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0.00 Student's Book Kathy Gude & Michael Duckworth


Unit 7


Reading and Vocabulary

Grammar 1


The present Slmple aoo

R: M.tciling h""dio&5: «)mprehen'>ion quesllon~ Ex2Im training: Matej]jng h"adin~ 10 parllgrilphs V, Verb', ,ay.,olt.l(J<:ok or lr/r>

the presenl


IListening and Speaking <;<;ning the message

L: Telepoone m=se'; .~.lcI,ing: HOle-toking

Ex.1m Il3inilll: M.ldling The mea~lns of words; Ameri«ln E"gli~h and British Engli3h F: T,lIu ng abou t rooming: Aski ng lor in forma li 011





Z The bigti",e

SUcces$ ,R: Choosing a title: Tru~ or f,ise: Multiple cboice 'Eam lnlnlng: Reading lor specifi< inlormation: Multiple Iholce Y: Opposite mecninss: Word 10rm~tiQn

The pas! simple and the JM~1 conl,nuous P: ,IV, Idl or Jld'

A !!IC\(Y b rea kl Le fl\!eOf f~[>e: Compleling f)()!\.",\ Exam t"'ining: True or t~l5e P; SI ressM words ~: films F: upr""ing smferenee~: M<lking ,u~olions

Page 16




3 Ho",e Qnd.,-u",ily

Wild chlld 'R: Reading lor gener.ll meaning: Mi~ing Ellam O1llning: Rl:3ding lor g<'nrralllleaning: Missing sentenlb V: Phra..<o"ilh diHe/enl meJni~: ph,;)",1 I'e,b$ (onnec1ed "'ith Iht lamil)': Collocation\ with g~13nd

Comparath-e; ~nd lUjl('r1<'lti,-es

L: frueo,f~lle



F:unlly relatlomhil» Ex:!.m II<I(nlng: frve or





Understanding a(IYcrli.\cmcn~

F: P~ooading; Making m~nsernen15


P3ge 30




• BodYQndsoul

The troth aboull~lIng alnld R: Mdl( Iling h&~dings; (omp,cl1cn~on QUe5Iions bam lraining: Matching heading, to paTagl;lph> v-. SyronYffi\: Alljecti"e:\ wilh -cd and -irtg; E:<tl\'R1eadje\liw,>

The prc:<cm pcrle({

Taking (are of YOIlOeIl ~ MulliplNhoicc qUCj(ions t",'"ing; Multiple-choice que,lions S-o!lftdblte>: II~el hn~ S: food: Likes ono disl ik~: S.~lin8 up a ,nJ,' lJJ( F: Talking dboUllikl1 and dillikl'S,~ PcrW~ding olhm 10

Page 42




5' The lIVorldahead

fJ<t"'rIlew..,lI.., R: Reading lo( ~pe(ifi,c inlonllation: Matching heJding:. 'I: Nounl: EO\'iron'Tl\'ntal problems

FUllue 10rl11s

A <IellOle balance

L: P: S: f:

.\ lYelIlher 'IOI1'c3sl:



Silenlll'tIC'S GJeen living: MJlcim: predictiom: l;)lkinS .]IXM Ihe futllre PlJllning and fllJkil1l, ~rr.'w'rn~n:~

P:lge 56




Ii 'Nel/Vhorlzons

A golden oppor1unlty R: True or IIlIS/1 V: OP~le:\: What's Ill<' diflcrcnce': \\\)nh wnnl~-"~

The prcscnl pcrl.xl conlinuous

SUt'ihl31 l: Completing nOI0:-5; Mal(hin~ ~ounoblle-l: Pure 11,0,,,-; ~: finding J p;)l1timc job f: Giving ad\,jc~and 'cspondi~g: E~c1k1I1gjI13 irl!olnl<llion



The past perlect

Glan' stride! L: 5eflltnu, Ulmplclion: Trueo, lal~e (and error wm.,\T1on) Eum t.-.inini' Scnl~n(e completion S: Talkingaboullrce lime SaundbUtl: I "ani 10 ~,..ak Irer





let'\. '~Yisc Unill 5 and 6


7.A sportingll-,e

The JomaiGlII boblleilh ltam It: P1ed,cting conlcnl: (omprthell"iion qU('\lion> V: woros<onl)fCled wilh sport; Compound no~,\\: Mvc(/)-; of dtji,ree

Pllge 82




If Strange but true

Ghoslly figu res It: Tme or (JI,e; MIlKhing information: Ulmp,chenslOll


The (,llling cow L: True or IJI~ land mo, <o".oioo): MlllriDle-<hoice ~u"lliorrs Exaf1 lrajning; Try" L'I f"t..e P: saTtl<! lOund . dilfN,:nt SlIelllng S: (.ood luck Jnd baclluck, Gi",ng an "((Qunl f: r)i\(~~ing lopj<:>; Moklng )'Qur slory more rlll~r61jng



Qu~ions ():3m Ir'alning:

Maiming inform~tion v: II'h"1'\ Ihe differencc'; Ncg;llr.", pfcfixe"

Page 94

94 'm'iJiThi

9 Ogtosee the ",,"orld

"n unuiu.allour of London R: CompleTing information: MIlI(hing V: Verb, and phldS<ll \-elb>; TrIlvcI nouns: WOrdS COIlnec1ed "'i\h loa>'t1

Reponed spCC(h

I,qud onO denl l; Mnoun~~l~nt'i;NOINakin~, .\Iulliple-dloke


questions Planning" holld.!y: l\ooiOng a holiday: lcllinst someone 'haUL a hGllddy

Page 108





fhe legal age R: True or lo!se; Matching Eum trainin&, Ke',' \\'O,d5 V: Ph r:l '" IWlbl: Preposi\ io n' and rjm~

The ,O<lssive

lime for a ch~nge L: PrediCling concem: Mulliple choice Exam training: Multiple (hoice s: Tu'ni~g point5




R: ,eading; V: YO<abulal'l, l: Ibtening; s: speaking, F: functions; G: G.ramma,

, (ulture focus/Grammar 2 history of English or !,Iol) be oble to

• (Of I, (Oll't



Word focus

Reading for pleasure

Writing an informal emall Di<!"nt fr;enlh Exam trainillt Informal emails


love story by Erich Segal (",told by Rosemary Border)


lOIlne<ted with studying learning a language Languago and ~lioll~lities Messages and notes


Srilish cinema

Writing a biOlJ3phy

6: ~J1irlel



OppOlile meanillgl Success Types of movies Show business The audience Meanings of make

A man of the se.s




In the USA , Relath-e pronouns

Wrlllng a sludent mag;uine article A\'ery special day

Phra~ with ditterent mNnings Phralal velbs (onne<ted \«l(h (he family gel or moke? Family relationships

The _



· 'ng in the extreme: Alaska • T e pmenl perfecl or the past simple?

Wrlllng an Informallemr News from hospit.,1


S)'nol1'Jms Adje<th-es \\~th -<iJ ,lnd ,ins Extreme adjeai\oes Parucf lhe y A balanced diel MNnings of do 52

Writing a posturd Wish \'Ou \\'('re- llele

NOU05 11 wea~1 fOIt'(w

'~cial diY'

South Africa: Kruger National Park

" muse musltl'/, haw /0 and Ix: not o/Iowa! /0

by Ouisline Lindap

diary 01 Adrlan Mole

by Sue lown","d

Fnnktnstcln by Ma'Y Shdky (relOld by Palrick Nobes)


Aghost In love by Mi(had Dean

Geographical fNlUI~ The environment 67

&:IU(Jlllon UK style " ·ll1g (orllls

Writing a letter 01 appliation and a CV I need a jobl


What's the diHc,€nce?

The thirty-nine iteps by John Budlan [rei old by NICk Bullard)

~tJrtill8 OUI




I<:/M wilh look



Wrltl ng an artlde Sport.s for Ihe family

" IP01tS lepar, Sports, plal'tll and pl~c~ Alh'erbl and adjc<,ivcs Whal' Ihe difference? Free-lime aC1;vi';<1

JaJo.'s trial bY Vemon Scan nell A' girl called Gor den byQ;r"id Batoon





" should. ought co and shouldn't

Wrlllng a story Ghosts

lhe difference' Prefixes Dexr,bing pe1)ple

The hound of the Baskervlllcs , by Arthur wnan Ooyle (retold by Patri(k Nobcs)





Wri,lng a ~mj.formal email liolidJy1 Enm lnlalng; Scmi'!olm<ll tmai~

Tr3\'l'1 nOU05

onckrful plaus

14 <ha ngi ng face of Europe G: Word \ and prepOloiOOClI


and ph~S3I \'erbs

Three men In a boat by I~roffie K, jerome (retold by Diane Mow.lJj

&in&3 tourist Geltingaround




WritIng and Informal letter Mirwit.1liQn

Phrasal vc/b, Prepali!iorll and lime Meanings of get lobs and employmcnl

Huddtbeny Finn D\' Malic: Twain (rClold hy Oiane l.1owalQ

The last IIVOTd

How much do you know about langlIages? 1 What languages do the people in lhe~e counlries speak? a Belgium b Argenll1lCl c Auslrali(l 2 Which three 01 these longu~ges each have more than 300 million weakers l



a Hifldi b English c Chinese d Spclnish e Arabic f French



3 How milny languages are there in the world? a 60 b 600 cover 6.000


Reading Z

Look ae the picture in the arti<lc on page 5. Wh"l doe:; it show? What do you think the article is about? Read the article and see if you wer~ right

,\~'{~)"d':'~"'I"lng .... \\1' :.' \""" :. !


..IrMatching headings to paragraphs Wr,eo you er-atell head ings IQ pMagraphs, don't JUS[ 1001< for the same words in the h~{Hjiflg and (he l>iHllgrdphs. Insttild, think aboul the meaning of [he whole paragraph.


Match headings a-f to paragraphs 1-6 of the article.

a b c d

What communities can do _6_ fhe number of langudges in danger _ _ Thr IClst speaker Df his languilgt _ _

TIle most important reason why languages are dyinRoul _ _ e language~ and natural distlsler) _ f What happens when languagcs die _

Read the article again and answer the questions, using your own words.

What does Maluenndi \hinkwe can do about hiS loneliness) 2 Whal is going to happen in Ihe nexl 100 years? ) Why do languages dre? 4 WhalLOn people do to ')<lve a langu(Jgd 5 Why should we care when I~nguages die?

Vocabulary Ve.rb5

5 find verbs 1-6 in

the article and match them to their

meanings a···f.

1 change

a damage something completely

2 disappear 3 destroy 4 s\Jrvive


5 save 6 care

e stop existing be iIlIHe-'5led

become different \;YI: oket' a diFficult evt:nt d SlOp somelhing dying c.

6 Choose three of the Ioe about the readi!l~ •


something . e three sentences

say, talK, speaK or tell? 7 Complete these sentences with the correct form of say, talk, speak or telf. 1 He i.. lonely becau_'>e he has nobody to _ _ to, 2 He is the Idst and only person in Australia who G:ln ___ his Aboriginal language. 3 'It's S3d,' he _ _ , 'but there's nothing we can do about it now.' 4 The exper1s _ _ us that out of Ihe world's 6,000 languages, 3,000 wi 11 disappear in th(> nexl 100 years. sentence~ using soy, talk, speak or tell. means '10 know a language'. means 'ID have a conversation with', is used 10 Rivc information to someone is used to describe someone's actual words,

8 Complete the ___ ___ ___ ___

9 Choose the correct verb

to complete the sentences.

1 He said / £Old. 'I wanl to dance.' 2 I said / told him thal it was loo late. 3 What did she soy / lell to him? 4 He speaks / talks three languages. 5 She likes 10 50eak / talk about herself

luerindi (<1 name which means 'R.unning Water') is ely because he has nobody to talk 10, bul his loneliness n't chan'ge - h is the Irlst person in the world \,vha can '. ak his Aboriginal language. 'It's sad,' he says, 'but re's nothing we can do about it now.' Exper who study languages say Ihat Ihere are 51 other . guages with just one speaker left - 28 of them in slraJia. The~e languages are so dose 10 dying out that . ody can g<we Ihem. Th cxp rls tell Us that out of the , rid's 6,000 languages, 3,000 will disappear in the next '. years, There are many reasons why languages die oul. metim'es natural distlstQ(S such as earthquakes, floods or unicanes suddenly q~troy small groups of people who . e in far awa.y pla€es. Sometimes the weather changes and :. ere isn't en ugh f~0d, and s0metimes strangers bring ~ w diseases. But disasteJ:s like these are not the biggest danger, and do :- t tell us why l,anguages are diSclppearing faster Ihiln ever . fore. The 'Teal problel11 comes from £he big world .anguages !luch as EngHsh, Spanish, Portuguese and ::rench. T~<day; mainly because of America, English is the ;; -t wm.:ld hU'lguage, and it is very hard fpr smaller ·ngl.lages. to $u!,liv~, = There are lhings,that small communities can-do to ave a .anguage, but tl\ey -neecl time and money. First, people need :;') record the I~nguage and write· it down, Then they need : 1 train t~~l)~(s, and wrile grammar book, dictionaries and books .f6~','schooJs. We should languages that are in danger just a .';e should care about -rare plants and animals. ''''Then a .'lllguage out it is not like. when a civilisation such as :_:,e andenr Greeks 01' Egyptians die. They leave behind _uildings like the: py~ids in Egypt and the Parthenon in Greece - there is always soJ)'lething to show that they were ::lere. But a spoken lan:guage leaves nothing behind - when :: dies, there is only silence.



Look at the pie.tures which show different ways of learning a language. Describe: • who is in the picture. • where they are. • what they are doing, Which of the activities in the pictu res do you do? Which of the activities in the pictures do you think are most helpful for learning Cl language? Can you think of other activities 10 help lea rn Cl language?


J' .'

The present simple and the present continuous



The present simple and the present contlnllOUS

1 Look at these symbols. can you say where they are used?

Uses 1 Look at th~e uses of the present simple and

:-) ;-)

pre5enl continuous. Look again at verbs 1-8 in the text and find an extlmple of eal;h of tile uses.

:-( =-0

Present simple

2 ~1.1

Tanya is giving a



to a class at her school. Listen 10 the beginnin~ of her presentation and

en<' ou,. ["":}I,'s), CourSe,

'p"qje.ct ",Vely




lear",'n3 a.bevt Sc:>Me-tJ,;":} « ./';t ;','e"'0:3(y,Ph,'c.s/



les.son a <vee/(



sue), C<S

tl'!""'" E:JY;d:c-.n


It,JI,,'e;'' aSed SMdl,p,"c.iuN!S and

5 a change that takes place Qver a period of ti me


sylYlbols. _,y:o ••


_tv,.·,·,··.. .J'~ ·~-=:-~.~~:.~...,.-".....



2 Write sentences in the positive, negative and

what tense is u~d in the fim gap? What tense is IJsed in the second gap?

queslion forms.

Present simple

3 Read the rest of Tanya's presentation ami choose the

positive _~_--e_--------­ Negative rn~t don't do d pro;~t-t tvert term.

correct form of the verbs.


Question Present continuous Positive She'6 doing a prl?,ject this term. Negative Question

rz 1-"...-",,, not0 du.ys, there ('ife t,"/>1eS '01'e'1 «.Je ,PN>./'e,. to eCH'7/>T"nicate ot<r ,deas to ec<ch otl,er.

7/','05 ,...;eel: tI,e<t -,




they />Tea'1, eVen i-/' the.;

d,'.,<'-/'erent lan;juc<je.

L,<:2P%iqj /;,fe the



<'h7bols -y'








c~.s • rec.0jn,'St!1

rl!?--C<!nt - G?

re?reSer.( -

SY/>1bols a.nd ,"Cons to




01' e <1ft1l'les o-/,rhe/>1.

t~ colours ;/1 a set 01" trc?l'.,r,e




d,·-/'.,<'erent cot<ntry or

S,PeaJ;- a

L'2q,,f_L..&-~ ~ra,n t and

s,//>160Is, excej7t tile« tllo/ c. I'cr efO/>T?/e., the SiJ"S .rev-

';U~-'>e55. ~ce. -

C.cPr;;~~5 ~'"

*,."d I q=.

~ :c..,;

:--......._ _

»-~ c ~,c- -~



yoa~'3 «dc-tits

I-{~ 00",<1'd

's, c</ld

-"";'5 sa" th"" Y=''5

~. :: _:;:~ c=-- ~ ."..:~ ~ ~.r,d 'Cons is -N:J.,'r/y er -: :;:~.. -..:-_ .:::_ : ~~ but /Jaw "(£'~~.....f2!:!1~

<'!}Cl yeu <: nro"e C</?C' ~c= -",

1"""l.0 Yet<rS


a b,'t /;,fe

tl-,-=;,. Symbcls.

Lthe.¥-L~ 6e.~',g~"!J

h ..s .:-<11

CY''''-'Y6ody ;;


a,re ,'nrpo,-t<:i,r,t ,

tile Ma,;" CUSCCU>1erS .,ror



I;/:e n«t,'onc<l I7C<js or

I,'j!rcs. 777eY 're "Se/'al lulw:t



;;:J.9-L.J:~cLo,'!?8 a 'prer./.ec-t on />1odet'1 SY/>1bO(S, anrl the clmrt


Sy/>Tbolo$ <<re t/7""5



Present continuous 3 something that is happening at tk moment of speaki ng _ 4 something (hal is only temporary



d;/,;/,. .,.ent.

SystRMS d' 4->,.;t;":}1

Wf! 2


~ hilpper,s (esulady

2 something that is permanent or alway,; true

fill in the gaps.

As 'p(lrt



.: c."" "':::; _



, hat do


me-an? 1 We use the present simple, not the present continuous, with adverbs of frequency (always, often, usually,

Match 1-6 to a-f. 1

Pe1ra comes from Hungary.



2 Petra is coming from Hungary. 3 Joanna works at McDonald's. 4 Joanna is working at McOonald's. 5 My brother doesn't watch 1V. 6 My brother isn't watching TV.


She's the manager there. He's doing his h0 mC"IA'ork, He prefers reading

sometimes, rarely, never). I a/ways use symbols in my text messages. John never uses them. 2 There are a number of verbs that we do not normally use in the continuous form. Here are some of the most



common ones:

She was born there.

believe belong 10 dislike hate have know like love own need think understand

e She has a job there for a month.

J don't

She's on the train right now.

ne. pre-$ent $imp\e or the pre~ent


WhiGh te-n$e? 7 Complete the sentences using Ihe present simple or

Underline the corred form of the verbs to complete the sentences.

present continuous form of the verbs in brackets. 1 My sisler often _ _ (send) texl messages 10 her friends. 2 At the moment, I _ _ (learn) to use a new computer program. 3 Symbols _ _ (become) more and more mmmon in adve r1 isi ng. 4 I _ _ (nOli own) a mobile phone at the moment. S I usually _ _ (understand) Ihe symbols I see in other countries. 6 How many symbols _ _ (you / hav~) on your mobile? 7 John never _ _ (send) me emails or text messages. 8 Red sometimes _ _ (mean) 'danger' or 'stop' 9 _ _ (you J know) whallhis symbol meanQ 10 This mobile phone _ _ (belong) to my sis-Ier.

1 let's go to Phol1ela nd. they sell lore selling mobiles reall\, cheaply at the moment. 2 My computer's broken so I use I om using mv brOlher's until I get it fixed. 3 Ela is Polish. She comes J is coming from Warsaw. 4 I get I am getting more and more worried about giving my presentation tomorrow. S Every summer MCDonald's spend lore spending extra money on adverlising ice ((eilm. 6 My {riends design / ore designing their own website. 11 looks great. 7 Many people ore working / work in lhe computer industry. 8 Hey, don't leave without me l I come I am coming right now.

ut$tions and ntga1ives and negative sentences. 1 symbols I more I Me / common / becoming'} b~,omin9

Let's activate €>t-Ghal1ging informa1iol1

Put the words into the correct order to make questions

Are, symbols

more tommon?

8 Work with a partner. You are going to interview each other about things that are always true, and things that are true at the moment. First, write some questions 10 ask your partner. u~ these topics to help you.

2 don't I symbols I like I people I some.

• • • • • •

3 am not I a project/l I this term / doing. 4 companies / spend / do /

understond what yOll mean.


lot of money I on advertising?

l.anguilgrs family friends books mu~ic


5 looking I you / are / at I the chart?


6 different I learning / you I about I are / symbolsJ

speak any languages? Arc you slvdyiflg any langoages ot the moment? 00 YOlf


Interview your partner.


'Getting the IDessoge


a a {)drty _ _ b an evellll)g out

1 Match the verbs in A to the nouns in B, A B send a message make leave dial phone




Look at the pictures, which show dilferenlways of sending and receiving messages. Which ways of sending messages do you use? Use these words 10 help you. '\' mobile phone 0 computer" sign I,wguage ~ deaf texl message • email

Note--la\(ing 4


listen again and complete the missing information. You may need to listen twice,






You ,He going to send a message around the whole class.

The teacher whispers a meS<.iage 10 the first sludent. fhe first studenl whispers the ~lTle message 10 the ne-XC )ludenl, and ~o on.

The last student tells (he class what he/she thinks the




c homework _ d an apology _ _

a number 5OmeOl1e a phone call

~,.l lislen 10 people givir'lg or taking three messages. As you listen, mat(h the messages 1-3 to what each one is about a-d. There is one answer you do not need.

message is,


~~:;\~'<: \\'1'

Matching When you do a matching task, read the information carefully before you lislen. Thi nk aboul the kind of words you might hear.




Message from: 4------------------------------.- ~"--~t Message for: 5 .. ._:>- ~


Number to call:


. ...__ [ - - - - - -....1







!\SKin9 for information

eaning of words


erican Engl ish and British English sometimes use :-"ferent words to mean the Same thing. Do you know "ich of these words are American and which are British? c'evator ,~ lift


bathrobe ~ dressing gown


Read the dialogue. Then listen and fill in the gaps.





Asking questions and understanding the answer do you know where the library is?~ Maria 1 Jane It's in Burundi Street ? Maria 2 Jane B-U-R-U·N-D-I.





Go past the school, la ke the first right and it's opposite the bus station. _ Maria Sorry that was a bit fast, 4 Could you repeat it more slowly?




11 Work with a partner. Use the dialogue box in 10 to help you.

Student A

A~k wilere 1h-e bus

.statlqn 'i~. A'S~

SttJ'sent B to ~p'ttU

,the street nam~.


Read the dialogue. Then listen and fill in the

Tell Stud:em B the time,

gaps. ~_W1l~ ~. Talking about meaning

'elevator'mean? Jim 1 'lift'. J Jane I'm not sure. 2 _ _ _ _ _ what 'bathrobe' 1 Jim





'dressing gown'.


but taJk


12 Work in different pairs. Imagine that one of you is a stranger in your lawn. Practise similar dialogues to the one in 11. Ask about:

Work with a partner. You each have three American English words. Use the wordlist on page 141 to find oul what tlley mean. Du not lell your partner. Studcn t A

." faucel (;' Hash Iighl

Student 8




vest " pantyhose " drugsiorc

Nuw ask your partner what their worns mean. Use the dialogue box in 710 help you. Do you know any other British English and American fngl ish words wh ich are different?

• • •

the nearest cinema I disco the name of a good doctor / denlist / hairdresser interesting sights to see in your town


'I look al the frequenUy asked questions (FAQ~) on this web page. Can you guess any of the answers?

2 Read the text and see jf you were right.

How many words are there in ~;rglish?, ,', There are about 300.000 entries in the Oxford 'e/fglisl1"""S:<::"\~ Dkriollary. HoweY~.r, there are ma1.Jy,sciel1tin~'al~d,techn'icl~,ii\;\:::; words thllt are not in the dictionary (for cxampl~;:'tbere are:';s:%; over a million types of insect). An educated, English sp~a'~,~r only uses about 30,000 words. <:;:;,;;:,.'., ~



What's the longest word,in ~ngl;sh,l '" \. "\\"" Accordi'ng to the Oxford Ell1!lish Dic-tioll(ll'J', it..hi'th~ lUlme for a lung disease caused by breathing iu dail,gerollS 'di.lsl,aJ;ld ' is pl1el/mmlolltlralnicros(:Qpicsilicovolcatl~aon.iosi.~. "':"/::~:\\:", .:'


-. '~': '~":": ~:":~: ':' '~;"t

What's the most common letter in S"glish7;.',(路, ,\\\ , The Leu.e( 'e' is used more than any ~ther. Ernest Wii:ght was" . ',:\? very interested in this fact, Md wanted 'lp see if it wa$'pO~~ible ,.\' to COlllllU11lic<ltc wilhoUl IIsing Ihis letter ill}lll. ,\\ ',:;\\;;(:,;~, He wasn't able to write very much! In the ei~d~ he \\'role'a':'i'oo~" page novel, Gadsby. wilhout llsing any words COnl,ajning the"\\\)~.:\,;: letter 'e'. Sadly. It was not a great suceess, but h~rc~i~,a bit of it'; ,:'.,:,~: A glorious jidl m0011 Sl/il'N/cl'oss {/ sky without Cl cJoud., A crisp Ilight ail' has lolks tII/'!/ing lip coal eoffal's and kids hopping lip and dOlYlIjor )VC/I'll/Ill.

Talking about your country

Why do ,people learn English 7 It's tbe top' language for traV'el and tourism, and is, used in- business -and science. At the moment, 80 'p~r, cent of the world's Internet sites are in English, but this wili路fall when more countries ,start using their own language.

1 Do you know where your language comes from? 2 Are there any foreign languages that are very imilar to your language? Where do people speak these? 3 Do people outside your country speak your language? Where? 4 What foreigll j~nguages do did most people leam a: scrJO' "'0." ;r ~fe past? 5 \~h;:~ ?-~_2~f: '10 -::-~ :,L"SiS use when they r-.::. ... -


s ': --:: -~ -:

~: 5;:..::a .. --::

language of (he country you

--01' "\

Grammar 2 an, can't or (not) be able to >- P134; ~

and can't

tan, um'f or (not) be able to 5 Complete the sentences using can, can't or (not) be able to.

" ark with a partner. Ask and answer questions about the wivities in the pictures using can and can't.


I always learn a few words of the language when I go abroad. It's nice to _ _ speak to local people.

',e use can and can't to refer to th ings we are (not) ab le to do.

2 I'm sorry, (an you please repeat that? It's very noisy and

Example Con you play squash or tennis? ::! I can play tennis, but I can't play squash.

3 I'm going la take extra French lessons because I wa nt to

I _ _ hear you.


_ _ speak to people when I'm on holiday. It's great using the Internet. You _ _ learn a lolof

new expressions. 5 If you go to Australia for two years, you will _ _ speak English really well by the time you come back. 6 Why don't you ask your leacher to recommend a book? She may _ _ help you. 7 I'm very sorry, bul I'm afraid that I _ _ come to the lesson next week. 8 People who work in the tourist industry usually need to _ _ speak more than jusl one language. 9 I have never _ _ swim. I hate deep water. 10 She _ _ play the piano since she was six years old.

6 Work with a partner. Ask and answer questions using can, can't or (not) be able to and these prompts. you / speak more than Iwo languages? 2 you / pronounce


pneumonoLlIt ro microscopicsilicavo/ca noconiosis?

3 will you / come 10 my party next week? 4 you / lend me a dictionary? 5 you I go on holiday next year?


Let's activate

or be able to?


~ _ 'letimes it is not possible to use con because it has no

- nitive, perfect or future form. We have to use be able to - 5.ead. We usually use can if possible.

7 Work with a partner. You are going to tell each other about your plans for the future. Write a list of five thi ngs that you can't do at the moment but you will / might be able to do in the future. Use these ideas to help you. • •

look back at the text on page 10 and find the example of be able to that completes th is sentence. 4nd in the future even more Europeans



, Y brother _ _

I want to _ _ One day I will _ _ He might _ _ I'd like to _ _

lot of people _ _ many English people _ _


Finish the sentences using your own ideas.

• • •


look at the two columns below. In which column is it possible to use can after all the words? In which column do we need to use be able to after all the words?

for the future


drive a car read a novel in English finish this coursebook go to university visit the moon

Tell your partner about your plans.

Example J can 'r drive 0 cor, but I might bp. able to when I'm older.

Distant ,,.iends 1 Look at this Iist of ways of keepi ng in touch with friends.

Studying the sample 2 Look at this web page and answer the questions. 1 2 3 4 5

What is an e-pal 7 Whal is the aim of Ihis websi~e? How much does it cost? How do you join? What will you get back in return?

.. ,.:''.\', .,.'~~\",.~\:'\'.\'..\~:\\\~,:'.\",


E~ellf5'~ONllrJE \\ . ,.',





'I. \.

'\l\\~: ;~'"\\",,, .~"



Hi and welcome 10 e-pals-online, the place to meet new friends from all

over the world. If you're new, send us an emai! telling us about yourself, and we'll post it on the site. Then just sit back and wait for replies from your new e-pals contacts.

3 Read the email that Anna has sent about herself to the e-pa{s-online website. ...:.',,,, ",,',- .., ,,,~


.-,-n~,I,..,~ .. ~.:£..., SU'd'l ~

• phoning" texting • emails ~ letters" chatrooms

1 Which of these do you use to contad your friends7 2 What do you lik€ or dislike about the<;e?




- - - -SuPrJl'<'(






1 Hi 2 My name's Anna Slefansd6ttir, and I come from Iceland. I'm 16 years old and I live in Reykjavik. 3 There are four of us in my family - me, my mum and dad and my brother Henrik, who is 13. My mum is a doctor father wo rks in a bank. 4 HEmrik· and I both go to the same school here in Reykjavik. It's a really nice place, and I've got some very good friends. My favourite subject is Geography - at the moment we're stUdying the rainforest, Which is fun. I also like Art and English. 1don't like Maths_ I find it extremely difficult! 5 In my free time I like to play tennis, and in the winter I go skiing. Apart from sport, I love walching TV, going 10 tho movies and listening to music. My favourite group is Sigur R6s. I think they're absolutely amazing. 6 I want to meet people from all over the world, so please send me an email if you'd like to be my a-pal. 7 All the best. Anna


Ex"". t.rilll.',ng



, Informal em ails ,'. en you're writing an email to a friend, there are no les about how you should start or finish. Emails to : .ends are usua Ily like in{ormalletters. but they don't -;.Ne to be.

Norma\ and

strong or 'extreme' adjectives when we are talking or writing informally. Arrange the adjectivei in two columns, then answer the questions below. • good fantastic terrible. brilliant. amazing • incredible. nice. pleasant bad .. unpleasant. awful

I'd Rewrite th~e sentences using short forms where possible. 1 My brother has not got a car but I have. 2 .. Jack is not coming to the party. is he? .. Yes, he is. I have just had Cl te>.1 from him. 3 I am buying her something I know she will like. 4 I am emailing you because my phone has run ouL 5 .. Are you Swedish? • No, I am not. I am Fjnlli~h.







1 Which type of adjectives (Cl/1 you use with adverbs like very or exlremely? 2 Which type of adjectives can you use with adverbs like absolutely) 3 Which type of adjectiv~ can you use wilh the advefb really?


hen w~ write to friends, we use informal language that i like the language we use when we are talking. We of1en se short forms (e.g. I'm) instead of long forms (e.g. I om). Find the answers to these questions. 1 How many short forms (Ire there to the emaiP What do they mean7 2 What are the short forms of the following? Sometimes there is more than one answer. you are it is not [hey have not she will we would they are he has you will not 3 Each of these short forms has lWO meanings. What are they? she's


7 Some adjectives are stronger than others. We often use

'. atch the parts of Anna's email to the notes below. The -rst one has been done for you. _ Details about the school _ Rasic information about Anna _ Opening _ Family details _ Closing _ Request for a reply _ Hobbies and other interests

teps to better ..-: ntrac.tions


8 Find examples of adjectives used with these adverbs in Anna's email.

Writing an informal email Understanding the 9


Read the instructions in 11 and answer these Questions. 1 Whal is the purpose of the email? 2 whal kind of information would people walll [0 know aboulyou? 3 In real life. what information should you not pur in an email like thi$? Why?

P'anning 10 How many paragraph~ will there he in thf. emdi]? What will each paragraph be about?

Writing 11 You want to find an e-pal on the Internet, so you have decided to write to the website. Write an email introducing yourself and asking people to write back. Write the email (120-150 words). c.hec.~ing

12 Read though your Hnished email, and check carefully that you have: • used the presenl simple and present continuous correctly. • used short forms where appropriate. • used adverbs like really, etc. and included one or two extreme adjectives.



Word. focus' : . ' .






1 Complete the newspaper headlines using these verbs.

l-angua9e.f> and nationa\itie-f> 5 In pairs, answer these questions.

There is one extra verb. save" survive" care. destroy" disappear


Q}We musf languages now! . . .~...


1 What countries are the closest neighbours to your country? 2 What nationalities are the people who live in these countries? 3 What languages do they speak? 4 What nationality are the people who live in the countries in the list below? 5 What languages are spoken in these countries?





...~~.....,-'\H ~}«J;~~ .. ·u?>'~O:..~.. ·u':J:o"~~.,y;'i';·


Earthquakes and volcanos _ _ _ _ seven languages a year -.ttrm.y.<oR"':~

-»'An»..." ~/N •.ftXfY~:.o(l




Do you what is happening to small languages?

• The Netherlands • Brazil. The United Kingdom l\ Portugal. The United States of America .' Switzerland .. Austria. canada l\ New Zealand '" Ireland

",.,""'NI'!"....."....-kltr,~_/.""'"'.·liIY'o· ..~...•

if.·'/.q,,·~"AnyJ; ..I'.":'r',..·


Can languages with only ?. ten spea kers



and note-f>

./.;~..I',,~ •• ~-~~ ••

6 Complete the story using these words. Sometimes more

Wordf> {..onne.c.ted ~ith ntud'fin9 2 These verbs and nouns are all connected

than one answer is possible. .. dialled .. phone call. make • phone • ring

with studying.

Fill in the missing words. .:\.,



left. answerphone




study revise practise


a message on my 2_ _

yesterday while I was out. It said, 'Hello. I've got some good news for you. You've won the lottery. 3_ _

repetition memory translation

0900 454545 to gel your prize. Congrtllulationsr' I couldn't remember buying


a lottery ticket, bllt


decided to ~ _ _ the phone call anyway. I 5 _ _ the number carefully, No one answered, but there

3 Use two verbs and two nouns to talk about your language study. ~arnin9

1_ _

was a message. 'Welcome to the lottery-line,' it said. 'Follow these instructions to daim your prize.' The

a \anguage

voice went on and on, with long instructions about

4 complete this text about language learning using the

different numbers to 6 _ _ for different names. I

words in 2. The first letter or letters are given to help you.

suddenly realised. It was a hoax - there weren't any

'l."\\",.. ..i. ,':~i:t~w

prizes. just a long 7 _ _ thall had to pay for, And


to' " :st~ a



P_ your Er:lglish as mu~ as possible write to. a penfriend, watch TV and films in English, listen to pop music and read magazines in English. Try to 3 1_ _ about ten new words each


,week. ./!$I"lf you don't hear what your teacher says, ask him/her to 4 r_"_ it. Sometimes it can help to 5 t _ _ new words i,nto Y0ur own languag~. ~ , Always,6 r ~ before a test. -:;-~;:.-~.?..yb...7V4;.zr...~~.•N:"-'J;#~.'N-~fi/,1~···'",··'·N;~~;,~~tY~b...,f;(/i



:1 ,'.

t~ "

when I got my phone bitl, I was right - it cost £1 per minute!



Read,i"ng ,f,o,r', pfeasure ". . " .. ,



Underi>tandin9 the i>tor'f 1

Decide if these statements are true (T) or false (F). Oliver studied at Radcliffe University. 2 Jenn ifer had seen Oliver in the library before. 3 Oliver and Jennifer did not get on well when


they first met. 4 Oliver did not li ke the bui Idi ng his grandfather had given to Harvard University. 5 jennifer had no idea who Oliver really was. 6 jenn ifer did not fi nd Oliver attractive.

Voc.abu\af'{ 2 Find words

in the story whic.h mean the opposite of the words below.

• noisy· short (i n height) • friendly' im polite' open i ng • proud· warmly Talki ng about your reactions

1 If you were jennifer, would you go for coffee with OEver? 2 What do you think happens to Oliver and jennifer in the end?

Success 1 Match the words in A to their opposites in B.




Door lose give failure

rich win receive

5 Read the rest of the text to sce if you were right. lEXGlIft elY6lnlng )



2 Discuss which two of these things are most important in achieving success.

.. family" appearance ~ Ilard work ., 1l:'3cher " l'aleOl or ability" luck

2 3 4 S

title for it from 1-5. 1 The disadv<lntages of fame 2 How to get to the lOp 3 Going nowhere fast


4 Life as



5 A question of luck

Michelle Williams's parents wanted her to become an actress. Michelle won an award with her perlormance in a ~Im, Daniel Green's teachers had no faith in him. All you need to succeed is luck and natural 'talent You will wOfk harder if you get something (n retu rn for you r effort.

So, what is the secret of success? How can you make your dreams come true, and become a movie star, or start a successful business? Our article looks at two people who have found the answer. At fourteen, Michelle Williams was just (l teenager Uying with her family in a smal.l town in Montm)i'l., USA, whose ambition was to become an ach"css. Against her p<lrents' wishes, who wanted her to continue her father's profession and become ,1 stock broker, Michelle left high school when she IQ was fifteen to pursue an acting career. But finding good acting jobs was not easy. She once told a reporter how, during a difficult period, she tried to make a living by ice cream - but did not do very well: 'I tlte more than T sold,' she admitted. BUI she never gave up her dream. 15 First, she played small parts in television shows for a few years, but her talent w'as eventually discovered when she was 18. The makers of a new teenage soap opera, D(lwson~~ Creek gave her one of the main roles on the show. After that, it was only a question of time before she fOlUld fame in the movies. 2<J Today, Michelle, who wanted to be an actress since she was a child, has succeeded in becoming a respected Hollywood actress - and some critics are already saying that she will be a great star of the future. In 2005, she won Cl Golden Globe award, and was e\'en nominated for iln Oscar for her ;c; outstanding performance in Brol,t?back Mountain - the film which introduced her to her husband, fellow actor Heath Ledger. Wht-, ~:--::ear-old Daniel Green started sending samples of his O~'.-:, .:~.:::hing designs to fashion shops, only he believed :; tha: ~t .:: :-:';';i c.dtien' his dreaQl. His teachers thought he \''-~-:''::= :-t., e- -;,:> i:.::1.'.-where at all! But by the time he was 22, he c.h路,,"':'~- :-..=.': :-..)?,:cact"s with 30 shops. He spent many months =-:<=-;: :- ~=.:5. ~\..., ~(Jrwince more than a hundred leading I

4 Read the first few lines of the article and choose the best

Reading for specific information Look through the text quickly lo ~nd specific information. When you see the information you are looking for, read that part of the text more (arelully.

6 Read the artide and decide if these statements are true or false. Correct the incorrect statements,

3 Look at thl:' photos of famous successfu I people and answer the questions. 1 Do you know the people and why they are famous? 2 Which of I'he things in 2 do you think were most important in achieving their success? 3 Whose success do you lhink is the most impressive? Why?






Multiple choice Read the first part of the Question and each possible answer before you make your choice. Read the example lirst, then choose the correct answer, a, b or c. Example

he,. parents ... wanted her to ... become a sfock

bro~e.r.. 5.0;. ;lis' incorrect bet(luse she left school and became an;actress'cigainsl her parents' wishes,



b earned a living by making ice cream.

The text says she tried to make a living by s~lIjn8 ice cream, it says tlo(hing about l1'lald"g it. so b is incorrect.

c atlended high school. The text says she left lligh school when slle was fi/leen 10 pursue on octing career, so before this decision she was a high"school student. So, c is the wrrect answer. 1

0ppo5ite meanings 8

Find adjectives in the text which mean the opposite of these words. , easy" ignored ~ insignificant'" tiny strong ( ashamed



9 Write sentences using three of the adjectives you fou nd in the text.

Before Michelle started her acti Iig career, she a worked with her father as a stock broker. 1~e:tex~,siiys


What did Michelle achieve when she was 18?

a She got her first job in a television show, b The makers of Cl soap opera offered her a leading role. c She met her husband on the set of a movie. 2 The author of the article believes that people who (Ire successful are those a who have luck and naturaltalenl. b with the most rime. c who work hard 10 achieve their goals. 3 What do~ This' refer ro in the last sentence? a worki ng hard b achieving your dream c giving yourself Cl reward

1panies to buy his products, so he could open an enormous op himself, ilnd sell all the best fashion brands there. Today, shop, the Brand Centre, makes millions of pounds each

er. So, what do these two young people have in common? It is t hard to see what their secret was. Hard work, a la! of ication, and a positive belief in their own talents. Whatever your dream is, the secret is to aim high and never o:op. People who have got to the top are not simply the ones -~o had luck, and they do not believe they can succeed only :--ecause they are naturally good at something. They put in the - urs when they need to, word hard and work well. They also ~. to get better all the time instead of just worrying about their 'eak points. So, follow their example, and be proud of your ; :hievemenls. When you do well, always re\-\.'ard yourself with = 'reat: watch a movie after a hard day's work, or buy yourself " . me new clothes when others praise your effort. This will spire you to achieve even more!

