated from high school in 2009 completed college six years later, which is slightly lower than the rate for white females (69.1%).
FIG 5.8 | SIX-YEAR COLLEGE COMPLETION RATE OF FIRST-YEAR ENROLLEES BY RACE/ETHNICITY AND GENDER
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INCOME AND LABOR DIANA LAM & VIVIEN LEE
INTRODUCTION Asian Pacific Americans tend to fair economically better than other racial groups in Boston across various measures of economic outcomes such as median income and poverty. However, there exist wide disparities in economic experiences within the APA community in Boston.
INCOME According to the 2015 U.S. Census Bureau, the median household income for Asians and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders living in Boston was $38,802 and $41,392, respectively. These values are higher than those of other racial minorities, but only a fraction of the white median income. The median household income in Boston is $55,777. However, median household income varies widely between Asian subgroups. On the higher end of the earning spectrum, Asian Indians and Filipinos have a reported median household income of $73,611 and $82,232, respectively. On the lower end, Chinese and Koreans have a reported median household income of $27,408 and $32,692. This wide range in household income demonstrates the varying economic experiences of Asian Americans in Boston. Together, Asian Pacific American households may earn a higher median household income amongst other racial minority groups. However, experiences vary significantly. 36
FIG 6.1 | MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2015)
FIG 6.2 | MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME BY ASIAN SUBGROUP (2015) $27,408
Furthermore, even within Asian subgroups, experiences vary widely. For example, whereas approximately 15% of Asian Indian households enjoy an income of over $200,000 per year, the same fraction of households live on less than $15,000 a year. On the other hand, a staggering 34.75% of Korean households have an income of less than $10,000 a year and only 6.8% have an income above $200,000 a year. The distribution of household income for all Asian subgroups can be found in the Appendix.
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THE MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME FOR FILIPINO AMERICANS IS THREE TIMES LARGER THAN THE MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME FOR CHINESE AMERICANS.
FIG 6.3 | DISTRIBUTION OF ASIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME (2015)
POVERTY Data from the 2015 U.S. Census Bureau on the poverty status of individuals in Boston further supports the fact that there are wide economic disparities within the Asian Pacific American community in Boston. 31% of the Asian population earned an income below the federal poverty line, which is more than whites and African Americans but less than Latinos and AIANs. This is higher than the poverty rate of Boston’s entire population, which is 21.5%. On the other hand, 19.3% of Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islander households live below the poverty line. However, exploring poverty status within the Asian community also suggests that there are a range of economic experiences within Boston’s APA community. Only 16.7% of Filipinos in Boston reported an income below the poverty line, whereas 42.0% of Koreans reported living below the poverty line.
31% OF ASIANS IN BOSTON LIVE BELOW THE FEDERAL POVERTY LINE.
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FIG 6.4 | POVERTY STATUS BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2015)
FIG 6.5 | POVERTY STATUS BY ASIAN SUBGROUP (2015)
LABOR According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the average city-wide unemployment rate in 2015 was 8.7%. Asians have a lower unemployment rate of 7.8%. As was seen in other trends about economic outcomes, APAs, as a whole, fare relatively better than other minority groups but worse than whites. The unemployment rate amongst NHPIs is 31.2%, the highest of any race. Asians have the lowest labor force participation rate of all races.
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FIG 6.6 LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION & UNEMPLOYMENT RATE BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2015)
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)
OCCUPATIONS A majority of Asians in Boston are in management, business, science, and arts jobs (53%). This is followed by service (21%) and sales/office occupations (14%). The smallest portion of Asian Americans are in construction-related occupations (2%). There is no data available on NHPIs.
FIG 6.7 | OCCUPATIONS AMONGST ASIANS IN BOSTON (2015)
The proportion of Asians in management, business, science, and art jobs is greater than the proportion of other racial minorities in these jobs. Asians are also more likely to have service jobs than whites, along with other racial minorities.
ASIANS OWN ALMOST 5,000 BUSINESSES, WHICH ACCOUNTS FOR 8.6% OF ALL BUSINESSES IN BOSTON. CHINESE AND VIETNAMESE AMERICANS OWN TWO-THIRDS OF ALL ASIAN-OWNED BUSINESSES.
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FIG 6.8 | OCCUPATIONS BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2015)
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)
BUSINESS OWNERSHIP According to the Survey on Business Ownership conducted in 2012 by the American Community Survey, whites own the vast majority of businesses in Boston. Asians own almost 5,000 businesses, which accounts for 8.3% of all businesses in Boston. Businesses owned by Bostonians of Asian descent create a revenue of more than $1.6 billion and employ almost 10,000 people, issuing nearly $280 million in payroll. More than two thirds of all Asian-owned businesses are owned by Chinese or Vietnamese Americans.
TABLE 6.1 | BUSINESS OWNERSHIP AND REVENUE BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2012)
CONCLUSION Asian Pacific Americans may generally be touted as a “model minority” because they may on average have better economic outcomes than other racial minorities. However, economic experiences vary widely within the Asian Pacific American community in Boston.
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PHYSICAL HEALTH SABRINA CHOI AND LYDIA GUO
INTRODUCTION Asians have the highest life expectancy of all other racial groups. Despite this positive indication of health, Asians are still disproportionately affected by various preventable diseases, such as Hepatitis B and tuberculosis. The leading causes of death amongst APAs are health disease and cancer, particularly liver and bile duct cancer. Although almost all APAs in Boston have health insurance, there exist some disparities with Boston’s APA community in access to health insurance, and particularly private health insurance.
According to the Health of Boston 2014-2015 report published by the Boston Public Health Commission, the overall life expectancy for Boston residents is 80.1 years. Boston has a higher life expectancy than the United States average of 78.9 years. Asians have the highest life expectancy amongst all races at 87.2 years, which is followed by Latinos at 86.4 years.
FIG 7.1 | LIFE EXPECTANCY BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2008–2012)
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22% OF PATIENTS WITH LATENT TB INFECTION IN BOSTON ARE ASIAN.
CHRONIC AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES HEPATITIS B AND TUBERCULOSIS According to the Boston Public Health Commission, APAs in Boston are disproportionately impacted by diseases such as hepatitis B and tuberculosis. In 2014, Asian residents accounted for approximately 48% of new hepatitis B cases in Boston. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, hepatitis B is very common among Asian Americans because of the diseasesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; high prevalence in Asian countries.