Word formation 10 look at the text and find nouns which are formed from these adjectives. ,-, successful ;' dedicated

ambitious. famous talented " ItlCky



11 Complete the sentences using one of the nouns or adjectives in 10. 1 Daniel Green is very . He wanis la have a shop in every city in Europe by the time he's 30, 2 My brother is a wonderful singer. He is really _ _ . to win Cl million pounds on the 3 You need (l lot of lottery. 4 I'm really tired. Climbing up that hill was _ _ , 5 Daniel is a very _ _ businessman. He has achieved what he dreamed about. 6 Jenna is _ _ to her job: she works hard every day, (lnd puts in th extra hours when she has to. 7 Kate Winslet is il great actress, who found inter ational _ _ in the film Titanic in 1997,

Describe the photos. What kind of success does each of them show? What would you like to achieve after you leave school? Js success important 10 you? Why? I Why not? Does success mean the same as happiness? Why? I Why not?


_ _ •.•




' _ ........ r_.·


Grammar 1 The past simple and the past




1 In pairs. look al the photo and an~wer the qLJenion~. 1 00 you know who lhis is? 2 What hdnd~ or "SiIl8er~ do YO\I like? 3 Did tiny of them ~~ 111heir'i"rs when (hey wc're very VOImg?

and irre.9u\ar v8rbs

Complete the text abol1t Bjork, using the Yerb~ in brackets in the pa~1 ~imple. which verbs are irregular? 1

AI{hough her band Kukl _ _ [record) two illbum~ clOd 2_ _ (go) on a lour of Europe, Blork only rea Ily ;_ _ (become) world fdmOIJS with lhe )u~(jr(U 1)l's, an Icdane! ie band. Rrilish Clnd flmeriGln r<loio s(ations 5 4 _ _ (play) lheir r'ir~l single ancl _ _ (make) them a lJ(Jpuh:lr allernalive band in bolh (Ollntries. The SUgarclJbe~ 6_ _ (haVC) a number of llil5, but in l~J

Bjork 7_ _ (breil~) up wilh her hllsband Clnd (move) 10 London with her SOil. While ~he WAS living in london, she ? _ _ (choose) a new style for


her work. Working \Vilh ~everal olg-mnne producefJ, ~h~ (begin) work on a hou5emusic inHl)en(ed album, Debut, which 11 _ _ (be) a massive suc(c:.':>s, and 12_ _ (sell) very well in 1I1e US ano lJK. Her creatiYily and success haS!'1'1 slopped ",ill) music though. She 13 _ _ (star) in and 14 _ _ (write) the 'i'ore ror lhe musical OonCf~r in the Dark and 1S _ _ (win) the besl acHes) award at Cannes ror her rolE' ill it. 10 _ _

p.. radio programme

2 ~Z,1 Bjl:lrk.

listen to part of a radio programme about tceland'~

most famolls


and fill in the

missing verbs.

The past simple Clnd the past <ontinuous

Forms Bjork


She ' _ _ her firsl album when she was jusl11 years old. 10 the next eight year5 she 2_ _ in three bands. In 1981. she }_ _ on


TV programme, Rock in

Reyk/ovlk. 3 Look at the verbs in 2. They are all in the past simple. How do we form the past simple of regular verbs?

"Pron unl.iati 0 n 4 Complete the sentences using it/, Idl or IId/. 1 When a regular verb ends in t or d (e.g. start, recorrft. tl1e .et! ending is pronounced _ _ . 1 When Cl regular verb ends in another ~und. the -cd

ending is pronounced _ _ or _ _ . 5 look ill the VNbs in 2. Are they pronounced IV, Id,' or Itd/ ?


~u look at these verbs and decide if they are pronounced lv', Id/ or Ild/. Then listen and check. • wanted invented


~ lurned .. ended (.



Write lhe negative and



Past sImple PoS'ilive fZ4djo Maliolls e/(Jyed ,heir first 5In~/f.. Neg<llive _



Past continuous Posilive Silt} W(J6 liVing in London, Negalive Question

_ _

Usu Z complete 1 and 2 with the explanations a-d. We use lhe pasl simple _ _ and _ _ Z Wc use the pasl (ontinuous _ _ and



a ror <In action which went on for some lime in rhe past b for an action which happened at a parrfcular lime in [he past c for <10 action which was taking plate wllen Jnoth€r in1errupled it. d lor actions taking plilce one after ilnotll~r in the past

Cast simple or past c.ontinuous? Here are some facts about Briti5h rock blind Rad iohead. Complete the senten~s using the past simple or paS"( conti nUOU5 form of the verbs in brackets.


~~lmIS:;mm;Eli!RImI_IlIIiWOIEiIIIIl!III_il\!lil'lltII!JI~_I\l'II:ilII!\l:;:Ill~'W.\\\1 1:t'

1 The five members met while they _ _ (study) at 2

3 4 5


Complete this paragraph about a new I>and by putting the verbs in brackets in the correct tense.

When the band i _ _ (gel) together, they 2 _ _ (not / be) worried about being compared to

secondary school. They first _ _ (call) lhemselves On A Friday and they _ _ (play) in a pub in Oxford. The band then _ _ (have) to stop while the members _ _ (linish) their education. They _ _ (change) their name to Radiohead in 1991. They _ _ (stop) touring in 1995 because they _ _ (record) their second album The Bends. While the band _ _ (tour) i1'l2000 Ihey _ _ (take) their own tent to play in.

other bands.


3 _ _ (not / matter) to them

because even then they


(grow) up in France, he


I. I'~


like different types of music, however. When 5__

~ ~

(make) music

which was very different from anyone else's. They all







to listen to rock music like The Police and U2. Paul (grow) up in Spain. When he 8 _ _ (learn)



~l tt.

to play guitar, he used to listen to bands like


Metaliica and Led Zeppelin. Since becoming part ot the band, they have been able to meet some of their heroes. Anna 9 _ _ (meet) Sting at

a party but

admits she 10 _ _ (can / not) think of a single thing to say to him!

Let's activate Information


10 Work with a partner. One of you is Student A and the other is Student B. Follow the instructions. Student B: look at page 152. r····~~~~~~;·~·

. . ·.. . .· . . ·.·.·.·..· .·.. · . .·..·. · .·.·.. .·.· . .·..·. ··1.

Complete the text using the past simple and past continuous. MichaeI

1_ _

(have) breakfast yesterday morning when the post 2_ _ (arrive). He 3 _ _ (listen) to the radio

'i 'I::.

at the time so he " _ _ (not / hear) the postman ring the bell. His mother 5 _ _ (bring) him an officiallooking letter a few minutes later. He 6_ _ (open) it, wondering what it

7_ _

when he

(read) it and

8_ _

(can) be. Imagine his surprise 9_ _

(find) out that his

application to enter the young musician's talent competition had been accepted!

Student B's story is called 'Sarah's phone call'. Find out what happened by asking these questions. 1

Where was Sarah when she got the phone call?

:2 What was she doing? Why? 3 Who phoned her? 4 Why was she phoning? 5 What did Sarah do then? ~











l'!~\llt'~1111111111\~iiij;i;!':'··· . lucky break"

3 ~l..

You are going to hear two actors, Georgina and Danny, who wurk in TV adverts. Before you listen, decide which of these words they might use to descrihe their job5.

1 In pairs, answer the questions. 1 Do YOl) like adverts 7 Why? / Why not? 2 look (It theS€ TV adverts. Whill do you think they are ddvertising?


glamorous" fun ,. tiring





Now listen. Which words did you hear?

4 listen again and complete the notes,

Age now: - - - - - - - -

How he felt filming his first scene:

Age now:


How she telt filming her first scene:

Listening r.;~~m""lnl~ True or false



Read each st"remenl very carefully before you listen. Only part of the statement may be true.

Pronunciation <f,tres~ \!lords



~1.5 lislen and underli ne the two w()rds in this sentence which are stressed. My favourite advertisement on the television is an a<Jverl

listen to sarah and Luke talking about TV adverts and decide if these statements are true or false.

tor trainers. 6

rQl.~ Listen to these sentences and underlin€ the word that is stressed. 1 The advert~ are lerrible. 2 Why aren'llhere more ildverts on liV? 3 Do anDrs really enjoy appearing in TV ads? Now say the sentences. Stress the words you underlined.

Vocabulary 7 Complete the sentences using these verbs. Q

1 Luke likes the chocolate advert. 2 5ara11 thinks 1111 adverts are good. 3 LUKe thinks some adverts are funny. 4 Sarah can't understand luke's 'iense of humour. 5 Many actors appear in TV advens in the'l( C<lreers.


listen to " see. hear

~ watch

1 I _ _ uhal TV ;Wor on my way to schooL 2 Don'~ turn of! the 11/1 I _ _ the footbalL 3 Can you _ _ that noise? wtlat is it? 4 Do you _ _ CDs when you study?

10 ~2.7

Speaking fi\m$ 8 In pilirs. answer the questions.

Expressing preferences laura Which film should we go and see? Adam 1 go and see Serenity. What abOllt you? laura 2 see A Good Year thiln Serenity. I don't like science fiction films Adam I'm sure 3 Cosino Royole 4 _ _ _ _ _ A Good Year. They say it's very good . laura OK, let's go Clnd see Casino Royale then .

1 Ilow often do you go to the cinema? 2 Do you prefer to walch tilms at Ihe (inern<l or on video or OVD' Why' 3 11 you watch a film in a foreign language, do you prefer it dubbed into your own language. or with subtitles" Why') 4 What kind of films do YOll prefer? u~ these word.. to hdp you, ... romantic films action films thrillers " science fiction films <' historical epjcs comedies .. animated films 0 horror films

9 look at the pictures and read the descriptions of these three films. Which film looks the most interesting? Why? What do the numbers in the brackets mean, do you think?


Picture house ,


Daniel Craig stars as special agent James Bond. His '!Jery first mission is to play a poker game against the dangerous terrorist banker, Le Chiffre, and win his millions. During the mission, Bond meets and falls in love with a beautiful woman, played by Eva Green - can he win the money, and can he save the woman he loves? Definitely worth seeing.

~ ~~.~~ .. Y~~~.U?L








see. Use the dialogue box in 10 to help you.


Read the di<llogue, Then listen and fill in the

gaps. Making suggestions Adi2m 1 for something to ea! belore the film? Laura Good idea. 2 to that new cafe? But J after the film, sl1all we? Adam OK, see you later. \ . '

13 In pairs, suggest what

10 do before or aher the film. Use these pictures to help you.


Oscar-winner Russell Crowe shows his sensitive side in this gentle romance. He plays a successful businessman who inherits a beautiful farm in the south of France. Here, he meets a young French woman, and he discovers a different way of life. What's more important: money or happiness? Now he must decide if he wants to start a new life. Beautifully filmed, It is recommended for fans of romantic films.



11 In pairs, discuss which film in 9 you would prefer to 12

,~~.~!.IJ.!? .. !!!.~'1~!.~.r.!.~~i.,

Read the dialogue. Then listen and fill in the



There is a mysterious girl on the spaceship Serenity. She escaped from a government hospital, and now a special agent wants to get her back. Captain Reynolds and his crew of small-time criminals face terrible enemies to try to save the girl, and maybe save the galaKY, too. Fantastic special effects, and plenty of humour. An absolute must for sci-fi fans!


14 You went to see a film last night with a friend, but the evening was not a success. Take it in tu ros to ask and answer questions. Say: • • • • •

which film VDU went la see. how much it (Ust to get into the cinema. how you felt ",bout the film. what you did after the film. why the night au I was such a failure,

'1 Work with a partner. Choose two paragraphs from the text


each. Read your paragraphs and make notes about the decades they describe.

Talking about your country




x ~O"Xc.c

.~./':•• :'"'''J,",'''~'';O:;O:~.''''-;O''J';J...'''''''''''_'

are the great film stars and directors in your country?

2 How important are TV and films in your home? 3 What is your lavourite film? Why?

2 Close your books and tell your partner what you learned abollt the decades in your paragraphs. Then open your books again and read the whole text. -.:-

, - ~I'

I.. ···

British cinema .



·A· 'history of British cinema . ~.



';: :i':,:'BI~~ history of British cinema ove.r: the last fony or flfty·years i~ olle .:' i'eif"t~pS.·.:i11d downs, successes and failures. Here "re jusr a few of thent

,me. "swii!u1ng siities' 'T.lle 19605 w~s ~ great decade

for British filM, the(l~' \.....l.S worldwide . j/ltert~~~t in Ekltish f.1Shion, youth culture ~llld the English. British dircCt0liS s~ilrted llwking fil11ls shQwing"Swinging London' such as A.Hard Day~~ lVig!Jr ~t.1rrjllg the Beatlcs, and A[fic sta~'ring Michael Cajne, :IS a workiJlg-c1(1Ss cockJl(·y. This attracted money fi·OIl;J. lhe .Un:it';d States into British dnema. The first lames Bond film in 1962 ,""'::: ,: was the beginning of onc of the Illo~r succ'essful st:rics of films ill :: ,19:' B.ri~i~b. Cinel~f<\ hi8,tory.Euf9pean directors li.k~ the young Polish .""" , . director R.oman Polaliski (lame to 'Hollywood. England',

:<":' '"

The ~ad seventies. In tht~. 1970s, everything changed. The Americans spent too much tlloney 011 making tihns"h3(1 scvt:ral box-office f.'1ilurts and went back ·to Amgr.ic'l, Iclivlog the British cinenUl industry without any money. <'15'· Big B':itish flhn c;olllp:lIlics ~vcn starred plltting mon.ey into American . . fi"Im~. '

." ': The mixed:elgl1ties


.:: Toht'. 98Qs saw 'the success of Hke Chariots of Fin', and the great :eliic Cell/dilL Howt7vei, th~~ story ofBricish cin.ema in the 19805 W;l$ ,reallY" o.bput 'the, rela!ionship benveen c;:incma' and TV. TV Ch,lIlIlelS '.. ' :!o started Pl1tti1ig OlO1)9Y int<> the film iudJlstry and ~ven Ill<lkin.g film.~ :.:. ..siltins 'My}...::!r F(lot. S:0D1C: p~ople saw it as the beginning ofa new . rda'tionship between the cinema and rile TV industries - bur others ,sllid tli;lt rheal:t:iv:al' of the. <'nd of r!le CinCrl1;l. . . TV 'mc::ant '.

~ . ,:The SOC.C8sSfui nlpfit(es


....': .':: ,'~Ii ~he. 1990s·, F(li~J" Weddin;l?s. ,1.11(/ el Hmel"lll hit the big screen and was (ii.·:~, f:!" y,~~:):. suc:cessfl~laround th~ world. Thh. was ~~)llowed' by big hir~ like '.. S/Id(n,g.DIJOI>, nle Pufl. Monrr. and Noumg tit/I. Some people cl:nmed drat' Brjti~h, cinenl,a w~ oack. .

. :.t

:l'}~~''''-''>" ~{, .-~'

" :::,'

- .', .

l;" :'. The.'2fst ceIitt!ry , '.


t~ '.J~ .~t0~1JY o;':tpi.f)ig, b:lockb!Jstet films

that arc made in Britain ,toda}~ sllc:h

", '!'·:k;~aS Bi!ly 7~(lj<)l, lo.ok British ;illdsound'Brirish, bur -are acru.1Uy mad~ by

\,,:)':31J fyme:riciiJ. lilon'ey audoften:&y!ican directors. The hllge~' successfiil i'.,;·:,,;.::Bd@1,ti.llll.adtlpta~oi:J~ 9f~e Bridgel JOlles novels star Renee Zellwegcr;;..' (t"'jin ~iie'~,i~n.p1ayi.n~'theEnglisl~!lero'ine. The 'question is, is there ~:.{}\. .•: 3:J.:qrth~ilg that}~:in truly be called t!le Hr~t:lsh fi!m industry aIp{ tilOre?

~~<S&i~lL~~ o


Grammar 2 Articles


a. an or the?


the or no article? 1 Look at these words from the text. Look back at the text to see how they are used and match them to the explanations of their use a-(.

5 Look at these sentences and answer the questions. a I went to see a film on Saturday. b I went to see the new science fiction film on Sat urdilY. Do we know anything about the film in a? Do we know anything about the film in b?

1 the United Slates (line 8) 2 the Englj~h (line 4) Amr.rica (li ne 14)

Now complete the rules using the or a. Use the examples


above to help you.

We use _ _ when a countable noun is mentioned for Ihe

We usually use the la talk about people who live in a cou ntry. b We usually use the for the plural names of cou !)hies. c We do not usually use an c3r1ide for the singu lar name<, of countries, Cl

first time.

We use _ _ when we know which thing we mean.

2 Match these words from the text to the explanations of Iheir use a and b. 1



James Bond

him (line 9)

2 tilms (line 15) a Wc use the when the listener knows which thing we mean or there is only one of something. b We do not use an ar1icle when we ore talking about things in general.


Complete the sentences using the or no article. 1 _ _ Unitt:d Slates was the liHgesl single market lor films. 2 _ _ America is still all enormous market tor films. :I America n director, Steven Spielberg, i" very successful. 4 _ _ European direc!Ofs Lame 10 'Hollywood, England'. 5 _ _ British u~d to be a nalion of cinema-goers, 6 _ _ ~lm Chariots of Fire was very popular. 7 _ _ films like A/fie, which Me successful, are alien made again. 8 _ _ success of films often depends on _ _ director.

4 Read the conversation Clnd correct the mistakes. Sometimes the is not needed and sometimes the is missing. Sue I saw best film I have ever seen last night. Brad , Was it that new science fiction film? Sue No. I can't stand the science fiction films. It was Cl thriller. Brad Oh, no! I don't like the thrillers. Sue But this one was different. II was set in the Brazil and it was about Cl young girl who gets mixed up in a robbery by mistake, Brad It doesn't sound very interesting to me! Sue Well, if you don't believe me, why don't you go to see it for yourself!


Rewrite these sentences using a, an or tile where nec~ary.

1 British make fewer films than Americans. 2 Film 'A.I.' is Steven Spielberg film. 3 Many famous Indian films are made in Murnbai. 4 What was last film you saw? 5 French make lot 01 films. 6 Film stars make lot of money. 7 Which is biggest studio in Britain) 8 Movie slars usually live in big houses,

~ 1

star's lire


Match the paragraphs with these headings: _ Movie career _

1 How ottcn do you go to the cinema wiLlI friends? 2 What was the last film you SolW? 3 Who is your favourite film actor or al1rrss7 4 What i5 the best film that they were in?




Other interest5

4 Look back at lhe differenT words and phrases that are used for t;:llking about time in the bio~raphy. Complete the sentences about Charlize Theron, using the wordli below.

Studying the sample Read this biography of a famou$ actress,


Early (I(eer

In pajr~, amwer the qu~tiQn~,



when .. before 1:







in' al

1 Ch.>rlizl;' Idt home _ _ the age of 12. 2 _ _ $he was 16, she left boarding school. 3 She lravelled [0 Italy _ _ 1991. 4 _ _ sl1e started acting, she worked as a mQdel. 5 _ _ she appe<tred in The Devil's Advocate, she starred in The I(alian Job.

Steps to better writing t>re.t>o5ition~


5 Wh<lt prepositions do we use with these words? Put them into the right column. Some words do not need a


Ju Iy 8 o'clock r, 199,~ Ju Iy 4th last Tuesday midnight last ..... eek

ize Theron BIOGRAPHY


Sunday last year. Dec:ember this morning the 19805 2005 Christmas Day Friday I


In ...

on .'.

at .. _

- (no preposilion)

in O'fob路er

on Monday




Charlize Theron was born in 1975 in the small

town of Benoni in South Africa. She grew up on a farm near Johannesburg and went to boarding sChODI wh en sh e was 12. 2 Allhe age of 16, after she won a modelling competition, she travelled lO Italy. She worked as a model before travelling to America, where she staf1ed her acting career. 3 Her first important film was The Devils An'vacate with AI Pacino and Keanu Reeves, and then she starred in the action-packed remake of The IraliC/n Job with Mark Wahlberg and Edward Norton In Monster, she changed her appaarance completely and she played the part ola serial ~iller. The film was a big hit i:lnd she won an Oscar for Best I\(;{(ess, 4 SnQ is now a major HollywDOd star, but "lw has time for otherthings. She wor1<s hard for an animal charity, and she also helps women's groups in her native South Africa.


----.. 6 Complete the sentences with


on, at or with no

preposi tio n.

rhey're sl10wing lots of Charlize's films ,

this week.

The Dcvjl''j Advocate, her first big film made

was on TV IOni8111.


yesterday and Monster

~Ianing 5 _ _

2_ _


is on TV ~ _ _


They're going lo show more films 6_ _ December lOO.

We'll get the chaoce to see The Cider


Rules 7_ _

December 15th.l\nd then ~ _ _ Christmas Day, there's

The l1alian Job, which is a remake of the one Ihey originally made back 9 _ _ 1969.



7 Look at the different ways we can make the order of events dear.

9 Write a biography of the actor Daniel Craig (in 120-150 wards).

She lived in New York

and after that and then she lived




she moved to LA. in New York, she moved to LA.

and after that and then after + past simple

after + -ing form

Rewrite these sentences in two ways using the words in brackets. 1 She worked in Italy for a yeaL She went 10 AmeriQl. (and ofter lhot) _ (ofter + -ing) _ 2 Shp. gol io New York. She went to ballet school. (and then)

(after -I- past simple)



3 She injured her knee. She gave up ballet. (and (hen) (ofter + -ing) 4 She moved to lA She got a part in a TV show. (and ofler t!)(Jt) (after -1- past simple)


_ _ _

Writing your biography Unde.r~tandin9



and planning

8 You <:an us~ the following notes to plan il biography. Look al the '2151 Centu ry James Bond factfile' for information about Daniel (rdig's lif~ and work. can you find information about each of the points in the work plan below? 1 Introduction • basic information about the person, what they are famous for, when and where they were born, went 10 school, elc. 2 Early cnreer • give derllils of things like university. drama school, ete. • details 01 early work. SUCC(5)C<; and failures 3 International success .. details 01 work that made this person lamous internationally • details or whill the per)(Jn is doing now or is rlanning to do 4 Other interests • information about other things that the person does or is interested in

BO'_~_March 2. '1968 in Ch~sler. England. Home rown: Prescot. --_..


School near Liverpool.


Age 16: moved 10 London~~~~~;;~Trained at GUildhall (aCII~g-;;-h~l):"~i;li991-~ Firs! acting roles: part in the TV series Our Frienqs ;;;~~ North Other small parts.

Big fllmS~L~,-a-C-:-fi-oft-:-7i-om--b-R-81-'cJ,-er-(2001), Lay~r Cak;--' (2004), Munich (2005).

-'--------Rays/e, first shown

Biggest Role: as James Bond in Cas/no 14 November 2006.

Hobbies: fishing. painting, exploring quiet places In the ~ntry.

C.hU\(in9 10 look carefully back at your work. Check that: • you h<lvC used Ihe past tense correctly. .. you have used the right prepositions. • you have used after ... lInd ofter lhot, ere. correctly.


-... -... -.--' ---.---.- . • . . . . . -- ....





Word ·focus···· O'P1>po.Site. meanings


1 Underline the correct adjective to complete the sentences. 1 Vin Diesel is skinny I well built because he goes to the gym. 2 Bill Gates is one of the richest I poorest men in the world. He has billions of dollars. 3 I saw a tiny I enormous dog the other day. It was the smallest I've ever seen. '4 I bought a similar / different jumper for my sister. Now we almost look the same! 5 Y<IlU'should try and be more negative / positive about your life and try to be happy. 6 The film had many bad I good points, for example, the ending was terrible. 7 I am very proud / ashamed of my brother. He is very clever.

~ho\-ll busines~

6 Put these words in the correct column. ~ Cl



-ful • -ing .. -ed .. -d

1 ambitiol'l 2 talent 3 fame 4 success


-y ,\

film star

the audienGt verbs. Q

5 dedication 6 luck 7 hard work


watch • go to


hear. listen to ,. sit" clap" boo

he was saying, 5 We normally _ _ in the stalls at the theatre. 6 Al the end of the hit musical, Ihe audience _ _ for

(lbout half an hour. 7 The play was so bad that everyone _ _ when it finished. 8 I really don't like _ _ classical music.



to:"~O{k)b4~;'h9~r~. You have to be discipliNed a:b0ut '.what ,.YQ(i' eat", '}'\O, chocolate, or (fe-am cakes. \,Niu!)mi-k.noV/$:that·m«)dels can't work forever. She ~~:,~~f\·show evexy0L1.e·tnat she has 3~, and {: -


4 We _ _ the ballet on Saturday night. It was fantastic!

'\\'1',1' ;~'~I.'n



1 Do you _ _ much television? 2 I _ _ a really interesting film on TV last night. 3 The actor spoke so quietly that I couldn't _ _ what


~~;~:~wi'is,a medeL She makes £lQ,0QO a day! S0me ~i1\~$.B'~~:~~r that she is very 1_ _ because she '~\V\1~$\"~'~f£~\~e~t~ti(ul, so her life is easy. However, :,b.ei'l~g:'~~\:W~4~~}S.·2_- _ _ because you have


~\fP~f;s~e,;,can sing beau:tifu:1ly: She is 4 _ _ to §j~~~,9~~ga pOF star. Her 5_"'_'_ is 'to sing en ~;t~l~~~~idh. One day she'll Pe 6_ _ and everyone ~A~iti\~;~B:0:W;;hel' name. ' ~ \\:'-"\\\';'\~:',\W.. :,,\\,\\~)I,:l,~~·" " , " , ' . l' 'w.~':;oi>::~V4~ ....~w.~ ......~.",""'.<"'{"7d~:."..,..~~.-.·_~

TWes of movies

4 Rearrange these letters to make different types of films or movies. ~

noiad '" lIerthri ... storicalih pice "maneuo Q omecdy 1I rroroh ~ nesecci cofinti

5 Y{hich type do you like best?



entertainment and your favourite entertainer.

3 Complete the text using nouns and adjectives.



7 Write a sentence describing your favourite type of

Change the spelling of the nouns if necessary.


Type of entertainment


comedian ~ cinema concert hall


2 Make the nouns into adjectives using these endings.




8 Complete the sentences using the correct form of these



film star • ballet Q theatre'" film opera" singer. play 0 musician dancer. show

Meanings of



Make has many different meanings. Match sentences 1-5

to their meanings a~. 1 The top movie stars make millions of dollars on each film. 2 The film was terribly sad - it made me cry, 3 Hundreds of films are made each year in Hollywood, 4 It was a blockbuster and made her a star overnight. 5 In the story, the hero's father makes him marry a woman he's never met. a force someone to do something b produce or create something c have a particular effect or feeling d earn e become something

'J~eading for' pleasure . . .


by Christine Undop At· the age of twenty-six, life was neatly at an end for Jacques Coustea'u, who 100(ed flying planes. After a very bad car cr.3sh, which nearly killed him, doctors 5 said he had to stop flying. After the crash his arms were not strong, so the same doctors told him to do lots of swimming. Cousteau began swimming underwaterand his. life changed. IQ When he was young Cousteau liked taking photographs and inventing things. Now he was interested in the w1derwater world, but he wanted to stay under the water for longer. With the help 15 of Cl fdend called Emile Gagman, he made the Aqualtmg, which gave (lir to a diver underwater. With the Aqualung, COllsteall eould stay underwater fur several hot1l's, ilnd he said that the could 10 become a 'manfish'. h1 1950, a very rich man gave CClusteau some money to buy a boat called the Calypso, and he made the boat



his home for travelling on the sea and filming underwater. To pay for his journeys with the Calypso, Cousteau made more than a hundred films, aJ,d wrote more than a hundred books. Two of his films} TIle Si/eIlt World (1956) and World Without Sun (1966) won Oscars. Perhaps his most important work was

The Undersea World of Jacque~~ Cotlstea.u, 35



which began on TV in 1968. It gave minions of people aU over the \-"orld their first chance to see the strange and wonderful world below the sea. It also began to teach people about the need to protect the sea and its crea.tures from people and the things they do. COllsteau continued to invent and test new things. He invented a machine that could carry a man under the water, and he did some tests in which six men spent th.ree weeks living and working 100 metros und.erwater.



Cousteau died in 1997, at the age of eighty-seven. A short time before he died, he said that the most inlportanl work in his life was trying to Save Alaska, Antarctica, and the Amazon. The Cousteau Society, which began in 1973, is still at work today, making fiilns and working to protect the ocellns. More than 300,000 people belong to it in cmmtries all over the world.

Underf>tandin9 the. artide 1 Choose an event from (ousteau's life from column A and match it with a time phrase from column 1\1. ,.,,\\~\~\':\".!


','. '\'. \\\~"\"~\,.,1"~\\ \\"

'I \



1 The society named after Cousteau was set up 3 Cousteau bought the ship where he spent most of his life 4 He won two Academy Awards, 5 Cousleau look up underwater swimming on the recommendation of his doctors 6 He nea rly losl his life i 11 an accident 7 His most popular television series started on television S He died

VOGabu\ar'{ 2 Find the words or phrases in the article for these definitions. 2 3 4 5 6

1\',\ .,\,'.\'1 \ii,'·~\·~:~i,\.' :.. \~;.


2 He enjoyed inventing things



fi nished thinking of or making something for the first time a person who swims undelVlater. using special equipment keep something safe living things, such as animals, birds, fish or insects an organisation of people who share the same interest or purpose






'~~'I,•• \\.\\;::~,.:

when he was 26 years old. after recovering from a car crash. when he was young. in 1950. in 1956 and ten years l<ller. two yellrS after he won his second Oscar. when he was 87 years old. in 1973.

Talking about your reactions 1 Have you ever seen a film or TV programme made by /acques Cousteau? What was it? 2 00 you enjoy watching nature documentaries? Why? I Why not? 3 Why do you think making films about the natural world is important?


'Paf>t simple. and past l.Ontinuous

'Present simp\e and present tontinuous

3 Complete the text using the past simple or the past

1 Complete the dialogue using the present simple or the present conti nuous form of the verbs in brackets. Chris Greg Chris Greg Chris Gr~g

continUQUS form of these verbs. "pick


t;an, t;an't, be able to 2 Complete the sentences using con, can't

3 4 5 6

7 8

ring. watch

4 Rewrite the pairs of sentences to make one .~enten(e. Use when or while with the pa~t simple and the past (onti nuous. 1 I walked home, It started to rain, 2 My friend came to see me. I had dinner. 3 1talked to my Iriend on Ihe phone. SUS<ln knoc.ked at the door. 4 The singer met the members of the group. She recorded <1 radio progrClnlme. 5 Paul loured arounr] France. He met his wife. 6 Sally did her homework. Her mother called her for dinner.

Artides 5 Complete


be • call

Is your brother here at the par1y? No, he is studtinf) (study) late again tonight. Really? What 1 (do)? He 2 (finish) his Maths homework. At the weekend? 1 3 (not think) that's fair, No, neither do I. but his teacher 4 _

(give) the class a lot of homework, becau">e ">he 5 (say) the exarm b _ (become) more and more difficult. Chris 7 (you know) that guy over there? Greg Which one? The one who H (talk) to Monica? Chris Yes, Greg Oh, that's Pierre, the exchange student. He 9 (come) from France. 10 (you want) to go and 5<1y hello?



or be able to. My brother is good al speaking Arabic. bul he _ _ write 11.. Talk (0 Annic <lb()1I1 YQur problem - I'm >ure she will _ _ help. She started learning lhe piano yea~ ago, so she _ _ plllY quite well. I'm sorry, but I _ _ come 10 Ihe cinema willl yOu tonight. Jack _ _ drive quite well, but he hasn't passed his dri vi ng test yet. I'd like to _ _ type as fast as you. I might _ _ come to the party, I don't. know yet. James _ _ play the piano very well. It sounds horrible,

the text using a or the, or no article.

l)~llf 1

we....r to saw



OdeCl'. c.iktYM. t'f(lll~ fAA-ta.stic.



't sl-M I ~


WiU ij.-,e

filY'llS ~t t..>e oij.-,e. diUf a.~

fi!Yfl. l l i (l.C.tioh.



l?efor'e he o~ /U.I-i"e s€.(viu. The firWl ~ . .,..,p.. ~P IU\.U •. J ~,....~




tl--t audifhU.

ttr.d when, if- fik.isJ.-td"



sWY'fd M






t AA1f Vl1O"e a.k.d

IYI1"e!s tts

is full



~ ~




UCIII~. 10 -

~: .:.::-

to er.j"1 if-'lJ i'J"UCh,



~ l1ypfared

h."'r'!f to lett"e the cA;...ewd. •• _ . . . . N


faY is ca.utj-hl a....d sel'l.-t


itS f _




who decides he does.-.. 't wM- r to (W\.s llWiUf fr'Df'() ;__ P/'r"I'i.!. He



~ _ _ U0ted £taJts, thel'l.- V/llIIIed to D,'l.-. 11- wa.s ~t c;. _




be I...



t;;. ft:~

:t ~~ *.:<.


_-~- ;ow:«'''''~,,::x~-«W'<::;:;W%,;;:;<;:'#.:xq.r~*~}t.-


Listening 6


~1.11 Listen to four messages and decide if these statements are true or false. 1 Susan is ringing to tell Jim about the homework for tonight. 2 Mike is ringing to invite his friend out to lunch. 3 Mary tells Peter to get off the bus al the stop by the bus station. 4 Tickets for the rock concert can only be booked by phone.

9 Match the questions 1-5 to the answers a-e. 1 What doe~ your mother do? 2 Do you like travelling? 3 Who is your best friend? 4 What time do you finish schooP 5 (an you :>peak French? lisa. She's silting over there. b She's a nurse, ( Yes, a linle. d No, I prder to stay al home. e Hall pir:,l three. a

Speaking 10

7 Complete the questions for these answers. means? In the dictionary it says it's American English for ·tap· 2 Excuse me, , please? Go past the post of lice, and take the second left. The library is on the right. 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ elevator? H-E-V-A-T-O-R. 4 in your town? There are Cl 101 of beautiful buildings and Cl great



5 Excuse me, It's quarter past six.

Yes. Dr Taylo( is very good. Do you want her number?

8 Jjm and lane are in a DVD rental shop. Complete their conversation using these words.

jim lane

Jim Jane


rather . let '5




Q A I'm 19.

2 Q A Yes, I've got one of each - my brother's 21 and my

sisters 13. 3 Q A

a good dentist. pleilse?


Example Q WI,ere do you come from? A I come from Iceland.



• enjoy

Writ~ questions for these answers.


Which DVD 1_ _ we rent for tonight? I'd 2_ _ to see something exciting - not too serious. What about you? I think I'd 3 _ _ see a comedy. What about 4_ _ that new American one? Thai one over there. you mean? Yes. I think I'd 5_ _ that more than some of the others on the shelves. OK. 6 _ _ rent that one, shall we?


I usually live in Reykjavik. but at the moment I'm living with a host {Clmily ill the village.


Icelandic and


little Danish and Germ<lI1.

5 Q A

No, not really - I'm doing a course at a language school.

6 Q A Yes, that sou nds nice - is there a good film on?

'lIVild child 1 In pairs, answer the questions. 1 Which of these things do you lhink are most important in people's lives when lhey are growing up? {. friends ., family .. scl100l 2 What kinds 01 problems can young people have? Use these ideas to help you . ... family problems e smoking ,', drinking '.' Hghts ., trouble with the police


Reading ""'~"';'.\\


\\'~?-\~"1.~\'1'-',' 'y• . .

\\~\\ '\\ ' '.\" '.td~"'lnl.· .\~\,\\ I ~ ,~~,~. 'ng


}~~~t Readi ng for general mean ing ~,~;:.


When you are reading for general meaning, remember that you are trying to understa nd the message of the whole text. Don't worry if lhere are words you don't understand.



Ignore gaps a-e.




2 Read the text and say why Emma is glad she met caroline.

Toda)', Emma is a smiling, hilppy 19-ycar-old studying psychology at university. :1 • Howcver,just like 5 many teenagers, her life wasn't always so easy when she was growing up. Enuua "vas brought up by her grandmother until Iil she was 13. They were always very dose and did everything together. Unfortunately. her grandmother was quite ill, L; and as she got older it became more difficult for her to look after her granddaughter. When she was 13, Emffiil went to live with another rdative, but she 21, wasn't very happy. 'I was a wild child,' says Ellllua, 'and I know I was difficult to live with. I started smokillg~nd drinking, anii I kept missing school and ge;rtjp.gjll~o,;: I


G ~ ~~.,.. .-:w...:..:.»:.;.;<o?..:.:'h:.y~~·,~~y····".;.··· ..··:v;4~~~:;~~~_=.~_~



terrible fl~hts. Nobody knew what to do with me.' b . She stayed om at night, wem to c1libs, ,.,. ofeen got imo trouble with the police and even stat>te.d ;..; taking druglI, Finally. it was decid~d that Emm~ sht::>tild go and )jVl;' with a foster t:101i1y for a while. Ir was then that things began to get better (Cl! ..,' ,. Emma. She moved in with her new f.'lnily, and her .\: lo~tcr mother. Carolinc, who had fostered a lot.:bl.·. ~ teenagers bdorc. ,(. . She showed me tJ.1at ek(d~ ~ was another W:lY ro liw my lite, and how il11por:h~l)'i:~i!( r: \V;1S to go to school. She helped nu: to see ~b,at·:(.~l.'I.ld· & make: a decision about what my life W,IS going:t~,:k~.··.'. { like: Emm<l decided to stay on at school, aIld."\V9..r~~~~·:·· h~rd 101' her exalll~. ' ," " '>': Emma W,lS extremely lucky, When £'oster chndi~N':~ reach the ,lge 18, they u~uaUy have to leave thdr "', fostcr homes.. Bm Caroline wanted Emlllfl to stay witll them. and the local council agreed to pay for some 0f her expenses, 'It's good that young people can stay with their carers after they are l..R,"~ays Caroline. d _ Caroline says that ,her relationship with Emma has l:hanged now that she ,is Qld~r. (e She goes to university, so she CQll1~ home with a lot of new worries. but I always -cry land help her son her problems out.' " .Enu1l3 is very pleased with the changes in I~er life. 'I think: tlu\versity is great for any young person: she says, 'I've bCyn really lucky, I'm going to do som.ething" with my life, ·and it's all because of Caroline. But the best " thing is'that I feel parr of a real family. Of <;;purse. ·hvill still see Caroline after I finish university ·and lcav.e home - onc day she's going to be gramwto ~ kids.'

I" "




o 45

o so





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'.' '


~;~S·· Missing sentences \i% First, decide what or who the missing sentence is about. Use the types of words like those in italics (e.g. a noun or a verb) in the sentences below to help you. Then look for a gap in a paragraph which talks about that person or thing.

'Phra~a\ ve.rb~

6 Put these phrasal verbs into three groups: what parents do, what children do, and what both do. • grow up " bring up '" look aher .. take aher > put up with

Example 1 I have to treat her like on adult and give her space. ",at the beginning of the sentence tells us that SOJll{'()ne is speaking. so it must be Emrna or Caroline. The words lIeOf 'Iler like 011 adult mean it must be Caroline talking about Emma. which she does in paragraph 6. This means that the sentence fits into gap e.

" selfish:> difticull ~ hard-working" ciHing " kind thoughtful " unhappy understanding 1 How would you describe Ernma before she went 10 live with her foster family? 2 How would you describe uroline, Emma's losler mother? 3 How would you dt":>cribe Emma now?

Vocabulary 'Phra~e.~


\olith different


Choose the (Orred meaning, a or b. of these phrases from the text. 1 They were alwLlYs vety dose (line 11) a They had <l stro(lg relationship. b They were near each other. 2 I kept missing s(hool (line 22) Cl I was sad because I wasn't at school. b I didn't go to school all the time. 3 cmma de<ide(llo stay on at school (line 35) a [mma decided 10 stay latC' aft('( school. b Emma decided 10 go into a higher class and take exams. 4 (Emma) worked hard for her exams (line 35) a She did difficult work. b She did a lot of work.

tell oti

phrasal verbs in 6. More than one may be correct. 1 My grandmolher had a difficult life. She _ _ nine children! 2 I hate being the eldest because I always have to _ _ my younger sisteL 3 They _ _ her _ _ when they found her smoking, 4 My brother's really naughty. Sometimes I find it difficult to _ _ him. 5 When my little brother _ _ . he wants to be a doctor. 6 Everybody says I _ _ rny uncle. We both have the same nose.

words in italics to help you decide where each sentence fits best. Look at the example first.

4 Answer the questions. Use these adjectives to help you.


7 Complete the sentences using the correct form of the

3 Sentences 1-5 fit into gaps a-e in the article. Use the

2 When she was 15. Emmo's behaviour got worse. 3 Coroline was a real friend. 4 'It's very hard for them ilthey have 10 suddenly leave and Jive out in the world on their own.' 5 She has friends, a boyfriend and a busy sociallile.

GOnnu.ted \olith the fami\'f

c..oUOl.ation5 \oliih get and maKe 8

Match these phrases to the correct verb: gel or make. • a cold - into trouble. money", sure" better • your mind up some shopping . a mistake .. lriends



a 'old




Look at the pictures which show different pressures teenagers face today. Describe: • who is in the picture. • where they are and what they are doing. • what kind or pressure the picture shows. What do you think are the biggest pressures teenagers face today? What (an be done to help teenagers cope with pressure?

Comparatives and superlatives 1 You are going to hear three people talking about where they live. First, Jook at the three photos and write a list of adjectives you could use to describe each place. 2

~3.1 Listen to the three extracts. Did you hear any of the adjectives you wrote in 1?

3 Listen again and complete the sentences under each photo.

Katrina says 1 she used to have a _ _ time getting to school. 2 when they were rebuilding the city centre, the traffic jams were even _ _ than they were before. 3 the trip to school is much _ _ than it used to be.

~;;'~':';~h~~~~h (omparaUves and superlatives

1 How do you form the comparative and superlative of these adjectives? Match the adjectives to the correct form 1--6. John and Suzie say 1 Ihey are very lucky because the fiat is _ _ . 2 living in a city is much _ _ than being in the country. 3 Ihe garden in the square is one of the _ _ gardens in London.

nice small. relaxing • bad. convenient • good big. easy. beautiful 1 2 3 4 5 6

add ·er and -est add -r and -51 drop [he -y and acid ·ier and -jest double the last conson~nf and add -er an<i -est use the words more ... Own, and (he mos{ change the word complelely

2 Complete the tables showing how we compare adjectives. Short adjectives

bi9 e<lsier

the nice-st Long adjectives

re-laxln9 more convenient Ihe-' most beautiful Irregu lar adjectives Ma rtin says 1 it is very _ _ to live in the country. 2 a flat near the office would be more _ _ than where he lives now. 3 he lives in one of the most _ _ places in the world.



good fcJr Ilffle

Work with a partner. Look at the pictures of homes and write a list of positive and negative thi ngs about each one.

c.omparin9 8


In pairs. look at the pictures, Compare the objects using the adjectives.

Examples The sports car is foster than the nther two. The small cor is not os smart os the green car.

small ' mart. fast


5 Talk about the homes using comparativ~ and superlatives. Which home do you think would be the best to live in?

convenient ", heavy

light • loud



rlu /ifS! one is smnll, but it's quieter than the others.

Ne9ative- £..OmpariMnf> 6 look at the examples. How do we make comparisons io the negative?

England is not 05 hig o.~ Russia. Watching TV is 1101 05 exciting as going 10 the cinema.

7 Rewrite the sentences usi ng not os ... os and




Let's activate What do ~ou thin"?

adjectives in the correct form.

bad. small. old" slow


inconvenient;; noisy

1 Katrina is you nger than her brothf'L 2 Towns ar'e more convenient than villages, 3 The journey was better than it was lasltime, 4 The train is quicker than [he bus. S London is bigger than Birmingham. 6 The country is much quieter than the citY.

9 Work with a partner. Discuss these topics. Say what you prefer or think is better, and give reasons for your choice.

Example J think living in lhe country is better than living i/1 the city because it's healthier. • •

• •

living in the country / living in the city hilving a <;m,,1I r"mily I a liHgC' family train travel/air travel Saturdays I Sundays

Falft.'Y relQtionships 1

In pairs, answer the questions..

1 Whal kinds of relationships do brothers ami sisters have when they are growing Up'l 2 b there (ll'\yonc ill your family you: • don'l get on well wilh7

• are cl o~e to? • fall nut with 2 lot? • have a lot in common with? ~hat difference


do you think being an only child makes

when you cue- growing up? 4 In your opinion, Wll<lt Me the advantages ilnd disadv<lntage'> 01 having !Hl>thers and sisters?

Listening f\\\\'\~






. . . .: .






Interview 2: Henry 4 Henry and his brothers like doing the 5<lme thing5. 5 He has to look after his younger brothers. 6 He would like 10 be the yOlll1gest child.

Tl'ue or false

Read the lrue or lalse stalemenls carefully before you listen, Don't try to 8ve~s the answer until you hear the

recording. ~



;(.)u ~isten lo IwO interviews about family relationships and decide if these statements are true or false.

li~en again and answer the Questions. 1 What does Alex ':>j.;\':lld most of her time ooing? 2 What kind of person does AI!?>: say she is? 3 Wh.<ll does Henry feel about his brothers? 4 Why does Henry envy his youngest brOlhcr?




4 look at these words from the interviews and answer the questions,

strict" spoilt '" proud" independent" ambitious • reliable 1 Which words dr€ used in connection witll: <J

Alex " A/ex's parenlS


Henry", Henfy's parents?

2 Which words would you use to describe yourself?

Pronunciation Word 5



Underline the rnain slress in each word, then

IisIen and check. 'I


Interview 1: Alex

2 respollSlble

1 Alcx war.ts le; have brothers and simrs. 2 She likes being with adults. 3 Her parents think shr is wail\.

3 confident



5 patient 6 reliable 7 i ndependellt

Speaking 6


In pairs, discuss why these things might cause problems for flatmates. " housework" smoking. television" food



Read the dialogue. Then listen and the gaps.

fill in

1-~~Mm~~~1€,"·~' .~ ..~~,~~.~~.It\\,.'A\'W.~WQ'&W~


pets. bills




the first one is better


it's cheaper and has


fewer people. Anna 3 the second one is bigger and very close to the shops. Maria 4 a ten·minute walk 10 the shops, _ _ _ _ _ the more expensive Anna one 6 more friendly!



9 Work with a partner,

Choose an advertisement from 7 and persuade your partner that the flat in your advertisement is better than theirs. Use the dialogue box in 8 to help you.

10 ~l.5

Read the dialogue. Then listen the gaps.

and fill in

Making arrangements $am

Understanding advertif>ements 7







seven o'clock? Sam


Two large rooms available for tw~ students, sharing wIth three others. Sporting enthusiasts preferred. Ten minutes' 11 walk to public transport and shops. £200 per calendar month. Bills extra. Tel: 02087673241

1 ~~~~~..-~;;E' Two people wanted for Oal. with fo~{ friendlv females near the city cenllC and all amenities. Must be non- . - - - - - - - - - - -_ _.J smokers. £250 per month includmg bills for tWO small single rooms.

T~b 020 7347 4455 ...;.


it? Sure. We're usually both here at the weekend and in the evening, Maria 3 Thursday evening? At

Work with a partner, Imagine you are going to study English in London for three months, and you are looking for a room in a flat, Read these two advertisements and match them to the sentences a-f. a No smoking is allowed in this flat. b You need more money for bills. ( The rooms here are not very big. d The flat is centrally situated. e If you don't like SpOrl, this is pmbably not the flat (or you. f You will probably make friends easily with your flatmates here.


the room in the newspaper. Is it still available? $am Yes, it is. Maria 2 I could come and see Maria


4 we're both oul that evening. _ _ _ _ _ Friday evening? . See you then. Maria Yes, 6 Sam OK. Bye.

Work with a partner. Take turns to phone and make an appointment to arrange to visit the flat in your advertisement. Use the dialogue box in 10 to help you.


'1 Read the text and decide if these statements are true or false. Correct the false statements. 1 The Declaration of Independence was signed by Great Britain. 2 At Hallowe'en children get sweets from their teacher. 3 St Patrick's Day is important for German immigrants, 4 The festival of Mardi Gras originally came from Frdnce. 5 Thanksgivi ng is a family occasion. 6 Mdny of the Pi Igri rns who arrived in 1621 were killed by the Native Americans.

Talking about your country What dre the main celebrations that you spend with your family? 2 What differences are there between Easter or Christmas in your country and in other countries? 3 What celebrations are connected with the history of your cou ntry ? 4 What other celebrations or national holidays are important la yuu? 5 What celebrations would you miss most if you lived in another country? 1


The tradition of Hallowe'en came over with Gennan immigrants, and other celebrations came with different groups. Irish Americans, for example, celebrate St Palrick's Day. as he is the patron saim of Irel2nd, and Jews celebrate their main religious festivals in September: In New Orleans, there is the colourful festival of Mardi Gras, with its street parties and carnival, which was brought over by French immigrants. In fad, there are hundreds of difft'f<'m ct'lt'bratioDS alJ over America, and ~ach uf them is a reminder of the history and origin.s of [be American people.

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(jrammar 2 elative pronouns 'PJho, that or



1 look at these sentences from the text. The Pilgrims met some native Americans. The I\otive Americans taught them how to pia nt crops. We can rewrite this as: The Pilgrims met some native Ameriwm who / that taught them how to plant crops. 2 The following year they had a harvest. It was wonderful. We ca n rewrite this as: [he following yeor they had a harvesl thotJ which wos wonderful.


Complete the rules about relative pronouns. We use _ _ and _ _ when we talk about people. We use _ _ and _ _ 10 talk about things.

3 It is sometimes possible to leave out the relative pronouns who, that or which. look at these sentences and decide which rule is correct, a or b. 1 We've got some neighbours (who) the children don'l like. 2 That's the dog which chased my rabbit. 3 She's the girl who came to the p;lny. 4 There's the car (that) I want 10 buy.

a We Gln leave oul the relative pronoun when il is f'ollolved by a noun or a pronoun. b We can leave out the relative pronoun when it is followed by a verb. 4 Combine the pairs of sentences to make one sentence u5ing a suitable relat ive pronoun.


watched a film. It was very good. We watched a film which was very good.


1 She owns the car. It broke down. 2 I'm going to see the girl. She broke her leg. 3 Are you reading the book? I gave it to you, 4 That's the man. He won the prize. 5 Did you like lhe biscuits? I bought them I",sl week. 6 Have yOll seen my homework? I was workin~ on il last night. 7 That's the gi rl. 1SllW her al the party. a Harry met Cl (ouplt. They were staving 11) Ihe ~me hotel. 9 We visited a museum. It was really interesting. 10 This is thr book. Ela wa nlS 10 read it.

Whic.h pronoun? 5 Underline the correct relative pronolJ n to complete the

sentences. I still know a lot of people who / which live at home. 2 Here's a photo of the girl which / that I used to share a flat wilh. 3 The rent lhat I who we have to pay is very high. 4 Could you give me back the book who Ithal I lent you? 5 There are one or two people in my class which / that I don't get on with. 6 She's gOI Cl brother who / which lives in New York. 7 I'm living in a room who / which is very noisy. 8 What do you really think of the man which Ichol your sister married? 1

6 Look

at the sentences in 4 and 5 and underline the ones in which you can leave out the relative pronoun.

whose or who't;? 7 The word whose sounds like who's (who is or who has). Whose shows that something belongs to somebody. look at th is senlence.

The Lancaslers are a family. Their sons organised tile party. Vie can rewrite this as: The Lonc.oslers ore the family whose sons organised the party. Who's means wllo is or who has. look at these sentences. I know someone who's having a party next week. (who's =who is) Thai'S the woman who's got the house in los Angeles. (who's =who hos)

8 Complete the sentences using whose or who's. 1 2 3 4

My sister married Cl man _ _ father owns a big hotel.

00 you know _ _ coming to the party? Jack's the man _ _ organised the firework display. I spoke to Ihe girl _ _ mother had thatlerrible accident. 5 I know someone _ _ sense of humour i~ just like

yours. 6 I met the woman _ _ arranging the e)(cur~ion.

Let's activate What do

~ou thin~?

9 Complete the sentences using your own ideas. • • • • •

There are a 101 ol Pedple in my class who .. We live in Cl house that ... I know a girl whose. ... We go to a school which ... I like holidays which ...

1 In pairs, answer the questions.

1 What are the main festiva Is and celebrations in your country? 2

Which is your favourite celebration7 Why?

3 What celebrations in other countries do you know about? 4 Which of these would you most like to see or take part in?

Studying the sample 2

A Japanese student is writing about Read the description.

a festival




Find answers to the questions.

1 What tense does the writer use in the description? Why? 2

What headings could you give to each of lhe paragraphs?




this mind map

for paragraph


popular with everyone

families, children,

rite elterru E/ossOI11 'lestival 2


4 5 ..;.:-

My favourite celebration in Japan is Hanami. It usually takes place al the end of March or the beginning of April. when the cherry blossom comes out. It is a very popular event and almost everybody in Japan takes part. Ollice workers visit the parks with friends and colleagues, and children go with their parents, grandparents and friends. I live in Kyoto, and at cherry blossom time, we always visit the cherry trees along Biwako Canal and then we have a party in the park. We all have a picnic. sing songs and tell stories. At the picnic we eat traditional Japanese food, and some people like to drink sake, a kind of wine made from rice. I really like hanami because it's a great way to start the year. When it's over, you have the summer to look forward to. ~.«

~n;..•:« ~.:,.

r •••




parents, gra nd parents ~

Make a mind map like (his for paragraph 3.

~ ~


C;) C;)

Steps to better writing

Writing a student magazine article

Word order: verbs and objuts

Understanding the tas\(

5 look at these sentences, a We have a party b We have

Wn ich sentence is correct? Why?

in the park

in the park. Pllrty.


Some of these sentenc~ are correct. Some are wrong. Put a tick (.f) after the sentences that are right. Correct the mistakes in the other sentences. 1 I like very much Chrislmas. I liKe t:hrisfmas very mu&h.

2 We invite friends and relatives 10 our house. .I 3

I buy for m\' friends presents.


I get from my family presents.

5 We have a big lunch with all the family.

6 We have like most people turkey.


Read the instructions in 11 and answer the questions. 1 Who are you writing this article for? 2 Will all 01 your readers know about this festival? 3 Would it be OK just to describe what you did at this lestival last year? 4 What information will you need to illclud~?

'Planning 9 You can make your notes in the form of a mind map like the one in 4. Make five circles with the headings Introduction, People, Activities, Food and drink and Conclusion.

10 Use the mind map, and make notes following this work plan to plan your writing.

Paragraph 1: Introduction

say • what the festival is called.

7 Afrer lunch we take for a walk the dogs.

• •

when it happens. where it happens.

8 In the evening we make a big fire.

Paragraph 2: People • Is it a national holiday? If not, what type of holiday is it?

say Word order: frequeno,! 6 Look at the words and expressions of frequency in these sentences. Now and thel7 we go ilway for ChriSlmas. We go and stay with my uncle and ,lunt/rom time to time. They Me always very kind Clod they never c.omplain aboul the noise we make. Our cousins are usually thtrt as well, but they sometimes leave early. Answer the questions. 1 Wherc do you put the words always, never, usually, sometimes, rarely, often a il you arc using (he verb be? (om, is, are, was, were)? b if you are using a rnain verb? (e.g. complain, leave)? 2 Where do you put longcr expressions li ke from rime to

time. now ond then, and Ma in a while, every o/he' day, once a month. C:tc.?


Rewrite these sentences. Put the words in brackeu in -the right place. There may be more than one corred an~er. 1 We. stay at home for New Year. (usual~y) 2 The town is quiel at that time. (always) 3 My friends go away on hol idlly. (often) 4 We go 10 )(OtI300. (from time to time) 5 The weather is very good. (never) 6 Even 50, we have a great lime. (alwClys)

• • •

who takes part in Ihe festival. what yOll do in your family to celebrate. who you usually celebrate with.

Paragraph 3: Activities Describe the activities you lake pari in. Paragraph 4: Food and drink Write about what you eat and drink at this time. Paragraph 5: Conclusion Finish by saying • why you like this event. • how you feel when it is over.

Writing 11 An international student magazine wanls descriptions of different celebrations and celebrations arou nd the world. Write a description (of about 120-150 words) of a wellknown festival or celebration in your country. Use your notes from exercise 10.

C.neG\(ing 12 Read your description C<lreru Ily and check: • • •

the correct use of the present simple (and the -s endi ng for verbs after he, she, it). the word order. the position of words like always, usually, ete. and frequency expressions.

Word focus l'hrases with different meanings


1 Complete the pairs of sentences using one of these phrases in the correct form.



very close" miss .. work hard .. stay on

1 a

I _ _ my boyfriend when he goes away.

b Sorry I _ _ your party last week. 2· a Alice wasn't good at Maths so she had to _ _ . b You will have to _ _ because I want you to finish cleaning lhe whole house by 4 o'clock. 3 a She stood _ _ to him so that she could see the letter he was reading. b Anna and her mOlher are _ _ . They spend all their time together. 4 a lames and john _ _ to help clean the classroom. b He _ _ and took four A levels.

2 Match the phrases in 1 to their meanings 1-8. 1 stay late 5 have a strong relationship 2 fe'el sad about 6 go into a higher class 3 didn't 80 to 7 think about something that is difficult 4 near 8 do a lot of work

l'hrasa\ verbs c.onne(,ted with the


3 Complete the sentences using these phrasal verbs in the correct form. "" take aller .. grow up d look after 0 tell oft


put up with .. bring up

1 Their parents died when they were young. Their

2 3

.4 5 6

grandparents had to _ _ them _ _ . My dad says he doesn't see why he should _ _ our noise all the time. Sally works on Mondays and Tuesdays, so her mum and dad _ _ her children on those days. lane _ _ 011 a farm. She learned all about animals. Doesn't Tilty _ _ heT father? She looks just like him. Gran _ _ me for making a mess.

get or mal(e? -4 Complete the sentences with the correct form of get or make. 1 I think: 1am _ _ a cold. I have a runny nose. 2 When he sold his house, he _ _ a lot of money. 3 It is difficult to _ _ new friends at a new school. 4 I _ _ into trouble yesterday. S I didn't get an A in the exam. I _ _ some mistakes. 6 I hope you _ _ better soon. 7 Can you _ _ sure my appointment is tomorrow? 8 Please _ _ your mind up. Do you want soup or fish?



5 look at the family tree and underline the correct words to complete the text.

'~;' .., ~t~~,

~ @ -l~.~


_" .


":"'~. ~

a D -T

milD I




~=~ I

Hi, I'm Jessica. I'm sixteen. I've got one sister. Rosy, and two brothers. Toby is the eldest and Ben is the youngest. My mum's sister, jean, is my 1 aLlnt! uncle. She's married ~\{ phii,} so he's my Z uncle / cousin. They've got two children, Ki'lt~: ...::': and Molly, who are our 1 aunts / cousins. Mum aAd J:ean~s i\" \ mum. julia, is our grandmother. Her 'I husband lcL!n~/(Js.,0:~(!.~ :':, .\\1 grandfather. He's called Oeret<. julia and Den~,k are our >',':i\~\:::{o~ .:,!!~:~. .'..-X,; 5 parents / grandparents, and we are their ._ '" <~::~:(;;.~~ .'.


6 great-grandchildren

/ grandchildren.



.~-. ~I l~_


~~ \~ ~ :~~\\:~,:(\(;;;;;f'

6 Complete the sentences about jessica's family using the family tree in 5 and these words, • nephew. granddaughter" husband. niece • grandson • wife 1 Molly is Sarah's 2 Kate is Derek's 3 jean is Phil's 4 Ben is julia's 5 Tom is 5arah's 6 Ben is Phil's

_ _ . _ _ .

7 Underline the correct words to complete the sentences. 1 I had an argument with my boyfriend and we divorced / split up.

2 She remarried / separated two years after her husband died. 3 My mum got married again, and I really like my new step-fOlher I fa lher-in-Iaw. 4 After the divorce, his ex-wife! partner kept the house and the clog. S My husband's mother is my mother-in-law ! stepmother.

Reading for pleasure


-r~~,. ~ - € -JA~/U/I~J



",'\ "I:


C"'r'~ , ~ 7'


0 Ie


AElrlan Mole is tne funny story of a teenager, as he tells it In his dJary, This extract. Is a few. day~dn April. Adrian talks about his dog's life, ·t6:CJthaGhe. the good and bad points abt'Jut ,nol having water, and the weather.


April 5th

Our dog is in love with a cocker spaniel

caJled, Mitzi. He stands no chance, though; a) he !~I~~b~ pedigree dog. /lnd b) he doesn't keElp. hjmself looking smart' like most dogs. I tried to explaiJ, th'ese things to Ule dog, but he jUl;t.looked Slld, and mournful and went back to lying Outside Mitzi's gate. Being in love Is xl-o joke, I have fhe same problem with n\)' ~r1friend Pal,dora that the dog has wiUl Mitzi. We ate both in (l lower social class than our loved ones.


April 6th

\mI,\keup al4 a.m. with a jOl1thache. J took s~ ne asp>irin for the pain. At 5 a.m. 1 woke my mother and father and told them J was in tonneol. My falher $\\id, 'It's your own fault for missing yo.ur last three dentist's ap.J?:0~1.~n,e~'ts: .k;f'5:30'1l,1ll. I asked my fl\ther to drh'e me to


the. diar'l

~ ""


the Casualty DepartJU nt, but he refused and turned over in bed. It's all right for him; he hasn't got any real teeth. I S<'It up, racked willl agony. and watched the sky get light. The lucky toothless birds started their horrible squawking and I ~wore that from this day forward I would go to the dentist's (our limes (l vear, whether I was in pain or not. At nlne'o'dock my moUler woke me to tell me that she'd made me an appointment at the dentist's emergency clinic. I told her \:hat the pain had stopped and in,tructed her to cancel appointment.



April 7th

The water workers have gone on strike, so my father made us all have a bath tonight. The dog induded. TI,en he went around collecting containers and fiUing them up. While he was doing it, he was whistling and looking dleerful. My father loves a crisis.


April 81h

Fabulous! Amazing! Brilliant! Magic! Showers have been banned after sports at schooll I hope the wllter workers prolong the strike until ['ve left full-time education.


though they are often rather sad or seriou~ things he is saying. For example, look at the way he describes his relationship with his dog on April 5th. Find three other examples of funny entries. Look at his feelings about:


Wf.tten by Sue TO"'~\S<ln9

Replace the underlined words in 1-8 with the alternatives below and rewrite the sentences to make them more expressive. You may have to make other changes to the sentences,


1 Adrian makes the entries in his diary funny, even

• •

Thursday April 9th, 11,ere was a politicia~l (In the teUy tonight . talking about his triumph in cutting th~'Dus fares in London. This led m({ to ask ml" parents for the bus fare to get to school. ram tired out by the time I have w,llked a whole mile in the morning. My father soid that he used to walk four miles to school and four miles back, through wind, rain, sl\OW, hail, and boiling sun and fog. [ said l1arcl'lSlically (though wittily), 'What sttange climatic condiliol1s prevailed in the Midlands in YO(lr day!' My falher :mid, 'Weather was wea.ther in those days. You wouldn't kuow wha:t proper weather i -!'

1 The birds starled making a lot of noise. 2 I decided that I would never do it again. 3 From now on I am going to hand in my homework on time. 4 I ~ my mother to cancel the appointment. 5 I was pleased that we had been given a half day off school. 6 I missed the bus so I walked home. It took,g while. 7 I was hot in my jacket. 8 It's difficult being a teenager.

the birds. his toothache. his father.

Adrian mentions two events of national importance in his diary entries. What are they?

• instructed· squawki ng horribly. swore' no joke • hours and hours· boiling. Fantastic! Incredible! • this day forward

VOGabu\ar'l 3

Adrian uses four positive adjectives to show how happy he is on April 8th. Find: •

• •

two adjectives that end in -Jul. Which is positive and which is negative? an adjective ending in -less. What does it mean? at least two other adjectives.

Talking about your reactions

1 If you were writing a diary like this, what kind of events would 2 3

you put in it? Do you think Adrian's relationship with his parents is typical? Why? / Why not? Why do you think people write diaries?

The t,uth about reeling ar,aid Reading

1 Put these adjectives into two groups: positive and



" amusing" boring 0 interesting" annoying ~ terrifying <> awful a brilliant tl disturbing 0 fantastic ~ horrible ~ enjoyable e frightening

Reau the text What (Ire lhe (wo types of fear in horror


'lEx.". ~,..,.,." r

Match ing head ings to paragraphs Even if you have chosen your answers, try the extra heClding in alllhe gaps la make sure it does not fit.

2 What happens when we feel afraid? Match the descriptions to the pictures. a ou r hea rI beats fasler b wc brealhe more qui<.kly C OUi" pulse (ale is quicker d Wf; feel hol or cold e we cannol move


Match the headings a-f with paragraphs 1-5. There is one heading you do not need. a b c od e

Thr: Ul1explained How horror stories make us feel FeaTS we (an easily e)(plai n Two ki nds of s{(>rJes Real life fears NOI like other films!

o \Cl)) ([5)

(& l,




5 Read the text again and answer these questions with a partner. 1 Why are horror films dilferent from other films? 2 WI Ydo people enjoy stories which make Iheir hearts beat faster? 3 How do horror slories help people? 4 Why is danger which comes from inside more frightening than danger that mmes Tram outside? 5 What other thing attracts people to frightening stories?

Vocabulary '5~non~m$


Find words in the text which mean: 1 thought about (pa ragraph 1) 2 unhappy (paragraph 2) 3 frighten (paragraph 3) 4 vanishes (pardgr<Jph 4) 5 continue (paragraph 5)

Adjel.tivef> \'Iith - ed and - in9 7 Look at the two sentences and decide which adjective is correct. What is the difference in meaning between adiectives ending in ~ed and -ing? 1 Wc saw a terrified / terrifying movie last night. 2 f was terrified / rerrifying when I heard the loud b'mg.

8 Complete the sentences of 1 2 3 4


6 7

using the correct adjective form the word in brackets. The noise of the thunder was _ _ (terrily), Are you _ _ (frighten) of spiders? Cycling up hills is _ _ (exhaust). I am _ _ (fascinate) by horror films. The story Jim told me was _ _ (astonish). I am Quite _ _ (bore). I want to go to sleep, The film was very _ _ (interest).

â&#x201A;Ź/Y-treme a<ljectivef>

9 Match

the adjectives in A to the extreme adjectives in B. Sometimes more than one answer is possible.



frightening big interested


bad tired small cold surprised

exhausted freezing enormous fascinated terrible lerrifying


10 Write four sentences using the adjeClives in 9.

look al the pictures and describe them, Do you find any of the things in the pietu res frighrening? What other things do you find frightening? How do you think people can get over these types of fea rs?

Grammar 1 The present perfect


1 In pairs. answer the qu~tions. 1 Do you think people were tiller in the past than they are today?

2 What kino of thi ngs people do to stay lit Clnd healthy?

2 Read the

questionnaire for people joining a health club.

look at the underli ned example of the present perled. Underline othe( exam pies of the present perfect

The present perfect Forms


Write the sentences in the negative and question forms. 1 Positive You've [orgoHMJ 'lour sWfmmln9 thln9s. Negative _ QLlesl;on _ 2 Posilive We've ~om.efeted the dub'~ que.5fIQ.Doqire. Negative




3 positive Pefe,'fl been to the hegllh dub.

Male 0

FenY'dle 0 '1





Positive Sue Qnd MicK hqve 90 ne to the Negative




2 Match the examples of the present perfect that you underlined in the qu estion nai re to uses a-(. a To <ark I ask about an iKlion which is linished but whi<h still has an effect in the present b To tal k I ask about an experience which started in the past but is still going on or is still true now.

c To talk I ask abolll an experience that has or hasn't happened (without a lime reference).



Three usef, of the present perfec.t 3


We use the present perfect to tal k about an action which is finished but which still has an effect in the present. It is often used with just, already and (not) yet. Match the sentences to the pictures.

We use the present perfect to talk about an experience which started in the past but is still going on or is still true now. We use for and since to talk about the length of an action. Look at these sentences and match 1 and 2 to a and b. I have Jived in Haly for three years.

1 I've broken my tennis racket!

I haven't been to Greece since July 2000.

(It's broken now.)

1 We use for 2 We use since

2 He's aIready eaten. (His stomach has food in it.)


3 I've just won the lottery!



to say when an act'lon started.

b to say how long the adion took.

(I've got lots of money now.)


Complete the sentences using for or since and the verb in the present perfect form.

1 My family _ _ (live) here _ _ five years, 2 I (attend) Ihis school _ _ last summer, 3 I _ _ (not see) my relatives _ _ a very long time. 4 We _ _ (not have) fish for dinner _ _ two weeks. 5 Tracy _ _ (be) in England _ _ 2001,


We use the present perfect to talk about an experience that has or hasn't happened in the past. It is often used with ever or never. Write present perfect sentences usi ng these notes.

Example I J never / be / heallh cl ub I hove never been to a health club. 1 lan / ever I visit I London)

2 Bella I never / drive / cl car 3 my friends / never I do J aerobics / before 4 your parenls / ever I go / abroad' 5 no one in my family J ever / ride / bicycle 6 I1 see! Ihe leam 1 play I three times 7 Paul 1 break I leg J skiing J twice 8 how many times / you / go / 10 the club?

Let's activate Writin9 about


8 Think of three interesting or exciting experiences you have had in your life, and three things that you have never done but would like to do. Write six sentences. Use these ideas to hel p you.


Iravel to a beautiful place (Where?)

Write sentences in the present perfect using the notes.

go to an exciti ng city (Which one?)

1 Tom finish his project (not yet).

• •

eal inleresting or unusual food (WhaU) see your favourite band at a rock concert (Who?)

• •

try a new sport (Which one) learn to do something new (WhaP)

2 Sarah phone her friend (just). 3 the fi Im on TV finish (not yet). 4 5 6 7 8

my brother swim ten lengths (a Iready). you have dinner (not yet)? Mary show you the gym (yet)? you finish having your shower (alreadv? we fill in the questionnaire (just).

Taking caTe 0'

youTsel' senten<.:~s.

1 Match 1-5 to these words to make can you make?

How many

Me-mor'f game 3 Work in pairs. Student A look at picture' for one minute, then close your book and try lo remember what is wrong with the woman. Student B check. Now change roles for picture 2.

â&#x20AC;˘. arm p wrist .. ill " finger " sick stomach ache " headache" toothache ,. temperature 0 throat 0

1 I feel 2 I've got a sore 3 I've got a pain in my

4 I broke my

5 I've



Listening ~~~:ii~."~~I"'''fI

-,r,\\; ...~,...",'.:.


1', ,I,.


~\,:.';,' Multiple-choice questions As you listen lor the first lime, put a dot. beside the; multiple-choice answer you think is correct. On the second Iistening decide which is the correct answer.



~.4,~ Listen to four people in different situations, and choose t he best answer, a, b or c1 Someone is telling a lri~n<l about an accident Wha1's happened to him? Cl lIe's got a stomach ache. D He's twisted his ankle. c He's broken his arm. 2 SOmeone is talking to a friend about not feeling well. How does he leel now? Cl He's got a temperature. b He feels sick. c He's got a headache. 3 Someone is talking lO her mum. Whal's wrong with her? a She has a stDmach ache and a headache. b She has Cl stomach ache and she feels sick. c She has Cl headache and a toothache. 4 A doclor is talking to a man who has cut his hand. What is she advising the man (0 do? a Not to use his righl hand. b Take the plaster ofl afler a lew days. c Leave the plaster on until the evening.


Soundbites 9 TI 4

~4.2 You are going to listen to ffeel fine, a song by the Beatles. Without looking at the lyrics what do you thi nk it is about? listen and check. I feel fine

Baby's good to me, you Know She's happy as can be, you know 51)e said so. ,'m in love with her and I leel hne.

Baby says she's millâ&#x201A;Ź', you know She Cells me all the time, you know She said so, I'm in love with her and I feel fine. Chorus

I'm :10 glad that she's my liltle girl She's so glad, she's lelling all the world That her baby buys her things, you know He buys her diamond rings, you know She said so. She's in love with me and I feel fine. Mmm. Baby says she's mine, you know She tells me all the lime, you know She said so, I'm in love with her and I feel fine.

Chorus 5 In 1 2 3


pairs, read the lyrics and answer the questions. Why does the si nger feel happy? What does he buy his girlfriend? Do you think il'S necessary to buy people presents 10 tell I,hem how you feel about them? Why? I Why oat?

This' ~i~b.-.iS sImple to prepare and very:'.·~h.~,but very tasty. Golden fried" potato~s and fish in batter With garden peas. A traditional ~¥ourite for all the family!


Is real templ1Jtlonl A



af\\d stickJ pUdding

~'ltll,C"l()c!(i)latesaUGe and spoonfuls 0f cream. Great

An oluthentk l<ipa1lest' ~il~t of'

/Te:J, raw fish and stk'ky ri.c.<' served with non (sr-,tWf'ed> il.nd WilSclbi fa hot ~ur.e).

,serv.ed with ICe cream.


'5e.ttin9 Up a snalK bar 11 ~u Read the dialogue, Then

Food. 6 Match the food labels 1-5 to the pictures a-e. Find words and phrases in the labels that mean the opposite of these words.

tI~=~-~~":"'\)X~--~:~-­ persuading othel'S to agre~


full-fal "rotten 5afly / savoury tasteless ~ tough <» artificial'" difticullto prepare. expensive" unhealthy " minimum /'1 mild


1 . just sell chips and chocolate. Young people lOve them. lane 1 that's a bit unhealthy? ~: Perhaps we should sell fruit loo. ~~: jim ) Ihal does seem Cl bit boring. :~. jane ~ selling unusual kinds of lood like pineapple) Jim I suppose that's OK, as long as we sell chocolate (1S welL

7 Work with a partner. Describe your favourite food using the words and phra~es in 6. Don'i tell yom partner what it isl Can you guess what your partner's favou rite food is?

Li\:.e.fl and difl\i\:.e.fl 8

~~.l Read the dialogue. Then listen and fill in x 'X'\


the gaps.

curry, it's delicious. 2 because it's lOO ha! and spicy. _____ mild food like fish and chips. Jane 4 fried food, it's unheallhy, and it looks very greas\,.










I Cdn', sland " I like


• •

I don't like

pairs, talk about foods you like and diilike, and why. Use the dialogue box in 8 and the words and phrases in 6 to help you. In




12 Work in ~mall groups. Imagine you are going 10 set up snac.k bar in your school. Discuss and decide what yO\) wi 11 do. U~e the phrases in 6, 8 and 11 to help you persuade the others in you r group.

Practise the dialogue replacing I love and I hote with these phrases. What diHerence do they make to the meaning? ., I adore" 1detest " 1really like


• \l\


, ,

Talking about likes and dislikes lane Jim

listen and fill in

the gaps.



Choose fivt kinds of food and drink 10 sell. (What's healthy? What's popular? etc.) Decide how much to charge for the five produClS. (Is it too expensive, or too cheap?) Decide where to set up Ih e sn ack ba r. (Outside or in a classroom? etc.) Decide when it will be open. (What are the best times?)

When you have made your decisions, compare your ideas with il.ncther group. Have you made the S<lme or different


or Kirsten and Carl Dlxon (lnd their teenage daughters, Cart)' and Manlly. it looks /ii(e Chrislmas for most of the year. In fact. the countryside is covered in while in winter, spring and autumn, too, but il <10esn't alIVays feel like 5 Christmas! Anyone or anything that need::; to re<'lch me place ~las to come by a small skiplane from the city of Anchorage Of by dogsted. TIle nearest nelghbollr.S are 40 miles away and temperatures can reach 40 degrees helolll zero, and tflere 10 is always the danger of wild bears, The family have lived at Mnterlake Lodge 'rn the Altlskan wilderness ['or lllany years, They came to open the first or Uleir \flree lodges in 1983, Still. in this 'isolated, snowbound place, the Dixons i1fe happy, /5 Klrsten, who is an award-winning chef, ancl Carl, who organises outdoor actiVIties, Ilave made sure their home is as comfortable as any otl1e( l3ul it is imporlanl to be self-suFfIcient. They coulel prOI)duly exist Wit/lout bringing in things from outsi(le. With the exception of petrol. They 20 keep cllickel15, catch fish. gro\(l Yeg€I,JI)leS and /1erbs, and gattler wild fruits in late summer. On special occasions suctl as Christmas, they fly In some special treats SUC~l as king crabs and oysters. which Kirsten makes into delicious ereillny soup, Dinner consists of goose or reineleer. and Jj blueberry muffins and c/10colale brownies are alway popUlar. The t)est part of any celebratory meal Is. of course, Ice-cream pUdding - railed. you've guessed. Baked /,laskaJ


1 In pai rs, describe what you can



in t he photos,

What do you think it would be like to live in a place like the one in the photos? What problems might YOu have? Think about:

being ill. travelling to school. making Iriends • ~nding a job" shopping. Ihe weather o

!u#% Read the article about a family who live in Alaska. Then cover the text and do this qu ick quiz.

1 How long have Kirsten, (arl and their daughters lived 1\ ,\






Facts about Alaska



'\,\,' ~:, ·.\~~\,r ,·,::::,,·,\)~R~

"', , ',':::;-"',,,:~:\~:\.:

Alaskans have no specific national t"adltlOr\81)ecal:l~c·tH~:;\,'\\\~0~~ ,.:,'. . _ ,'.'. ". '_" .. 1:\\ ••..•1: .".'.< '.~ '\~ current popUl<lliOIl 01 about' 600,000 Is so rtllxC-(;j:.'H1C':':}' ,:::'~',\;, ".\ '_". '.\1.\ l\\~_" Russians tOOK oiler the area in the I 60Bs all~ls'O)~:.iHO,~~I~.~;~\:~,: ' American government in 1867, We-stern f:lJstoms' a,nd;:', ; traditions didn't begin lIntil Anwricans gna'SCal~dlli)a~l~nS ..,,, started to arrive th~Je in the early 20th,cel~,tury, III (act..,AI\lskf.l ' has onl)' been an I\meritan slate sio'<;e !<!),S9. 'l



in AI<lska?

How do people get there? 3 How far away are their nearest neighbours? 4 What is sometimes dangerous <lbout living there? 5 What c10es a typiea I celebratory meal at the Dixons' house (omi)\ of? 6 How do the Dixons feel about living in iI place like this? 7 How many people live in Alaska? 8 What happened 10 the arf'a in the 16005, and in 1B67? 9 Wh"t happened allhe beginning of the 20th century, C1nd in 1959?


~h,,;":·-\~'t\~rt:l"'U!~"U".lI8".\1\. _• •I2!"~.IIol'l1lt\Iml_IIlIIiIl!_ _IIllII_ _II!I_cl"

Talking about your country



. . . ~'..;.:>-

What would you enjoy about living in a place like

AloskCl? 2 How does the lifeslyle and c1imale in your «)ulllr-y mmpare wilh the life the Dixons live in I\laska-? 3 Which would you prefer to live in: a very cold or a very hOI climale? Why? 4 When do you have celebratory meals in your country? How are Ihey dilleren( rrom the meals Kirsten and Carl tl<lVC?

Grammar 2 The present perfect or the past simp e1 ~

The Russians sold Alaska to the American government in 1867. Alaska has only been an American state since 1959.

4 Complete the sentences using the present perfect or the past simple. 1 The Dixons _ _ :Iive) ilt Winterl<lke Lodge in the Alaskan wilderness for many year:>. They _ _ (open) their fir~t lodge in 1983. 21 hey _ _ (come) face to face with bears more than once_ One winter, a bear _ _ (wme) into the house ilt night. _ _ (eat) some fruit and _ _ (break) a window before leaving. 3 The teenage daughters _ _ (learn) how to cook usinz their home-grown food. 4 Until a few years ago, they _ _ (keep) honeybees, but the honey _ _ (attract) too many bears! 5 Nature _ _ (always / play) an important part in their everyday lives. 6 The family _ _ (just / celebrate) Christmas.

1 Which tense is used 10 lal k generally about a past experience? _

"Ta\\(ing about the ne\'!$

We use the present perfect to talk about a past experience. We use the past simple to talk about an action which happened at a specific time in the past, often with a time reference. Q Have you tried llle new swimming pool? A Yes. I went tllere for a swim lost night.

1 look at the two sentences from the text and answer the questions.

2 Which tense i used to give specific details about a pasl action? _ 2



Complete the sentences usi ng the present perfect or the past simple.

John Buster _ _(live) ill a tree for thirteen years. Sadly. yesterday he _ _ ~climb) down for the last time.

1 Boris _ _ (already / see) the film The Lord of Ihe Rings three times. 2 Sally _ _ (watch) a video last night. 3 I _ _ (just / write) Cl letter - Ciln you post it? 4 Milritl _ _ (send) a postcard to her grandmother last week. 5 lames _ _ (buy) some new trainers and he's very happy with them. 6 Peter _ _ (run) a marathon yesterday. 7 Sarah _ _ (never / go) ice skating before. 8 Everyone in the class _ _ (go) climbing in Wales last summer.


Scientists say we _ _ (have) record temperatures so far this year. LastTuesday _ _ (be) the hottest day.

3 Complete the questions using the present perfect or Ihe past simple. 1 What _ _ (you / do) last weekend? 2 How many live music m(lcerts _ _ (you / go) to) ] Where _ _ (you / go) for your last holiday? 4 _ _ (you / do) Cl parachute jump before? 5 _ _ (you / wiltch) television yeslerday) 6 Which foreign cities _ _ (YOU / visil)! 7 _ _ (you / ever / climb) a mountain? 8 What _ _ (you / get) for your birthday? Now answer the questions.

Complete the news stories using the correct form of the present perfect or the past simple.

\"""~""'-='~__~~~~"-"_~~""_ _""'':'-''''''__''''-__ .'' J



Let's activate Your 6


Work with a partner. Ask and answer questions to Hnd out the~ and your own ideas.

about your experiences. Use

• go to a rock concert • climb (] mountain • swim in the sea • scc a wild ilnimal • do d parachute iu mp • visi l a foreign country Example A Have you eve; been 10 a ruck concert? B Yes, I have.

A When did you go? Who did you see? B I wen! to see U2 last year.

_ ellVs








-,,.OID hospital

1 Imagine you had to spend a few days in hospital with a minor injury, What would you find most difficult? What would you want your friends and family to do?

2;ear J<a.s;a.