Similarly, in a 2015 survey conducted by the Boston Public Health Commission Infectious Disease Bureau, 22% of patients with latent TB infection living in Boston are Asian, second only to African Americans. The percentage of TB patients in the entire country that identify as Asian has also increased from 17.5% in 2013 to 37% in 2015.
FIG 7.2 | NEW HEPATITIS B CASES AMONGST BOSTON RESIDENTS BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2014) Unknown 3% Other 6%
Latino 6% Black 25%
FIG 7.3 | BOSTON RESIDENTS WITH LATENT TB INFECTION BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2015) White 4% Unknown 21%
Other 1% Hispanic 21%
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CANCER As shown in a 2010 report from Asian Americans Advancing Justice, the leading causes of death for Asian Americans in Boston were cancer and heart disease. The most common types of cancers were liver and bile duct cancer, making up 13% of the total of cancer deaths amongst Asians. In fact, liver cancer cases are more than 3 times higher in Asian Americans than non-Hispanic whites. In particular, Vietnamese American and Korean American residents, in particular are 8 times and 5 times more likely than white residents in Boston to have liver cancer, respectively. DIABETES Filipinos, Vietnamese and South Asian communities in the Boston area have shown disproportionately high diabetes diagnosis. HIV The number of APAs in Boston living with HIV is relatively low. As of 2014, the major ethnicities with HIV were mainly white and African American, 44% and 31% of the total number of surveyed people living in Boston, respectively. APAs are accounted for in the 2% other/unknown infected individuals. APA Infants According to the Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Asian American women in Massachusetts between the age of 15-44 have a birth rate of 38.8 births per 1,000 female residents. This is the lowest amongst all racial and ethnic groups surveyed (White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian). Infant mortality rate for Asians was 3.3 deaths per 1000 live births (.33%) in Massachusetts in 2016.
IMMUNIZATIONS HEPATITIS B In 2012, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health issued the Health Survey Program in which Massachusetts residents were asked to respond yes if they have received the entire series of 3 shots of the Hepatitis B vaccine. 56.5% of Asians in the state of Massachusetts addressed in the survey have received all 3 shots of the vaccine, the highest rate among all 4 ethnicities surveyed (White, Black, Hispanic and Asian).
DESPITE HAVING THE HIGHEST HEPATITIS B VACCINATION RATES, ASIANS HAVE THE MOST NEW HEPATITIS B CASES IN BOSTON.
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ONLY 6.5% OF ASIAN HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS ARE OBESE, LESS THAN ANY OTHER RACIAL GROUP. FIG 7.4 | MASSACHUSETTS RESIDENTS VACCINATED FOR HEPATITIS B BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2012)
HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV) Genital human papilloma virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Vaccines can protect both males and females against the most common type of HPV and are normally given to only girls. As of 2012, the percentage of Asian females between the age of 18 to 34 years in Massachusetts who have ever had at least one HPV vaccine was 28%. This is considerably lower than Whites, Blacks and Hispanics, where 44.8%, 40% and 38.3% of the total surveyed female population between the age of 18 and 34 has received at least one HPV vaccine, respectively (Health Survey Program, 2012).
FIG 7.5 | WOMEN (AGE 18-34) IN MASSACHUSETTS VACCINATED FOR HPV BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2012)
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OBESITY & EXERCISE Overall, Asians in Boston have a lower rate of obesity than to other racial groups. In a 2013 survey on obesity among public high school students by the Boston Public Health Commission, approximately 6.5% of Asian high school students were considered obese, compared to 14.7% of black students, 18% of Latino students and 8.7% of white students. Among adults, people of Asian descent also have the lowest obesity rate at 15.3%, considerably less than the 33% of black, 27.3% of Latino, and 16.2% of white adults in Boston who are considered obese.
HEALTH INSURANCE STATUS Boston is a city where a fairly high percent of the population has health insurance. 96.4% of Asians had health insurance as of 2015, slightly higher than Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s general population (95.3%). Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders are even more likely to have health insurance (97.5%).
FIG 7.6 | PERCENT OF POPULATION WITH HEALTH INSURANCE BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2015)
Amongst various Asian subgroups, nearly all Cambodians have health insurance (99.3%). On the other hand, only 94.1% of Japanese Americans have health insurance, the lowest of any subgroup.
FIG 7.7 | PERCENT OF POPULATION WITH HEALTH INSURANCE BY ASIAN SUBGROUP (2015)
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PUBLIC HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE Approximately 36% of all Bostonians are covered by public health insurance. 26% of whites are covered by public health insurance, which is the lowest rate amongst all races. 34.6% of Asians in Boston are covered by public health insurance, the lowest amongst racial minorities.
FIG 7.8 | PERCENT OF POPULATION WITH PUBLIC HEALTH INSURANCE BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2015)
Have Public Health Insurance (%)
Amongst Asian subgroups, Vietnamese (56.1%), Cambodian (42.3%), and Chinese Americans (39.0%) are most likely to be covered by public health insurance. In fact, more than half of all Vietnamese Americans in Boston are covered by public health insurance (56.1%). Taiwanese (8.7%), Filipino (10.8%) and Korean Americans (10.8%) are least likely to be covered by public health insurance.
FIG 7.9 | PERCENT OF POPULATION WITH PUBLIC HEALTH INSURANCE BY ASIAN SUBGROUP (2015)
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MENTAL HEALTH CORDELIA ZHONG
INTRODUCTION Although the quantity of data on the prevalence of mental illness in the Asian American population in the United States is sparse (Ali, 2014), the studies that do exist all acknowledge that this area is one of high concern for the Asian American population. On a global level, the prevalence of mental illness and psychiatric disorders within Asian countries is lower than those in other countries. However, this prevalence rate cannot be easily transferred to Asians living within the United States. The prevalence rates for Asian American populations are often different due to the unique stressors of immigration that exist for Asian Americans in the United States (Yang & WonPatBorja, 2007). In the results presented by the National Latino and Asian American study (NLAAS) conducted in 2003, which is widely acknowledged as one of the most comprehensive studies of mental illness in Asian American populations, it is clear that mental illness is an area of concern for the Asian American population in the United States.