7J;;s '-sJust q sShort :/e(;(eh/i . ~ '."J,l;,''',v, r/~)?~~~~~

L ..t4... «. .L. 'Tt"'.IJ. I(no.4j '(.h.. A1 ,I.n

~.,t"1'r., 'o/'f/e! '


':Xt#~ """ T~",,_~,~'fi':Z: ""'!I"" . -+."X'';;,~. ll:.,~. ;~~

<Jtt6"'~,":J' I JUAf,Ped u/, and landed' On tl'e e s,'d ~ "0/ ,root. I ,reh' sU"'h an ;d;ot _ and ;" hu~t.' 7),e 05'0/ its a <'.oAf,PI;C47'ed -.,:.:::J

,',;. ,".


breaf, So I /,aye to st'o/ here a wee.f ,ror A7oJ>e ,,~s. I t '.s a real dl'O,J, I Can tell you. .. I've :JOt to S<y that k":J ;n -70s/""ta( •.".:; ,: dea.d I"" not a/la<ued to I__e ""/ ,:'\.".• '7 "1' So .JI can 't JO a «XV',f, and d""" 'i"•••••• '1',\,1£ /,aye a TV .111 Jot ;05 " "'ou;>le :"C/'odf.>,! boo,fs, So I don t ,fno'<J '<Jhat to do "'-"i'h "0/. tf " ..t' L'A7e.I I








.1'0/""0/, 4Jhat '.s JO;":} On ":!"th Y"'lf't: :J;1! '.d be Jr."",' to hear S0h7e ne"'S. .4JcWld ' rea/,y che..r "'" "'/'.2>0 you th:nl: you "'culd Send A7e SO/>fe A7"'Ja.z;nes o~ S0h7eth,":J? I 20 ,r""",y a Jood ~ea.dl ~/o '7 /,e to S"'" you Ver" 0500". . T Lots ~ lOVe, .<'




,\: ,-'


3 Look at the letter again and answer the questions. 1 Where dQ we put the address and dale on an inrormalletter?


2 How many nar<lgraphs are there in Anna's letter?

1 How long has Anna b('f'n in hospilal7 2 Why does she have to stay for a week?

3 ,",ut the paragraph topics Into the same order as th(> letter. • delails of what happened _ • the reason for writing _1_

3 How does she teel about staying in hospital?

f~ g {

l~'~.~~,Z'f·~t(~.z ~"'"I~'\~~~·~\I.;~'~;~.\,"l"~ ":i~' ~ ;:-.I>~:~~\~V~~~~


4 What is the relalionship between Anna and Kdsi<:l7



.~:"." ::;

. ..:

2 Read the letter from Anna and answer the


, ,,', ;"\'\11 ,,1: ,: To' Y/'l<l.,'

A 'tnnc<

Studying the sample

i t

a fequest _ _

de£O;ls of what life is like

1I0W _ _

Steps to better writing


Informal language.

7 Read this letter. which has nine mistakes in it. Find and correct the mistakes.


look again at the letter and an~er the questions. 1 How does an informal letter begin and end7 /.

Ooes Anna use long forms or contractions?

Dear Te.n



~ankf> veT'f ~for ~our letter. I'm wf'rl( Im not writing for SO lon9. but rve been ver"f busl I was wfi'i to hearing about ~our

5 Match the informal words and phrases 1-6 from Anna's letter to their more formal meanings a-f.

1 Guess what? (line 2) 2 I felt such an idiot (line 6) :3 a n~al drag (line 9) 4 dead (line 11) 5 What's going on with you) (line 16) 6 I fancy (line 19)


Anywhere, I've got SOme good new~. I've got a new. bO'jfriend. He's calling 'Pete, and I met him at 2 party. here is a picture for me and him on a night out, Hope to loo~ ~ou soon. Love, Amanda

a very b I would like

( What's happenin~ in your life? d Do you want to know something? e unfortunate I relt stupid.

Can you find Jny other words or phrases, or ~llnctuation marks that tell us that An na is writing to a friend?

Writing an informal letter Useful phrase.s 6

Match the functions 1-6 with the words and

sentences a-f,

Unde.rstanding the. 8

1 sympathising 2 changing the subject 3 thanking someone lor writing 4 ending ~ lel1er 5 expla i ning why you are writing 6 saying what you have included in the leller

and planning

Imagine you are Ann~'s friend. You are going to write a. reply ID Anna's letter on page SO. Number these notes In Ihe correct order.

a End with a suitable 5enlenc~. Love or All the best.

b Close the lelter wilh

( Open your letler with Dcor. d S<Jy how sorry you are to hear Anna is in hospilal. e Make some suggestions dbout what Ann(l CiI(l do so she isn't bored. ( Thank Anna lor the leller she sent you. g SilY that you can come and visit and will bring ~me magazines. Begin wilh Now or Anyway. h Tell Anna some news about what's happening in your life at the moment.

a Anyway, .. , Now, ... b I was sorry to hear about your accident. I Vo{dS rea lIy sad 10 heitr you r news. ( Thanks very much (or your leller. Thanks for your letter. I'm sorry I haven't written for so long.

d I'm just writing 1'0 tell you my news. This is just a quick nole tD tell you my plans. e I'm sending you some pidures of my family. I thought you might like 10 ~ee Ihis pirlure 01 my lamily. Write soon, it'd be grea1 to hear from you_ Hope to see you soon.


Writing 9

Write your letter (in 120-150 wordslto Anna using the Ilotes in 8. Remember to use some of the informal words

and phrases you have learned.

c..hU\(ing 10 Read through your letter and check that: -. • • •

it is easy to undersland. your punctuation and grammar are correct. you hove spelled words correctly. your letier is wrilten in an informal, frir.nd Iy ~lyle.


havf' wrillen between 1,20-150 words.

Word focus.' t>'loot1'lm~


1 Match words 1-5 to their synonyms a~. 1 think ab0ut a sad b disappear 2 frighten c wonder 3 unhappy 4 vanish d keep on 5 continue e scare

'Part£> of the bod'{

2 Complete the sentences using the correct form of the words a-e in 1. 1 _ _ films make me cry. 2 Sorry, did I _ _ you when I turned off the lights? 3 If you studying, you'll pass your exams. 4 My dog always _ _ when it is time to have a bath he hates it. 5 Do you ever _ _ how languages started? A4ieltive~ ~ith

5 Label the picture with these words. • head

ear. eye. nose. lips






a __ d __ e __ b __


f __

Jew. (

c __


- ed and - in9

3 Complete the sentences using the correct form of the adjectives. 1 bored / boring " a I thought the film was very _ _ . I nearly fell asleep. b I was _ _ in the lesson today. 2 territied I terrifying a That noise was _ _ . It was very loud. b I'm _ _ of spiders. 3 exhausted I exhausting a I'm going to bed. I'm _ _ . b Studying for exams is _ _ . 4 interested I interesting a That television programme was great! It was really

6 Complete the table using these words. <> elbow. thigh. waist. finger iI shoulder" nail • chest. wrist. knee" neck. stomach a hand • ankle. foot. thumb. toe • back




A ba\anGed diet

7 Complete the table using the food words on page 47 and other food words you know. Meat

I've always been _ _ in the history of art. 5 excited / exciting a I'm really _ _ about going on holiday. b That football match was really _ _ .


I Fruit

I Vegetables


I 9Qrden peasl


€:~.keme a4iec.tive~


4 Rewrite the sentences using the extreme adjectives.

8 Do has many different meanings. Match sentences 1-5 to

terrifying .. exhausted q freezing <> enormous e fascinated .. terrible astonished • tiny



1 Elephants are big animals. 2 Horror films are frightening. 3 When she told me she had passed the exam, I was surprised. 4 My bedroom is cold. I need a new heater. S My pet mouse is small. 6 Her jokes are bad. 7 When he saw the film he was interested. 8 My job makes me tired.


t.hit.Ken I apples

of do

their meanings a-e. 1 I'm doing food science next term at school. 2 My dad does all the cooking in our house. 3 It doesn't take long to make this dish. Half an hour will do. 4 You shouldn't diel so much. It'll do yOll a lot of harm. S My younger sister is doing very well in her new job as a chef's assista nt. a b c d e

h(ive a parlicular effect make progress or develop study, or find the answer la something be enough carry out a particular activity, e.g. do the shopping

...... f.or pleasure


said. It was trtle

that J had given 3'

him l.ifi;! but I had nQt given him lovl.':. I dt:cided to go

with him and

"If I'i ten ro his sreJ"y. lrl

took me ro -a mO\Ull'ain hut-where he lit a

fu:c.. Wc s:lt d0wn by the tire and he began to tell Ill\.' IUs story. ~~ 11,e mrmster told FrllllketlS(eill 1I01V ',e l/lamed pe~pJe to love ',rm, bilL ill lead tIlt:,. were afraid oflum aJ/d hattd lum. When hI:' had fmishccl, bt.' snid: '1 am alt:>utl and nilil'l'able. Only SOlllCOI) • 5(1<'1$ ugl1' as I am could 10\te me.You must ll1~C anotbl:r crei\tlll'e like nIl', a wMlan monster to be my wite: '1 hall newt make an01her creafure Iik~ you,' I "hoUt~d. 'You ha done Itnol,lgb ~ em on YOlK own: 'If )'OU den'r h.~lp me, I shalllTlake you more misemble than yOll h'~VlI l,:vcr b~'t:ll in )'(mr life.You will \ ish Y0\1 were d~ad" (be 11\onsrex said. 'But if you 11\;'IK, (Ill another monster to be l\1¥ friend, we W<i)t)'t hun al~"onlt, Be kind to l1le ilo~~ and J will k-arn to lo\'e and be kind: I thought long nlld hard abOUt the Il\OOSter'$ words, I felt. orry fill' him, He:

Underf>tanding the fltor1


1 Put these events in the story in order. The first is done


Divide these words from the story into two groups: a) those the author uses to describe what the monster feels about himself, and b) those used to describe what Frankenstein feels about the monster. One word belongs in bOlh groups.

for you. • •

Frankenstein returned 10 Geneva. _ _ Frankenstei n agreed 10 do what the monster wanted.

The monster took Frankenstei n to a hut on the mountain. _

The monster killed two people. _ _ The monster ran away down the mountain. _ _ Frankenstein created a monster. __I _

• • • •

• •

The monster asked Frankenslein to make another ugly, female monster. _ _ Frankenstein met the monster near the rocks. _ The monster told Frankenstein his story. _ The monster promised to live far away from other people. _ _

• sad· unhappy· a murderer· evil· big • slrong • miserable· gentle. alone. lIgly

Talking about your reactions 1 Why did Frankenstein agree to do what the monster 2 3

wanted? If you were Frankenstein, would you do what the monster asked? Why? / Why not? 00 you think we will be ever be able to ueate a creature that can thi nk and ta Ik in lhis way?



Let's revi~.e;:;Un'lts 3 and 4 Grammar c.omparin 9

l're£>enf perfec.t Write sentences about Sam using the notes.



1 Wrilte sentences making positive amI negative comparisons using the notes.

finish dinner (just)

Example tennis J interesting J chess J but J not / exciting / football

5r;m's just finished dinner_ 1 do his homework (n ot yet)

Tennis is more interesting (/1011 chess, bull10l as exciting as football. 1 Paris / big / Budapest / but I not / large / London


2 SCience I easy I Maths / but I not I simple I History

3 show me his new TV [just)

3 the weather in England I good I the weather in SCotland I bu I / not I good { the weather in Greece

4 see a live football match (never)

phone his gi r1friend (already)

5 win the race (just)

4 Jason / intelligent / Harry I but / not f clever / Emma

6 fill in the questionnaire (nol yet)

5 Greek I difficult I English I but I not! hard / Japanese Write questions for these answers usi ng tile present


6 the >easide I nice I the city I but! noli Cl\tractive Ithe




Q A We have lived ill this flat for 10 years.



Complete the sentences usi ng thest'? words in the superlative

A No, I've never visiled Paris,




long ,fasl. high


3 0


1 Capable 01 running over 100kph. lhe cheetah is Ihe [a~/e6' land anim(ll. 2 At 2,4ggm above sea level, Rysy is mountain in Poland. 3 At 6.670km, Ih(' Nile is the river in the world. 4 Dating back to the 12th century, OXford is one ,of _ universities in the world. S The Ki ng Cobra is one of snakes in the world. 6 Costing about 'S1300 ~r ounce, rhodium is the _ metal on eClrth,

Q A Yes, I've jusl finished re<1ding the last page.

4 Q A


I've been a student here since last year.

Q A No. I haven't spoken


Jan today,

6 Q A No. my brother has never been to Australia.

6 Compl,cle the text using the present perfect or the past simple form of the verbs in brackets.

OUt· J?e>rt-door

~1eJjlu5our.:>, tile.

who, whit:h, whose, who's


3 Complete the sentences with the~e words.

eVe,. s;nce t),ey -" S,Pa.;" ten years <'::}o, they

. who. which (; whose


1 I know some people _ _ hale horror films. 2 The film _ _ he rented for {he evening was very funny. 3 Isn't lom the guy _ _ coming to our class next yeMI 4 My brother is selling Cl car _ _ he hds done up himself. 5 The JM;ksons are the people _ _ holiday home we rented last year, 6 I don'tl<no\V anyone _ _ beHer at football than you. 7 Isn't Emma the girl _ _ mother couldn't put up with her bad behaviour? 8 What's the name of the girl _ _ 13lking 10 John?

" '.






frroney', So






wed) ~

warb1 CI;b1a(e. IWo years c(Unt " - - - (leave) r'h",fl'l Sable

to j;t/e ;n

e<:J 0


( V,'$;t)




~just bUy> a houSe;n ~



1 ?

to 1001(

11';/14 an the o/a,":Sll -rhey ~ the ,Pe,../'e.c:t vi/lo. near ~ 1'1a!Ci.Q(i.. ~o/ -;.---( 6e) in S, .f'o,. ~ J ~ Ci.bold .,rour b10ntllS now and they 5<0/ ~ (hey don'r' re:yet lec«'n:J the c.old ~ {Je.Ci.t.her ;n cr.:;IcVld beh;nd. I ~ _ _._, j " I \ . , " ,', \.b14(eJ u? h1Y bI,,7d that I want Co liVe @ 5C»>1e".)f7,!!r~ LJaJ"bI too. I 'l U;Ve> ~ ;n Ci. ,-,oid Country f'or too /on::/ ./'or


6 _ _ C.(;nd)



,•••,.....::~.;. ••.:r$r..:.~.=>Y.;.::~~

Listening 7

~4~'-: Listen to four people in different situations and choose the best answer, a, b or c. 1 Someone is talking about her family. How does she feel about her brothers? a She enjoys watching fool ball with her brothers. b She would rather have sisters lhan brothers. c She thi nks she is lucky to have so many brothers. 2 Someone is talking about himself. What kind 01 person does he say he is? a He loses his confidence in some situations. b He would rather be with friends than relatives. c He enjoys meeting different people al parties. 3 Someone is talking about an accident. What happened to her? a She crashed her bike into a lree in lhe woods. b She fell off her bike when a dog ran in front of her. e She broke her ankle white riding on the pavement.

Writing 10 Match the beginnings 1-8 to the endings a-h to make sentences in a letter. A




a fix up another time?

2 Many thanks for your letter. it

b love, Jackie

3 I'm sorry it's taken me so long to reply, but

c see you soon.

4 Thank you for the

d Anna

5 I'd love 10 come, but I'm afraid thal

e invitation to you r pa rty.

6 Why don't we

f I'm av\'ay that weekend.

7 Hope to

g I've been very busy with

exams. 8 lots of

h was great to hear from you again.

4 A doctor is talking 10 a palient. What's wrong with the patient? a He has stomach pains. b He's been sick. c He's got a cold.

Speaking 8 'Underline the correct words to complete the dialogue. Sue Jim

Sue Jim Sue Jim Sue Jim

B554 2726. Hello! I'm ringing I Jor / about the flat advertised in the paper Ihis morning. Could I just ask how 2 close} near the city centre it is' Oh, jusl about 5 minutes' walk. And it's shari ng 3 with} for two others, is" 't it? That's right. I was 4 asking / wondering if I 5 could / would come and see it this evening? I'm (\ upset / SOflY but we won'l be in later on tonight. What about tomorrow night? Fine. I'll be there at about 7.

9 Complete the sentences so lhat they are true for you. 1 I adore c;urry because Il's spic-i . 2 I detest because _ 3 I can't stand because _ 4 I quite like because _ 5 I dislike beCdUSt' _ 6 I've never tasted _


--.... - ...:



Reading 1 In pairs, answer the questions. Use these words to help you. storm '" flood ,. gale. hurricane " drought (; rain â&#x20AC;˘. tornado <I heatwave u

1 What can you see in the pictures? 2 Which of these weather conditions is the most dangerous? Why? 3 Have you ever seen anything like this yourself?

2 Look at the title of the article on page 57. Do you thi nk the main message is good or bad? Why? 3 Read the article and answer these questions, 1

What are The isla nders in Ki ribilli and Tuvalu worried

about? 2 What is the main cause of global w()rming? 3 Wha\ did the people on Easter Island do wrong? 4 What might the main effect'> of global warming bet 4

Read the article again and match the headings a-f with paragraphs 1-6. . a Melting ice b The greenhouse died c Hope lor the future d Oi5<lppearing islands e A lesson from history f The effects of globa I wa rmi ng

Vocabulary Nounf> 5 Put these

nouns from the article into two groups:

geographical features and the weather. ~ e

climate 0 ocean .1 island c drought " flood atmosphere ~ forest .-, enviroll ment " grou nd

â&#x20AC;˘ hill" sea 6 Underline the correct word to complete the sentences. 1 Thecc was a terrible/food / drought in England this yea r, and people had to be saved by boat. 2 Much of the carbon dioxide in the Earth's f?nvironmcnl / armo5{Jherc comes from burning fossil 'fuels. 3 'She lives on a small island / ground near Greece, 4 She went on a ship across the Pacific Ocean / Sea. S The climate / we(lther y~terday was terrible, It rained

all ddY. 6 She got very lost in the fares( / hill when she was out walking.


- - - - - - - ,•.. ~--~_._ ..




----------,:~"'~,\~~~~ 4 Nobody knows what The isiJndcrs of Kirihati and Tuv,,]u do not need to read about \\;)1 happen if global climate change and glob;!\ warming - they can see it happening all around them. SC'J. levels are rising, and this is warming cominUt's, but we can look at all changing the way the people in these small Pacific islands live. example from the pa!;t to Fatmers have to grow crops in tin cam because there is coo l11uch salt in the ground, the fIsh are dying because the sea is sec what might happen. too warm, and dr.inking water is bal-der and harder to find. In the Pacific Ocean there is another small The slllal:l island ofTebua Tarawra has 3lrcady & appeared, and island, 3 rocky, treele~$ (he islanders of Kiribati and Tuvalu arc afraid thal more o( place called Ea~ter Island, their land will soon be und"'r \vater. which 11:Is m:my str,mge 1 old stattle~. Humin:'!, o( Most scientists around the world agree that the Earth is years ago it was gn:en getting warmer. They believe that some places are already 2" and rich ,lI1d covered hotter than they were 30 years ago, and that temperatUres will in trees. However. go up another S" in the lIext hundrt~d years. This means that till' ict~ at the North and South Pok.~ will melt, the occal1S 'will the is\;mders cut t'xpand and the ,ea will risc by as Illuch as one metre. dO\vn their trees to make fires, build In the atJl)osphen: above the Eart11, gas(:;s like carbon dioxide boats and move their stattles. As the (orests naturally tr:lp the >un';, hear ,1lld keep the air warm. This stops got mlaJler, they had less most of tht' world /Tom becomill!!, cow!'cd in ice. However. G:uit and fc\wr wild ;milllah the problem is that human b(~ings are now making this h<lppen more quickly and dramatically in what sciell!ists call the and birds to cat; and the people began to ~o hungry. In the cnd. there Were IlO (TeeS at: all. The islandcTs $t3rtt,d wars ~md 'greenhouse dIcet'. Wc are rre;lting more and more carbon killed each other. nmil there \vas almost llD-one left. dioxide by burning fossil !Ilds (oal and oil) [0 make ekctricity and drive Cars. In tilt' USA ;\Ione, each person cre;\t(:;.~ six tons of carbon dioxide a Yt::n. Some scientists believe that in the future the weather \Nill be Illor,' t'xtrclllC - there will be stTOnger hurrie'\lws. bigger Aood> and longcl' dl'Ought~. Some pans o( the world 1ll:IY get wanner and wctter, ~UJd other~ Illay get coldt:r. This nmy a£rcGt £nvironmenta\ prob\em~ f(m:sts, the food we. grow and tht.' animals (hat live in the wild, 7 Match the word~ 1-6 with a-f to make ~ix phrases. and ca,ll. t' di~ease to spre,ld more quickly.

Then complete the text using the


1 cl imate

a fuels

2 globa I 3 greenhouse

b ICe caps c wailning



d dioxide

5 fossi I 6

6 In many ways we ;Ire luckier than the Easter Ishmdcr,\: wc know :tlJOtlt the problerm and dangers and what we should do. Lt:( lIS hopt> that wc do not make thl; same mistakes and \\t' leam to look atter rhe environment.

e gases


f change

cientists say that 1 will affect all of us in our lifetime. The oceans are becoming bigger because of 2 at the orth and South Poles, Our cars and factories burn too many 3 _ _ _. so that we can have energy and these create 4 for example 5 _ _ _ , which wmm the atmosphere. The whole world is experiencing 6 ; the weather is not the same as it was twenty years ago. We must reduce pollution now.



Look at the sentenccs, which describe some things people do to help the environment. Which of the thing~ do you do? (an you th in k of othN ways of hel pi ng the environment>


• •

• •

Use publ ic transport and bicycles. Buy products n\<lde of recycled paper. l<lke newspapers, bottles and CanS la recycling centres. TlJrn off electric I ights and machi nes when we are not using them. Join an environmental pressure group, for example, Green peace.

Grammar 1 Future forms

'~;:'-"'Q" Chec~

1 In pairs, answer the questions. 1 2


- -

What is your favourite fruit? Whallypes of food and drink can you find it in? Look at the photo. What does it show! Do you think these are rea I fru it?




: " " - _ -_ _





Future forms

1 Look at the newspaper articles again and find three diHerent ways of talking about the future. Write the examples. 1



2 3 which example: a

gives information about the future?


talks about an intention for the future?


talks about all arrangement in the future?

Look at the newspaper articles again and underline future Question forms and negatives. Complete these questions and answers. Q When _ _ the machine _ _ (be) in the A

shops? We don't know exactly, but it _ _ (not be) in the shops before next year.

Q _ _ you _ _ (develop) other foods with FizzyFruil in them? A Yes, of course. There _ _ (be) lots of

Fi:z.zyFruil products in the fUlure. 2

Read the newspaper articles and match the headings IQ

the correct article. ~,.,...,

~: "':.:l' , ' ' .... aned fnli.!J A 'r W I" ;~A... ,...l~!rA'wmH ...... Fruit with a ~

,', difte'te1\t..S U





' __ " ' ' ' . , -

::~~,~:lXpan'las '@~\:~"other ~~Y:,'have

.~1.~tU."l\\,.~,,,,,\\W'· .. ,,,,,'\'i',\"'\"',"\' '. ,~\.}\\'l'\\·k\\ '""~,,,," .' ,us the way forwal'd again, with shown of its great in\lenlions. For years people found it difficul\ to fit walermelons in the ~~:~ fridge, There i:; also the problem of trying to ClIt .the fruit _ it rolls around the table like a large heavY footbal1. A fruit fanner in Japan has now {:::'''successfuHY grQWn square watermelons. And "t\iey're on sate in supennarkets in Tokyo and


1, lia....a .


'~~\{l$,,<i!""I' will

!~\"'" I~,

inventive froil

fanuet~, do~

.~~~~~~ pet-haps they will produce $~~!~~ square ~:i!WP\" which fi t neatly intO sandwl'i!t.11oxes. Or ~f.~~~iU we se~ .straight bananas W'hitth .,arc OlUO\) k f d' 'b . 1"(' :'\;::::.,eas x',·· 1er to pac' or \~\\'I utlon. .~tinwY ,ue cJe\'ef ~~~r and €Olwenient, bU.l whateVer j'l.-i$~. 'it· won'\. :~: •• \ ' \\"







~\. eheap. Each of the new 'Sqo~re. \',lAtelllldO,ns:, \1'- .lap"" cos" $83.• m<>f<> tban dqlibJe the pn'"

t~%i~g,~:.~o:mal, rou~~ ~:.ate~elon!>: .. "'':t).f'.>.w,..,.,.;.;. .•.,_'''''''~.v ..w''''«~~.~~ ..,.... ,~ •. ~,,;;v.


o UniverSity of Texas scientist, Or Gafen Kaufman, has injected carbon diOXide into fresh fruit. When yOll eat ,

the frUit, the gas warms up in the mouth, like it does in fizzy drinks, and makes a tingling feeling, improving the tJavour. He hopes it'll make children and adults

r s

want to eat more fruit


~ ~

Next, he's going ro Work with engineers from the Centre for Food Innovation at the University of Oregon to make a machine which puts the gas into the fruit. 'Our first product wifl be a small

k" ~::(::'




food machine that will aflow people to make FizzyFruit at home. EventuaJly we will make FizzyFruit available in restaurants, at Sporting events, and even in school lunch programs.' You're not gOing to have a chance to taste it yet, but over the next few months, the FizzyFrUit website is shOWing information about FizzyFrull evems, developments and news.


( , .(

r 11

i ~. }







~~~~""'''~ .. ''''''''';~.''f:.'.

will 3

Work with a partner. Invent a new product and write an advert to explain what your new product will do.


'Present Gontinuous 5 ~5., sally's friend,

Kate, phones to arrange to go to the cinema. Listen and write in th~ diary what Sally i~ doing this week, ilnd when Sally .and Kate ilrrange to meet.

Friday 11

TflE tllT-D-MIITlt When you are away, the Cat-o·Matic will look after your cat for you! The Cal-o-Malic is an automatic catfeeding device. It will provide exact amounts of cat food at the correct time of day. It will even provide fresh water. The Cat-a-Matic will work on batteries ...

S8tllrday 12

s,o",e",o,.!t (",o,."i",)

Sunday 13

.r;"1i", l'/-qCfice

6 Work with a partner .and say what Sally is doing each

90in9 to 4 Read Sally's New Year's resolutions. Write six sentences about what she is going to do this year.

evening this week.

Let's act+vate Ghangin9




co~k !V~f'e,· f'o~

"'v", ol>ce


take rhe d~ f'ot- q




Iwice q week

• ..;;io ..':l()~';:wo:.~. -r.?~ .':Io~dQY .1:>ef'ol-e SVl>dQY eve!>;",

.. .. vi.sif





other about changes that you're goi ng to make in your life. First, write a list of five changes you want to make to Ihese areas of your life: home

er.fel- Co"'tefitJol> fo si", 0"- I-qdio iQ/ed ,fj,ow

*....30 ..~o .':l.el-oj,~Cs


7 Work with a partner. You are going to interview each

.. f'",qCfJSe .s;I>,ih<j evel-y dar It



QfJ.j GI-QIIlJQd ol>Ce q week

sChools \ /fell' the local Co",,,,vfJif y" 1/-ov'p


join the


Qf'f'ly. ~'OJ' . S qfvl-day jo.b at f'asi-f'()()d car.~..


30 Qvl ',uHf, -rl-iellds af fj,e weeke"'J

school fu tu re education family


8 Ask and answer questions with your partner about the changes you both want to make. Give reasons.

Example A What ore you going to do ac home? B I'm going 10 paint my bedroom blut'.

9 Tell your partner about three Ihing5 you know will happen next year. Example My parents ore (flOl/ing house in June.

': ::::::<:~:.:':.~.\';~ :},;~~~\~,~~~:~~~:~,~:;:s~~::~:~i:i~~~:~~\'~:\~~~~~:~~\ ~~~~~\~~~\~~~~}~~~K\\\:~~~:~::x~ \:~~: :.: -: .~.\. "::','

"e'a ki ri.

A~:~~Els·fe.n·fif'\··~a~n~:~s\·\'· W""··~'··f";'~L.,.\.t\\,··.:\· ..~·\~~\...\... ;.\~\·.g~W\\\'\\,;\\~\\.\\~\\\., .. ,. p.;\. ,', . ".\:\;


\\~: '~\:\\'.\:.\;:~·A·•.\~ ~:.'t\)n.~u ..u.•\). ~'u.,~,,\'t.~~\\I.: .l' ... •




.... .



delicate balance

1 look at the TV pictures of tomorrow's weather and say

Wordfl c..onneded \'lith the

what the weather is going to be like.


3 Match words 1-8 to a-h to make word combinations


from 2, say what the word combinations mean.






2 fog 3 heavy 4 5


a north-easterly

6 a f) a rea of low 7 local 8

a chilly

a showers b spells c wind d of thunder e pressu re f pa tches g start to the day h Hooding

Vreflenting a \'leather foru..ast 4 Imagine you are a TV presenter. Use the photos to write a weather forecast for tomorrow. Present your forecast to the class.

Pronunciation Listening 2


~S.2 listen to four weather forecasts for tomorrow. you listen, match the forecasts 1-4 to the weather conditions a~. There is one ansW€r yQU do not need. a It will be mainly warm and wet. b It will be cold, damp and foggy. c It will be mainly hot and line. d It will be cold with thunder and heavy rain. e It will be snowing and very cold.




\etterfl ~5.3 Look at these words whkh

contain silent letters and cross out the letters which are not pronounced. listen and check your anSWers,

1 whole 2 dlthuugh 3 slight 4 throughout

5 w(Hned 6 journeys 7 palches 8 postpone


9 Work in small groups. Imagine that you are putting toge! ner a competion for students at your school

Gtrun \ivin9 6

about recycling. Discuss and decide about the best way to organise th is. Use the phrases in 8 to plan and decide the following:

In pairs, look at the photos and answer the questions.

1 What do you Ihink i') special about the homes in photo A? Would you like to live ill a r>lace like this? Why? I Why not? 2 00 you recycle? What kind of things (an you recycle? 3 What forms of transport do you think are the most 4

• • • •


look at the expressions we can use to make predictions about the future. Complete the expressions using these words. ,\ won't

1 2


might ,. chance


probably", positive'" certainty

I am _ _ that our generation (an save the world. Governments _ _ have 10 introduce restrictions on

who you want la take part (uo you Wdflt tcams or individuals competing?) who else you W(ln( to invite (audience) jury?) what questions you want 10 put in the quiz (how many Questions? what type of q lIestions?) where you want to hold the competition the prizes any other entertainment (e.g. a celebration party for the winners?)

When you have made your decisions) compare your ideas with another group. Have you made similar decisions?

Tat"-in9 about tne. future 11

using water or energy to reduce waste. 3 We need to find alternative sources of energy because soon there _ _ be any oillefc 4

environmental? Why? How do you think buying local produce help to protect (he environment?



Work with a partner. You are going to interview e<lch other about the way you would like to live your lives in the future. Fir'st, pfepare a list of questiol15 on these

The population of the world will _ _ grow by 50% by



• •

your home further education and tra ining

• •

job and coreer personal and family relil\ionship~

• •

aims ilnd ambitions 'green living'

5 There is a good

of the sea levels rising if lhe

global warming continues.

6 We cannot predid the future with 100% _ _ '

8 .'r)5.~

Read the dialogue. Then listen

and fill in the gaps.

, \\\N\\Wi',\\_~~~\i\\\\\\\tt!M'·~\)'\\I,\\\J\\\W.\\l~~~~~~~~.~~

Use these ways of tal ki ng about the future.

Planning and making decisions

hope to " going to .~ would (really) like to ) will probably I definitely" may


Jess I think we should do something about recycling. (1) _ _ organise a campaign at school? Tom (2) _ _ make

some posters la tell


people what

you hope to do after leaving f(hool? 8 I would really like to go to college to study Biology.

A Whal do

they should do. Jess (3) _ _ it would be more fun if we organised a 'green living' competition, so people can send in



their own ideas? Tom (4) _ _ work out the details! !

" ,\",\\\1\\\\\\\\\\,1\,\


" \:'

Interview your partner using the questions you prepared in 11. Note your partner's answers. When you have finished, tell another student what your partner said.

~', ... ;"i:'jvln.gstont; MakuleJ<e S4nds under the giant baobab :'tre~'an9 tal~s. about the old days. This is where the ',.,ch~e-f1J.sedt<i?; he says qUJetly.ihe village ", ,'" .·headmen all'came 'and sat in a circle. This tree was s the centre of th:~ Makuleke peopJe and our wa)' of '.. li(e.' Now o.oly animals are allowed here:

.. ''T~e'Q'1d way ofl1fe ended in 1969, when the 'white So'Uth Afri~an government moved all ten v.tU~ges 0fthe Makuleke tribe and gave the land . ' 10, t~ the Kruger Nationa:l Park. The park was ;" 'founded in 1898 and was Africa's first game reser-ve. At the time, Boer farmers were moving ,":int9'the TransvaaL cutting down trees, clearing , the l\md for farming and shooting animals for :'5 food, The British, with their passion for trophy : hu~ting, w.ere killing thousands mme, and there were real worries about the future of the . gre~t' African mammals.

';;.' ,,':

,From th~ very beginning, the park was a !1uocess and the numbers of animals rose steadil),. It , ; is' ,now one ofthe world's greatest conservation areas. Stretching across 20,000 square kilometres. it is '. 'bigger th~n, many C'0untries. It has many large .. 'mammals that ,are either endangered or extinct in '1J,Oth~1' parts of Africa. 10

has been given back to them. and 35 they will have the

.Over- ~,OGO white and black rhinoceros and huge .:,':' herds oJ ~1~phaI)ts .f0am about, as do C"pe buffalo ,a119- antelopes, lions, cheetahs and leopards. It has , ' : oyer a mil1ion visitors every year, making it one of 30 the c?umry's top de:s ti nations. JJ~der a new agreement, the Makuleke will now ',,::."'. the, chance to benefit [rmu the park. Their land '.X;;"?;:~~~~$.f~~~~;;::~:~..:~~<~··-"~·o;~·":~,·-,,.-r...,.··,.v&·_·-·.· .._·~·~_·.:~·-:"7N.X:·-~.·:. ....~m:-~~~.;¥;'f.~i.;~::;:::~~

-.:~~~W:.:;:-$~"N;":'·'"o.:"'J'.•. *.---.;--~---~-------."..

'1 Read the text and answer the questions. 1 What happened to the Makuleke people in 1%97 2 Why were animals in danger at the end of the 19th centu ry7 3 In what ways ha s the pa rk been su eeessfu I? 4 In what ways might the park be a dangerous place to visit! 5 How will the Makuleke people benefit from the park?



Talking about you r eou ntry 'l"""#:UF.~~J:;1;:I'x;.~"//~.~«..6:J::1(_~~~""","*h'.""~.·.·.·.·.·.~.·.·.·.·....y

••• ' ••••••

1 What national parks do you have in your country? 2 What can people do when they visit national parks? 3 What sort of developments are not allowed in national parks? 4 What zoos or safari parks do you have? 5 Do you think it is right to keep wild animals in zoos or safari parks? Why? ( Why not?

Grammar 2

must, mustn't, have to and be not allowed to (~P137)

havt fo or be not allowed to and mustn't? 4 Complete the dialogue, Use hove to, be not of/owed mustn't. Sometimes more than one answer

Ob\igation, rec.ommendation, prohibition and advic.e 1

look at these sentences about the text and complete the rules with mU5t, mustn'l, have to or be not allowecllO.

Peter Are there <lny other rules I ought to know about? Sam Well, of course you 1_~ stay on the main road. yOll 2 _ _ drive off into the park

Obligation and recommendation You mU51 go and see the Kruger N<ltiol1d1 P<Hk. It's

chasing lions, but that's only sensible. you might get 105t if you went off into the bush. You 3_ _ make sure you don't throw any

beau ti ful. The park rules say you hove to stay on (lie main roads. 1 We use _ _ to talk about an obligation that is a rulr. or a law. 2

litter or cigarette ends out of the (a( because there is Cl risk of fire. Oh yes, and one other thing, you '1 _ _ stay inside the speed limits,

We use _ _ to talk about a personal feeling of

they have speed checks all over the place, and


if they catch you driving too fast. they will

Prohibition and advi'ce You mustn't drive too fast in the park. You are not allowed to throw rubbish in the park.

throw you out. It means you 5_ _ go more than 40krn per hour, even on the open roads, but that's really to protect the animals.

You musln't miss the elephants. They are amazing. 3 We use _ _ and _ _ 10 say somelhing is 4

prohibited by rules or law. We use _ _ when the speaker thinks it is important not 10 do something_

must and mustn't 2 An English friend is coming to visit you. Complete these prompts to make a li~t af ideas about what he.lshe must do in your town cmd eau n lry.

.. see ..


eilt _ _

.. go and visil _ _ ..

don't mi,>s

• ciD not _ _ 3

Work in pairs. Imagine your partner is your English friend. Tell your partner the idea~ you wrote in 2. Use must and mustn't, and give re3~(lns.

Example You

must !>ee Krnk6w - it's a very beoutiful cily.

You musrn'( mi>s the mu~eum. It's

fO or

i~ possible.



The c.orrec.t verb 5

Underl ine the correct verb to corn plet!? the sentences.

must I have to write a leller 10 your grandmother




10 thank her for your birthday present. At my school. students mUll I hove lo wear




You mu<;tn'll ore flol allowed to reil my secret to Clnyone or I wi 11 be upset.

4 You must J mvsln'l smoke in (he library. It is prOhibited_ 5 YOu ore (Jot allawed to I hove to run in the classroom, It i~ dangerous. 6 You must J ore not allowed 10 pass exams to get into university in England.

Let's activate Ob\igations 6 Work in

pair~ or small groups. Talk about your obligations at school and at home using must, mustn't, hove to ,md be nM allowed to. Use these ideas to help you.

• • ..

taking exams staying out all night at parties learn ing Iists of irregu la r verbs

smoking at school

driving watching TV

• • ..

helping with woking, washing Up. etc. It.firning a musical inslrumenl playing a sport


·\'Vrith~gJ~:..:p.ostca rd ... -..- .".' ',". ",,:.-;

".~"-:"'.:, ::"'::.'



: '.: ,"..


"'W'ish you vvere here 1

In pairs, look at these postcard$ and answer the questions.

1 C:ln you guess what places the 2 Whal activities could you do if you were on holiday in these places?

3 Which place would you prefer to go to? Why?

Studying the sample 2 Read

the postcard. Which photo in 1 shows where Mike is

4 Find the paragraph which gives details of these things.

staying? 3

1 When Mike is coming back 2 Inforn.<!tion (Ibout the place they ore staying 3 What they have spel1l their time doing 4 Where they are on holiday 5 What ebe they're planning to <10

Read the postcard again and answer the Questions.

1 Where are they staying? 2 What are their plans for lomorrow?

3 When is their holiday going to finish? 4 How much do you lhi()k Mike is really enjoying the holi(Jay?


Look at the postcard and find examples of short sentences which are missing the word we or I. When do wc use senlence~ like these?


Hi there! ~ ~ou Celn see, we're in Corfu. H.'s ver~ dif'f'ererrt from the laSt time we were here. There's cl big group of' us. and we're all Stcl~ing cl! the Regent Hot.e I. Ii's a nice place _ the food's g.ood, t.he rooms are f'j~ Clnd I've met. SOme ni(,& people.

The wediher if> reaso.D.sQk. I've windsurfing, but t.he ot.hers jus.t. a Quid t.ime. Went. OUt clubbing times last. week which was fun, t.hclt., 1 Nven't. been out. much.

dOr'le SOme lie around hc1ving a couple of but dPdrt from

The girls clre off to -lov.m tomorrow because Luc~ wants to do cl bit of' Shopping. I don't. re.clll~ like Shopping. SO I t.hink I'll stcl~ here.

Back on Frid<l~ Lots of love.


will give

Mike «'(~~«~~v/aWLa",w..,..a>cr~.




ring t.hen.







Iz.abela Hof'f'mdn ------------------

16 --Bdrcombe Avenue -_._---



5W2 3AY




Steps to better writing

Verb tenses


8 Complete the po5l.card using the correct form of the verbs in brackeK Use each of these tenses twice.

6 Your choice of adjectives can completely change the

• present simple • present continuous • present perfect $ wilt future

meaning of a piece of writing. Work with a partner. One of you is Student A and the other is Student B. Follow the instructions. :"s~~~~~~;'~"""'"''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''

: : : : [

i : : :


You ~re Iia\(ing the holiday of a lifetime and think everything fs perfect. Rewrite Mike's postcard on page 64, replacing the underlined adjectives with some of the ones below, and using your own ideas. when you have finished, read your postcard to Student B.

• • • • • I • • • • • • • I • • • • • • • • • • • '.·r •• ~ • • • • • • •

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ' , •••••• :

B : You are having a terrible holiday, and everything is : going wrong. Rewrite Mike's postcard on page 64, : replacing the underlined adjectives with some of the ones below, and using your own ideas. When you have fini.shed, read your postcard to Student A.


: : : : :


, ••• ,


L:tina CllOll;.~=~?~~ "":..-"""".....,.""""'> '"'~.'=~-.<!~~_ . .'

1/ h



Understanding the tas,," and p\anning .


Hi Bar!"f, Well, here we. are in 'Paris again and we I~ Cnave) a great time. We 2._ (f>ta~) at the. Mad~l~ne. Hotel in <&t Michel, which is - in fad It _ _ (b~the same plaa. '<'le '4 _ (sta'l) in en w.e ._ _ (£.Ome) here last year. ~o far we _(be) to a £.Ouplf,. of museums ana 9aller~5 (the Mllnee d'Or$a~ is great) and of c.ou~ we --(have) loads to eat and drinK. -nqey _(\::now) hoVl 10 £.OOK in franc.e. ( ~ (be) bac.K at the end of the weeK _ I 10 _ .- (c-all) 'l00 then.

Writing a postcard

absolutely awful very stressful disgusting dark smelly aggressive rude small cold and wet miserable

;.I ••• , •. ,,, •••• , ...•••.••••...•••.•.•. H

past simple


really lovely absolutely fantastic brilliant 'delicious marvellous very hot and sunny p~rrect great

• • • • • •, • • • , • • • • • • • • • • , • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • I



9 Imagine you ale on holiday. You are going to write a postcard to a friend.

'5enten,e bUilding 7 We use words like and, but, so and because to join ideas and make longer and more interesting sentences. look at these sentences from the text. There's a big 8rou p of us and we're all stayi ng al the Regent Hotel. I've done some winds.urfing, but the others j list lie around having a quiet time. The girls (lre off to town tomorrow because Lucy wants to do a bit' 01 shopping. I don't really like shopping. so I think I'll stay here. Complete the sentences using and, but. so or because. 1 In the day we go swimming and water-skiing _ _ at night we go off to the hotel disco. 2 It's hot and sunny today, _ _ last week the weather was terrible. 3 Katie's got to stay inside today _ _ she got badly sunburned yesterday. 4 The sea was really rough yesterday, _ _ we couldn't take the boat out. 5 I'm not really enjoying myself _ _ I miss you so much, 6 Beach holidays are OK, _ _ they're a bit boring.

1 Who would you choose to write to? 2 What would they want to know about your holiday? 3 How formal or informal should your postcard be?

10 Number these notes in the correct order. a Finish the postcard in a suitable way. _ _ b Give a few details about who is with you and what the place is like, _ _ c Open the postcard in the correct way and SilY where you are. _ _ d Describe how you spend your time and some of the things you have done. _ _ e Tell your friend abou t any plans for other tri ps or visits you are going to make before you leave. _ _

Writing 11 Write your postcard. Remember to use informal language. Use adjectives to make your postcard more interesting.

c..hU"K in 9 12 Read through your postcard and check that you have: • • •

used tenses correctly. spelled words correctly. u~ed an informal. friendly style.

Word focus ' Nouns



The environment 5 Match words 1-9 to their meanings a-i. Then

Match the adjectives to the nouns. Sometimes more than one answer is possible. Adjective


heaVY~ wind

high strong

breeze pressure



low light widespread

rain floods thunderstorm sun

1 global warming

6 polar ice caps

2 fossil fuels

7 carbon dioxide

3 clean energy

8 pollution

4 to recycle 5 waste

9 sea levels

a b c d e

the ice at the North and South Poles to use something again something you burn to get power, such as oil or coal the rise in temperature of the Earth's atmosphere dirty and dangerous stuff from cars. factories, ete f the height of the sea g a form of energy that doesn't produce pollution h something that you throwaway a gas produced by burning fossil fuels

2 Which of the nouns in 1 can you make into adjectives?


use the

words to complete the text.

Complete the sentences using nouns from 1.

1 There was a lot of heavy _ _ last night. The area is Hooded.

2 The strong _ _ knocked down the tree. 3 Be careful of the strong _ _ , You might get sunburn.

4 A cool _ _ on


p.., weather foretast



hot day stops you becoming hot.

Underline the correct words to complete the forecast.

probably know that the burning of l in our homes. factories and cars produces 2 ill rbe." . atmosphere. This traps heal from the sun, and makes .,t.JiJ..~;·!' / air wanner. But hunlans are now producing more i;a~~{n~':"'::~ dioxide than ever before, and this is creatiJIg agt:~~~6l!\,~~:::::~ effect, as the trapped warm air is mak;ing our planet'sl' , ' " temperature Lise. Scientists are now saying rha't .;"::§;:\,),:::'::I 3 is happening much faster thaN. they ~pp\.ig:h.r.,:~,<J, As the .\ melt,s are already: iisjpg'hi,:;,} some parts of the world. ";",11,,, "'." It's nOt only the Earth's atmosphere that is in':t,~·olipte'. ' Household 6 and industrial chemicals are' causing the 7 of the oceans and land. This is destroying animals and fish. We must act now! First, we need to stop llsing diny fossil fuels, and change to 8 from the wind, waves and sun. Second, we need to stop using our cars. and walk or cycle. And finally. we need ~ as much as we can to reduce waste and pollution.

beographita\ features 6 Which of these geographical features can you find in your country? Which can't you find? Do you know countries where you can find them? • island .. desert .. valley. plain., mountain .. lake .. fiver ... beach .. forest


Match the geographical features in 6 to these adjectives. Write sentences.

.. rocky. treeless. covered in trees / snow / fiowers

" dry. rich • green • steep .. peaceful • deep


Describe your favourite region in your country.

Reading for pleasure


, zn by Miehlctt?~all

No. not everything. I remember our love. And you died. I remember that. I wanted to die too. And again last month.. I wanted to die. Oh Matthew! Don't say that! Oh Matthew. r m so happy 10 sec you again. EHell. Can I sec you? Can wc talk? Oh yes. I want fo talk to you aboutJerry comes in with i\IIrs Finch. Elre1l runs oat.



Brad andlerpY., are.路nineteen, a.nd th~y. Gf:C in Britain 011 holiday. One h~J day. Brad andferry stop at a hotel in (:1 village, and some strange things happn In thi:; Ut:1lt:, lltey ba.oo just arrived at the hotel Gild discooered the (e.leo;~lon wasn't lllOFhing. Jerry's going downstairs to speak


to the 1(J1rdlq~y, Mrs Finch about this.

Jerry .fii;,)~s Brad loo/rs a./ the book about Britain.

.' . BRAD:~:. " "

(Re<1qing from the book) 'In 1760 the hOld was a


A family called Bannister lived in Ihe house. Onc: day. thd( ninetecn~year-old daushlcr. Ellcn-' , The ghost ofEllen Bannister comes in. She is wearing G dress from /760. I was nineteen. I died at eighteen. Yes. J JCmembcr you. Hello. Ellen. Hdlo, Matthew. Why does your friend c:dl you Brad? ls that. name? Yes. If's an American name. But you one Mauhew .nd I'm going to you Matthew. Always. Oh Matthew. I wailed and \vaitcd and waited for you. J love you so much. Do you love me? Yes. Jlbink - Yes. I do. You think? Is tnat an answer'? Aflcr alltbesc years? Oh Matthew. Matthew, do you rem.ember everything?

\, hrJUSC,








Mrs Finch! Do you know about the Bannister family? Did you sec the ghost? Ellen Bannister? Yes. Whaf? Brad. you saw a ghost? Ob, come on! Oh. Ellcn's always here. She likes young men. She's ~Iways looking for het boyfriend. Ma"hew's his name. I think. BRAD Mrs Finch. what happened? Hmv did she die? What happened 10 Matthew? MRS FINCH You're: interested. love. r can scc: thar. There's an old woman in fhe village. Her DaOlC is Maud Anscombe. She knows abDut Ellen. You ask Maud, (She goes out.) Brad. Ihis ghost - What did she say? JERRY BRAD (Not looking at Jerry) She - she didn' t speak. Jc:rry.


She said nothing at all.


Understanding the Sloene

'PMt>\e in the t>Ia1

1 Answer the questions.


Match the sentence halves to make true statements about the in the play,

1 Where are the two young men from? Wllat are they doi ng if) 2


1 Ellen Bannister

Britili n?


Why does Jerry leave Brad alone ill Ihe room? Why does Ellcn Bannister appear wearing an eighteenth century

3 Jerry . 4 Mrs Finch ...



5 Maud Anscombe ...


4 Who does Ellen think Brad is? 5 Oor's Brad believe he has met [lien before? What makes you think so? 6

Is MN; Finc.h <;urpr;sed !o hear that

Brad has seen Ellcn? Why') I Why

a is a young American man, but he's gol mysterious memories. b runs (he village hatel. e knows the truth about the ghost. d never lived lo be' nineteen. e doeS!)'1 seem to believe his frielld has reafly seen a ghost.

Talking about your reactions 1 2


7 What does Mrs Finch suggest Brad should do? 8 How much does Brad tell Jerry about his meeting with Ellen?


What do you think is the relationship between Brad and Ellen? What do you think happens at the end of the play? Will there be a happy end or a Xld one?


lmaginl' that you are lerry in this scene. What would you friend should do?


... _...


5ugge~t your

Vocabulary Opposites 4

1 In pairs, look at the pictures and answer the questions. , What do you think Ihe young people are dQing~ 2 If you had lWO monlhs \0 do Ol)e of lhe'ie jobs abroad, which job would you choose? Why?

Reading 2

Read the article on page 69. Which of the jobs in the pidures dOe5 it mention?


Read the article again and decide if these statements are true or false. 1 Volunteering is good for young people who have just left ~,(hool. 2 You need lo PilSS you r final school exams to do this ki nd of volu nteer work. 3 Volunteers must be 1)(lDPY to help others. 4 This exneriencc will be diflerenC from anything el~. 5 Volunteers will receive advicp. about future job~. 6 Universities don't like students who have taken i.I year


Match the highl ighted words from the text 1-6 Co opposites a-f. 1 first a few b rising 2 abroad c last 3 falling d ncx( 4 unique 5 last (year) e (ommon f at home 6 loads of





the carr,ed definition for the


a or b.

1 job I work a what you do 10 eMn money (and is (Qvn table) b the use or mentlll or physical energy (and is uncountable, and a verb too) 2 Lake up / take part in

a do as a hobby or job b join with other people in an activity 3 build I build up a become greater j)) amount or number b con~lruct 1 look after / look for a try to find b (are for 5 IlrOleCl { provide a give or supply b keep safe

VOLUNTEERS WANTED! ou've been studying hard for your final exams all year and finally they're over. Ifs time to start applying for your first job and earning money, or applying to go to university, or is it? Some people decide to do something quite different before they settle down to a full-time job or education. Every year, thousands of young adults from all over the world take part in a once-in-a·lifetime adventure. Voluntary organisations such as the 'International Voluntary Service' and 'Operation Raleigh' offer young adults the chance to live abroad, and work on projects which help the community or the environment. Volunteers can be found in Greece helping to protect the falling numbers of black bears, working in residential homes in Portugal or even helping gorillas in Rwanda. There are 110 pre-conditions in terms of nationality, ability, qualifications or social background. Volunteers need only a passport, a reference, and enthusiasm. According to T1m Grieve. who works with young adults on these projects, 'This is a unique learning experience for anyone


who takes part - and an opportunity to build up friendships all over the world. Each volunteer is looked after by someone from the host project, and every participating country provides support: Kate, a volunteer who worked in a children's home in India, told us why she decided to volunteer, 'I wanted to feel that I was going to do something really useful. I had an idea that I could make a difference.' Most volunteers are not paid wages or a salary, but are given accommodation and food, and sometimes receive an allowance. Training is usually offered to volunteers both before and during their time away - and they can get advice on finding other employment after their return to their own country. So what do people get out of volunteering? Nick, who worked with elephants in Malawi last year, says. 'One day I was sitting in my bedroom in London looking at elephants on the TV, the next day I was staring into the eyes of an elephant and helping to scrub his back. I made loads of friends that I wouldn't have made in London, and had some incredible experiences. It changed my outlook on life: Volunteering can help you develop skills which are attractive to employers and universities, such as independence. initiative and social skills. So what are you waiting for? Anyone who is interested in volunteering, or wants further information, can contact their nearest volunteer agency, or look for opportunities on the many volunteer websites on the Internet.

6 Underline the correct word to complete the sentences. 1

2 3 4


r need a job I work so that I can gel some money to pay for my guitar. She decided to take up / take part in tennis to get fit. My father built / built up his own house. (a n you look after I look for my goldfish while I'm on holiday? I provided / protected the policemiln wi,h my name and address.

Words wnnu,ted "'ith 7 Find words in 1 2

3 4 5 6 7



the text which mean: to write asking 'or a job 10 work 10 make money eXilminations you have passed or courses you have done Cl letter describing a person's character and abili!), cash or notes usually paid weekly for work done monthly or annual amount of money paid for work dOM.· teaching somebody how 10 do something which needs practice the people you wor k tor.

Look al the pictures, which show pan-time jobs students often do. Describe: • who is in the' picture. • where they 3re. what they are doing. Which of the activities in the pictures do you think are the best and worstpaid? Which of the jobs in the pictu res would you like and not like to do? Why?

Grammar 1 The present perfect continuous 1 In pairs, look at the picture and answer the quertions.

1 What


does it show?

2 Would you like 10 do this 5port? Why? I Why nor? 2

Read the article and choose the be$t answer, a or b. 1 The article is written by a Cl young person who hi:ls been laking part in the programme. b a leader on the progrClmrnt:.

CC7i路vh;~4. The present perfect continuous Forms

1 Write the sentences in their negative and question forms. 1 Positive rye bun learning 170w to c.Iimb 9ranile cliffs. Negative' Question

2 The writer


a is still on the course. b did the course lasl summer. 3 The course has helped the writer a worry about a lack of confidence. b develop self-confidence through challenging activi lies.

_ ?

positive The writer hqs been learnin9 to rC/ft.






2 Look at these

examples of the present perfect continuous, ",nd match them with the exp la nati om a-e.



I've been waiting one hour.



Sh~'s been mending her 'oi ke.

I f'

3 He's been going 10 the gym recently. a To la Ik about an aclion wh ieh ha~ happened over a period of time. The emphasis is on Ihe activity, rather than on the number of times it has been done. i<

b To talk about an aClion which has recently finished, and which has a re'illlt in the pre~nl. c To talk about how long an action h2s been going or;, With/or and since. The action is usually still going on, or has recently finished.

1'hre.t uses of tht present pe-rfeLt c.ontinuou& 3

We use the present perfect continuous to talk about an action which has happtmed over a period of time. In pair~, ask and answer que>tions about what you have been doing in the last two weeks. Use these ideas to help you.

• • •

go to the gym Dlaya sport study for eX;lms

look Llfter younger brothel I sisler

Cilrn money

6 Write sentences using for or :since and the verb in the present perfect continuous form. 1 I1 study J first aid (Ior I since) last year. 2 One rtudent 1110t feel I well (for 1 since) a few days. 3 I1 try 1 to ring my parents (for I since) ages. 4 What 1you I do / in the library (for / since) )0 long? 5 We Ilea rn I how to cl imb (for J since) 1sI August 6 I1 wonder J what job to do (for J since) a Ions time.

11le present perfect £.Ontinuous or the present perfe.d 6imp\e?

Now work with allother pair and find out what they have been doing. What have been the most popular activities?

4 We

use the present perleet cOfltinuous to talk about an

action which has recentfy finished and has a result in the present. Work with a partner. Take turns 10 guess what led to the situations in the pictures. Think of as many possibilities as you can. Use the present perled contjnuou~.



The present perfect continuous makes the action important. and says how long it's been continuing. The pr~enl perfect simple makes the result import.ant, and says how many times something has happened.

7 Compare these pair~ of sentences, Is the action result important? 1



We've been writing letters. We've written ten letters today.

2 I've been going 10 lhe theatre recently. I've been 10 the theatre lhree tim~_

8 underline the correct form

of the verbs to complete thtse


1 Sleven Spielberg h(lS directed 11705 veen direc'ing over twenty films. 2 ~Ie has worked /1>05 been working on (l new film since February. ho~ been poblishing 1h()U~l)ds of books. 4 They hove published I hove been publi~hjng for hundreds of ycar~. 5 Madonna has reLOrded I has been rewrding albums for more I ha n two deca des. 6 She has rCl-orded J h05 been re(ording al least ten hir

3 Oxford University Press has published I


Let's activate Diar~

9 Write a short paragraph about what you've heen doing at Khool in the IHt few weeks. Use these ideas to help you. • study for a test ~

We use the present perleet continuous to talk about an action which is still happening, or has recently finished. We usejor and since to talk about the length of the action. Complete using/or and since.

We use (1) _ _ to say when dn dction ~taned and (7.) to say how long the action look.

lellrn abou1 :c;oO)eon~ or somelhing interesting practise ~omething

work on q special project


Swap paragrdphs with they've been doi ng.


partner, and find out what


i Soundbites 5

0 rm

~6.1 Listen to Pure shores by All Saints, and fill in the gaps using these verlJ~ in the correCl form . â&#x20AC;˘ call uass know" move " swim " take " walk Q






Pure shores I've _ _ lhe deserts for milrs

Swam waler lor time, searching pla({'s to find A pie<:e 01 something to call mine (I'm coming) A piece of wmelhing to call mine (I'm COOling) (I'm coming. coming closer to you)

1 In pairs,


the questions.

Look althe pi(1ure. What does it show' 2 Make a li~l QI the comforts 01 mO<lern life (for example, your TV or you I' bed), How difficult would it be 10 live 1

without \h~e comforts if you lived on a d~ert island? 3 Which <omlons of modern life would you miss the most ( least?

Went along many moors _ _ through many doors The place where I wanna be, is the placr I can call mine (I'm coming) b lhe place I (an (Ill mine (I'm coming) (I'm coming, coming closer (Q you) Chorus I'm _ _ , I'm coming (an you hear whal ( hear? It's calling you, my dear Out of reach (Take me to my bea<h) I <an hear il _ _ you I'm coming, not drowning, _ _ closer 'la you Never been here before intrigued, I'm unsure I'm _ _ for more I've got something that's all mine I've got sQmething that's all mine I'm

Listening 2rQ6..1 Listen 10 someone talking about an experiment organi.ed by a TV company and complete the note-so 1 Lel1g1h of lime experiment took _ _ 2 Name of television documentary _ _ 3 Place where experimenl took place _ 4 Whal tc<:nal\er~ were given before they wef1\ _ _ 5 One thing that was there when they arrived _ _




Lislen 10 lour teenagers talki ng about their experiences dlJring the ex.periment. Write whar jobs the speakNs did. Speaker 1 _ Speaker 2 _ Speaker 3 _ Speaker 4 _


Lislen again and match the speakers 1-4 to the a .~. There is one statement you do not need


to use. a It was difficult to forget the modern world. bit was someti me) difficult to feel part of the community. ( It was a r~i'tllcarning cxpnienc.e. d It was somelhing hefshe doesn't want 10 rlo again. e It was a pleilsure to escape from modern life.


_ _ me somewhere I can breathe I've got so much 10 see This is where I wanna be In a place I can call min.e, in a place I can call mi ne (haru'S Movil1g, coming

(an you hear what I hear? (Hear it out 01 reach) I hear it calling yOll, swimming closer to you

Many faces I have _ _ Many places I have been Walked the deserts. swam the shores (Coming <loser to you) Many faces I have _ _ Many ways in which I've grown Moving closer on my own (Coming closer to you) I move it, I feel it, I'm coming, not drowning I move it, I feel it, I'm coming, not drowning Chorus

6 In pairs, read the lyrics and answer the que~tions. 1 Do you thin\<; the song is happy or ; Why? 2 The song is about finding an ideal place, What's YOtICS?

Speaking finding a




job ExchanginR information

7 Read these advertisements for part.ti me jobs, and decide which job adven: • wants someone who has done the job before. • wanb someone who likes children. • ash for someone who is friendly,

Manager Good morning, Qce'lrl Fish Restaurant _____7

Helh I'm ringing fDr inlormalion al:loul rhe advert for ~ wailress in the new)paDer.

Jane , Manager jane

• says the job pays weekly. ,

Read the dialoglle. Tnen listen and till in the gaps.


1 Waiter neeEled for fast·

food restaurant. Must be outgOing and fit. Even:ings until late and weekends. Telephone 18€>5 254682


how many hours would

be required? Manager 30 hour,> per wed. Thank yOll ~ for YOll 10 ~nd Jane me an appliC<Jtion form? . Whllt\ your addr Q Manager '\








(2.o\e p'a~ 12 Read this advert for" p3l'Himc s3le~ assistant. wort in pairs. One of you is Student A, the other is Student 8, Follow your inslruetions:. Student B: lool< <It page 152.


Read the dialogue. Then listen and fill in the gaps. r, •

Giving advice and responding Jane I apply for the babySitler's job? jim rhat's a good idea, but I'm not very good 31 looking aHer children.



work in


dcthes shop?

I could never do lhat J I (ouldn'! sell ilnytlodyanything! jane Well. 4 slacbng supermarkel shelves? You don 'I need any exper ience for that. jim Nuw Ihal's more like il' And 1 5 do Ihal because I could work nights! jim

Cl parHlme Job. look at the job~ In 7 and make a list or reasons why you want or don't want each job.

9 ImagIne you want

10 Work with a partner. Give advice about whi<.h job in 7 would suit your partner. Respond to your partner's advice about whkh job would suit you. Use the dialogue box in B to help you.

I·-~::~:~~:'=~:·i::~::~~~::t::::~:::::~:·············· number in the advert. Wait for your partn~r to


first. which job you are phoning about and say Y0tJ'O >~"': l.speakExplain

1... ~ • • ~ • :

like some information.


sk about the numbers of hDurs. sk about the wages. Ask if experience is nece$S(lry. Request an application form. Thank the person for their help.


, " .. ,






Going on to further (college) .or higher (university) edw:ation is quite· common in the UK. Most universities a~d toheg~ do hot have entrance examinations. Students are accepted if th~)' get the necessary grades in their GCSEs or A kvds (school-leaving exams).


!~i:~:;':'r \';,;,,;

Mwt)' students'take a year out (a gap year) and travel

.1\',' )~,:~'~', ,:. ~,

bd'orc they go to university er college.

~ ~\~-:~~. f.

rou:nd the world or tak.e·a part-time or temporary job


l~',\-, l~;



. 'Most students in the UK do not live at home. They often cho.Gse t.o go and study in another town or city. In the first year, mall)' live ina 'ball of residence' (student ,a,cconllllodation which call be selt~caterillg, or with food pfoltided), After that, muny prefer to rent a room or a :)13t with other studen~. , A large number of overseas students study in Britain. Most universities ,md colleges [\In language courses to help students study ncademic subjects in English. ,'.

Nowadays there is an exciting choice of subjects to choose from, You can even choose to study commercial (pop) musl.{· or the envirol)m{'nt~


University students are ,called llOdergraduii·tt'S and. they spend-:.,~ \~ thr~e or four years' s.tudying for::~~ \;n, their degree, u.nless :th:ey ",rant "'.\~. \~~ to be a 'doctor, whi9h takes ":1~ ,'",I'tl' seven years. ,\~ W. ' .\'1'






At the ~nd of thdr cour!ie, university students tl\ke their linljl , ..~' examinations. Students whQ succ~:{'d in pa.<;,;ing th~in graduate: 'x,''1i, with a BA. (Bachelor of Art.~) or a BSc (l3achelQr QC Science) -' degree, The word 'hachelor' means 'a man who is not m~rried;~\ , It was first used many years ago when all univexsity studenys ,'; were men an~ un~a~ed. Nowadays, there. are as many ~o~~~.,'~· as men at Universities III the UK, but Wt: stili use the word.. .;:' 1: ,\

Nightlife is very important: to students in Britain. Unjv~~r~itic" and colleges often inv,ite pop bands tQ come and play; alXd, students enjoy p a r t y i n g ! , . "..

~;:-;-»<:"~~:@::':~~~'Y&;.:Io:." ~.:.v~

Read the text about education in the UK and rlecide if these statements are true or false. Correct the false

Talking about your country

srat ements,

1 Wllat kind of further or higher education is availatM in

Students need A levels to go 10 university. 2 Most university students in the UK live al home. 3 UK universities do not accept students from other COLI n Irie~. 4 Students need la pass their final examinations to gel a degree. 5 Cl ubs and societies are very popu la r with st ud enls.-

your country) Z Is there a university in your town? Il so, how marly students study there? 3 How popular is carrying on with your education in your


~"C:"'(; .. _-~,.y,;~~~~_~


4 How common is it for students to t<lke a gap year) 5 Do universi ly students usually live at home or in a hall of re-,idence?

6 How long do

mOSl university courses last? At the end of their further or higher education, what qualifications do students gel? 8 How use~ul are these qualifications?




Students in colleges of hlrther educatiou often take vocational,ls\:il,\ would'\\:'.''If'(1\ :';', qualifications to prepare them for a particular job tl,lCY . like to do, such as computing or tourism. '~,\"",

Lots of stlldents join clubs and societies when they go to university, such 3S drama societies and -sports dubs, Many stl,ld~:nts look forward to taking part in 'Rag Week', a tlm,e'!\!, ' when students raiSt" money for charity, . ,.:', '


,.~, ..~\



Grammar 2

-ing forms


- ing form$ afte.r


Nounf> from ve.rbf> 1 Ani .ing forml is a noun made from a verb, for example w,;te = writing. Underline the -ing forms in 1-3.

5 M3tch words 1-6 to prepositions a-f. Th~n complete the sentences using the prepositions and the verbs in br~ckets.

interested 2 tired


a after a verb?

afl~r v~rb$

I don't feel like _ _ this afternoon. I'm too tired.


I don't mind _ _ dinnfr

3 4 S 6

naSta. I con't help _ _ that I've made the wrong derision. I enjoy _ _ 10 English people. 1con't 5land _ _ for people who are late. Do you loney _ _ 10 the cinema tonight?

tonight. ,'11 make seafood

6 Compl·ete the sentences using -ing forms of th~e verbs. • drink. smoke. learn • watch'-' lislen) da nee

I think _ _ languages is difficult. _ _ to music is relaxing. _ _ too much alcohol C<ln be bad for your Ileilllh. Experts say _ _ damages your lungs. _ _ the behavioll r of an imals can te<lCh us abou I the wotld. 6 My doctor says _._ _ keeps you fit.


2 3 4 5

Let's activate

1 hilte

3 Complete the sentences in 2 usi ng

the~e verbs.

• (eel • wait :: go • cook. talk. study 4


e to f on

- in9 forms before verbs

a lik~ (doing) b like the idea of c can't stop d h'lVe no objection 10 e don't w~nl to

c of


1 I'm tired _ _ (watch) this TV programme. 2 We're looking forward _ _ (go) on holiday. 3 Are you any good _ _ (write) compositions? 4 Sally is really keen _ _ (go) to university. 5 Paul isn't interested _ _ (take) a ga.p year 6 I'm fed up _ _ (study) -I'm going for il walk!

b after a preposition? c be/ore a verb?


b with


4 good 5 loo~ forwa rd 6 f<'d up

Which of the -;ng forms you underlined comes:

2 Look al these sentences. The verbs in italics are all followed by ·ing forms. Match the verbs to their meanings a-f.

3 ot


1 Socialising is very important to students in Britain. 2 Most students enjoy studying (or a degree. 3 Most students succeed in passing their final exa minat·ions.

- in9 forms


What do 'Iou

7 Work with a partner. •

Write three sentences about yourself lIsing thret of the vt.rb~ in it.alics in 2.



Example I don'l fee/like studying grammar today

thin~? Interview each other and find out:

three- things your partner enjoys doing. three things your partner can't stand doing. what your partner is keen on, interested in, fed up with. good at, tired of. lookin~ forward to.

8 Find another pair and tell them what you about your partner in 7.




Write three sentences about your beliefs.

Example I Chink

in life.

achieving your dream is tile most important thing

., need a iobP 1 In pairs, look at the pictures 1-3 of jobs. What jobs do they show? What sort of qualities do you th in k you need to do each job?

Studying the sample 2

Look at the advertisement for a drummer in a band. What special qualities is the band looking for?

Talente.fdRimmer.wanted for new band"Must '9od thythm, experieilce Clftd your own drUm\~ft". ~$ ,w~, as I,ts of enthusiasm to get to ',,\:~e,top In the musl~busI"ess-. w'ijte with

cM to Mell johnson,

'The Sponge' Haymarteet St, London SWl .........~~.~





Read the CV and letter of application. Which things mentioned in the advert has Kelly forgotten to put in her letter?


Answer these qu~tions. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Where did Kelly see the advert for the job? Where does Kelly say she has put her CV? Where is Kelly Irom? How many school·leaving exams has she got? Which band was she in lor the longest time? What was the shortest time she was in a band?


'18 Westgrove L<me London


General information

Age: 20 NaiionaJj()': British Per/11<ltIelll


Neil John~on 'The Sponge'

Nllme: Kelly Deane

address: 18 Westgrove lane. London NV,/ 12 3TR

'le!: 020 8720 21 12 £m<lil: kelly,d@worldneLcom


Haymarkct Srrct:C London SW) 3TZ Dear Mr Johnson,

Education & qualifications St Mi.cbael's College, Westminster, London A levels ill Music and English

Work experience Drummer with Easy Street

April 2004-August 2006 Drummer with Groove Girls March 2004 -April 2004 Lead singer, and drummer Jllm~ 2003-March 2004 with The Noise

I am writing in rcspollS~ to your adveniscrncl1t in Erllenaiu/IIt'Ill r+eekl)/ I would like co apply for the pOSition of drummer in YOllr b;lI1d. r enclose Illy CV \vith details of my qualifications and work cxperienct:, As you will see, I have more thall three years' experience of working ill bands, J am very ambitious. Please (:omac, me jf you require any further lllfennation,

r. lqok forward


hearing from you.

'Yonrs sincerely,

Interests ,Football '<\nd music '''h:-:.:.:-:~;'''P-:-:-:·'''Y.~''-':-~N1'_m:v:.;.·~·A'':I'':'·:··'····~·-:-:

ltell.y. Oeane +;){elly peaue :='.(<<--':~~.-:"-.:"'.,,;-y.,,,:oO'X":~ '~ .....x:.»:..;.;.x....J':'":"':":?~ ......:...<<<.'.~


.,.:;""«.:~-:.;-:":~~••..~.:..:<.:*~~.»:-: ""X:";«.~

Steps to better writing


Formal phra5t5 5 Look again at Kelly's letter and answer the questions


about a formal letter. 1 Where does the sender's address go? 2 Where does the receiver's address go? 3 Where does the dale go? 4 How do you slart a formal letter if you know thr name of the person you are writing to? 5 How do you finish a formal letter if you know the name of the person you are wri ling to?

6 When you are writing a letter of applicdHon, it is best to use formal 'set' phrases. Rewrite the sentences in a formal style. Use (he set phrases from Kelly's letter on page 76 to help you. 1 I will be happy when I receive a l{'lIer from you. 2 The advertisement that I saw made me think of wriling to you, 3 Along with lhis lelter I am sending my CV. 4 I would like you to give me a job as a secretary. 5 If you wanl to ask me anything, just ring me.

Write your letter of application (120-150 words). Use

these points to help you. • •

Pul your address, the receiver'> address, a nd the dale in the right places. Use formal set phrases from Kelly's letter on page 76.



Read through your letter and check that y()u have: • •

• •

started and finished your letter correctly. included all the information asked for in the advertisement. used formal phrases. spelled words correctly

Wriiin9 a


10 Complete this OJ with details about yourself.




VITAE :' .:. : :::. ".


.. '


Writing a letter of app ication and a CV Undtr51andin9 the.






and p\annin9



7 You are going to write a letter of application for the job 01 sports camp i n~tructor. Read the advertisement and answer [he questions about what to i ncl udc in you r letter.










. :'"

Wanted SPORTS CAMP INSTRUCTORS Enthusiastic sports instructors wanted for our summer camp in August, teaching groups of 11-14 year olds. No experience is necessary, but a knowledge of at least one foreign language is useful. Write with a CV to Ms Jean Robson, Sports Camp International, PO Box 231, Luton.

1 What are they looking for? 2 When is Ihe job for? Is it permanent or temporary? 3 What skills or qualities do they need. and what do they not need?



". :.:.:

:. ::::-: .. :':






I' I C.hU\(ing 11 Read through the CV and check: .. ..

for mistakes (spelling or grammar). thol all the information you have given is correct.



· Word focus Dppo5itt5 1 Complete the dialogues using the correct word or phrase from the pairs of opposites. 1 abroad/at home a I've always wanted to go _ _ and see other countries. b Really? I've always enjoyed staying _ _ .

2 unique / common





a The colour of your jumper must be _ _ . I've never seen anything like it before. b Yes, but the design is quite _ _ . I've seen it everywhere. first / last a This is the _ _ time I've been to this dance club. I really like it. b Well, it's the _ _ time I come! I hate the music. foads of / few a I hope you invited _ _ people to the party. I want to have a good time. b Well, I invited a lot. but only a _ _ said they would come. falling! rising a The number of students going to university is _ _ because of all the exciting courses. b That's not true in all subjects. The number of Maths graduates is _ _ . last / next a My brother is taking his exams _ _ week. b I feel sorry for him. My sister took hers _ _ year and they were terrible.

What's the dlfferenu? 2 Underline the corred word to complete the sentences. 1 My brother would like to get a job I work in a sports centre. 2 I took up ! took port in the school debating group last year. 3 I have built / built up my CD collection over the last couple of years. 4 I don't want to go to university. I am going to look after I for a job when I leave school. 5 A hat protects I provides you from the sun. '5tarti~9 ~


Number these events in the order in which they might happen to someone leaving school. a Get references and apply for a job b Gel the right qualifications c look for employment d Earn a salary or wages e Train for a job

Extension f',-y.ams

4 Explain the diHerence between these words and phrases. 1 an end of year exam / a course test 2 take an exam / revise for an exam 3 pass an exam I fail an exam 4 entrance exams I final exams 5 a degree I Cl diploma 6 vocational qualifications I academic qualifications 7 a high grade / a low grade 8 get into university I graduate from university

'Phrasal verbs 'Ilith looK 5 Match these phrasal verbs to their meanings a-d. • look back on • look through • look forward to ~ look up a b c d

try to find information, e.g, in a dictionary wait with pleasure for something to happen read quickly think about something in the past

6 Complete the sentences using the phrasal verbs in 5. 1 Would you mind application to see if I have made any mistakes? 2 The teacher told us to

any words we don't know. 3 ('m really university in Odober. 4 Why do some people enjoy

my job _

going to _

their schooldays?

7 Answer the questions. 1 When you look lip words in a dictionary, what kind of

information do yOll find about the words? 2 What are you looking forward to in the near future? 3 Why is it a good idea to look through your homework before you hand it in? 4 What kinds of things clo you look back on with pleasure?

, Reading·,,.for'.·pieasure . '.'... .




'~~WJ.lers ~ $is ~ot~b,ook,' said Sir Waiter. ,1;l'(OOJql"S an h0UH'o work thmugh it. I explained the code a!'l~ Fl~ un:de"l's~d ~re!'Y quickly. When we had finished, he Rt, fo).';a W~1n~.

sat, \'




'Is Lord Alloa at home?' 1 asked. 'Yes, but he's ill and has been in bed all day. Do you want to leave a message, sir?' I put down the telephone and sat down, shaking. My par: in tbis business was not finished. I walked straight into the S5 room where the others were meeting. Sir Walter looked surprised and annoyed. 'I'm afraid that this is not a good time, Mr Hannay: '1 think it is, , I answered. Tell me, please, who left this room a minute ago: ,,0 'lord Allo;): said Sir Waiter, looking angriei'. 'It was not/ I cried. 'It looked Like him but it was not him. 1I was a man who recognised me, who has seen me in the last month. I've just telephoned Lord Alloa's house <1nd he's been ill it1 bed all day: (,5 'Who ... ?' someone askE.od. 'The Black Stone: 1cried, sitting down, and loonng at five frightened men..


, ':l '4Qn'l ..uode~sta'n:d all 0f this,' he said at last. 'He's right a~out,o~e' thing;·alJd. that is tl'le meeting (In the 15th. How dl\~ '\i'iy.~iie ,liC)ve '~is.rovered. about U'at? But all this about o/lh,\~i,~,lh\~}~lacK StOl'\e -- it's very strange. Scudder did like ,tQ)~a*~;~i"fugs seem important and exciting. ';'Tf.i:e'B1~tk.stone: he repeated. 'It's like a cheap detective story. And' all this about Karolides can't be true. Karolides will /je alive when we're both dead. No, Scudder's wrong there. 'here art.' some unpleasant things going on. Scudder found something out and got killed for it. But all. this about steal,ing the Navy's WClr plans ... I can't really believe it: Just' Ih"m, the servant came into the room. 'Inere/, a le.lcphone caU ~rom London for you, sir.' SiJ~ WaIter went out. Ht· CilIne back five minutes later with cl white fllce. '] apologise to Scudder,' he whispered, and tJlen.look~'<.i. nt me. 'Karolides was shot dead at seven o'dock this:evening.' . .. '..... ... The lIe:~t day Sir WaIter tel1s HamrflY t1l111 Ill! 'illS cJumged tile date 01' tI,e meeting, mrd tile Army ancl Naz,.v clliej~ K,iIlllleel af 'lis ~',


. .


1I0use IlIat ('(lcn;lIg 10 discul'$ the Will' plum. He h!lls Hmlllny to 2$ keep cmerylhi/lg saarel and to stay oul Dj siglrt. Blit HmlnllY is still rten.;ous. He feels SII ra IIlf1t sOli/cUring

Understanding the \

1 Whal is in the notebook that Haonay shows Sir Waiter? Why does Sir Waiter say 'I apologise 10 Scudder?

is go;rlg la happen and Owl' ollly he cml stop it. So Ire IJw."ies /Jack to Sir WaUe,'3 hOI/SI: /'haJ .evenillg 'lIIti rill~S life bell, '1 must see Sir WaIter,' I said to the servant. 'It's desperately important: The servant let me in, and then shut the door behind me. 'Sir Waiter is in a meeting, sir. Perhaps y,)U ,will wait.' There was a telephone and one or !v-.'O chairs in the hall, and 1 sat down there.

:l5 ..• ,.,




A few minutes later there was anot.her ring at the door, and the servant not hesitate to let this visitor in. Everybody knew his face f!'Om the newspapers - 11 square, grey beard and bright blue eyes. Lord Allea, the First Sea Lord, and head of the British Navy. He was shown into a room at the end of the haU. J sat there for twenty minutes, Surely the meeting would end soon. Then the door opened again and the First Sea Lord came out. He walked pilstme, passing he I('){)ked at me and for a second I looked into iis eyes. 11 was only for a second, bu t my heMt jumped. The First Sea Lord had never seen me befMc, but in his eyes I saw that he recognised me. Then he pllssed me and was out of the door into the street. I picked up the telephone book and looked up the number of Lord AUoa's house. J spoke to one of his st'rvants.


Answer the questions.




.~~:~:lo···$' '... '........;<.·:·:·~· .... ~r


3 What is the 'Black Stone', do you think? 4 IAlhy oDes Hannay ring lOld AII(}{l's house

5 Whal does he find out' 6 Why is Sir Wailer surprised and <Jnnoyed? 7

Why (Ire lhe men in the meeting (rightened?

'Pe.op\e. in the e)C.tralt Work io pairs. What do you think are or were the


following people's jobs? 1 2



The narralor



Ta Iking about you r reactions 1 2

What do you think happens next in the story) Do you li ke to read this kind of suspense story?

Why? I Why not?

~~~,t~!,,~~tJfl~1m'~~ 6 Grammar

4 Complete the sentences using for or since and the present

1 Complete the dialogue using the will or going to future form of the verbs in brackets. I'm off to France tomorrow for a couple of \Neeks. Really? Why? I'm 90in 9 to 5fat (stay) with a family in Paris. They don't speak any English so I think it _ _ _ _ _ _ (be) good for my French. Nina Yes. It's the best way to learn. Have you bought your tickets for the boat? Jill No, I 2 (not I take) the boat - I get very seasick. I 3 (get) the trai n instead, and Madame Dubarry - that's the (pick) me up from mother - 4 the station. Nina Well, have a nice time and let me know how you're getting on. Jill OK, I :; (give) you a ring in a week or so,

Jitl Nina Jill

2 Com plctc the dialogue using

will or the present continuous form of the verbs in brackets.

Anna Are you coming to Imogen's party on Friday? Gary No, I'm afraid 1 1 (not I be) able to make it I 2 (stay) at my grandmother's for a couple of days ~ it's something we arranged ages ago. Anna That's a pity - she 3 (be) disappointed. What about making some other date to come over? She 'I (want) to see you. Gary We've already made a date - we 5 (meet) on Friday for a drink. Anna That's great.

3 Complete the sentences using must, have to, to or must not in the correct form. 1

2 3 4




not allowed

It's OK to use calculators in class, but we are _ _ use them in school exams. This work of yours is full of mistakes. You really _ _ learn to check you r work much more carefully. Passengers _ _ leave their luggage unattended at any time. I feel sorry for John - his job has moved to London, and that means he get the train at 630 every morning, When the exam starts, you are _ _ leave your seal without permission.

perfect form of the verb in brackets. 1 Ted _ _(live) in London _ _ three years now. Z Paula _ _ (be) at this school _ _ last year. 3 My brother _ _ (have) his new bicycle _ _ 1st October. 4 t _ _ (know) John _ _ ages. 5 Madonna _ _ (record) more than ten hits _ _ the begin ning of her career. 6 I _ _ (not / see) a good film _ _ last month.