TABLE 8.1 | PREVALENCE OF SYMPTOMS OF MENTAL ILLNESS AMONGST ASIANS (2003)
To understand why mental illness is an important topic to discuss within the Asian American (AA) population of Boston, one must first acknowledge the role of culture in shaping the definition and perception of mental health within this cultural community (Yang & Won Pat-Borja, 2007). Culture defines what is normal and abnormal, shapes how symptoms of mental illness present and how they are interpreted, affects how others view those who are diagnosed with a mental disorder, and can also indirectly influence oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s willingness to reveal or seek treatment for oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mental illness. The emphasis on concepts such as interpersonal harmony, orientation towards the group rather than the individual, unconditional obligation towards the family, and the maintenance of balance and harmony both internally and externally (Ali, 2014) within the cultural backgrounds of many AA populations has all been shown to play a role in the stigmatization of mental illness. 48
19.8% OF ASIAN STUDENTS IN BOSTON REPORTED EXPERIENCING PERSISTENT SADNESS. For example, members of AA communities often have deeply ingrained filial piety that emphasizes the concept that one must behave in a way that will bring honor to the family. Any behavior that brings shame to the family or reflects badly upon the family is unacceptable. Mental illness is often seen as one of those shameful behaviors as it requires admitting that one has lost control over their emotions, thoughts, and internal harmony. For this reason, AA populations will often participate in the normalization of mental illness, in which mental disorders are framed as a result of commonly experienced stressors or as physical illnesses, in order to reduce the association with a stigmatized topic (Li et al., 2014). The factors mentioned above have also been hypothesized to play a role in the underutilization of mental health resources and treatment by AA populations. Often, the stigma towards mental illness leads to an unwillingness to seek professional treatment for fear that one would be seen seeking out these services and bring shame to the family (Ali, 2014). The normalization of mental illness can lead to the trivialization of symptoms and a decrease in one’s perception of the need for treatment (Ali, 2014). On a national level, Asian Americans have been found to use all types of mental health services at a lesser frequency than the general white population (Yang & WonPat-Borja, 2007). In addition, Asian Americans who do enter treatment have been shown to score lower on initial functioning tests and have a higher chance of being given a severe psychiatric diagnosis, supporting the hypothesis of a propensity towards delayed help-seeking (Yang & WonPat-Borja, 2007). In a study conducted by Nguyen and Bornheimer in 2014, the authors found that amongst Asian Americans with severe mental health diagnoses, only 50% had sought treatment from mental health specialists. Among those patients, a large proportion had extremely severe levels of need, indicating barriers that prevented the early identification of mental illness and the need for intervention. The NLAAS found that only 8.6% of the Asian American population surveyed had sought help for their mental disorder. In comparison, the National Comorbidity Survey conducted with a general American population found that 17.9% of those surveyed had sought treatment for their mental illness. The factors mentioned above can help us understand why it is so important to discuss the topic of mental health. It is clear that this is an issue for APA populations nationally; therefore, it is evermore important that it is broached in a city such as Boston, which boasts such a large AA population. Yet, as the statistics for Boston specifically are explored, it is important to keep in mind that the numbers presented here may not be representative of the actual prevalence rate. In a report regarding racial and ethnic disparities released by researchers at the Massachusetts Health Policy forum, the researchers state that: “Asian Americans are often ignored in studies of population health and behavioral health, and differences between subgroups are rarely explored given the relatively small size of the overall Asian population and the misleading perception that Asians tend to be healthier than other minority groups.” THE 2018 REPORT ON ASIAN PACIFIC AMERICANS IN BOSTON | 49
Even when Asian Americans are included within the study population, the numbers gathered from those reports should still be approached with caution. The same researchers add in their report that: â&#x20AC;&#x153;Caution should be exercised when using these numbers since Asian representation in these samples is typically small, leaving estimates with wide confidence bounds. As a result, the power to detect significant differences in mental health and service use is limited. The importance of including an overrepresentation of Asians in future MA samples of behavioral health and healthcare studies cannot be overstated, particularly for a population that will triple in MA in the next two decades.â&#x20AC;? As established previously, mental illness is a heavily stigmatized topic within many AA populations, which could lead to underreporting or even unwillingness to answer questions regarding mental health truthfully among participants that are included in these studies. The NLAAS reported a 65.60% response rate amongst their Asian American participants. This response rate was one of the lowest compared to three other surveys studying mental health in other minority populations within the United States (Yang & Benson, 2016). These factors are important to keep in mind when viewing statistics regarding the mental health of the AA population of Boston.
STATISTICS Most of the data on the Boston Asian American population was found within larger reports on public health within the Boston area. Many reports did not specify whether the Asian American population included Pacific Islander populations. For that reason, all data reported will only refer to Asian Americans due to our inability to confirm whether Pacific Islander populations were surveyed. In addition, other data found regarding Asian American populations were not specific to Boston but instead referred to Asian American populations across the entire state of Massachusetts. In a report conducted by the Boston Public Health Commission, it was found that Asian patients had the lowest mental health hospitalization from 2008-2012, with about 2 hospitalizations per 1,000 residents. In comparison, all other ethnic groups had above 5 hospitalizations per 1,000 residents. The report was not able to provide statistics on suicide rates among the Asian American population due to the lack of a large enough sample size. Among Boston high school students in 2013, the Commission found that 19.8% of Asian students reported experiencing persistent sadness. This was the lowest rate among all the ethnic groups surveyed. Among adults, 9.1% of Asian adults reported experiencing persistent sadness (as compared to 10.8% of white adults, 13.1% of black adults, and 16.7% of Latino adults) and 10.7% of Asian adults reported experiencing persistent anxiety (as compared to 23.1% of white adults, 19.2% of black adults, and 7.7% of Latino adults). Another report conducted within the Boston region by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health from 2002-2007 found that 7.2% of Asian adults reported 15+ days of poor mental health within the past month and 3.3% reported 15+ days of feeling sad, blue or depressed within the past month.
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FIG 8.1 | MENTAL HEALTH SYMPTOMS AMONGST ADULTS IN BOSTON BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2013)
Other reports conducted across the state of Massachusetts found that 5.4% of Asian adults surveyed in 2012 reported having a diagnosis of depression within their lifetime. Among those that reported having mental illness, only a little over 45% reported having received any type of help. The Massachusetts Department of Public Health found that among the Asian American population from 2003-2005, 3 deaths per 100,000 were attributed to suicide. In addition, there were 18 hospital discharges per 100,000 people for self-inflicted injuries among the Asian American population. Among high school students, a survey of 150,000 Massachusetts high school students from 2005-2013 found that 24% of Asian students in Massachusetts reported feeling sad on most days for more than 2 weeks. 16% of Asian students reported suicidal ideation with a little over 5% reporting an actual attempt of suicide. Despite these statistics showing students suffering, another data set found that among Asian youths aged 12-17, only little over 30% with a diagnosis of depression reported receiving mental health treatment for their disorder.