5 Underline the correct tense to complete the sentences, 1 I've been visiting I I've visited Italy twice. 2 I've been trying I I've tried lo phone you all dayl How long have you waited / have you been waiting for me? 4 Steven Spielberg has been making I has made a'lleast 15 successful ril ms, 5 What have you done / have you been doing recently? fi "ve been learning II've learned to ski lor about a week now.


6 Complete the sentences using words a-I and the -ing form of the correct verbs in brackets. a b c d e

feel mind help stand fancy f enjoy

1 Do you _ _ (visit I go) to the cinema this evening? 2 I can't _ _ (think I see) that I'm not going to enjoy the partyl 3 I don't _ _ (walk I travel) to school but I prefer 10 go by bus, 4 I can't _.-._(watch / look) boring old films on TV 5 I _ _ (meet / talk) new peol-lle, 6 Do you _ _ like _ _ (go I have) out for a piua tonight?

7 Complete the sentences using these prepositions and the ·ing form of the verbs.

• in • at c' with • on • to of • watch • spend .} go <: do • study. write 1 I'm fed up _ _ every night. 2 Are you interested _ _ on holiday with my family next summer? 3 I'm tired _ _ the same old thing every weekend, 4 Are you any good _ _ compositions? 5 Peter is very keen _ _ footba I', 6 We are all looking forvvard our summer holidays in England.


Imagine you are talking to your friend, Pat, who needs your <l.dvice. Write you~ repl ies completi ng these phrases. 1 Pat I don't know what to do during the summer holidays. You Why don't you ? 2 Pat I don't know what I want 10 do when I leave school. You Maybe you could 3 Pat I can't decide if I want to go to the job interview. You You could 4 Pat What can I do about the homework I missed l You How about ? 5 Pat WhiLh shoes do you think I should buy? You It would be a good idea to 6 Pat I don't know which job [0 apply for. You Would it be pOSSible to ?

Writing Listening ~6.8

Listen to four people talking about camping holidays. Match the speakers 1-4 10 statements a-e. Therf. is one statement you do nol need. a They all became very good campfire cooks. _ _ b He/She w,); able fO use his/her skills to feed ev~rybody

well. _ _ c There was nowheft' th<:-y (ould 拢0 10 gel "Wily from \he heal. _ _

11 Rewrite the sentences, adding adjectives 10 describe the words in bold.


We had some food in a restaurant neM lane's Hat and then we



We had some wondelful Chinl"5e food in


lovely new

res(ouronl near Jone's old /10/, and then we sow



swry horror ftlm. 1 Paxos is ~n isla nd lo( a holiday. TtlNe ()re beaches and [here are lots of places to stay.

d Even when something didn't go well, they thought it was funny. _ _


The bad weather forced them to shorten their holiday. 2 Helen's new boyfriend is and wears clothes.


man, He has a personality

Speaking 9 Write your own replies to these questions using complete sentences.

Example Who are you going to invite to thE> end路ol路term party?

3 My brother goes IQ () school. 1路le's got they have some lessons.


Sew teachers and

I'm going to invite my brother.

1 What do you hope to do when you leave sthool"> 2 Where are you going for your summer holidays?

4 I really liked the book. It's got some characters, a story and an ending.

3 What would you like to do this evening? 4 What will you probably do tomorrow? 5 which country wourd you really like to visit? 6 Whal other langu<lge would you like to study"

5 I went to d party the other day - there were lots of people and there was a band that played music.

, ,~


TheJa".aican bobsleigh tea". rlClceu;z 1

How much do you know about the Winter Olympics? 1 How often do the Winter Olympics take place?

2 Look at these Winter Olympic sports_ which on~~ are shown in the pil1u res?



ski jumping


bobsleigh" ice hockey'> snowboarding



3 which of these sports are popular in your country?

_ _.-3 ,. --













In 1987, George Fitch and William Maloney, two businessmen from Jamaica, had a rather surprising idea.. They h,ld seen a local 'pushcart' race in Kingston, and they noticed that it looked Cl bit like a bobsleigh. So why not have an Olympic bobsleigh te(lm? There were some obvious problems. There was no ice, J<lmaica was thousands of miles from the nearest snow, and there was very litHe money and nowhere to blly equipment. Lastly, although Ihe (QUotT)' had plenty of cricket players, rllnners Clod other athletes, there were no bobsleighers. These difficulties did not put Fitch and Maloney off, and I'hey started to try and create a team. They found three Olen from th~ Jamaican Army and late-r got three others 10 join. The team moved to Austria to learn how to bobsleigh. At first they found practising cold, difficult and very p<Jinful. They crashed again and again, <lod the equipment kept breaking down. But things started to get better, ClOd they hired an Austrian coach to train them. He chose Dudley Stokes as tJle driver, because he had experience as an army helicopter pilot! Dudley's experience of helicopters \'"a5 useful because you need skill and concentration to drive a bobsleigh. In the four-man event, the rUIUlers push the sled at the start of the mile-long rWl and jump on board. The sled flies do\'vn the icy track at 90 miles an hoUT, and the smaUest mistake can be very dangerous. At first, there were some people who didn't want the Jamaicans to take part in the 1988 Calgary Olympics. They felt that the 'beginners' were making fun of a serious and dangerous sport. But in the end, the Olympic Committee allowed them to enter. By the time the games started, the team were already famolls. They had thousands of fans, and in the Olympic Village, skiers and bobsleighers from all




over the world danced to their song, 'J-lobbin 8Hd Cl Bobbin', sling by team member and Reggae singer Freddie Powel!. The team did quite weU at the games. On the last day, they managed to achieve the seventh fastest starting time of the competition! However, their race ended spectacularly in an 8~ mile-an-holU crash that was seen by thOUSands of spectators in the stadium and millions of TV viewers all around the world.

This wasn't the end of Jamaican bobsleighing. Lots more people took up the sport in Jamaica, and set up teams, including a women's team. In 2000, the Jamaican team won a gold medal at the World Push Championships in Monte Carlo, beating other teams from snowy countries ail over th world! Hopes are high that they will one day bring an Olympic medal back to Jamaica.

"~""'~"'" . #..,..",~-=N''芦路'路~~''''''''''''~''w""",,-,'''<'''-'''''''''<OA'__~~'--''~r ~







. 'ltea'ding 11,,'\':, ".


c..ompound nouns

2 Look at the photograph on page 82. What do you think


the article is about? Read the article. Were any of your ideas mentioned?

3 Read the text again and answer these questions. 1

2 3 4 5 6

What gave Fitch and MClloney the idea of setting up <l bobsleigh learn? What country did the team (ravel 10 for their training? What nationality was the team's coach' Why was Dudley Stokes chosen to be the drivf'r? What kind 01 music was lhe learn's son~e What was the team's best moment?

Match these words to make compound nouns, and explain their meanings.



home snow jet roller

style (o(jster skiing work

Can you think of any more compound nouns?

Adverbs of de9ru 7 look at these phrases containing adverbs. Do the adverbs mean 'a little' or 'very? Put them in the correct column.

a little


it looked a bit like a bobsleigh their race ended spectacularly she was slightly embarrassed the exam was rather difficult the bungee jump made me pretty scared she was extremely happy to get home

Word$ £.onne£.ted \Ilith sport 4 Find these words in the text and answer the questions. 1 take port in / join

Which word would you use with

2 game J sport

a) a club aod b) a span? Which word would you use with

3 win I beaJ

4 train J proctise 5 fans / viewers 6 speaators J viewers

a) do and b) play? Which word (an be used wilh a game? Which word (an be used lar the players ~nd the mach' Which ones always love the sport they watch? Who usually gels nearer 10 the


5 Choose the correct word to complete the ~enten(es. 1 I want to get fit. I Cl m going 10 take port in / join a htalth club. 2 John likes ro do game! sporl a\ school. 3 Manchester United win! benl livl'TflOOI in the football

match, 4 The coach trained!

praoised Ihe players for their

important match. 5 Many tennis fans / viewer.s go to Wimbledon every yen 6 I always watch / look at the Olympics. 7 The spectators / viewers in the stadium sang their team's song.





Write sentences using these adjectives to describe the compound nouns in 6. c>






relaxing " boring'~ easy

Look ill the pictures and describe: who is in the piclure. • where they are. • what they are doing. •

How do you feel about the activities in the pictures? What activities do you like to do in your free time?

Grammar 1 The past perfect

3 listen again and (:Qmplcte the sentences using Tom's exact words. 1 One day we were a/l sw;mmi0B-- about in the water ~s usu<J1. 2 Jenny an underwater 3

C(lve. I realised that Jenny

swimming 4


last as she could. to the shallow water when


Wc _ _ Just _ _

_ _ Jenny





The past perfect

Form 1 Look at sentence 3 above and complete the rule about the past perfect.

To create the paSl perfect we use _ _

+ __ .




We use the past perfect to describe an aelion which took place <lnd finished before another aClion in the past.

Andy swam ____ t


When I gOl


I gO!


(lie lx'ach



the beach, Andy hod a(ready hod a swim,

Which action


Ancly had a swim. I gOI 10 (he beach.

first? Tick the correct box.



Compare this 10 wh<ll happens if we use the past simple in both pans.

1 Look at the picture and answer the questions.

PAST I got 10 Ihe beach

, Who is in the picture and where are they? 2 What are they doing? 3 Would you like to do this?


When / gOI

The actions happened one after the ather_ The actions hapflcned (ll the So me li me.




The past perfect is aIso the past form of the present perfect. Rewrite this 5entence in

the past. I am nervQU') bel...<llJse I have never ridden a horse before.



the beach, Andy went inlo the sea.

Which of these two expldnations is correct?


Lislen to a story about an accident. As you listen, number these events in the correct order. a They all ran up (he beach as fast as possible. _ _ b Jenny started swimming towards the beach. _ _ cAndy and Tom fOllowed Jenny. _ _ d They all saw a fin. _ _ e lenny explored an underwater cave. _ _


Andy went inl0 the sea NOW

nervous becausâ&#x201A;Ź I

ridden before.

111e pai:lt f>imp\e or the past perfed? 4

Complete the sentences using the past simple or past perfect form of the verb in brackets. 1 The Jamaican team were excited about going to Austria because they _ _ never _ _ (see) snow before, 2 After the holiday, he was keen to see 1he photos that he _ _ (take).

3 Anna _(come) first in the school cross路country race last week. 4 I missed the first goal because by the time I got to the stadium the game _ _ (start). 5 The first time I tried skiing, I found it QlJite easy because I _ _ (do) a lot of waterskiing. 6 After the accident, I phoned Andy's parents LO <,ay that he _ _ (hurt) his arm. 7 Manchester United _ _ (win) the championship last year. 8 My brother used to love scuba-diving, but he never _ _ (go) swimming on his own.


In pairs, look at the pairs of sentences. Number the actions in order.

1 a When I gOI to the pick-up point, the coach left. gal to the pick up point [[J coach lefllKJ b When I got to the pick-up poinL (he coach h<Jd left. got to the pick up point I:J cooch left [J



We all had supper when John came home. all hZld wpper =:J joh ri came home U

b We had all had supper when john (<lme home. all had supper [J john came home 0 3 a When Barry saw his sister, he hadn't spoken 10 her fOr yeiHS.


Ba rry saw his sister he didn't speak to her


b When Barry saw his si... tC'r, he didn't speak to her. Barry saw his sister 0 he didn't speak to her [J 4

a When Jenny phoned, I went out. Jen lIy phoned I went autO


b When Jenny phoned, I hl\d gone oul. jenny phoned I went out D


6 Complete these sentences with your own ideas, using becouse + past perfect or so + past simple. Example When I got home, 1 couldn't get in .. ,

... bewuse J had lost my keys, ... so I went to stay at a friend's house. 1 I had no money ... 2 I missed the last train home ... 3 She was very worried about the exam ... 4 The team didn't play very well ...

Let's activate 'Pil-turt stot"'{ 7 Look at the pictures and write a story using the part simple, past continuous and past perfect. When you've finished, read your story to a partner.

1 Look alll1e picture. What does it show? roD youkoow "'nere it is?



00 you know what a giant srride iQ


Do you have any legends about giants in your country?


r(;),.J Listen 10 a programme about an ice hockey team, the Belfast Gianls. Decide if thest> stalements ar~ true I)r rals~. Correa Ihe f(llse Slalt'menl~. 1 The team members are all AmeriCdn. 2 The team won nine home games at the bc::glrming or the ye;:) r. 3 The Giants Me lhe best路sUPI)()rled team in the world. 4 Their slogan IS "n (he land {)f (he Grants ever'{one is {'qual'. 5 Northern Ireland has thousands of public ic.f;' rinks

sentence completion Before you do a sentence COmplelion f'~r(ise. read the


sentences cuefully. Dc:<..ide WheH sort of word you dre looking for, for example, is it a noun, verb or adjective?




to a

ra\King about free time. 6 Discuss 1hese questions with a partner.

progr~mme about the Giant's

1 When kinds of >porl's evenlS art' popular in your country? 2 Do you think ;ip<Jrt ((In uni(e communities? !-low? 3 Whdl kinds of problems Gin s[Jort<; fans crcJle?

Causeway in Northern Ireland. As you listen, complete the 5entenc~s,

1 The rock formation called the Gianl's Causeway is a big _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ in Nonllefn Ireland.

7 In pairs, look at the pictures on page 87. What activities

2 People ~y that the ccluse\路"ay was ((e;ne6 by the ___________ of a gianl called


both SCottish and Irish ~('(Jple.


Which activities do you like? Which activities would you lik.~

Finn M<:COol. 3 A similar rock formation can be fDund in '1 The gianr Mc(ool is

a re the peopl e doi ng7


to do?

9 Work with a partner. Interview each other to find out <Ibout free-time activities. Make notes about your p<lrtner's answers. Ask questions about these th ings. •

you r [la rtncr's favourite free-time ac1ivily

• • •

the length of time spent on that activity each week any other activities he/she enjoyS any sport yo LI r partner does

10 Find another pair. Ask them your questions and answer theirs. Make a note of their answers and any other interesting information. Move around the cli:lsS tal king to different pairs until you have asked everybody.

11 Report back to the class. Answer these questions, giving any extra information you tou nd out.

What What What Whilt

is is is is

the the the the

most popular free-lime artivity) least popular free-time activity? most popular sport? most unusual activity?





12 ~H Listen to { want to break free by Queen, and fill in the gaps. I want to break free I want to break (ree I want to break frc~ I want to break free from your lies You're so self-satisfied, . _ I've got to break free God knows. God know~ I want to brfak Iree

_ _ _ _ _ in love I've fallen in love for the hrst ti me And this time I know it's for real I've fallen in love, yeah God knm\ls, God knows I've fallen in love

11'5 strange,


I can't get over the way you love me li ke you do Bul I have 10 be sure _ _ _ _ _ out that door Oh, how I wanl 10 be free, baby Oh, how I want to be free Oh, how I want 10 break free But life still goes on _ _ _ _ _ Iiving without, living without living without you by my side I don't want to live alone. hey God knows, got to make it on my own So, baby _ I've got to break free I've got to break Iree I want to break free, yeah I want, I want, I want, I want to break free ...

13 In pairs, read the Iyries and answer the questions. 1 The song is about freedom. What kind of freedom do you think it means? 2 Do you think the song has a positive or a negative message? Why?

Many playcrs think that they'll play better if thcy follow certain rituals bclorc a II1a~ch. Some always tie the lace.' of tbeir right boot first. Others kiss their football shirts bt'fore the match. Some people say that double 11I11l1bers 011 a player's shin could brinH" good luck. Dav;d lleckbam wears a new pair of boots for ewry matd)!

The last person to get the ball in the basket ill a prcmatch warm up will have a good

g.1I\1e. If yOll wipe tht: soles of your SIle;,kers, you will definitdy h,lve better luck. Miehad Jordan always wore blue ~horts uuder his uni[orm to bring him lllck.

The t:II110IlS Nc:.w Ze;lhmcl rugby tcam. the AU B1ad:s. perform an andent Maori dance calk-cl Ihe ')laka' before each match. It's a very dramalic ~igln, and even if it doesn't help the All Dlacks to win. it'll definitely frightclI Ihe opposing team!

Across the world tennis pl;ly~~rs believe Ihat holding llIore than two balls while ~crvitlg will probably bring bad luck. Some s;~y that it might be unlucky to step on the court lillC's during a match. The I:mlous tellulo; phlyer Gomn Iv;\Ilisevic ha,; a ~trkt prc-galllc rinl:,L When in London, he books the S3111t' 1;,bJe ;lt Ihe sallle: rest:mmm .md orders the same Ine:tl of fi1;h soup. huub. '\l'ld ice cream with chocolate sauce. British number ono, Tilll Helllllan, has a favourile shower cubidt; .11 Wimbledon, which he uses before and alter his matches. He refuses ro use ally other shower cubicle.

WOrld-f.'lITlOUS racing driver. Midml?! Schlllllarher, is onc of many ra~'ing drivers who believes thal ,\ ritual will help him win. He always gets into his car in thC:' S;Ulle WilY before a race. For him thc.left-hand sidt" of the car is the hl\~ky side, but that is not enough: he mah'S ce;;nain thal he putS his right foot illw Ihe car first! A strong superstition in the racing world is th;lt the:' colour green is unhKky.

·':;:(*;:W1&S'~.?$.W-?':$;"::"~~»:"'~··¥:':";-= .• ;-~

1 In pa irs, read the text about sporting superstitions and answer the questions. 1 Who always has a shower in the same cubicle at Wimbledon? 2 In which sport is the colour green considered unllJCky? 3 If yo II wa n1 to have morE' Iud< in basketba 11, what shou Id you do"! 4 What is the name of 1he dance pcrlormed by the All BldCk'> rugby team?


'··-....~··~ . . :·:'.*>.W,?~;:*~ . .


l ...........:.

Talking about your country

1 What are the most popular sports in your country? 2 00 any of the sports stars in you r cou nlry have any superstitions? 3 Apart from sports. what else are people superstitious about? 4 Do you have any superstitions or rituals that you believe will bring you good luck? 5 If you could go to ONE sporting event anywhere in the world, which would you go 10? Why?

6rammar 2

may, might, could, probably and definitely C853D may and mi9ht

probably and definitely 5 We can use probably and definitely to say how sure we are about something. Look at the sentences. What do you notice about the position of the adverb?

1 We can use mayor might to talk about the future. Look

We will probably win the match tomorrow. We probably won't win the match tomorrow. We will definitely win the match tomorrow. We definitely won't win the match tomorrow.

at these sentences. Which two sentences mean the same? which sentence ha~ a different meaning? Racing drivers think the colour green may bring bad luck. Racing drivers think the colour green will bring bad luck. Racing drivers think the colour green might bring bad luck.


1 alii tomorrow / probably I rain I it I day / wi II

In pairs, discuss what you think the difference is,

2 May and might both mean 'probably' or 'possibly'. We use wiIJ when we are sure of a future event. Match statements 1-6 to the correct meanings a-d. 1 We may lravelto Mars in the next ten years. _ _ 2 Brazil rnight not win the World (up. _ _ 3 I will be sixteen next month. _ _ 4 Our team won't win the championships. _ _ 5 It'll be warm in the summer. _ _ 6 They might go away this weekend, _ _ a It's possible that this won't happen. b This will certainly happen. c It's possible that this will happen. d This certainly won't happen.

Put the words in the correct order to make sentences. Sometimes more than one answer is possible.

2 film / Oscar I this I probably I American I win / won'! / an

3 my I party I come I definitely / the / school/sister I won't I to 4 finish I definitely I11 tonighl / homework I will I my

5 probably I exams / our I we Ilaill won't

7 How sure are you about these things? Complete the sentences with your own ideas, using these words.


may might could, probably will/won't definitely will/won 't

3 We can use could to talk about the future. Like may and might, could means that we are not sure. look at this example. Double numbers on a shirt could bring good luck. (= It's possible that double numbers will bring good luck.)

1 Argenrina _ _ win the next football World Cup. 2 Madonna _ _ stop milking music soon. 3 I _ _ try an extreme sport in the future, 4 Everyone _ _ speak English in the future. S The weather _ _ be good this weekend, 6 The colour orange _ _ be in fashion next year. 7 Brad Pill _ _ star in a massive hit film next year. 8 Our teClcher _ _ give u~ some homework,

Write five sentences using could about things you think it's possible will happen next week.

Moda\ sentenGes 4 Rewrite the sentences using the modal verbs in brackets.

Compare your answers with a partner.

Example Kate is thinking 01 taking up basketball. (may)

Kate may take lip basketball. 1

It's possible it will rilin tomorrow. (could)

Let's activate Ta\~in9


2 I'm thinking about starting Spanish lessons. (might) 3 My sixteenth birthday is next month. (will) 4 It's possible that Mark wilt go to Spain next year. (may) 5 I'm not sure if he'll be famous. (could)

about the future

Work in pairs or small groups. Choose three of these sports events and discuss who you think will win, using the language you have learnt in this lesson. Give reasons for your answers. • The Formula 1 racing championship • Wimbledon • The football World (up • The national football championship • The next world title heavyweight boxing match • The next sports evenl you will take part in

ports '0,. the 'alnily 1 In pairs. look at the pictures and answer the questions. 1 Where ore the people imd Whill are lhey doing? Z Would you like to do these sporlS? 3 What individual or small team sports do you enjoy? 4 What sporls (an all members of a family take part in?

Studying the sample 2

look at the title of this magazine article about an exciting family 5porl. Amwer the questions. What is the fille 01 this ollicle? What do you lhink it means? Z Whal is (he purpose of {} lille? 1

f you're Ie-o.king tor a sport that will drag your teenagers away from the .comp路uter, it's got to be fun and exciting. If golf.islOO.dull and parachuting is too scary, why not have a go at k~y,aking? It's a great sport for all the family, and very ex~itillg.,

; \\~,:If ' becginoer, it's best to join a club and have ,i~s'sons 'in:a swimming pool. You can learn how to use the p-.addle, to.steer and how to do an 'Eskimo roU' - this means turning the. k"fjyal< upside down and coming up again. You mig}lt VJonder Why vou have to bother, but when you get out yenJ'1! realise it'~ a yery impllrtant skill. The real"-fun路of ka-y.aklng comes when you combine it with camping. When we 99 as a family, we take our ,tents and have lovely we~kend\; on I.~kas and rivers all over the country. The other great.thingabautkayaking is that animals aren't afraid, so you cM 9'8t reaU~{ ciose to them. So if you' dOfl~ feel 'like spending the whole of next summeT ,in fro'nt oHhe TV, find


a bit more about kayak-ing

..nowAt does. take a bit of time and effort, but when you're out " 'on thewater in tlie fresll air, you won!t r&gret it


3 Read the article carefu Ity, then answer the questions. 1 In Ihis article. wh<lt sport is being described? 2 What do beginners need to do? 3 Where do lhe writer and her family sleep when 1hey go on trips? 'l What is (.In 'Eskimo roll?

Steps to better writing

Writing your article

Organif>ing ideaf>

Underf>tanding the


6 Read the instruction~ in 8, and answer the questions. 1 What sort of age will the readers of this magaz-i ne bel 2 What sort of sports do you think they will probably already know? 3 What sports from your country do you think might interest them?

'P\anning 7 Choose a sport or ac.livity you want to write about and make notes. Thi nk about: • the history of the sport I activity: when iI was invented, why it bCCil me popu lar, de. • the main reason why the sport/ activity is lu n and why it is good fOf families I young people. • more informi.ltion / advice about the sport I activily and whether people should have lessons, ete. 4 look at the notes a-I about the sport of archery. Organise them into th ree paragr3ph$: , the history of archery 2 who can take part in archery 3 iniormation aboullearning about arch~ry

Writing 8 Write an artide for a student magnine about a sport or other activity you enjoy (in 120-150 words), Use the tips below to help you_

a Archery has il very long history. •

b It's Cl great family spar!. c People of 211)y aBe ca,) enjoy it. d Originally it was iln impOr1ant skill for soldiers. e It's fun for adults and children. f Al the be&inning. i"s besl 10 rake some lessons. g \11 "he 17th century, people began to enjoy archery as a sport. h You don'r need to be tall or slrong to enjoy il. I It doesn't take long to learn the basics. J It is now an event in the Olympic Games. k YOu can find out about lessons at your spans centre. I Archtry cou rses arc vtry good villue. 5 Complete the parllgraphs about archery. Use toe. notes from 4, linking them to form sentences using and, but, because, and so on.


• Archery has a very long history ... Paragraph 2

• Archery is a great family sport ... Paragraph 3 •

At the

beginning it is best to take some lessons, but ...

Endi g

• 5G why not have a go? Jt's/ots of fun]

• •

Choose a good title that explains what the article will be about. Decide what you are going to pu~ in each paragraph and then write your article. Finish your article with a short sentence encouraging 'the reader lO find out more about the sport/activity, or to try it,

C.hec.\(ing 9

Read through your article and check that you have:

• • • •

included all the points you thought of. spelled words correctly. llsed the correct grammar and punctuation. written betWeen 120 and 150 words.

Word focus 1\




1 Choose the correct words to complete the text. Yesterday was the last day of the national hockey championships. Lots of teams 1 took part in / joined the tournament. In a very exciting 2 sport / game, the Newlands team 3 won / beat last year's winners, the Wentworth team. The Newlands coach said that he knew they would 4 win {beat as they had done so well in 5 practising { training. The 6 fans { viewers in the stadium sang and cheered when the team scored the last goal. Nearly two thousand 7 viewers ( spectators went to the sports ground to 1) watch / rook at the game, the biggest crowd the championships have ever had.

What'& the differeoÂŁ.e? 5 Explain the difference between these pairs of words. 1 Cl coach 2 kick

a player hit train compete lose to

3 play 4 practise 5 beat

Free - time aGtivities 6 What free-time activities do these pictures show?

2 Tell a partner about a sports event you enjoyed.

'5ports, p\a1er1> and p\aÂŁ.ef, 3 Complete the table.

: . :s~~h ,,-





footballer/football player stadium race track skater





tennis ski-slope track or field

athletics swimmer cricketer Mve-rb~



4 Each of these sentences contains a mistake. Find and correct the mistakes. 1 Watching football is always excited for me. 2 Jet-skiing takes a lot of skill. It's slightly difficult. 3 He's very interesting in archery. 4 The snowboarders came speeding down the htU very fastly. 5 She was rather boring during the match, and fell asleep. 6 I love football! I really love it a bit.

7 Match the activities in 6 to these verbs. Write the activities in the correct column and add other activities you know. play



listen to do


. , o\fier

Reading for ,pleasure

CD A Gir'- Called Golden W:hv did YDU run

J~SOll WdS

a toorb~1J freak; Ht: really loved the game: To be a first-cLm footballer Was his one aim, Ht:


wh~F}-y~~-sehoolmateswere walking? Why (::fid.)-'ou sprint . '..::- if the~l' started to run? S' Wh}" ~id you train while others were playing? What was the secret that made it seem fun? Was it the feel to of the fresh air and sunshine Wa~ .it the stir of the breeze in your hair? What made the coach recognise yOtt were special? 15 Wa it because you had courage to spare? Showing your will when the muscles were aching, Long spells of effort 20 and much to be lean\ed, Heeding¡ the words that some others rejected, Knowing that winning could only be eamed. 25 Time slipped away then came the Olylnpics; Still in your teens but spurred on by the cheers; Glory at last 30 as you gained YOll!' g01d medals, A time to remember the rest of your years DiWid 13ateson

every day and played

Ag<1in ('Jch night ill dream: When he was twdve they chose hilll (or Till.: School's first, t"am. 10



He was lj\lite brilliant. Five years passed And - though rarely this occurs It seemed his drt'ams might aU COllle 1nl"'; He was givcn a tdal by Spur<s. He played" blinder* on the day; The ~pec~tors dt<.--er",d and 1"0<11\:<1, And after the m:l.tch he WaS :l'kcd to appt'ar tit:fore the Selection BO;lld.

The Chairman said, 'I've got rhc report:; From our expcrc~ who w;uchd ynll l'lay~ Ybur speed and hall-comrol werC Hill'; For tackling yOll gel ;1Il A: 'And wJwn ()ur ~lrikcr ~col't'd h,j, goal You \Vert' first to JUIllP 011 hi, back. And Ivhell yOll scon.:d )'011 punched rhc air Ik10 rt' yOll resumed tht, att:lck:

2,; 'So far, 0 g()od: but you were weak Oil tht' (hint: our bd, do bes[; It ~(;ClllS yUII hardly spat at all, , Cl you I:!iled [he spitting-tes[.'


dt'spair, If you go home every day YOll slill might learn to >pit wilh style In t:llC trnc pro(c"i()llal w;>y:

:JlI And


dOil 'I


Vcrnol1 $(,;11111dl

â&#x20AC;˘ paying carclul attention to

* all exccU"nl pcr(orm,:lncein :l ~alllC (il!jimnlln


Understanding the poems


1 Answer the questions about poelYl ,.

3 Answer the

1 2 3 4 5 6

What was lason's dream? How did he try to make it come true? What happened during his trial with Spurs? What did Jason do right in his trial? Why did he rail1he trial? Is the poem supposed to be serious or funny? Why?

2 Answer the questions about poem

questions about poem 1.

1 Which two words describe how the spectators behaved when Jason had his trial? 2 What is a '$election Board'? 3 What does 'resumed the attack' in verse 6 mean?

4 Answer the questions about

poem 2.

1 What's the difference between 'sprint' and 'train' (verse 1)? 2 Wh<lt's the difference between 'fresh air' and 'breeze' (verse 2)? 3 What's the meaning of 'long spells of effort' (verse 3) and 'time slipped away' (verse 4)?


What is the writer tryi ng to find ou tin the first verse? What is he tryi ng to find out in the second verse? What is he descri bi ng in the th ird verse? What ach ievement is he writi ng about in the last verse? 5 How do you think the writer feels about the person he is describi ng?

1 2 3 4


Talking about your reactions 1

Would you like to be a professional sports person?

Why? I Why not? 2

What do you think it would be like to win Cl medal in the


Ghostly rigures 1 Look at these pictures from a book of stories about ghosl5 from a part of Britain called Hertfordshire. What do they show?

2 00 you believe in ghosts or the supernatural? Why? I Why not?

Reading 3 Read the texts about ghosts in Hertfordshire, and decide if these statements are true or false. Correct the false statements. Text A



ghosls are usually seen driving Cl car. 2 There are very few 'wayside' ghosts. 3 'Wayside' ghosls often rush across the road in leO(\( of a car. Text B 1 Ghosl's of ani mals were seen ou lside 3n iron. 2 The Romans still live in Hertfordshire. 3 The Roman ghosts were silent. GliOSIS OF HERl"f"ORl>SIilR£

lOne old wayside inn in Hertfordshire appuenrly has customers

who come back cenluries aftcl' 'Ihey should be dcad~ :t.\ Jeller in .1 loal magazine lold how a trayellet had seen a coa~h and horses o:urside the inn on three occasions. On each occasion. .1 man, dressed in old-fashioned clothes and a three-cornered halo ,ha4 helped a lady in grey down from the coa~h. They Ctossed the r0ad and diS2ppe~red inro .he: inn. Older ghosrs also hauQt rhe: area. The Romans were in Hertfordshire fot centuries. and some of them S1ill are. if yarious 10 sjgl(tings arc ro he bdieYed! A local, resident was rerurning ,to St Albans by car not .fong ago. It was a cold. misty November nigllt. and she was surpdse.d to hear the sound of marching feet, and a noise of banging metal. To her ast0hishmenl. the c.als headlights lit up a marching c01umn of aoman I.egionuies. led by a soldier IS carrying a·flag.The others with her in the he~rd the sounds.. hut saw nothing. Arr0ther friend who lived nearby told me ahQut the nighl he toowhis <:Log for 11 lare run befQce bedrimc. H~'sat down on the grass, smoking his pipe while the dog. ran around. Soodcnlr\h~­ ~ hca~d. the soulI,d at rriar~~'ngJ~t and men's voices talking. He ~t~.M'~4 ~oJdicrs ~pproaching" ...«!.~ .• ,.". and snl a tro~p~~fR0Ina!l " , ihe r"f~f4.ciE.6ri)t8htshining on their armour. As'~e amazement. -'~~~ll~~~ltChed pasl him and,on inlo the mist! '(-~~~~..~. $





,~ i" ~~


to ~


~ .' .;.




qui te / qu iet 2 a This is a very _ _ and peaceful part of the co untryside. b You were _ _ right when you said something strange was going on. wonder / wander 3 Cl I _ _ what time it is? b Don't _ _ off the path when you are wdlkillg in the woods. hunll haunt 4 Cl Can you _ _ around and see if you can find my car keys? b They say that a strange figure comes to _ _ the house al midnight. mist / missed 5 a I'm afraid I _ _ lht post so I couldn't send your letter. b Athick morning covered the city. shocked / su rprised 6 Cl Everyone was _ _ to hear the terrible news. b 1was very _ _ when you told me you had accepted the job.

Read the texts agai n and decide which story, A or B. mentions the infonnation in 1-10. One statement refers to both sto(j~_

1 what a man and his dog saw _ _ 1 ghosts that seem to cause damage to motorists'


3 what happen') when motorist) SlOp 10 give someone a lift 4 people who visit the old wayside inn (pub) _ _ 5 how long the Romans were in Hertfordshire _ _ 6 motorists who find what they hove seen rather worrying

ghosts that are ser.n {ll night _ 8 drivers who think they have run ov(:'( someone on the road _ _ 9 ghosts you feel sorry for _ _ 10 ghosts who seem 10 be going nowhere _ _ 7

5 Answer the questions abou't the two texts. Text A 1 What sometime~ happens to motorists as they drive

along the road on dark nightQ 2 What two types of ghostly walkers does lhe exlract mention? 3 What happens to motorists as they dnve up to these wal kers? Text B 1 Who did the traveller Set oulside lhe wayside inn? 2 Whal happened to a IO({l1 resident one cold, November

Negative 7


Look at this sentence from the text. What does the prefix un- mean here? Nobody knows, but they are always unexpected.

Match these prefixes to the correct adjectives. ., un- " il- " ir- " in- '" im- .., diso

selfish .. legal 0 practical .. happy ~ possible" like regular correct tidy" polite <> responsible

Which prefix is used most?


3 \'Vhal happened when (he writer's friend (Ook his dog for Cl walk one night?

Vocabulary What' ~ the differenc.e? 6

Complete the sentences usi ng the correct word from each pair of words.

puuled I disturbed 1 a We were all _ _ by what the answer to the question eau Id be. b I was _ _ when you didn't come home. Where were you?

Look at the pictures and describe them

Do you believe in ghosts? Have you ever seen Cl ghost, or do you know someone who has seen one? Are there any famous ghosts or ghosl stories in your country?

Conditionals 1 Read

the text and answer these questions.

Why did the Browns take up their Hoorboanh] What did they discover on the morning of their daughtcr's birthday? How did they feel about what happened?

1 2



Look at this example of the second conditiona I from the text and answer the questions.