MENTAL HEALTH RESOURCES When talking about mental health, it is important to discuss not only the prevalence of mental illness but also the resources available for the treatment of mental illness. In a Multicultural Populations Resource Directory released by the Office of Multicultural Affairs within the Massachusetts Department of Mental Health, 7 community centers offered mental health resources to patients of Asian descent, meaning that they had the language services available for Asian patients. One of these was the South Cove Community Center, which was listed in its description as serving the Greater Boston APA community as opposed to a specific Asian population like other community centers. However, even South Cove primarily serves patients of Chinese descent and does not offer language services in Korean, Japanese, or any South Asian language. Other community centers in Dorchester and North Suffolk were notable in their ability to offer services to those of Vietnamese descent.
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FIG 8.2 | OUTPATIENT MENTAL HEALTH CLINICS IN MASSACHUSETTS (2014)
Image taken from Massachusetts Department of Public Health
Thankfully, a quick search on the Internet revealed that many institutions in the Boston area recognize the need for mental health services that are culturally appropriate for the APA population. These institutions include the University of Massachusetts Boston Medical School, which offers “culturally sensitive outpatient consultation services for adult Asian patients”, Tufts Medical Center, which offers “a special Asian Psychiatry Program for our patients of Chinese heritage”, the Metta Health Center, which focuses on mental health services for Lowell’s Southeast Asian and refugee populations, and the Cambridge Health Alliance, which was one of the only centers found that explicitly states that it serves patients from both Asia and the Indian sub-continent. However, it is still troubling to note that an internet search could only produce about 10 mental health centers serving the entire Boston APA population, especially when considering the fact that Boston has the highest concentration of licensed outpatient mental health clinics in Massachusetts.
COLLEGE STUDENTS Another subset of the Boston APA population that is important to discuss is the college student population. Asian American students make up 7% of the total population of American college students (Hui, Lent & Miller, 2013). Due to the model minority myth, these students are thought to be well adjusted in their college years and in no need of help (Hui, Lent & Miller, 2013). However, the reality is often the opposite. Asian American students struggle with mental health issues due to difficulties reconciling American cultural values with those of their family’s culture, the psychological 52 | THE 2018 REPORT ON ASIAN PACIFIC AMERICANS IN BOSTON
ONLY LITTLE OVER 30% OF ASIAN TEENAGERS WITH A DIAGNOSIS OF DEPRESSION REPORTED RECEIVING MENTAL HEALTH TREATMENT FOR THEIR DISORDER.
pressures that come with being labeled as the model minority, conflict with their immigrant parents due to differences in rate of acculturation to American culture, and lack of campus resources specifically geared for APA students (Panelo, 2010). In recent years, the focus on the APA college student population has grown due to an increase in deaths of APA students by suicide. At Cornell University, 55% of suicides committed by Cornell students from 1996-2004 had involved students of Asian descent, though the student population was only 14% Asian. This led to the creation of a task force that aimed to increase awareness of mental health issues and reduce the stigma surrounding mental illness for APA students. Following Cornell’s example, many other schools have also begun to focus on the mental health of their Asian student populations (Kam, 2013). Boston is known for being a college town. In a report released by the Research Division of the Boston Redevelopment Authority in 2011, Boston boasted 35 colleges, universities, and community colleges. The number of students across all of these institutions totaled around 152,000, including part-time and non-degree students. The problem surrounding APA college students nationally can also be seen in Boston, with MIT reporting that Asian students accounted for 42% of the student suicides in the past 15 years, despite only 16% of their student population being Asian. Future research should not discount this population of Asian Americans within Boston that are becoming increasingly vulnerable to mental health issues.
CONCLUSION Though Asians often rank the lowest in terms of mental health statistics, the presence of numbers still indicates that mental health is a problem within the Asian American population, especially given the stigma surrounding mental illness and the unwillingness in many Asian American families to broach the topic of mental health. Thankfully, as described by Dr. Justin Chen from MGH’s Center for CrossCultural Student Emotional Wellness, Boston seems to have become the hub for research on Asian American mental health. Apart from the work being done by Dr. Justin Chen in his lab, Dr. Hyeouk Hahm at Boston University’s School of Social Work has been testing an intervention specifically designed to address the mental health needs of Asian American women, with her most recent trial of the intervention being conducted at Wellesley College. In addition, there is also the work of the Institute for Asian American Studies at the University of Massachusetts Boston. Some of their research includes assessing the cultural competency of services provided for Vietnamese American seniors in Dorchester MA, the mental health of older Asian Americans nationally, and Cambodian American mental health. In the writing of this report, it is our hope that the data gathered regarding the prevalence of mental illness and the resources available to the AA community in Boston can help raise awareness of how serious the mental health issue is for the APA community and allow more research to be conducted in the future.
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CRIME & VIOLENCE TANVEE VARMA
INTRODUCTION The World Health Organization defines violence as “the use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community,” resulting in any type of harm or death. Low-income residents and people of color are disproportionately affected by violence in Boston.
VIOLENCE IN BOSTON
UNSAFETY In 2012, 26.3% of parents and caregivers in Boston reported feeling that their child was not safe in their neighborhood. The proportion of Asian parents who reported experiencing this sentiment is 32.2%, which is four times higher than the proportion of white parents, but similar to other racial minorities.
FIG 9.1 | PARENTS/CAREGIVERS WHO FELT CHILD WAS UNSAFE IN NEIGHBORHOOD BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2012)
ALMOST ONE-THIRD OF BOSTON’S ASIAN PARENTS AND CAREGIVERS IN BOSTON REPORT FEELING THAT THEIR CHILD WAS UNSAFE IN THEIR NEIGHBORHOOD. 54 | THE 2018 REPORT ON ASIAN PACIFIC AMERICANS IN BOSTON
Data presented on children who had witnessed violence in their neighborhood did not include Asian students because of the small sample size. BULLYING In 2013, while 17% of Bostonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s youth were bullied in the past 12 months, about 11.4% of students identifying as Asian were bullied in school or electronically. Asian children reported bullying at rates less than children of other races. However, considering the stigma that surrounds being a victim of bullying, it is important to note these numbers do not necessarily indicate that Asians were less bullied in school.
FIG 9.2 | CHILDREN WHO REPORTED BEING BULLIED BY RACE/ETHNICITY (2013)
NONFATAL ASSAULT-RELATED GUNSHOT/STABBING EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT VISITS In 2012, the rate of Boston nonfatal assaulted-related emergency department visits was 0.8 per 1,000 residents. The rate of Asians visiting the emergency department for this reason in Boston is quite low, in fact lower than the rate for white residents. Rates were not presented for Asian residents for 2008, 2011, and 2012 due to the small number of cases. Data was unavailable for Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders.
FIG 9.3 | NONFATAL ASSAULT RELATED GUNSHOT/STABBING EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT VISITS IN BOSTON (2008-2012)
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HOMICIDE Although the Massachusetts Department of Public Health did not specify the rate of homicide for Asian Bostonians because of the “small number of cases,” the organization wrote a report on violent deaths in the state of Massachusetts. Asians had the lowest rate of violent deaths per 100,000 residents amongst all racial groups. Unfortunately, data about violent deaths were unavailable for Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders.
ASIANS HAVE THE LOWEST RATE OF VIOLENT DEATHS AND NON-FATAL ASSAULT RELATED EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT VISITS IN MASSACHUSETTS.
TABLE 9.1 | VIOLENT DEATHS BY RACE/ ETHNICITY IN MASSACHUSETTS (2013)
SUICIDE Similarly, the Injury Surveillance Program of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health found that 20 Asians committed suicide in 2013. The rate of death by suicide per 100,000 for Asians was comparable to that of Blacks and Hispanics. Data was unavailable for Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders.
TABLE 9.2 | DEATH BY SUICIDE BY RACE/ETHNICITY IN MASSACHUSETTS (2013)
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE The Asian Task Force Against Domestic Violence published the Asian Family Violence Report in 2000 on family violence amongst APAs in Massachusetts. Although the data is dated, the findings still offer insight into attitudes regarding family violence within Asian communities. 56 | THE 2018 REPORT ON ASIAN PACIFIC AMERICANS IN BOSTON
Almost half of all Cambodians sampled reported knowing a woman who has been physically abused or injured by her partner. South Asians reported physical abuse amongst women at similar rates, whereas Chinese reported the lowest rate at 24%. Similarly, 37% of Cambodians sampled know a man who is being beaten by his partner. However, Koreans, Chinese, and South Asians reported numbers that were less than 10%. According to focus groups led by the Asian American Task Force Against Domestic Violence, â&#x20AC;&#x153;surviving the genocide has left many Cambodian people more vulnerable to stress and depression which may contribute to domestic violence.â&#x20AC;?
TABLE 9.3 | FAMILY VIOLENCE WITHIN THE ASIAN COMMUNITY IN MASSACHUSETTS (2000)
Whereas 82% South Asians believed that family or domestic violence should be reported to the police, only 47% of Cambodians and 49% of Vietnamese stated that domestic violence should be reported.
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APPENDIX Figure I: Distribution of Chinese Household Income (2015)
Figure II: Distribution of Filipino Household Income (2015)
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Figure III: Distribution of Indian Household Income (2015)
Figure IV: Distribution of Japanese Household Income (2015)
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Figure V: Distribution of Korean Household Income (2015)
Figure VI: Distribution of Vietnamese Household Income (2015)
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REFERENCES DEMOGRAPHICS U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B01003, “Total Population.” U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B01001, “Sex by Age.” U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B01002, “Median Age by Sex.” City of Boston, “Neighborhoods”, https://www.boston.gov/neighborhoods. Snehal N. Shah, Denise Dodds, Dan Dooley, Phyllis D. Sims, S. Helen Ayanian, Neelesh Batra, Alan Fossa, Shannon E. O’Malley, Dinesh Pokhrel, Elizabeth Russo, Rashida Taher, Sarah Thomsen-Ferreira, Megan Young, and Jun Zhao, Health of Boston 2014-2015, Boston: Boston Public Health Commission, 2015, http://www. bphc.org/healthdata/health-of-boston-report/Documents/HOB-2014-2015/FullReport_HOB_2014-2015MSPDFforWeb.pdf. “10 Cities and Towns with the Largest Population of Asian Americans by Subgroup in Massachusetts,” University of Massachusetts Boston Institute for Asian American Studies, https://www.umb.edu/iaas/census/2010/10_ cities_towns_largest_population_of_asian_americans_in_ma.
IMMIGRATION Olesia Plokhii and Tom Mashberg, “Cambodian-Americans Facing Deportation,” The Boston Globe, January 27, 2013, https://www.bostonglobe.com/magazine/2013/01/27/cambodian-americans-confronting-deportation/ MK3TQy80UJyG2HjfKKtEIO/story.html. Carmen Rixely Jimenez, “New Bostonians Demographic Report,” Boston: Mayor’s Office of New Bostonians, https://www.cityofboston.gov/newbostonians/pdfs/dem_report.pdf. Marianne R. Yoshioka and Quynh Dang, Asian Family Violence, Boston: Asian Task Force Against Domestic Violence, https://www.atask.org/site/images/pdf/asianfamilyviolencereport.pdf. “10 Cities and Towns with the Largest Population of Asian Americans by Subgroup in Massachusetts,” University of Massachusetts Boston Institute for Asian American Studies, https://www.umb.edu/iaas/census/2010/10_ cities_towns_largest_population_of_asian_americans_in_ma. “Governor’s boasts strong ties to Korea,” The Governor’s Academy, http://www.thegovernorsacademy.org/page. cfm?p=357&newsid=43. Matta Rocheleau, “In Allston-Brighton, Korean enclave grows strong roots,” The Boston Globe, October 28, 2012, https://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2012/10/27/korean-enclave-grows-strong-roots-boston-allston-brightonarea/LEt7GpWwcQenjyZmS2EaRN/story.html. U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2015 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, Table B01001.