If you heard a sad miaow coming from underneath the floorboards, wha1 would you do? 1 Have you ever heard a noise like th is? 2 Are you Iikely to hear a noise like th is? 3 What tense is used alter if? 4 What tense is used in the other part of the sentence?

~~~;;;;;h~~~~ (Qnditionals Circle the carred information to complete the rules 1-4, The first conditional: form and use 1 We U5e the first conditional to talk about something


which is unlikely 10 hoppel1 I a possible future even!. We u5e the present tense / will after if, and the /Hesent fense / willlo the other part of the sentence. III don't get any homework tonight, I'll go to the cinema. I'll bring an umbrella if it rains.

If y.bu ,diIiIt:'fha\Ve a,cat and you heard a sad miaow ~:\' 'I~ coming, f~~m ~mderneath the floorboards in your h9n;t~;,.~~h~tV\~puld you do? Animal lovers Jane and S~(O)l,{~i:R~nto()kup their floorboards and spent l»,o\da~~:~'~tyingto find the cat they '~ere sure was h:ap?-bG(~'<iier ·theit fl00r. Tl'ley even called U'l the fire \ \


, .


The seconcl conditional: form and use 3 We use the second conditional to talk ilbout something which is unlikely to happen 10 possible

future event. 4

"· ..l.I ••;j""'.\ bl'lltall'e:.,( .' •./~•.


We use the P<lSl simple I would alter if. il nd the past simple I would in the other part of the sentence. If I were you, I'd go to the pa rty. I would buy a motorbike if I had enough money,

FiI'(i'H~Yli'~rs Brown realised that the noise was

c9Jilihg.:Ji'0.IU a bag. The bag was full of her

'~Aari~~~.(·s ~n:opened birthday cards. A,s her

,,:: 4.~'tl~h~r~~cheIle

opened one of the',cards, which -:: '~a$::sJi~p'~~like a cat, on the morning of her . :·"'~)*~~.~Y;~Jt mi'aowed just like the real thing. It wasn't \,.,;t a.~e~J;:'€~t ~just an: electronic birthday car<d! I'



",' ..


,.'_',: \

,'. '~:':~~Jl abs'clJ:ltE'ly itwfuU' said Mts B.r:own. 'We'd O)&.vjug the bag around the ro.0m to hide the :y):l:eeq\ 1"\" ",' ,\, . .~ ~~;i\cl$' frpn1 Michelle 8l\d we kept· Jouching the bag. ,.:,'~tW~'~~:'$~'~mbarras~ing. ~f we. g~t a caTd like that ,...;:~g~~~F:we'lI throw it stratght 111 'the bm!'

~t~,,~,«~:,,:c=~ 2

Look at this example of the first conditional from the text and answer the questions. If we ever gel a card like that again, we'll throw it straight in the bin. 1 Is it possible they will ever get a card like this again 7 2 Wht=lt will they do with it if they get one? 3 What ten<;e is used after if? 4 What tense is used in the other p,II't 01 the sentence?


The first ,"onditiona\ 4 Com plete t he sentences using the corrpct form of (he verbs in brackets.

Example If we (gel) a cat, you (have) to look after it!

If we get a cat, YOll'lI have to look after ill

1 Who (look) after the cat if you (go) away on holiday} (you I (ome) with me to choo~ a cat if I (decide) to get


one? 3

"I (not / be) too busy this afternoon, I (take) the dog for

,1 Walk, 4 Where (you / put) the cal's basket if you (buy) a cat? 5 If W{' (hurry), we (get) to the pet shop before it closes. 6 What (you / do) with the fish if you (get) a cat? 7

I (not / be) happy if the shop (not I havr.) any left

B What (you I call) it

if it (be) a male car!

5 Complete the sentenCe5 so they are true for you. 1 If my friend asks me to look alter her pet, 2 If I have time this weekend. 3 If I don'r finish my homework. 4 If my friend doesn't phone me tonight, 5 If I don', go out this weekend, 6 If it rains tomorrow, 7 If it doesn't rain tomorrow, B If everyone in the class passes the exam,

In conditional sentences the if clause often comes first, but it can come second with no difference in meaning. If it comes first, you need a comma.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

If it's sunny, we'll go Ollt.

We'll go out if it's sunny.

ihe first or sewna wnaiiionaP 9

The setona wnaiiiona\ 6 Look at this example. What word is 'd short for? If I had a million pounds, I'd buy a mansion. 7 Match the sentence beginnings 1~ to the sentence endings a-f. Write what each sentence means.

Example If I was rich, I'd buy a yacht Meaning: I'm /lor rich 50 ,'m not going to buy 0 yocht. 1 2 3 4 5 6


If he knew her phone number, Cl he'd buy a castle. If' I (Quid drive, b I'd blly a car, If I had a bike. c we'd go on holiday. I1 we hJd a bigger house, d I'd cycle to school. If he was rich, e he'd phone her. If we had time. f we'd have a party.

Complete the sentences using the pairs of words and the second conditional. • not bark I offer. be I do ~ keep / have. can I be • hilve j go • be / train 1 If I _ _ sing, 1 _ _ a pop star. 2 If Brian _ _ good at Maths. he _ _ 10 be Cl pilot. 3 If we _ _ time, we _ _ for a piua betore the cincmil. 4 If your dog _ _ so much, I _ _ to look after him for you. 5 We _ _ cl pct if we _ _ Cl bigger Hat. 6 If I _ _ you, I _ _ more exercise.

Rewrite the sentences in the first or second <ond itional using the correct fonn of the verbs in brackets. 1 If ( (know) the answer to all these Questions, I (tell) you! 2 If ( (forget) to phone you, (you j ring) me lonight? 3 She (go) to China on holiday if she (can) speak Ch inese. 4 If we (have) longer school holidays, I (try) to find a pdrt·time job. 5 I (slart) cooking if I {arrive) home belore you. 6 JI you (go) shopping. (you I buy) me Cl magazine? 7 I (do) mo(c exercise if I (have) more time. S We (visit) you if we (come) 10 your town.

10 Each 01 these sentences conlai ns a mistake. Fi nd and correct the mistakes. 1 I would to buy Cl car il I hCld more money. 2 Will you be frightened il you saw a ghost? 3 If I had a dog, I call it Spot. 4 He would come on Saturday if he finishes work in time. 5 If you see Pat, will yOlt asking him to call me? 6 I would go 10 the cinema if you come with me.

Let's activate Imagine if... 11 Work with a partner, Ask and answer questions about what you wou Id do if these th ings happened. • • • •

you won il lot of money you saw a ghoSl yOU could havel 10 any country (Where?) yOu could have dinner with any famous person (Who?)

Example A What wuuld you do if you won a lot of money? 8 I would go on holiday, alld buy a car!

.:ii'~~.:;i31;.,~~pn:·d(::~::\~\~i:fim~~wd;»K~~~;§:~:~~~~~:~~;~~~~~~~g~:~'S<':':' ",.;. .;.: ,':. \"\;!'L:IS:Ji.e:.nln~g~:an . X.··SpeaKln·g·· . . ~·~~N~:~,:~:\S:.~:.:\~ .~,\~l~~~~~\\~\~.~~~~\~1;\.,,; .;\\:~~:··:~S'~.(~2't\'~·:,~~\2~\·:~ (. '\':\'~':::' ,:. ~".~ ~-'::'.~:~i~:'~-}:' .:.: ~. -. >, .; ".

: '

The 'aIling COlii' MuHip\e. - c.hoiu- quef>tion5 3 ~8']' Listen to Gemma and answer,


Bob and

choos~ (he best

b or c.

1 What don 80b say about the nev.'S s-Iory7 Mos' people will believe it. b He doesn't believe it.





c He cM inks it is a good sCory




2 Whol





It w;lI



Gemm<. feel about the

must be




"muse prople.

c It may be true. .3 Bob thinks that perhaps llle fisherman a {ell asleep. b had no fisil on lHmd his bO<l1. c said lh~ cow fell so thal he could get some money, 4 What is Bob going to do this summer? a go 011 a 5<liling holiday. b go ~wimming in the Caspian Sea. c buy a new sailing bOilt




'lour opinion 4 In pairs, answer Ihe


1 00 you helieve the story? If not, what do you thin k rea IIy happened? 2 Do'lOu know an\' strange slories like \his orle?

Pronunciation Listening 1

In pairs, look at the picture. What do you think i~ happening? What ~Quld be tile reason for what I~

'Dame sound - sPe.Uin9 5 ~u Listeo to some piJrls of the recl>rding again, and circle the word the


"_"~~"""'ni ...



~peaker says.





sea wear




True or false Oon'llry [0 decide whellle( you think the slatements are (rue or false before you listen.

Speaking ~ood \U{,~




Listen to a news item about the picture and decide if these statements are true or false. Correct the false statements. 1 The fisherman wa., fishing when a COw fell from



2 1he cow did not hit his boat. 3 His iIlsurance wmpany believed his story. 4 The cow had jumped out of a US Air Force aeroplane. S The American Embassy bought the fisherman a new boat.


and bad \Uc,"

In pairs, look a.t the pictures On page 99 and <:lnswer the questions. 1 Who! do the pictures show? 2 Whal do people think brings good or bad luck in your

COlmtry? 3 Do yOlI bel ieve in (hi ng.<; like this? Why? ( Why naP

6.iving an al.c.ount 9 You are going to tell a story about a time when you were very lucky or very unl ucky. first. make some notes to remind yourself about what you are going to say. Use the points below to help you. • •

• • •

where il happened when it happened what happened how you felt about it what happened afterwards

10 ~8.5 Read the dialogue. Then listen and fill in the gaps. Can you guess what happens next in the story? .....









. . . .,.\\.~I);:,})•

Making your story more interesting jane jim jane



Read the dialogue. Then listen and fill in the

gaps. ~:i\'~'a~







Discussing topics Maria 1 the number 13 is lucky in Britain. George Urn, 2 • I'm sure I heard that most ' people think it's unlucky. Maria 3 ~ _ ••

• •,



I was on the bus coming home and J thall'd lost my purse with all my money in it Clnd my bus ticket. Jim What did you dot jane 4 ? I couldn't find it so I had to gel off the bus and walk home' 5 _ jim Poor you! jane 6 what happened laler, I got a phone (all from my friend sally. 7 she had got on the same bus ~. . as me and ... 2 __,

n~'.\ 1

black cals? \Ti

what happened to me lasl


Sat urday! What?



~. ,



11 Work with a partner. Tell each other the stories you

8 Work with a partner. look at these words and discuss whether you think they mean good luck or bad luck. Use the dialogue box in 7 to help you . ... hor shoe>\' ladder" chimnev sweep


four-leaf clover

prepared in 9. Use the language in the dialogue box in 10 to help you make your story more interesting.

'i Do you know what the places in the pictures are and where they are? Read the article and complete the missing information. Uluru Location:




Origin of the name Ayers Rock:


What happens at sunset What lies under the rock: The importance of the rock: The Crazy Horse Memorial The importance of the statue: Localion: Size:


_ _ _

_ _ _

scuI ptor:


When work starled:


Who is finishing the work:

~·X ..""':·;.',,··...••••..:~_:·~·~~/...·-:-:..:·:-:-W~;..zo")l"N/...~~.;,,;.·.·


....·.·.·NN..:·.·.._~........·;..·<;/".. . . .~.r..: ......h";;-::../.......:-::~#~ ...._:._..I:.x.........,:~.~.J;$;g.QJ2ag_a'''':o ...~~:~~~:..x", ...../··.\:'··«_7.v_:,·.·.·~·.·.·.;.·.·.·,,,,.I.".y:,.~'.I'··.·t~

.·.r..".·.-" .. (o·<..~N.....·.:_·...·/....v."'.·.....?_:;._::·...../.·.«.;«-:o)x-~.

Talking about your country



1 Are there any special places like these in your country? 2 What are they; 3 Why are they important?


(jrammar 2

should, ought to and shouldn't

3 We often use should oughr to 4nd sholJ Irln 't to gi Ife I

people advice.


1 Look at the sentE'nces and


the queslion~.

1 If you BD to Auslralia, YOlJ should try to see UlurII. Does th~ 5peaker Ihink it would be a good idea or a bad idu to ~ee UlurLJ? .2: He believed th.dl Crazy H()r~( ought tD be remembered, Did he thin k it was a good idea for people to remember Crazy Horse7

2 We use should, ought to and shouldn't 10 say that wc thInk something is the righl Or wrong tl1 iog to do, There is nn difference in meaning betwee-n should and ought t,-" Should is lIsed more often,

You should grl more d ep. You look ti(~ You ough~ to 13ke more )(ercise. You'll feci better. You shouldn't eat too much sugar, It's bad Icr you. Write lldvice using should, ought to and sllcu/tln 'f. 1 Dana goes 10 parties every nillht. She's gOl exam} (no! go to parties every night) She (sludy rOt exam,) She

Complete the




mi,'i.S breakfast) She


alwoy~ arriVC5 late, She doesn't have a watch. (no I arrivr late) She (buy il wlltch) She _

eat~ a lot 01 chocolale. He never does any ruse. (do some exercise) H{' (not eat so much chQcolate) He


4 Alld rew l;?C~

llsing should, ollght to or

Ve 1_ _ go somewl ere exciting tI i summer, We alwllV sit about gelling bored. It's no fun, Luke Yes, you're rignt. w~ 2 _ _ start saving up some money nDW so we can go somewhere. Daniel Good le eal Do you think we J _ _ go 10 America? Luke No. Let's go somewhere more eXciting, like Morocco or Egypt! We ~ _ _ always go to the same old places. Daniel OK. We , _ _ to start planning our lrip. then. Lel'~ gel som maps and ~e wnere we 6_ _ go first. How about sJarling off in Cairo?


3 Irena

shouldn't. Daniel


2 Jud itll j~ hu ngry, She hasn'! had brea klast. (eill somelhin50 She

Wc should travel more. We ought lo go 10 New 7eal;wd one d,W We shou Id n't alwClY~ stay at home,




Let's activate In a perfut Vlorld! 4 Think about your life. Write a lisl of Ihings you think you should and shouldn'l do. U:se these ide21s. • •

schoo[ money

• • •

lhe future home li(e exams

5 Worl< with 21 partne(. Interview e.H:h (Hher about wh'j( you feel you should and shouldn't


6 Milk..: the world a better place! Work wit" a partner and make a li~t 01 all the things you think people should/ought to do and the things they shouldn't do. Example People s}wuJiJ core obllut the environment. Driver!> shoul/Jn'[ drive {D j05t i" towns.

7 Do you need advice? Invent a problem, Tell the class your problem and ask fot advice.

E.xomple A / h(f)ltn't got enough money to bUy the thing5 I w{Jnt. B You SflOUId get 0 port-lime jOb.

·?«:·~·~'t~·.~~>~c~~·t,_g.iY;~.···· . Ghosts

Steps to better writing Verb ttn5e5

1 Answer the questions in pairs. 1 Have your read any good ghost or horror stories? 2 Do you like watching scary films at the cinema or on nn 3 Do you know anyone who has seen a ghost or something that can't be explained?

4 What different tenses are used in stories ... 1 to set the scene? 2 for events that happen one after the other? 3 to refer to an earlier time in the story?

5 Complete the opening to this story by choosing using the correct tense. While 1 1 was walking / walked / had walked down the street the other day. I 2 was meeting / met I had met an old friend that I 3 wasn't seeing ! didn't see / hadn't seen for a long time, 4 was running / ran ! had run across the street to greet her and Ihen we 5 were going ( went / hod gone to a coffee shop together to have a cha!.

Studying the sample 2 Read this story.


1 1

' 6 We can use linking words and phrases to show when things happened. Look at these examples. sudden events slow events


,\ G ~'


I 1 1I' 1" ,


} Dec.eJnber __J


• Suddenly... • wichouc any warning .. , • All of 0 sudden ...

• gradually • slowly


first of all -7 then! nexl / after that -7 finally / in the end times

• a few minutes! hours / days laler • the next day / the following day





Many years ago, when I was renting a small house on a Scollish island, 1 saw somethi ng very strange and frightening. I was Iyi ng in bed one night listening to a storm outside. and 1thought 1 heard voices outside. I got up and went to the window, and saw a young man and woman walking towards the beach. 1 felt that somethi ng was wrong, so 1 got dressed and ran outside. I called to them. but they had disappeared into the darkness. A few days later at the lo(al market. I met the farmer who owned the cottage and told him about the two people. He looked at me seriously and said: 'Those two are not ordinary visitors. A long time ago, those two were in love. But their families were enemies, so they decided 10 ru n away together. On the fi rst night in December they met al the cottage and tried to cross the sea. But there was a terrible storm, and they drowned in the icy black waters.,,' I smiled pol itely, because I do not believe in gho'>l:s. But as 1 was wal king home, I suddenly felt cold as 1 realised the night I had seen them had been the first of December.

3 Match the pictures 1-5 with the paragraphs A-E. ~

Use the words or phrases from above to link the pairs of sentences below. (There is more than one correct answer for each one). Example

I was driving along the road. A woman ran out in front of car. I was driving along the road. Suddenly, a woman

rail out in front of the car. 1

1 was driving through the dark foresl, I began to feel more and more frightened.

2 The woman made me stop the car. She hammered on the window, She tried to open the door. 3

1 drove off as fast as \ could. I arrived at Ci ndy's ho use.

4 I told her what had happened. I began to feel better.


'l>peuh in



7 Look at the punctuation we use when we write down what people say. Remember, we also start a new paragraph every time the speaker changes. 'Who/'5 0" moll~'?' 511t: ,~oi(). 'You Ivu/.: terrible!' 'I sow something really 5cory,' I replied, 'bull don't know

9 Base yOtJr ~tory on the picture story. The story should have different paragraphs. You should write about: • whtrl this happened, where Angela went for the weekend and why

what it wos.'


'Come in and tell me about it.' 'OK', I said, and we went inside.

Now punctuate the following passage. I don't know who she


I '><lid

I think I have an idea Cindy r~p'ied Really I asked who WilS she Listen carefully Cindy said Ilhink you Me in grcilt dilnger

Writing your story Under~tandin9


the journey and the appeararKe of the ghost in the



• • • •

escaping lram the ghost and getting to the house talking to the friend about what happened leaving a few days later and the journey home what happened when she got home

Writing 10 A student magazine is running a short story competition. They have asked readers to send in ghost stories, Write a story (1.20 words or more) for the competition.

C.heC\(ing 11 Read your story carefully, Check:

Read the instructions in 10, and answer the questions.


1 How long does the story need to be? 2 What sorl of words (an you (1(l<!to make the story frightening? 3 Who is going to read the story?

• •

the simple past, past conlillUOU5 and past perfect len~. using adjectives lO mal<e the Slory more cl ramatic. the pUlletu<ltion of speech. if you need it.

Angela set off to see her old school friend for the weekend.


Word focus What's the. diffe.rwu? 1 Complete the sentences using the correct word. 1 puzzled / disturbed The noise _ _ the cat and he woke up. 2 quite / quiet The room was _ _ because the children had gone home. 3 hunts / haunts A ghost _ _ the old house and frightens people. 4 mist / missed I fell asleep so I _ _ the ending of the film. S shocked / surprised She was very _ _ and happy when he gave her the expensive gih. 6 wondered / wandered They _ _ through the forest.

Extension Du.,ribiog


3 Put the words in the correct column. • • .. • ..

trendy .. muscular'> moustache" beard in his / her twenties to broad shoulders ~ hair .. pale skin dark skin .. thin .. old. skinny young .. slim youthful ... plump. elderly. fat .. middle-aged old-fashioned· shabby ... neat .. elegant





the sentences. " un- " il- " ir- v dis- .. im- .. in1 Your room is very _ _ (tidy). Please clean it.

2 3 4 5 6 7

sarah is very kind and _ _ (selfish). Some people think alcohol should be _ _ (legal). Your answer to number ten is _ _ (correct). It is _ _ (polite) not to say ·please'. You shouldn't drink and drive. it's _ _ (responsible). My sister has been very _ _(happy) since her boyfriend left her. B I _ _ (like) oranges. Yuk!






4 Write descriptions of the people in the pictures using words from 3.


l're.flY-u) 2 Add these prefixes to the words in brackets to complete




... ': .

Reading, for':p.leasure .. . . . . . . . .. .



The Hound of the Baskervilles ~.


BY ARTHUR CONAl'\] DOYLE (RETOLD BY PATRICK The moon was shining on the Great Grinlpen;~~i~\1 and a fog was rising from it. Holmes watched the fog and began to look worried. The ~~~ was~:', ~7' ,i.qg lip from the marsh towards the hOllse. We were hidden near the path, which :; was on ilie far side of the house from the m.arsh. 'The fog is moving towards us, Watson, and that is very serious,' said Holmes. 'It is the one thing that could make my plans go wrong.' As we watched, the fog, which had crept as far as the IU house, began to flow round it. Angrily Holmes hit the rock in front of us with his open hand. 'If Sir Henry doesn't come out in the next quarter of an hour, the path will be covered by the fog. Tn half an hour we shall not be able to see our hands in front of our faces. We 15 ~ust move back to higher ground ahove the fog: We moved away from the house and out of the fog, which was creeping slowly along the ground and hiding the path hom our view. "We must not go too far,' said Holmes. 'If we do, Sir Henry 20 may be caught before he reaches us.' Holmes went down on one knee, and put his ear to the ground. 'Thank heaven, I think J hear him coming.' Then we heard quick footsteps 011 the path. After a few moments, Sir Henry appeared out of the fog and walked on 2:; in the dear moonlight. He came quickly aJong the path, passed close to where we were hidden, and begnn to walk up the hill behind us. A he walked, he looked over his houlder again and again, like a man who is worried that something is following him. 30 'Listen!' said H.ohne~ 'Look out! It's coming!' I heard him make\,,::.:~~~~~readyto fire, and I did the same. There was Cl sound of quick, light footsteps from inside the curtain of fog. The cloud had crept to within fifty metres of J5 where we were hidden. We tried to see into it, and wondered what horrible thing would appear. [ looked at Holmcs, Hi' eyes were fixed on the place where the path disappeared into the fog. He was &R1t ~~ but his eyes were bright. He looked like a man who was going to win the mo t important ~ game of his life. Then suddenly hi eye nearly jumped out of his head, and his mouth pened in frightened surprise. I looked away from him to see what his eyes were fixed on. When 1 saw the awful hape that was to,vards us out of the fog, my blood turned cold. The revolver nearly feU 45 from my hand~, and my whole body froze with fear. 1 saw Cl ~ljY : \~. an enormous black hound. It was bigger thill1 any dog Thad ever seen. But it was something else that filled us with terror. No hwnan eye had ever seen a hound like this one. Fire came from its open mouth. Its eye were 511 burning. Flames covered its head and body. It was a more horrible si~,~~. than anvone could imagine - a h~iU-hound sent by the~\1i$ It was not a creature of the natural v,路orId. The huge, black, burning hound ran quickly and silently after Sir Henry. FiU away along the path we sav,' him turn 55 and look back at the hound. His face was white in the moonlight and h.i~ hands were lifted in horror. He watdled helpl ssly as fhe terrible creatme got closer to him. We were so frozen by thel~t~' and unnatural sight that we let the hound go past us, and we could not move. Our friend was 60 near to death, and we were helpless with fear.



Understanding the. $tor1 1 Answer the questions. 1 Why is Holme~ worried about the: r()~) 2 'Nhy are Holmes (lnd Watson hiding as they wait for Sir Henry) 3 How does Sir Henry feel as he walks along the path? 4 How do Holmes and Watson react when they see the hound? Why? 5 Why does WatS(ln describe the dog as Cl 'hell-hound'? 6 Do you think t he hound is a rC<l1 dog or all evil spirit? 7 Why do they not shool/he dog?

VOl.abulari 2 Match the highlighted words in the text with these meanings: 1 movi ng quietly and carefully 2 the most powerful evil being 3 cl [hid< cloud close to the land that i~ difficult to see through 4 looking like the spir it of a dead pe(so(l 5 the home 01 tht devil 6 <3 hunting dog 7 soh. wel. Iow land 8 a small, quick-firing gun 9 having l('Ss colour than usual Talking about your reactions 1 What do you think happens next? 2 Sherlock Holmes is very famous, What other delec1ives from boolc> or TV do you know? WhaL are they famous for?

Let's revise Units 7 and 8 Grammar

3 Match 1-6 to a-f to make first conditional sentences.

1 Complete the sentences using one verb each in the past perfect, the past simple, and the part conti nuous. Example

When the fire alarm (go) off I wqs lying {lie) in bed trying to have an eariy night because I had had (have) a tiring day. 1 While I _ _ (walk) along the path, I suddenly _ _ (notice) a coin that someone _ _ (drop). 2 He _ _ (show) her the ring that he _ _ (buy) while they _ _ (have) dinner. 3 I _ _ (not I pay) attention, so I was a bit surprised when they _ _ (Iell) me that my train _ _ (already / leave). 4 I first _ _ (meet) Anna when we _ _ (both I live) in London. and she reminded me of someone 1_ _ (know) many years belore. 5 WI)ile I _ _ (put) the cases into the C<H. John suddenly _ _ (get) very worried because he _ _ (lose) his


6 I suddenly _ _(realise), while we _ _ (drive) home from (-he airport, that I _ _ (leave) my house keys on 7 8

9 10


(he plane. While Ernily _ _ (walk) through the woods, she _ _ (see) the tiger that _ _ (escape) from the zoo. While I _ _(wail) (or the bus, I suddenly _ _ (remember) that I _ _ (Iorget) to post John's birthday c<Hd While Peter _ _ (check) his work. he _ _ {notice) some careless miSlakes that he _ _ (make). While Sam _ _ (pUI) the children to bed, Jack _ _ (look) al the foolball resulls to see who _ _ (win) the mcllch.

Complete the sentences using may, might or could and your own ideas. Example

You haven't seen my keys, have you? B No, bul S(lroh migilt be able 10 help YOIl.


1 will you go to the parly? Yes,~ _

2 What will the weather be like? I'm nol sure, but I think 3 Did Jenny phone yesterday? No, but _


4 How do you think the leam will do in the r.ompetilion? They're playing quite well, so I think _ 5 Do you think we'll get 10 scl100l on time? I'm nut sure with all this lraffic. We _


1 2 3 4 5 6

If I don't gel any homework tonight, If it rains tomorrow, ,'11 phone you tonight We'll go for (l piZZCI after ~hool If I can find the video you W<lntto see, If 1have enough money.

a if we have enough money. b nl lend it to you. c I'll go for Cl walk. d I'll wear my bOOlS. e I'll buy that new CD. f jf I have time.

4 Complete the sentences using the se<:ond conditional form of the verbs in bracket~.

1 If I _ _ (can) dan((; ano sing, I _ _ (be) famous' 2 If I _ _ (know) how to do this Maths Question, I _ _(help) you. 3 If I _ _ (have) enough money, I _ _ (buy) Cl car. 1\ I _ _ (be) happier if I _ _ (be) a bit taller. 5 _ _(you / ()](Irry) me if I _ _ (ask) you? 6 If I _ _ (win) a lot of money, it _ _ (not / make) me happy.

5 Complete using ShOllld, ought to or shouldn't. 1 You _ _ see

a doctor about your headaches,

2 You _ _ try to do (l little homework each night instead of leaving ir all until the weekend. 3 I don't think you _ _ stay up so late every night 4 You _ _ go 10 bed earlier at your age! S _ _ I do this Saturday job or (lot! 6 YOu _ _ cross the road here. It's too dangerous. 7 You _ _ never drive a car without wearing a secll belt. S You _ _ eat so much chocolate. It's bad for you!

Listening 6 r(;)&.& Listen to a legend connected with

C.hec\::in9 for mif>ta\::e-f> the Yosemite

Valley in the USA. As you listen, complete the sentences.

1 Yosemite Valley is a

11 Read this letter to a friend, which has ten mistakes in it. Find and correct the mistakes.

for visitors.

2 Tesaiyak was very ~d and (rying when sht' _____ down the mountain to Mono Lake. 3 Tesaiyak and her husba nd were turned inlo _ _ _ _ _ by the powerful spirits of the Yosemite

a~a\.,. r'rYl

Valley. 4 The Yosemite's Half Dome i.s well known _ _ _ _ _ all over the world.


....~l\.cd, bu.! r.'~


Lt has 6f:E'i)


7 Decide it these statements are true or false. Then listen again and check. Correct the false statements. 1 The Yosernite Valley is mountainous, 2 The legend is from the Mono people. 3 Powerful spirits turned the people into two lakes. 4 'Hall Dome' is the name 01 a mountain.

Speaking 8 Write questions to fi nd out the followi ng information. 1 hobbies J interests 2 favourite sport 3 reasons for liking I disliki ng sport 4 starting dale at this school 5 length of time in this class,i.c.

AYJldWd..!::l> do let.

~)t to

flopâ&#x201A;Ź. to he-a... f'vom ~ou.


i.f ~ou. ca\') .."a~ Lt..

5001"1 1


9 Number the sentences in the (orrect order to make a conversation. a WOil:? _ _

b Wha1 did you do? Keep the money? c Guess what happened to me yesterday? ~_J _ d Of course not. I took the pursE' and the money to the neares[ police station. _

e Was it empty? _ _ I was walking home lasl night when I saw a purse lying on the pavement. _ _ g No. When I picked it up, il was full of money.

Writing 10 Match



,, ,

the punctuation marks in A to the worcl~ in B.

B comma question mark exdamalion mark


inverLed commas full stop

12 Read

through this passage. Rewrite it with the correct punctuation.

Jan was getting some bread from the village shop when she noticed the headlines about the murderer ~ who had escaped. horrible business isn't it said the ~ shopkeeper. and a bit coo close for my liking. yes its ~ vet1j scary eplied Jan. he could even be in the village. r: I don't think so joked the .shopkeeper. I reckon people would notice a man With his arm hanging off. Jan paid ~ for the bread and the paper and walked back home. ~ as she turned off the road to her house door, she ~ suddenly went as cold as ice. there on the garden ~~ path were marks of blood leading to her front door. ~ -~ 'T/?~~ ;q;"';";"~.r"':~~'''I},"<~~.'''''',f.''-:~'''''I''Y.ÂŤ?'.f.




1""11!:111~1W!!~;pfiJI' - .. ";

;. ...


An unusual tour o' ....ondon7 1



In pair5, answer the qu~tions.

1 WhClI do you think the people in the picture are doing? 2 Why do you think (h('y might be travelling in this way?

Reading 2

Read the newspaper article and complete the missing informal ion. 1 Type of transporl _ _ 2 Price 01 lour _ _ 3 Drivcr\ ni.lme _ _ " Whal uriver was wearing _ _ 5 Travel speed _ _ 6 Only person who didn't smile _ _



Read the text again, and match these events to the places on the map. 1 They were stopped by a policeman. 2 They had more photos taken. 3 They Iravelled at Cl ~peed of 40mph. 4 They set oft. S They had their photo tllken for the first time.

7 Complete the sentences using these words. " fI ight ~ IOU r




ride " sightsee ing

1 I nearly missed my The bus 10 the airport was late. 2 I went for a on a horse when I was in Spain. 3 The hotel and tickets were all included in the _ _ . 4 The _ _ of Egypt was wonderful, we sow the Pyramids and the River Nile, 5 I'm glad we took our cameras on holiday. Wc did Cl lot of

8 Which of the nouns in 6 and 7 can be used as verbs with the same meaning? Word~

Gonneded with travel

9 Match these verbs to the correct forms of transport. Then complete the sentences using the verbs . ., park .. drive <> ride u catch " mi'5S I> get off f on ~O lake ~ la nd c,

Vocabulary Verb~




4 Match the verbs and phrasal verbs 1-5 from the article to their meanings a-e. 1 to set oll (line 11) 2 to filce (line 15) 3 to make your way (line- 24) 4 1'0 grin (line 26) 5 to manufacture (line 33)

b to starl a journey c [0 stand in fronl 01 d (0 make e 10 move

5 Match these nouns to their meanings a, c路




get into

bike ,. plane" tra in

1 Cars are not allowed 10 _ _ through the city centre. 2 You can your car outside our house. 3 You should never _ _ a bicycle without wcC'ring a safely helmet. 4 The plane _ _ on the runway at the airporL 5 I was lale lor school because I _ _ the bus. 6 The policeman slopped me and asked me 10 _ _ my bike.

a to smile

Travel noun5 " journey

bus" car




a (countable) moving from one place to another (can be long or short) b (uncountllble) moving from place to plate c [countable) going to Cl place and coming back again (f(J r plea su re or bu'>i ness)

6 Underline the correct word to complete the sentences. 1 My mother goes on a lot of business trips / jOUlneys with her new job. 2 Trovel J Journey introduces you to new culture<> and idea~,

3 Did you have a good travel f trip" 4 I make the same journey f traYf~1 to work every day_

look at the pidures and describe the methods of travelling, Which do you think would be the most uncomfortable? What's your favourite method 01 travelling?

(jrammarl Reported speech 1

In pairs, look at the pictures and answer the questions.

1 What are the people do; ng and where are they? 2 Do you go abroad for your holidays or stay in you r own country? 3 If you (.()uld lravel anywhere in tile world for your holiday, where would you go? Why?

~m"'Q"Chec~ Reported ~peech Form Reporting statements

To report stalemenl~ we: â&#x20AC;˘ use a reporting verb, e.g. ~iaid change Ihe pronoun or possessive adjectives e.g. I la she. my lo her â&#x20AC;˘ change the tense in the direct statement e.g. presenl simple to past simple

1 Complete the sentence. 'I always enjoy going ~o different places abroad: sa id Paula.

Paula said that _ _ always _ _ going to different places abroad.


What changes would you make to these verbs in reported speech? Write the tense and an example sentence.

Present simple go'" past simple


She said t1/(~f shA went fo worK Dj. bus.

Present continuous is going ...


Future wilt go ... _ _ Present perfect have done'" _ _ Past simple did'" _ _ Reporting questions When we report questions, we make similar chang~ to those in reported statements. but we also need to

change the wQrd order and the question form of [he verb.

'How old are you! MMy askcrl Ihe child. Mary asked {he child how old he was.


A. radio holida'f programme

~. t.1 listen to four young people talking about holidays. As you listen, match the speakers 1-4 to the statements a--e. There is one statement you do not need.



He{She has always enjoyed going to different places.

b (

He{She has always been afrai.d of flying. _ _ He{She aIways goes on holiday with his/her parents.


He/She doesn't like spending too much money on a


He/She likes dancing and having a good time. _ _

holiday. _ _


When we word, we sentence.

report questions without a question use if or whether. Complete the

'Are you old enough la go to Khoalr Mary <lskcd rhe child. Mary asked the child _ _ he was old enough to




3 Rewrite these statements from 2 in reported speech.

Example 'I like fi nding out about different cultures.' - jul ia

lulia said she liked finding




'f:lpot the 7



Each of these sentences contains a mistake. Find and corred the mistakes. 1 The students asked their leacher if they should h<Jve do

any homework. 2 The teacher <tsked the class they wanted to do any hamewc>rk. 3 The class said they will like to do a project on travel. 4 The teacher told to the students that they had all passed the exam. S One student said the teacher Ihat he wanted 10 do a projed on Sco{lancl. 6 The leacher asked whether the student has any books about Scotland. 7 The student says he hadn't gol any books on Scotland . 8 The teacher told she would bring the student Cl book the next day.

1 'I'm going with my friends to Ibizi:l.' - Martin 2 'I've always loved visiting different countries' - julia 3 'I'm terrified of flying.' - Anne 4 'I enjoyed the flights and the weather.' - Greg S 'Wc're going far the clubbing.' - Martin 6 'I've been cycling with i1 group of friends,' - Greg 4 Which ot these do we change when we report statements using a reporting verb? • {he order of the words • possessive adjectives • pronauns • the tense of the verb . 5 Report th~e questiom using the words in brackets, Example

'What is your favourite country? (Paul / Mary) Poul

asked Mory whot her fa vo 11 rite country was.

1 '00 yau like Spain?' (Siman / Gr~g) 2 'Where £lre you goi ng?' (Karen /ji 11) 3 'Do you travel a lot?' (Rosa / Peter) 4 'IS the train on time?' (Bob / man in the ticket office) S 'Where did you buy this (ravel guide?' (Toby / his cousin) 6 'Will you call me at six?' (Ruth / john) 7 'Can you take me to the station?' (lisa lOan) 8 'Have you had <I (U P 01 cofleer (Tim / Alison)

Let's activate Usin9 reporte-<1

8 Work with a partner. Interview each other to find out about your summer holidays. Make notes about your parlner's answers, Ask Questions about thtie things.

• your pMtner's favourite J usual holiday desti nalion • • • •

• •

It is not necessary la change would. could, ought to and might in reported speech,



Report the conver~tion. Mike Katy Mike Katy Mike Katy

Where should we go this evening? We could go for a drive to the beach. I might be able to get my father's car. Maybe we ought not to borrow your father's car. Why shouldn't we borrow it? How could you forget? We used up alllhe petrol!


Ihe usual means 01 travelling there Ihe length of time spent there activities lo do there his/her holid<lY companions the Iype of food he/she eats his/her feelings aboul lhe holiday

Find another partner and report what your fi rst partner said. Use the verbs say and tell, and make all the other necessary changes in reported speech. such as tenses and pronouns.

Zoud and cleaT?

Mu\tip\e- £.noi£.f, question5 5 ~ ~.3 Listen to three announcements on an aeroplane and choose the best answer, a, b or


1 The tirst annou ncement tells passengers that the pia ne has been delayed because of a bad weather conditions over Copenhagen. b problems wi Ih the aircraft when tryi ng to la ke off, c a problem with the passengers' su iteases.


In pairs, look at the pictures. What two types of transport do they show?

2 The second announcement tells passengers on boa rd the flight to Kenya that they a will be served three meals throughout the f"1 ight. b can finel information about entcrtrlinment in ;;l magazine. c can pay to watch an evening in-fligh! movie. 3 The rh ird announcement informs passengers that a all the information about the items for sa le is in the in-flight magdzine. b there are some interesting articles in the in-flight

2 Match th ese wo rds to the two types of tra nspo rt shown in the pictures. station ~ platform ~, gate G take off " depart " carriage ,\ runway" track ., board. airport ~. delay" signal., check-in



What kinds of announcements might you hear when travell ing on the two types of transport"?


Listening Note - ta\(iog 4 ~~.l, listen to the announcements at a railway station

Wordf> \'lhi£.h go logether 6

and an airport and complete the missing information.


_'_ _'

n~.¥:p.t.~.~.a lIe>iv:, d~l:"l.:~rm[e::til~lC: 3:.~

~::;:;.,...~.~~ .:.y-~~, .'

Match the words 1-7 with a-g to make phrases you heard on the tape.

2 3 4 5

King's Cross Station

h;1~tf0fih ,i3:umb"er:. I

mdgazlne. they accept two types of payment.


departu re night welcome slight


6 in-flight 7 signal


delay b cheques c failure d gate e movie f aboard g flight

Heathrow Airport

Ta\\(iog about traveUiog 7


Work with a partner, Tell your partner about the longest journey you've ever been on. Where did you go? What was it like?

Speaking 8

Telling Mmeone. about a ho\idai 12 Find another partner and tell them aboutlhe holiday you have chosen.

In pairs. take turns to explain what these words mean. t>

single ticket" return ticket" bed and breakfast

" half board

"P\anning a hO\ida'f 9


and your


h<lve got £500



spend on


week's holiday. Look at the holiday adverts and decide where you want to go. You C<ln go on mOre than onc trip. Use these phrases to help you. • lid like .. • I don't mind. • I ~(e1er ... • It looks .. ~ • We could ... • I'd rat her

• Yes. 13111 Il'is one is more ... than ... ~oo~ing

a holida'f

10 Divide these phrases into two groups: things a customer might say and things Cl travel agent might say. • • • •

I'd like to book ... Certainly, when would you .,. ? I'm afraid that's not ova ilable, but you could ... I was wondering if '? Could you tell me ?

• Thal'l! lOst ... • (a n I pay by . ?


Now complete the phrases using suitable words.


with a partner. One of you is a travel agent, and the other wants to book the holiday you chose in 9. Ac.t out the conversation. using the ph rases in 10, and the information in the adverts.



~'e p\a'f 11 Work


, "

. I S het:e ',all ,the stars it \ Visit Hollywood in the spnn~. ee w h":" k of a r nd wait< on a real movie set. See ,t ~,m~, l,l:l~ ," . Ive, and have dinner in some of the resta:~ra:r\~ . wh~~e " ~i fihlm at s eat For three days live the life of.. ~ su.ccess,fyl \' :~: t e s ar . 0 N" walKs and~ , ~ actor on the boulevards where Robert .e ',Iro.", :':' ',: ".'. '.,


works. £500 per person.

Four days in a cottage in the heart of the British countryside. See old English villages, sip tea in a cafe and experience the peace of country life. Five nights in a bed and breakfast just £250.


:\~ \\'~\~~~}~iliI>'\\>~$\~~~~».1~~~~\lr~ '


''''';, ' " "

:;,:, "', ,,"


In pairs, answer the questions. 1




Have you evcr visited Sydney, Australia? Would you like to go there? Why! / Why not? What do you think you would enjoy about going there?


What ki nds of things do you think you could see and do there?

Read the text from a travel guide to Sydney and complete the missing information. 1

Sydney is described as being


If you travel around Sydney without a ticket, you could be fined


I1 you want to use different forms of transport, buy a

Talking about your country ~

~ :cr_:nt:Y'~/:r~YVr",r~~.r'~/L.·,·AV~-.·~·.·.~·.·.·.·.·.·.·.·


Do you have any city rail networks in you r country? If 50, where?


What forms of transport do people




4 _

4 If you want to go, to Bondi Beach, you must travel by 5 , If you book a taxi, you need to give taxi drivers 6 If you're travelling by motorcycle, be sure 10 ride on

generally use in cities in your cou ntry? In some cities, all cars are banned from the centre. Do you think this is a good or Cl bad thing? Why? How do you think people will travel around cities in the future?

_ _ _ .•. "",,",~.......&)::,q~mb~~~};~; •


,Travelling by subway The suburban rail network is the fastest Il'leam of public ~ral1$port around tOWIl. Trains run from around 4 a.l11. until midnjght. There are automatic ticket machines at 1110St station~, but humans are usually on hand too! Travelling by bus nm almost everywhere, but they're slow compared to u-ains. Bondi Beach, Coogee and parts of the Nortll Shore are only serviced by buses. You needn't worry about buying a ticket. They are aV\1ibble frolll news,lgents, kiosks, and on the bus (you don't need to have the correct ch;lI,ge, but it is appreciated) .




j ,1 ~ ~~

~ ~



~ ~ .~

Getting around Trains, buses and ferries are generally convenient, reliable and good vilhle. Be aW'lre that you have to have a ticket, If yOll 're ca\lght without one, you could pay a $1 00 on-the~spot fine!

Travelling by taxi Taxis are available for hire when the light on top is lit ),lp. They are easy to find in the city cemre and the suburbs. There's sometimes an extra charge for large pieces of '.~'"". ~ll1ggage, and booking costs SI extra.


"'; ';~;' Travelling by motorcycle •. ~, ;[fyoll like excitement, what better way to tour around the ;, . ,~<-. dry than by motorcycle? Bur remember that the city has a ~~t:~{~~arge, c,onfllsing one-way street system and parking is almost ~~'lmposslble; row-awav• zones are common and pnvate car ~<. ., ,'i;:' ,.parks are expensive. And remember to ride On the left-hand ..~ 'side of the roael!

Travel passes The SydneyPass (3/5/7 days) ofters bus, rail and ferry transport. You can travel On the Sydney Explorer and Bondi & Bay Explorer buses, harbour ferry and have a return trip all the Airport Express.


"~'-'~'.~o;'.v-::[~~. ~. .-'''-~~::'''(((.~:;~.




root see Sydney and get the feel of it, yOll really have to go 'about on fool. It's far cheaper, and of course YOll']) see much 110re of the city this way; plus, there are many walking tours ;:'nvailable for visitors .


....' _........


,~@~:;x~ ....-,-.- -




~ .. -.'."~~~~~!/.-':'<-: ~~~@':@lS'"0'"~'~'"


Grammar 2

have to, don't have to, need to and don't need to >- P140 €:~prei>i>in9


1 Look at the examples and underline the correC1 information to complete the rules.

hove to / don't have IQ 1 You have 10 pay taxi drivers $1 if you book. 1 You don't have to walk everywhere. We use hove 10 to say that somethi ng is neCf>Ssary / isn't necessary. We use don '[ hove to to say that somelhillR i~ Oece5S<l ry I isn'\' necess<Hy.