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Snehal N. Shah, Denise Dodds, Dan Dooley, Phyllis D. Sims, S. Helen Ayanian, Neelesh Batra, Alan Fossa, Shannon E. O’Malley, Dinesh Pokhrel, Elizabeth Russo, Rashida Taher, Sarah Thomsen-Ferreira, Megan Young, and Jun Zhao, Health of Boston 2014-2015, Boston: Boston Public Health Commission, 2015, http://www. bphc.org/healthdata/health-of-boston-report/Documents/HOB-2014-2015/FullReport_HOB_2014-2015MSPDFforWeb.pdf. Jeremy C. Fox, “Chinese population expanding in Boston suburbs,” Boston, May 23, 2011, http://archive.boston. com/yourtown/news/downtown/2011/05/chinese_american_population_ex.html.
HOUSING AND CHINATOWN Li, Bethany Y., et al. “Chinatown Then and Now: Gentrification in Boston, New York, and Philadelphia.” Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund, 2013. Web. 15 April 2017. United States Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2007 – 2011 American Community Survey, Table B11001, “Household Type (Including Living Alone).” Boston Planning and Redevelopment Agency The Greater Boston Housing Report Card 2015 https://www.tbf.org/~/media/TBFOrg/Files/Reports/GB%20 HousingReportCard%20111315.pdf
LANGUAGE Lisa Soricone, Navjeet Singh, Cristine Smith, John Comings, Katherine Shields, Lynne Sacks, and Andrea Tull, Breaking the Language Barrier: A Report on English Language Services in the Greater Boston Area, Boston: The Boston Foundation, 2011, https://www.issuelab.org/resource/breaking-the-language-barrier-a-report-onenglish-language-services-in-greater-boston.html. Boston Public Schools, Office English Language Learners, Overview of ELL. Boston Redevelopment Authority, Briefing Book: English to Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) Programs in Boston. Health of Boston 2014-2015: Boston Public Health Commission Research and Evaluation Office, Boston, Massachusetts 2015. “Medical Interpreter Services” Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 May 2017. The Mauricio Gaston Institute for Latino Community Development and Public Policy, English Learners in Boston Public Schools, 2009. U.S. Census Bureau, American Fact Finder, American Community Survey, 2008-2010, BRA Research Division Analysis. U.S. Census Bureau, 2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B16001 U.S. Census Bureau, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B16005.
EDUCATION Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2016-17 Enrollment by Race/Gender Report, 2017, http://profiles.doe.mass.edu/state_report/enrollmentbyracegender. aspx?mode=district&year=2017&Continue=View+Report.
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Boston Public Schools, Four-Year High School Graduation Rate, https://www.bostonpublicschools.org/cms/lib/ MA01906464/Centricity/Domain/238/Cohort%202015%204-Y%20Graduation%20Rate%20Report.pdf. Boston Public Schools, Report on 2015 Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), https://www.bostonpublicschools.org/cms/lib07/MA01906464/Centricity/ Domain/238/Final%20Complete%20Report%20on%202015%20TUDA%20NAEP.pdf. Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2015-16 SAT Performance Report (DISTRICT), 2016, http://profiles.doe.mass.edu/state_report/sat_perf.aspx. Office of Data and Accountability, Boston Public Schools, Advanced Placement (AP) Enrollment and Test Performance, https://www.bostonpublicschools.org/cms/lib07/MA01906464/Centricity/Domain/238/2016%20 AP%20Enrollment_11%20and%2012%20graders%20only_Final%2011.7.16.pdf. U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table S1501 “Educational Attainment”. University of Massachusetts Boston Institute for Asian American Studies, “Data for Chinese, Indian, Vietnamese, Cambodian, and Korean Americans in Massachusetts, 2010-2014,” https://www.umb.edu/iaas/census/acs/data_ for_chinese_indian_vietnamese_cambodian_korean_americans_in_ma_2010-14. U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table S15010 “Field of Bachelor’s Degree for First Major the Population 25 Years and Over”. Joseph McLaughlin, Neil Sullivan, and Anika Van Eaton, Reaching for the Cap and Gown: Progress Towards Success Boston’s College Completion Goals for Graduates of the Boston Public Schools, Boston: The Boston Private Industry Council and Abt Associations, June 2016 https://www.tbf.org/-/media/tbforg/files/reports/ success-boston-capgown-2016-report.pdf.
INCOME AND LABOR U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B19013, “Median Household Income in the Past 12 Months (In 2015 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars).” U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B19001, “Household Income in the Past 12 Months (In 2015 Inflation-Adjusted Dollars).” U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B17001, “Poverty Status in the Past 12 Months By Sex By Age.” U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table S2301, “Employment Status.” U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B24010D, “Sex by Occupation for the Civilian Employed Population 16 Years and Over (Asian Alone).” U.S. Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B24010D, “Sex by Occupation for the Civilian Employed Population 16 Years and Over (Asian Alone).” U.S. Census Bureau, 2012 The Survey of Business Owners, Table SB1200CSA01.
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PHYSICAL HEALTH Health of Boston 2014-2015: A Neighborhood Focus. Boston Public Health Commission. Web. 23 July 2017. Hepatitis B in Boston 2014 in Review. Boston Public Health Commission, 2014, http://www.bphc.org/healthdata/ other-reports/Documents/Hepatitis%20B%20in%20Boston%202014_final.pdf “Asian Americans and Hepatitis B,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, May 13, 2013, https://www.cdc. gov/hepatitis/populations/api.htm. Tuberculosis Impact in Boston Residents: 2015. Boston Public Health Commission, 2015, http://www.bphc.org/ healthdata/other-reports/Documents/BostonTB2015a.pdf. A Community of Contrasts 2013. Asian Americans Advancing Justice, 2013, https://advancingjustice-aajc.org/ sites/default/files/2016-09/A%20Community%20of%20Contrasts_Northeast.pdf. “Diabetes Mellitus in Asian Americans,” Joslin Diabetes Center, July 23, 2017, https://aadi.joslin.org/en/diabetesmellitus-in-asian-americans. Massachusetts Department of Public Health Office of HIV/AIDS, “The Massachusetts HIV/AIDS Epidemic at a Glance,” 2012, http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/docs/dph/aids/2012-profiles/epidemic-glance.pdf. Maria McKenna, Diane Gonsalves, Bertina Backus, and Helen Hawk, A Profile of Health Among Massachusetts Adults, 2012, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, 2014, http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/docs/dph/ behavioral-risk/report-2012.pdf. “Infant Mortality Rate (Deaths per 1,000 Live Births) by Race/Ethnicity.” The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, October 2, 2015, https://www.kff.org/other/state-indicator/infant-mortality-rate-by-raceethnicity/?currentTimeframe=0&sortModel=%7B%22colId%22:%22Location%22,%22sort%22:%22asc%22%7D. U.S. Census Bureau, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B27001. U.S. Census Bureau, 2011-2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B27003.
MENTAL HEALTH Alegría, M., Cook, B., Loder, S., & Doonan, M. (2014). The Time is Now: Tackling Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Mental Health and Behavioral Health Services in Massachusetts. The Massachusetts Health Policy Forum: Issue Brief. Alegría, M., Jackson, J.S., Kessler, R.C., & Takeuchi, D. Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001-2003 [United States]. ICPSR20240-v8. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2015-12-09. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR20240.v8 Ali, S. (2014). Identification and approach to treatment of mental health disorders in Asian American populations. In R. Parekh, R. Parekh (Eds.), The Massachusetts General Hospital Textbook on diversity and cultural sensitivity in Mental Health (31-59). Totowa, NJ, US: Humana Press. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-8918-4_2 Boston Public Health Commission. (2015). Chapter 9: Mental Health. In Boston Public Health Commission, Research and Evaluation Office, Health of Boston 2014-2015. 251-264. Boston Redevelopment Authority. (2011). Boston By The Numbers: Colleges and Universities. Retrieved from http://www.bostonplans.org/getattachment/3488e768-1dd4-4446-a557-3892bb0445c6/
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Hui, K., Lent, R. W., & Miller M. J. (2013). Social Cognitive and Cultural Orientation Predictors of Well-Being in Asian American College Students. Journal of Career Assessment, 21 (4), 587-598. Kam, K. (2013). On Some College Campuses, a Focus on Asian American Mental Health. New America Media. Retrieved from http://newamericamedia.org/2013/09/on-some-college-campuses-a-focus-on-asian-americanmental-health.php Li, S., Hatzidimitriadou, E., & Psoinos, M. (2014). “Tangled wires in the head”: Older migrant Chinese’s perception of mental illness in Britain. Journal of Aging Studies, 30, 73–86. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaging.2014.04.001 Massachusetts Department of Public Health (2007). Boston Region: Injury and Violence. In Cáceres, I., OrejuelaHood, M., & West, J.K., Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities by EOHHS Regions in Massachussetts (282-330). Boston, MA: Massachusetts Department of Public Health. Panelo, N. D. (2010). The Model Minority Student: Asian American Students and the Relationships Between Acculturation to Western Values, Family Pressures, and Mental Health Concerns. Vermont Connection, 31, 147155. Nguyen, D., & Bornheimer, L. A. (2014). Mental health service use types among Asian Americans with a psychiatric disorder: Considerations of culture and need. The Journal Of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 41(4), 520528. doi:10.1007/s11414-013-9383-6 Yang, L. H., & Benson, J. M. (2016). The role of culture in population mental health: Prevalence of mental disorders among Asian and Asian American populations. In J. Y. Chiao, S. Li, R. Seligman, R. Turner, J. Y. Chiao, S. Li, R. Turner (Eds.) , The Oxford handbook of cultural neuroscience (pp. 339-353). New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press. Yang, L. H., & WonPat-Borja, A. J. (2007). Psychopathology Among Asian Americans. In F. T. L. Leong, A. Ebreo, L. Kinoshita, A. G. Inman, L. H. Yang, M. Fu, M. (Ed) Fu (Eds.), Handbook of Asian American psychology, 2nd ed. (pp. 379–405). Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc.
CRIME & VIOLENCE World Health Organization, World Report on Violence and Health, 2014, http://apps.who.int/iris/ bitstream/10665/42495/1/9241545615_eng.pdf. Boston Public Health Commission, Health of Boston 2014-2015, Chapter 11: Violence, 2015, http://www.bphc. org/healthdata/health-of-boston-report/Documents/HOB-2014-2015/11_Violence_HOB%202014-2015.pdf. Marianne R. Yoshika and Quynh Dang, Asian Family Violence Report, Asian Task Force Against Domestic Violence, 2000, https://www.atask.org/site/images/pdf/asianfamilyviolencereport.pdf Massachusetts Violent Death Reporting System, “Data Brief: Violent Deaths in Massachusetts Surveillance Update 2013,” Massachusetts Department of Public Health, http://www.mass.gov/eohhs/docs/dph/injury-surveillance/ violentdeaths/violent-death-report-2013.pdf.
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SOURCES FOR FIGURES AND TABLES DEMOGRAPHICS Figure 1.1, Table 1.1 | Boston’s Population by Race/Ethnicity (2015) 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates Table B01003 Figure 1.2 | Age Distribution of the Asian Population in Boston (2015) 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates Table B01002 Table 1.2 | Asian Pacific Americans in Boston by Country of National Origin (2010) 2010 Census Summary File Table PCT7 Figure 1.3 | Asian Population in Boston by Subgroup (2010) 2010 Census Summary File Table PCT7 Table 1.3 | Asian Population in Boston by Neighborhood (2010) U.S. Census Bureau 2000-2010, Health of Boston Report 2014–2015, Boston Public Health Commission Table 1.4 | Cities in the Greater Boston Area with the Largest Asian Population (2010) 2010 U.S. Census Bureau, Compiled by The Institute of Asian American Studies, University of Massachusetts Boston Table 1.5 | Cities with the Largest Asian Population by Subgroup (2010) 2010 U.S. Census Bureau, Compiled by The Institute of Asian American Studies, University of Massachusetts Boston IMMIGRATION Figure 2.1 | Boston’s Native and Foreign Population by Race (2015) 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates Table S0501 Figure 2.2 | Nativity of Asian Pacific Americans (2015) 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates Table B05003D Figure 2.3 | Population Change by Race from 2000 to 2010 US Census Summary File 2000, 2010 Table DP1 Figure 2.4 | Population Change by Asian Subgroup From 2000 to 2010 US Census Summary File 2000, 2010 Table DP1 Table 2.1 | Asian Population Change in Boston’s Neighborhoods from 2000 to 2010 U.S. Census Bureau 2000-2010, Health of Boston Report 2014-2015, Boston Public Health Commission HOUSING AND CHINATOWN Figure 3.1 | Change in Household Structure in Boston’s Chinatown (1990–2010) Courtesy of the Asian American Legal Defense and Education Fund (AALDEF)
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Figure 3.2 | Change in Age Group Composition in Boston’s Chinatown (1990–2010) Courtesy of AALDEF Table 3.1 | House Value and Rent Costs in Boston and Boston’s Chinatown (1990–2010) Courtesy of AALDEF Figure 3.3 | Locations of Luxury Residential Properties in Boston’s Chinatown Courtesy of AALDEF Figure 3.4 | Proportion of Foreign-born Individuals Living in Boston’s Chinatown and Boston (1990– 2011) Courtesy of AALDEF Figure 3.5 | Change in the Racial Composition in Boston’s Chinatown (1990–2010) Courtesy of AALDEF LANGUAGE Figure 4.1 | English Proficiency Amongst Boston Residents Who Speak Asian and Pacific Island Languages (2015) 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates Table B16005 Figure 4.2 | Top Languages Spoken by LEP Immigrants in the Greater Boston Area (2006–2008) Breaking the Language Barrier Report, The Boston Foundation Figure 4.3 | Languages Spoken by ESOL Students in Boston Public Schools Boston Public Schools, Office English Language Learners, Overview of ELL EDUCATION Figure 5.1 | Boston School District Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity (2016–2017 Academic Year) 2016–17 Enrollment by Race/Gender Report, Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education Figure 5.2 | High School Graduation Rates by Race/Ethnicity (2006–2016) Four-Year High School Graduation Rate, Boston Public Schools Figure 5.3 | NAEP Grade 4 Reading and Mathematics Assessment Score by Race/Ethnicity (2003–2015) Report on 2015 TUDA NAEP, Boston Public Schools Figure 5.4 | NAEP Grade 8 Reading and Mathematics Assessment Score by Race/Ethnicity (2003–2015) Report on 2015 TUDA NAEP, Boston Public Schools Figure 5.5 | Average SAT Scores of High School Students in Boston by Race/Ethnicity (2015–2016 Academic Year) 2015–2016 SAT Performance Report, Massachusetts Department of Primary and Secondary Education
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Figure 5.6 | 11th and 12th Grade Student Enrollment in AP Courses by Race/Ethnicity (2015–2016 Academic Year) Office of Data and Accountability, Boston Public Schools Figure 5.7 | Educational Attainment by Race/Ethnicity (2015) 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates Table S1501 Table 5.1 | Educational Attainment by Asian Subgroup (2014) 2010–2014 American Community Survey, Compiled by the Institute for Asian American Studies at the University of Massachusetts Boston Table 5.2 | Fields of Study in College by Race/Ethnicity (2015) 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates Table C15010 Figure 5.8 | Six-Year College Completion Rate of First-Year Enrollees by Race/Ethnicity and Gender The Boston Private Industry Council and Abt Associates INCOME AND LABOR Figure 6.1 | Median Household Income by Race/Ethnicity (2015) 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates Table B19013 Figure 6.2 | Median Household Income by Asian Subgroup (2015) 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates Table B19013 Figure 6.3 | Distribution of Asian Household Income (2015) 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimatesy Table B19001 Figure 6.4 | Poverty Status by Race/Ethnicity (2015) 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates Table B17001 Figure 6.5 | Poverty Status by Asian Subgroup (2015) 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates Table B17001 Figure 6.6 | Labor Force Participation & Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity (2015) 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates Table S2301 Figure 6.7 | Occupations Amongst Asians in Boston (2015) 2015 American Community Survey B24010D Figure 6.8 | Occupations by Race/Ethnicity (2015) 2015 American Community Survey B24010D Table 6.1 | Business Ownership and Revenue by Race/Ethnicity (2012) 2012 Survey of Business Owners Table SB1200CSA01
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PHYSICAL HEALTH Figure 7.1 | Life Expectancy by Race/Ethnicity (2008–2012) Health of Boston Report 2014–2015, Boston Public Health Commission Figure 7.2 | New Hepatitis B Cases Amongst Boston Residents by Race/Ethnicity (2014) Hepatitis B in Boston 2014 in Review, Boston Public Health Commission Figure 7.3 | Boston Residents With Latent TB Infection by Race/Ethnicity (2015) Tuberculosis Impact in Boston Residents, Boston Public Health Commission Figure 7.4 | Massachusetts Residents Vaccinated for Hepatitis B by Race/Ethnicity (2012) A Profile of Health Among Massachusetts Adults, Massachusetts Department of Public Health Figure 7.5 | Women (Age 18-34) in Massachusetts Vaccinated for HPV by Race/Ethnicity (2012) A Profile of Health Among Massachusetts Adults, Massachusetts Department of Public Health Figure 7.6 | Percent of Population with Health Insurance by Race/Ethnicity (2015) 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates S2701 Figure 7.7 | Percent with Health Insurance by Asian Subgroup (2015) 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates B27001 Figure 7.8 | Percent of Population with Public Health Insurance by Race/Ethnicity (2015) 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates Table B27003 Figure 7.9 | Percent of Population with Public Health Insurance by Asian Subgroup (2015) 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates Table B27003 MENTAL HEALTH Table 8.1 | Prevalence of Symptoms of Mental Illness Amongst Asians (2003) National Latino and Asian American Study Figure 8.1 | Experiencing Persistent Sadness or Persistent Anxiety by Race/Ethnicity Health of Boston Report 2014-2015, Boston Public Health Commission Figure 8.2 | Outpatient Mental Health Clinics in Massachusetts (2014) Image directly derived from Massachusetts Department of Public Health VIOLENCE Figure 9.1 | Parents/Caregivers Who Felt Child was Unsafe in Neighborhood by Race/Ethnicity (2012) 2012 Boston Survey of Children’s Health, Boston Public Health Commission Figure 9.2 | Children Who Reported Being Bullied by Race/Ethnicity (2013) Health of Boston Report 2014-2015, Boston Public Health Commission
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Figure 9.3 | Nonfatal Assault Related Gunshot/Stabbing Emergency Department Visits in Boston (2008–2012) Health of Boston Report 2014-2015, Boston Public Health Commission Table 9.1 | Violent Deaths by Race/Ethnicity in Massachusetts (2013) Injury Surveillance Program, Massachusetts Department of Public Health Table 9.2 | Death by Suicide by Race/Ethnicity in Massachusetts (2013) Injury Surveillance Program, Massachusetts Department of Public Health Table 9.3 | Family Violence Amongst Massachusetts Asian Community (2000) Asian Family Violence Report, Asian Task Force Against Domestic Violence APPENDIX Figure I–VI: 2011–2015 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates Table B19001
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