~enten(cs using have 10 or non'r have to. 1 If you don'j wanl to walk everywhere, VDU _ _ . 2 In Sydney you _ _ be careful 01 the traffic. 3 You _ _ spend a lot of money on taxis, You can use pu bl ic 1r30sport instrad. 4 You _ _ go very far to find a good place to eat. There (lIe cat~ (In(l restaurants on every block. S It you wlInt 10 fit all your ~ighl,>eeillg in. you _ _ get

3 Complete the

up early'

4 Underline the correct words to {Om plete the sentences. 1 2

need 10 I don'l need 10 3 You need to have the correcl change. 4 You don't need to worry about buying a lid<et. We use need to to ~ay that something i~ necessary I isn't necessary. We use don'l need to to say that something is necessary I

3 4


isn't necessary.

2 Match

~enlences 1-5 with comments a-e.

1 You nl'ed quite a lot 01 money 10 Slay in Sydney. 2 You don't have to go everywhere on 1001. 3 You need to pay taxi drivers extra when you book. 4 You have to drive on the left. 5 You don't have to visit Bondi Beach. a l3ut you should. It's a wonderlu I place! b The cost ollivi ng is quile high. c The usual price is $1. d TrLlvelling by bus is che(lp and eaw e You eau Id have an accidenl otherwise.

6 7


You don', need to / have 10 see Ihe Opei<l House. It's absolutely amazing! You don't need ID/need to to be qUite fit to go body·su rfi ng, You don', need la / need 10 have a guidebook, but it's llSelUI. You don't need 10 I have (0 t<JSle (J \ubrndrine' sandwich - they are delie;o\Jsl We. don't need 10 / need to visil the Harbour Bridge today. We can go tomorrow. If you don't like travelling by car, you need to / don't hove to. You can always hire Cl motorcycle instead. While you're in any big city. you need la / don't need to look alter your wallet carefully. We have 10/ don't need {o slay in an expensive hotel. There are IJlenty 01 youth hostels.



i rave.\ faGtshut 5 Work in pairs or small groups. Write a factsheet with information for visitor.~ to your town, Use need, don't need to, have to and don't have to. Think about: travel sightseeing (ood leisure

• • • •

Travel fac.f~\heet ,

YDU ..,e,e.d




.... ~.



+-0 OYI



!:>U)' a+-; c.keJ be- f 0.. .e

-K..e. bus...




~~."~inl. . .' )


Semi-formal emails


1 In pairs, ask and answer the questions. 1 2 3 4

What kind of places do you like to go to for your holidClYS? d(ly new places that you would like la visit"? 00 you plan your holidays a long rime ahead? What (Ould be good i:lbOulleaving your pl(lns to the last Arc there


5 What problt'lll~ (Quid you have if you left your plans to the last minute?

Studying the sample 2 Sandra has seen a wcbsitc for



When you are writing a ~emi-rormal email, use the same language and set phrases that you would use in a semiformal letter.

3 Look back at the advertisement and email, (Ind answer the following questions, 1 WhClt is dillerent about this email and an emilil to <I friend (an pClge 12)? 2 What three basic questions does Sandra wa nt to ask? 3 Does she know the name 01 the person she is writi ng t0 7

villa in Spain. At the last minule,

she and her friends have decided t hey would Iike to go. I.ook at

the web advertisement and a\ Sandra's email.




L._._._. '.

,; ~








.'. ~

... -

From: goddiny_s@freeweb,nel


To: jnfoline@sa!o!our.e c: SUhiact: Villa La Playa

----------------------------Dear Sir or Madam I am writing with referenc El to you ( villa in Spain edve rtised on the Salotour websile, and wuuld like 10 find OUI about making a last-miO\lle bOOking. Ideally, I would like to come with !wo other friends from university for two weeks from nexl Saturday, May 15th. Could you let me know if Villa la Playa is available at thal time? I would be grateful if you could give me some informalion about flights. Could you tell me whether it would be bener to fly to Granada or to Seville? I willlhen lle able 10 see what f1igllts I can find. Finally, we would like 10 Iry SOOle w81erskiing and windsurfing while we are there. I have seen 00 the Internet that there are two watersp0rls schools in th'e area, ano' I was wondering if you could tell me which one you would recommend. I look forward to hearing lrom you.





Best wishes,


Samlra Gadding


~ ~


~ ~

~ ~ 1



J..-.-...-..-.. . . . . . . .






"' . ,. . . .,-,.,. ., _..r_.


_••• _

-_ ,_•.•_.~.~ •• ~.-,.




... ...-..... "

Steps to better writing 'Del phrases 4 We often use set phrases in a semi-formal email or letter. Look at the examples below. Find the phrases by matching 1-5 with a-e. 1 Dear a wishes 2 I om writing b if you could ... 3 I would be grateful c hearing from you. 4 I look fOlv_ard to d Sir or Madam. S Best e with reference to ... Which two 01 these come at the beginning of a semi-formal email or letter? Which two of these come at the end of a semi·formal email or letter?

£mbedded questions


5 Look through the notes about embedded

Enjoy your skiing holiday in a traditional farmhouse in Austria. Our farm is in the the hean of Alpba ch and has lovely vi(!ws of the mou nta ins. The farmhouse has 6 apanments with central heating, satellite TV, phone, dishwasher. Each apanmenl has 2 bedrooms, !l bathroom and a kitchen. 3 minutes from the ski lifls and close to restaurants, shops and bus stop. F<lr more information, email HerbertKrank\

questions. In a sr:m i-formal cmail or letie(, we of1en avoid di rect questions to sound more polite. For example, insle~d of saying~ How much will it cost? (0}1 I book il online? wc might say: Could you tell me how much it wiIJ cost? Please let me know if / could book it online We need to make changes for questions like 1hese. Remember la: • repeal" question words like when, where. why,

how much it lhere is no question word. use

these questions as


questions. Have you got any apartments free at that lime? 2 Are there any direcr Hights from London? 1

3 4 5 6 7 8


apa"+~~ fO>' "\ peopleClO'\1.~1-I;>'l' ava;lable-?


wIi.:o, a'...po.... MIM;c:.l-I 0>' J~sb"'l.Ac:.k.? ....-M;dI $10:., 50,0017 SGl>I;sc:.lilule- Alp~ ay' AlpbaOl Ak.-Lv?

if or whether

and use the same order as when reporting questions. Nuw r~write

WClO'\t ~o ~ >'le>'<~ Sah......daj Fe-!:>,<ua"'l U~

Where do most people fly to? Is it possi ble 10 come by train? Would you recommend one of the ski schools? Where could we hire ski eQuipmenr> Wh;l[ ar~ the restaurants like) How much does an apartment co<,t per week?

Writing your email Understandin9 the las'f( 6 Read the instructions ill 8, and the advertisement and the hand-written notes. Answer the questions. 1 Who are you writing to and why? 2 What information w;11 you give in the emaiP 3 What information will you ask for'?

'Planning 7 Use the nOles

to help you plan and write your email. You can base your email on the sa mplc.

• • • • • •

How many paragraphs will your email have) Do you know the name of the person you're writing to? What opening will you use? What is the main question in paragraph 2? What is the main questiM in parClgri.lph 3? What is the main question in paragraph 4? How will you end the email?

Writing 8 You want to go on

a last minute skiing holiday to Austria. You have seen the advertisement and made some notes. Write an emailto the apartment owner giving details of your plans and asking for <Iny information you need.

C.hel'f( in 9 9 Read through your email. Check that: • you have used the right words for any set phrases. • you have used the correct word order in embedded questions with Could you tell me.." Please let me know... , etc. • you have used the appropriate semi-formal language.


--- .... -- ---,-

W,()rd foc~s" Verbs and phrasa\ verbs


1 Rewrite the sentences, using these verbs and phrasal verbs to replace the verbs in italics.



.. face

grin '" make (your) way " set off .. manufacture

1 The actress stood in front of the audience and waved. 2 We moved along the road very slowly. 3 The tourists started their journey at five o'clock in the morning. 4 The Japanese make a lot of cars. 5 The small child smiled as his mother gave him some chocolate.


5 Match these words to the correct picture. Some words go with both pictures. o take off ., platform • return " gate ,~ station .. ,land • single. runway" airport" flight'> track


Trave\ nouns 2 Complete the sentences using these nouns. You will need to use one noun twice. I am very lucky because my job involves business

_ _ all over the world. _ _ introduces you to new people and places. 3 I have quite a short _ _ into school every day. 4 I like to read books about _ _ .



more than one word can be used with a phrase.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 B

tour 1\ ride sightseeing


Hight .. drive




package" get on

miss your _ _ at the airport _ _ a bike _ _ a plane go on a _ _ of Egypt go _ _ and take pictures _ _ abus go on a _ _ holiday _ _ acar




"... ..


' '

:.:', "....~,...I~.~: " ~ .• ,',






8 _,_ _

the coach as :

10 _ _

11 _ _

at Oxford

opposite the

"-hY...,r.s".9'/...·.v~...·,...•••.../ ....I 'Q/P/.;:



by traffic. We are going to

station and meet us in the city centre at about ten o'clock.

II_J~,-, . .,.

7 __

near to the city centre as we can. For those of you who will be 9 _ _ by train and joining us later in the day,

entrance, so you need go over the bridge to leave the station. You (an pick up a 12 _ _ just outside the

,,,.. ",.,.~~",,,,,::_::.,,. , __ •

will take about an hour

and a half from Central London, and we hope to arrive at our 5 _ _ on (; _ _ at 9.30 - that is if we are not

please note that when the train




station, you will be on the

4 Write a short paragraph saying what you like to do on


Trip to Oxford I'm afraid it's an early 1 _ _ tomorrow morning. We shall 2 _ _ off at 7.30. The coach will 3 _ _ from outside the hotel. The 4

a tourist

3 Complete the sentences using these words. Sometimes «

• taxi • arrives 0 destination 0 time travelling " platform ~ delayed .. park .. depart 0 set .. journey .. start It

" journey .. trip .. travel 1

6 Complete the text using these words.

7 Underline the correct word to complete the questions. How do you travel I voyage to school each day? Do you ever go to school by 1 on toot? Is it easy to catch 1board a bus where you live? Have you ever lost 1 missed Cl bus, train or plane? Have you ever travelled anywhere by 1 with ferry? Which do you think is safer: travelling on 1 by plane or train? 7 What's your favourite way I means of transport?

1 2 3 4 5 6

8 Answer the questions in 7 in your own words.


Reading for 'pleasure


Jerome K, Jerome (Retold by Diane Mowatr) I The qUl'Stion was where 10 sleep at night. Georgc and I did not want to sleep in hotds .If night. We wanted 10 sleep outside. 'How beautiful,' we said, 'in the country, by Ihe 5 river, with the birds, Ihe flowers ;md the trcc~ all around us!'


1 can imagine it easily ... H At the end of the da~~ night COffit.'S and the world is pem;eful amI calm. Our littJe OOa.t moves silendy 10 into some quiet little corner on the- dl'cr. There wc put up uur tent, and we cook and cat our simple supper. Then we fill our pipes and we sit and t'Illk quietly. Sometimes wc stop for a moment ;0 or two and wc listen to the \v~ter as il plays gently 15 against the hoot. 'nle ~;I\'cr moon shinl;:l; down on us ,me! om' are full o( beauliful thoughts. We sit ill sill:na: (ora lime. We do nor want 10 speak. Then wc laugh quietly, put away 0111' pipe.... 55 say 'Goodnigln' and go to bed.

20 The pc:.1ceful sound of the water against the boat sends us to sleep - and we dream. We dream th:Jt the world is young again.,. 'And what aOOllt when it rains?' l-Iarris said. He bO \\'.1.~ right. When it rnins, you do not ~joy li\'ing 2$ in tents. lthol\~-ht about it again... It is evening. You arc very wel. There is a 101 of Wilter in the boot and everything in it is wct. loo. 65 You find a place on thc riwr bank which i~ nOI 3., :l0 \\'<.'1 as ot~r places. You get out of lhe 00;1t, pull om the tent. and two of yOIl try 10 plll it up. Hccawoc ir's wet, it is very heavy. J\nd then it f."I1ls on ll.lp of you. You cannot get it ofT your head, and 70 you get .mg!')'. All the time it is raining hca\;ly. It is ,,5 difTicult to put up a tent in good wcathcr. In wet 1I'C;llher it is illlpos.,ihlc. The othl:r man ooes not help you. He Sl.!IflS to play about.

You get your side of the tent up and begin to tie tbe ropes to the ground. Just then he pulls the tenl from his side.. and he destroys all your hard work. 'Oon'l pull it! You\'c got it all wrong, you stupid man!' yOIl cry. 'No. J haven't!' he shouts. 'Let your side go!' '11cll you. you're \\Tong!' yOll ~:retm, and you wish )'00 could gel to him to hit him. You pull your side of the tent hard - anc.1 pull OUI all the ropes on his side. 'Ah! The stupid fool!' you hear him say to himsel( YOll shOIll at each other - until the tent tIlls down. Meanwhile., the third man has been lrying 10 get the water Ollt of ll\c boat. He Wanl'i 10 know whal ~ou arc doing, and why the tent is not up )-et. \Vhen, at last, the tent is up. yOll carry' the things out of the boat. Supper ill' mostJy r<Unwaler rninwalcr bread, minwnter soup. H\ppily, you ha\'c something strong lU drink. This hrin~ bal'k your interest in life until il i~ time to b'O 10 bed. There you dream that a \'cry large animal haJi suddcnly sat down on yOIl. 'Iou \\'llkc lip and you UlldC~I:\I1d that lilCllnl'fhing lcrrible has hapIlCnc..d. Al firsl, ynu think thnt Ihe wurld h:lS eltd~-d. Then vou think lh;u this cannot ~ lruc. So itlllu.(t be thieves. or murderers, ur til'\'_ You decide 10 fight. and ~ou hit out, left and righl. Wilt. ynur arms and ~oor le~

Undefstandin9 the stofi 1 Match the sentence halves to make a summary of the



ullderne:\lh you moves, and" voice s~'S, 'Gct off my hC'Jd!' "nlC next day you have no voices bec.luse you have all C'Jught cold... :Ind all dny )路ou argue with I:.tlch 90 otht:r in angry whispers. We therefore dedded that wc would sleep out in tents un finenighrs, and in hotels whell it rained.

Explain in your own words what these phrases from the slory mean. we fill our pipes (line 12) 2 Ihe world is young again (line 22) 3 He starts 10 play about. (line 37) 4 to tie the ropes (line 38) 5 and you hit out (line 7'1) 6 you argue with each other (line 89)

1 The writer tirst imagined that sleeping ou1!>ide ... 2 In his imagination, he and his friends ... "3 When he thoughl about it again, he decided sleeping outside ... 4 In his im<lginillion. the tent ... 5 He thought he might dream that ... 6 The writer and hj~ friends eventually detided ... 10 ~Icep outside when the weather WclS good. would be impossibly difficult. wou Id be a wonderful experience. his iriend was a murderer. fdl down as soon as they had put it up. enjoyed a simple meal around a Qlmpfirc.

'Where's DilJ?' ss Thet1 you both shout for Bill. Thc ground



a b c d

75 You are shollting "l1tbe .iJne. At last you find your head in the flUh air. Near you, you 5CC a half-dressed murderer. He is \\"aiting 10 kill you. You are just going 10 Sl1lrt fighting him when you see thal it IS Jim. 80 :\t the same moment he secs ulat ir i.~ yOll. 'Oh, it's you, is it?' he says. 'Yes,' yOll answer 'What's h:lppencd?' 'The lent has blown away, I think,' he says.


Talking about you r reactions 1 2 3

Which description of camping do you think is more realistic? Why? Have you ever been on a camping trip? (What was it like?) Why do you think people enjoy holidays like thiQ

The legal age


1 Answer the questions individually, then compare your answers with a partner.


In you r (ou ntry, at what age can you 1 get a full-time job? 2 get u permanent tattoo? 3 be $ent (0 prison? 4 leavp, school)


to these

I.\iII&lt.e::J4i(I¥'" .......r::s:u::

2 When is the best age to leave home? .. ,"......n::.-

o o



=:J :l


o o o



5 Match the names with the questions. Use each name only once. There is OM question that you cannot link to any of the five names.

In pairs, ask and answer the following questions giving your opinion. 1 When is the best age to get married?



5 Nil<:ki

S vole?



2 loe 3 leil.ilni 4 Lizzie

6 have a credit card? 7 gamble or go la a casino? 8 Are there any special conditions or laws?

Read the replies to Chris' comments and answer the qu(!stions. Say if each person a) agrees with Chris, b) disagrees with him, or cl both agrees and dis(lgrees. Tick (/) the right box. (l c b


3 When should you be allowed by law to smoke?










1 Who thinks the laws 011 smoking and drinking should be kept as they are? _ _ 2 Who suggests making the laws much stricler? _ _ 3 Who wants the smoking age to be lowered to "6? _ _ 4 Who is already an experienced driver? _ _ ~ 5 Who feels that young people's opinions are ignored?_~ 6 Who comes from", country where 20-year-olds are not allowed to drink? _ _ EXG#IlII e,..lnl,."


4 When should you be allowed by raw 10 drink alcohol?

Key words In questions like this, don't expect the exact key words from the questions la appear again in the text. The first question in 5 contains the words sl/ould be kept, but to get the answer you need 10 find the comment (hat conlains the words

5 When is the best lime to have children?

sl/ould stay,

Compare your answers with the class.



'Phrasal verbs

Reading 3 Read what Ch ris has written on an Internet discussion forum for teenagers. Say if these statements are true or false, according to the things that (hris says. 1 You can smoke when you are 16. _ 2 The legal age for buying alcohol in a pub is 18. _ 3 Mopeds that go fast are dangerous. _ 4 Cars are saler than mopeds. _ 5 Most pOlitillClm W<lntto change the age limit for voting. _


6 Underline the correct meaning of these phrasal verbs as the were used in the website postings. I 1 call for 2 get (sb) down 3 run up 4 carry on 5 come down 6 do away with 7 run out 01 8 ~land lur 9 come up with 10 take up

demand Ilelephone depress / knock over 80 quickly / accumulace (a debt)

continue / complete become ill I fall

geC rid of / meet use up / escape

resist / tolerate think of I visit ',Cart (a habit) / buy

.,;'-" The legal age Should the legal age tor being able to drive, vote and drink alcohol be lowered 10 16? You c~n add your comments to the bottom 01 the pag e. 6 of S4 comments displayed.

Chris, 16, Somerset, UK

It relllly annoys me that you have to be 17 to drive a car but only 1&to ri de a mope d. The pro blem with mopeds is yDU only have a ton speed of about 30 mph, That is too slow, and if you were driving in a 50-mph zone, you r.olild be putting yourself in danger, II would be much safer if we could drive a proper ca r Cl t t5, Another tiling that you cannot do until yOu ",re 1ais vote, and aim of polili~ians seem to think 'hat \6 is too young. That may be true (or some ~eople, but I stillthinx we should a cl1ange in the laws on drinking, driving and voting. Finally, I think it's unlllir lhat you CBn't buy a drink In a pUb until you were 18. And nOW 111e 've rarsed the 9moki n9 ag e from 15 10 18, which rsally Why didn't thay ius! make it 16 for both?

7 Complete

the sentences using the phrasal verbs from 6. 1 I'd never smoke at home - my llaret1ls would not it. 2 If you running, you'll st(lrt feeling d lot hc;allhier. 3 The teacher asked the student<; to a S<llution to the problem, 4 It me when I h<JVe no money - it's so

dep ressi ng. 5 If you go to <l cd~ino, you (an a big bill very quickly. 6 If you working hard. you'll lIo well ill your exams. 7 We'd better stop ill the flexl gCHage or we'll petrol. 8 I think we should _ _ exams ilnd jusl have fun at school 9 Some polilicians regularly new laws 10 rc')Uid teenagers' freedom. 10 If smoking WLlS banned, the number 01 people with health problems would _ _ ,

'Prepositions and time 8 Complete the sentences with the corred preposition. ~

during" in â&#x20AC;˘ lor " until ., at ~ on

1 In some places, you can'l drive _ _ you are 21! In the UK, women first got the right to vote _ _ 1918. 3 My brother learned 10 drive _ _ the summer holidays. 4 We went 10 New Zealand _ _ three weeks lasl year. 5 Lel'S meet _ _ 8.30 and go (or (l meal. 6 There's goi 19 10 be an election Monday 21s1 July,


I'm not really bothered about the drinkJng age but the one thing that 8nno s mQ is the driving age, and I think we should these restrictions. I have been <lIJle to drive since I was 11 and I am boner Il1an some adults, It's really annClying thall have to wait until!'rn 17 because I still have to rely oa my parents to get anywh9rQ, and I'm patiance.

Look at the pictures which s!how different lifestyles, Talk about these questions. Which OtlC~ do you associ()(e wilh healthy lifestyles'

What are Ihe main benetils of these? Which ones do you associale wilh unheallhy liff'Slyles? What are the main risks of these? What do you do IQ keep fit and healthy' Have you gOI any bad ha'bils would you like to change?

I think we all knew about the ditferant polilical parties when we were 9 years air!, so why can't younger people vote too? It annoys me how we are never listened to, There are a lot of other people rrry age I'm sure, who feel the same, and I don't think we should it.

I think you ara all wrong, and I've the best idea. Drinking, driving end smoking should be ra;Silediltmo&ljeii age of 3D, People would be much heallhiAr by not U drinking or smoking in the first place, and there would be a lot fewH car crashes 8S well. Next paoeÂť

Click to add



Grammar 1 The passive 1 Answer the questions and then read the text below. 1 How do people in your counlry celt:brate finishing school or univer:;ity? Z What will you do (or d'd you do) €a celebra(e the end of

your school life?

\;\,.~\\\\'\,,'i~\\W~',\\\\\d~ \\\ :::~ . ",\;\,,\1'\\\;,'11 (·~"'~'-~.\~:;·I\:-\"'::':' \\\"\, :~\'," "'-~' ~;-'.


\\:.;~i:SCHO{}llES WJ;~t{ is·a·ho1id~y that tllR'es place'in ;', "Austy'afla at the end' df November, just after :k;;~;schooUe'avers llavelaken their final exams. Tons ':~~"}:;~9tJhGl,lsands of. bigh-school graduates from all ,,\,:.1:.',\.""" :i:.;i~M\I.eJ,\,t~e country trav.el to the East Coast, ~;,W;'~:~~ffl~u(a'fly.~o' resents· like Surfer-s' Paradise, and L ',"



and days. ~2~~:~~~:;~~~:i~~~:*~:~,~PR\\~~~,~;~:~~~"th e, ~~r~du ates are ealled, ~~~~~~~:~:~~)i.~~l:~(~,~~P'n,fW~,!~:~:,~J tJl~~! parents, so they. ~;~{\0{;,I\~:V~.\~~,e". cn.~n~:,.W\,;do,.\as' ,thay ple,ase, and the ';~~~':,\P~h\~S'Qft~n g'o\,on:.'aILnig hf I'ong" For many ,of • 'tl'lem"it, will be the 1ast time they are together as '0'): ~"gr~up, and it fj\ve.s them a chance to thi'l1k ",,/:;al)o,u~the yearsl\'leyhave spent with each other. \foi\·<,.·~\ ' :;i~~i',,\~:X\,o[~~ ,celebJations have heen criticised by the \;~9iM~~~\~i~g~f:S \~~~ local residents, who feel that &~~~~~~\~~,~)l,,~~:,~o.~:~tim~s get out of control. lhere ~t~~:i,~r~~~f~~,I~m,~:a.'~l~i.n,1~st :year, when a number ~S~(;\:~f.:S:~~~:9!I'~,~\w.:e:r~,h~t:t,m ,fights and others were

';•\:-,:, ar,re'''te'E!,,'' , ,SI', , ''. '\-.. '.. .;"'.;\ '• _ . \\~'

,·'.'O.n:,thehvho!:E,!; ~()w~v'er, mO,srsehoolies ,just ,x .h~ve·a lot cWf'un and relurn home safely Wilhoqt \,..,Q.ettirg ,into trouble, And' allhough Schoolies ~:~~:: V\(.e:e~'.wjl\ probably always be criticised by some ~%;;i:~?~~m,~:, ~~p~r~1 'many Australians se~ it ,a~ an \,":; 11,

~W;;{*~~~.r:;~~,~t. ,\r:.l~~'. ,of passage, K;*;~,R~I~~\~~~p.~~.'.::;"'Jra.t\" mark.s tIle ,..,\~""X-'".~\~


'glo'u' .\' ,\

;1\'. "\'\(.:I J,1 .. ~O'aUU

It!>.! 1100'd

~,~\~:~S\~~ ,~,~'.'S~\g~\l,~~\,;S~\''':'·.\·~.\, ", .'\", ~.\\. -\\\..'.\'\_',~\\r""'\'.l\;";'\\"\".i.",\'''ti.,~.\\r'\',', ,..\\', \111




Complete the rules <lbout the passive,

We rorm the present simple passive by using the pre~ent simple form of the verb _ _ and Cl past _ _ (E.g. made, broken).

~;ii:;"'};~:;\~~~::-:';:::~'~~':~\~;:';' \':(':,\,,(\. ,\,'~ \~I~; ,;:.

~,:\t~\~.\~ .\'~'~~\t\:;'$'~"~;::;~.I;i'~'~\'~'i~i~'~~~~!"~~".,:\~i~\\'I\\\.\'\ "'lx0'\h\\ \~,i{~~ "~\;\'\ \1\ ~\\" \'" 'o\~;';\\ "'\"',

The passive

a traditional

change from

. ,-

". ';,


2 Is SChoolies Week similar to the way you celebrate in your country? 3 Compare these two s.entences below. In what ways are they different, and what is the focus of each one? a Pa rents do not accompany schoolies. b Schoolies are not accompanied by their parents,

4 Sentence b is in the present simple passive. Look back at the text and see if you can find examples of 1 the simple past passive. 2 the present perfect passive. 3 the futun, 1J3ssive.

Parlies are held on [he fJea(fJ. Are the parlle<;, held in hvrefs? The parties aren't held CIl home,

We form the past simple passive by using the simple past tense of the verb _ _ and a . Was anybody arrested in

the {own last night?

No, a Jew young people were slopped by the police, butlhey weren arrested. J


Other passive (en~5 "re formed by using the verb be in the appropriatE' tense and a pasl participle. present continuous passive Preparations are being made for the arrival



schoalies next week. present periect passive ScIJoolies 'law! heen warned that (he)' must beholt(! we/(,

future passive Anyone who behaves badly wilJ be sent home immed;ot(!ly. pasSive j nfi n it ive I [hink lIle low 5110uld be


I wouldn'l like lo be a rresled.


2 The pa~ive is often used to talk about proceSS€s. When lhe reservotions have been made, the r(J()m~ are prepared for lhp. liliestS. The sheets are changed, the rooms are deanf.d. and ne'r\l {owels and :ioap are put i" the bathroom. 3 The passive chan8e~ the focus of a sentence. The changes frOM who or what perform~ an action to who tlr what is affected by an action. jam! has inviled my sister to three parries.

(= active: the focus is on jane)

My sislu '/Cl) been invited 10 three parties, (= !J<lssive: Itl~ rQCU5 is on my shter)

4 We use the word by and the name of a person or thing when the information i~ important. Wc leave out by when this information is not known

or not important. I was given some spending money by my onc/e. Three people were arrested last night.




7 Read what some volunteers say about their gap years. Put

5 Read the text about a company that organises gap year travel. Choose the correct tense. Sa ndy Lawson 1 runs / is rUlI a travel company specialising in gap year i ravel. 'There are lots of advantages to using a company like ours: "he cxplai ns 'because everything 2 organises I is organised for you. Every student who comes to us 3 interviews I is interviewed SO that we know what he or she 4 wants J is wanted to do. and we can always find something to suit them. We> send I are sent people to all sorts of placesto teach football in Africa, to do voluntary work or maybe just to travel. The good thing is that because we 6 know very well / are very well known, we 7 contact / are contacted all the time by organisations who 8 need J are needed young people to join them.'

6 Read through the dialogue in pairs. Put the verbs into the present simple active or p,mive. ~

! .1


! ~

~:, ~ ~;

,~", .. "to"'._\\\.'&\1:~\' ~'l\\~~' ~1\!.\\I\\'\\\\·oI",-\-"""-\'-"\

I''''',. '.

Reporter So am I right in thinking thal some people 1_ _ (pay) a salary and some people aren't? Sa ndy Yes, that's right. If they have a real job, like teaching, we 2_ _ (pay) them a salary like anyone el~. If they are volunteersmaybe working for an environmental project in the jungle, (or eXilmple - they ~ _ _ (only/give) a very small amount - just pocket money. really. Reporter And I suppose thal all the food 4 _ _ (provide), isn't it? Sa ndy Yes, of co urse Reporter What about accommodation - 5_ _ (incl ude/I ha I) as well? Sandy Yes, for all the volunteers anyway. Reporter And wh<l( aboul the people who JUSI want to I ravel? Sandy Well, they 6 _ _ (pay) us - and thai'S fair enough because everything 7 _ _ (arrange) for them - air tickets, hotels, and so on. and oi course all the expeditions are orgo nised by us as well. Reporter So what's the secret of your success? Sandy We B_ _ (give) young people what they wanl. They alw<lys frellhat Ihey 9 _ _ (look af1er) really well, so they can really enjoy being in a diffrrent culture. They always learn, and for many of them, their gap years that we 10 _ _ (arrange) are major milestones in their lives. I'

the verbs into the past simple past active or passive. Chris,21 I had a great time on my gap year in the AmaZOn. but I did have one very scary experience in the jungle with Cl group of friends. I was bitten by a snake. We were d long way from any hospitals, but I 1_ _ (take) to Cl village by the river, where I 2_ _ (give) some traditional medicine. 1 3 _ _ (feel) very ill for a couple of days, but then 14 _ _ (get) better, and all of us 5_ _ (allow) to go back home. Put the verbs into the present perfect active or passive. Jayne,19 I'm working with a group of volunteers in Uganda. and we're building a classroom for a village school. 1 6 _ _ (be) here for six months, and allhough there are one or two job~ that 7_ _ (not/do) yet, a lot of progress B_ _ (make), and the classroom is almost ready 10 use. The people here are really friendly - we 9 _ _ (invite) 10 10ls of parties and we 10 _ _ (take) on Sdfari as well. 1 (meet) so many nice people, and when I go back home, I'll never forget them.

'1 __

Put the verbs into the infinitive ~ active or passive. Aidan.18 I'd like 12 _ _ (go) to a viI/age in Thailand as an English teacher - il sounds like a great way 13 _ _ (spend) a few months, and because then I can H _ _ (travel) round South East Asia and Australia. Ithink the interviews may 15 _ _ (hold) quite soon - perhaps in Cl month or so. In the meantime I've asked IQr the details 16 _ _ (send) to me, because I need to 1<now how much I'm going 17 _ _ (pay)and whether my air tic.ket will 18_ _ (buy) for me and things like that.

Let's activate '5eein9 the 'fIor\d

8 Work in pairs, Discuss the questions about people who travel on package holidays, then about tourists who are alone in a country they don't know. What are • the good things that (could) happen to them? • the bad or boring things that (COUld) happen to them?

9 Would you prefer to see the world on or in a group? Why?

your own, with a friend

~t1tftli,i~ili~l:i!il!!I!II(\\,ii i.•·.•·•. TilDe 1

'0,. a

change 3

In pairs, ask and answer the following questions.

~10.1 Lis1en to an interview on the radio. As yOll listen, choose the correct answer, a, b, c or d.

1 How do you leel about change for example going to




2 Can you think of (In example where a change in your life has been very good? 3 Do you lhink younger people have dilferenl altitudes to change from older people') Whyl

Listening 2 Read all of the questions and the


possible answers in 3. Before you listen 10 Ihe text, say whether you thi nk the5e ~tatemenls below arc probably true or probably false. 1

2 3 4

5 6


M(lry went' off on a long lrip somewhert'. Mary won the lonery beloreshe went away. Mary has children who are still at school, Mary i~ m<lfried. Ma ry travelled alone. The whole family was arresled and spent a year in prison.



ihc~ e-,..;nlng ,



Multiple choice The question and possible answers can alien give you a good idea of whal the lislening passage will be about. Before you listen 10 Ihe text, read the queslions carefully so thal you get an idea of lhe subjecl of the passage.


./ 4


What does Mary say abOlJtlhe people who go oH on long trips like hers? a Most of them are 18 or 19, b Almost none of Ihem are families with children. c Some of them find jobs while they are away, d They come from different age groups. Where did they stay during their trip' a The~' usually slept on the bus. bin cheap places. c In expensive hotels with swimming pools. cl In local people's homes, What happened when the children were off school for a term? a Their head teacher was \vorried. b They got behind with their school work, c They did their school work while Ihey were away. d They failed thcir exams when they came back. Her husband managed 10 gel the lime to travel becaus.e a he had been working in Ihe same place for a long lime. b he had sold his own business. c his boss had young children, d his boss though I it was a good idea. Mary says Ihal going on a Hip likf' hers a is easier than mo'>l people lhink, b can be very expensive, c is oat suilable for families, d is very difficult because 01 schools.

~10.2 Listen to these extracts from the text. Which were the exact words used by the speakers? 1 sitting comfortably al home With (he / her family 2 nervous abouI making ch<:mgcs in their life I five<; :3 laking d lerm of I off school. or even a year 4 while the children were I are still quite young S to meet 10GlI people, talk to lhem in our I their language 6 they managed their exams without roo many I without any difficulties 7 I"ve been working here for 7 / 17 years 8 I tell them they must go { m()st have () go

Ta\\:.iog about pictures 5 ~.IO.3 Read the text. Then

Discussing the topiG8

listen and fill in the gaps.

. ~~~\'l.\~\~mmD~~~~~ '="=~\~lIi\

Describing pictures Jane

I someone passing their driving test, and Cl child's first day at school. 2 _ important events in people's lives, events that change you. 3 a small boy on his first d"y. 4 frightened and alone. Starting school can be Cl very frighten ing and exciting experienc .

.. ~ ~ ~ '






Work with a partner. Each choose two pictures from 1-4 above to talk about. Fi rst, note down your ideas about the pictures. What important life events do they show?


Now describe your pictures to your partner, using these points and the phrases in the dialogue box to help you. • • •


Explain what the two pictures show. Say how you think the piclures are linked (by the topic). Give your own opinion of what the pictures show.


In pairs, discuss these questions.

How do you th'mk the events in pidures 1-4 change our lives? 2 What other important events change our lives? 3 What event do you lhink has had the greatest effeclon your life?


9 Work with a diHerent partner. Each choose two pictures from a-d below to talk about. Listen to your partner. If they make a good point about a picture, note it down.

1 In pairs, ask and answer the questions about the European Union (EU). 1 How many countries in the EU can you name? 2 Are there many people from EU countries in your country? 3 Do people from your country work in EU countries? 2

Read the text. What do the young people say about the advantages and disadvantages of working and living in other countries?















Talking about yourself

..•. ·"';;;'JJ'O:.·:r/~_··'';:'''".-···:·_·:·_·_·;;;;·f!·'···:·_·····'''' 1 Would you Ii ke to study or work in another country? Why? / Why not? 2 Do you know people who have moved to another cou ntry 0 r moved to yo ur country from abroad? Are their experiences similar to what you have just read? Or different?

Grammar 2 Words and prepositions Wordf)






1 Look at this example from the text.

Verb ... prepo$ition 5 Complete the sentences using either a verb from A in the correct form or a preposition from B.

I'm worried about the future. Many adjectives, nouns and verbs are followed by a preposition, For a longer study list, see page 140 of the Grammar reference.

A.c:ljet.tive ...


2 Complete the sentences with these adjectives. • good • angry. interested. fascinated" proud

1 If you live in France, it helps if you're _ _ at French. 2 Lots 01 people who art _ _ in architec1LJre travel to Venice. 3 Americans are _ _ bV the number of different languages in Europe. 4 I'm _ _ of my country and culture and I don't wanl to leave. 5 The demonstrators shouting on the street were _ _ with the government. 6 Are you _ _ about large numbers of people leaving your country?

4 Complete Ihe sentences with onc of these prepositions. • about. for • 10 • between. of • with 1

2 3 4



Whal are the main differences _ _ the North of Itill\, Glnd the South? The advantage _ _ weaking English is that you can travel aImost iH1Ywhe re. My brolher's main reason _ _ leaVing hom{' was to find work. Did you rEceive the invitation _ _ the party? The main problem _ _ living in London is that it's expensive. I would like to gel some advice _ _ scholarships to Brit ish un iversit its.

to away

back behind with lor on

3 I've got a good job -I _ _ for a big bank in Amsterdam. 4 In the evening I socialise _ _ friends from work. S Maybe I'll go 10 London, mClybe not. It depends _ _ 101S D[ (hi n25. 6 Lots 01 young people leave the village, but they always _ _ back in the end. 7 When I leave university, I'd like to _ _ away for a few years and see the world.

3 Complete these sentences so that they are true for you.

Noun ... preposition


depend stay work socialise go lalk come

1 I moved here from Slovakia, but my parents _ _ behind. 2 In a new city, it's always good to have someone you can _ _ to.

• worried

I'm interested ... I'm good ... I've always been fascinated ... I feel proud ... As far as the fl,lture is concerned, I'm worried ...


Which verb from A goes with which


from B?

These are not phrasal verbs. With phrasal verbs, the meaning of the verb changes. With verb + preposition combinations, the basic meaning of the verb stays the same.

Let's activate C.\a~~


6 Ask other students in your class questions to find oul: • • •

• •

• •


il they are interested in visiti ng other countries. if they would like 10 go away for five years or more. their main reason for leaving (or not leaving). what they think the milin problem with living in a different counlry would be. what foreign languages they are good at. if lhe ever socialise with people from other countries. wha\ they are most proud of in their own culture.

Tell the class what you found out.

~ invitation 1 In pairs, ask and answer the questions.

1 Wh<tl' 5pecial events dot's you r school have?

2 Are ",ey tor sludenls. families or (fiends? 3

H;:lVl~ you ever visited a friend or relative III another

school? What was (he oCMlsion?

Studying the sample Dc.:v J~e.

Tkc::ll"ks YC-YJ




:JO':Y1C) well.


~UC.k roy' JCA.J,

JOur" letre,'f, r f Was 3"e"f CfIld 1 ,..., "Iqd e-vey;tL-,;",


I'm wr';l-;Y1~ f o 5ee. YO(.( 'd la ~ I • o ~0Me. f ou,... sO,ool pl~lh;~ )'e.a'f - if s Cl ""'l(S;c..aI, Cats, \ve ''fe do;~ , ~ 0I'l Ju,ly );;.Ik qt'\d






I've- jof 'tu,te





An-e ,...


f'Clr"fJ ho,PPJ

qf fa

l-ton'\C.) Cl.,d


If would be.

c.ould he Jl.,er"c.,

'"c. l.,av;"'3 Cl eVc70"'e, would be

fCl""";'j 50

Jou. ,fs k,l'ld of See.

Cl 10...,) wClj for" IOu) bv.f iF r~C. H..,c 1-,,"1;,., f o EJ<efe,..) We C-C\I1 D;c:.1<. 'Iou I up r"-O\1 fke S;Cl(;on. Y<:XI c.~uid 5'7 w,~ us +l1ar n,1"~ in tke 5pa..-e rDono\, ar.d We- c.,oUld

1 k.I'loW


bj Fri')


r'tu:\lIy 5f'e c.;ql ;f


Read the letter that Annle has written to Joanne, her cQusin at university. Then answer the questions. 1 Is thi.. il leller to it friend or a stral)ger? 2 Is the IdngUiJ~e formal or informal? 3 Whdl headings coultl you give 10 each o! the paragraphs? 4 Can you find examples of:


j~ ~c.k fo H.e. Stq~ ;0..., +t.,e !'le-X+ d~. !OI-.( fj.,;.-k, Jou c.Qn c.Q'1o'Ie-? PleQ5e- 5"!'j yes _



• an indired queslion]



;/ Would I'l"1e. Cl

• short forms' • inlormDI inlcn$itiers (words that mdkl'thr mealling of the followi ng word \,(ronger)? • jnfonrnllink words (words that conned ideas)?



c.o,V\ J'\o1Cl.k c LoTS


50 "";e-e. to







allajl'l. Do q;Ve

J I;>"eo If" ,. lOll rh"'k



AI1,,;e. .><...;

1J[~:4@ii .~ ;=.~ =- ~


.-h.. ..,.,'<':-;.=".'.<.,~7.'>.

J you

Steps to better writi ng

Writing your informal letter

Invitationfl 3 Look at these words and ph rases connected with invitations. Arra nge them in the five columns below. I'd love to come _.. I'm ~fraid I can't come... The only thing is... I'm writing to accept .. Many thanks lor inviting mc ... Would you like to come 1 I'm writing to invile you . Thank you so much for inviting me... The only problem is ... I'm afraid I won't be able to come.,. Inviting





I'd love fa t:,ome...





"5uggesting arrangementfl



4 Look at the notes and examples below. We often use if sentences (firsl or second conditionals) wi th (an and could when we are suggesting ilrrangemenls.

Why don't you stay jor the night? We will dfive you Dock the next day. ;:::

If you stay for the night, we can drive )'01.1 bock the nex:t day. ::::; If you stayed for the night, we cOI.l/d drive you back the next day. In se~ten(es like this, the tirSl and second conditionals have more or less Ihe same rneimil1g. 5 Rewrite these suggestions usi ng condi tionals. More than one answer is possible. 1 Tell us when you're coming. We can pick you up (rom the station. 2 How about st;tying for Ihe whole wcr.l<end? We (iHI see Bob ond Jane on Sunday. 3 Why dOll't we go out for the evening? We cal) see a film or go to Cl play. 4 We'll get the spare room ready. You can stay as long as you like. S Why don't you come 10 the party? You con <:.a(ch up with everyone again. 6 Why don't you bring the children? Annie can ballysit for us.

Understanding the bs\( 6 Read the instructions in 8, and answer the questions. 1 Who are you writing to? 2 What are you writing in response to? 3 who( is the other purpose of the letter' 4 What kind of language will you use'

-Planning 7 Make notes for you r letter. Your letter should contain:

• an opening paragraph thanking them for the leUer (lnu asking how they arc. pa RlRraph containing the invitillion. • details of what the special oCGlsion is possi ble ideas: your school·leavi I1g party, a farewell pany hefore you go 011 on your gap year, ete. Say how long it will last and when it will lake olace • a paragraph suggesting iJrr;lngements, Give sorne ideas about travel and where lO stay, • Cl final paragraph urging the friend to come, •


Writing 8 An English-spe.a king friend recently wrole to you to ask how you were. Write bade, thanking the friend for the letter and inviti ng them to a special occasion. Write your lettr.r in about 120 10 150 words, RememlJer to •

begin and end the letter in




use informallaf\guage,

C.he'~ing 9 Read through your letter. Make sure you have: • included 311 [he details your friend needs 10 know. • set the letter out correctly. • used conditionals correctly for suggesting arrangements.

Word focus 'Pnrasa\ verbs


1 Replace the phrases in italics with one of these phrasal verbs in the correct form. call for come up with do away with run out of carry on come down get (sb) down take up

4 Look at these sentences. In which sentence does the

makes me depressed. Why don't you start doing yoga? I think we should get rid of some of these stupid laws. We must find a solution to our problem. Some politicians are demanding action on global warming. 6 It's rude to continue talking when a teacher comes into the room. 7 The new MP3 players are expensive but they will get cheaper next year. 8 We've got no more milk - could you go and gel some?

1 The weather in England really

2 3 4 S

"Prepoflitions and time 2 Underline the correct prepositions to complete the


expression with get refer to a obtaining something? b moving? c changing or becoming something? 1 It wasn't difficult to get a job. 2 It gets cold here in the winter. 3 What time do you think you will get back?

5 Arrange the expressions into the three groups in 4, a, b or c. get angry get home get a letter

get Cl flat get tired get away

get there get fat get an invitation

6 Say which expressions from S you could use to replace the words in italics. 1 This journey is so long. When are we going to arrive?

sentences. 1 Let's meet ill / ot 2 o'clock. 2 The new computers won't get here until! in Tuesday. 3 They had to leave the cinema during / in the film, so they didn't see the end. 4 When I was a child, I lived in Kuwait since / for five years. 5 Make sure you come back home by I on time. 6 I'll see you in I on April. 7 I haven't seen you during / for ages! How are you? 8 AC / In the summer, we spend some time at the coast. 9 I'll be back at / on lunchtime - I won't be late.

2 Don't lose your temper and shollt at me!

Complete the letter using these prepositions.

8 I wonder if I'll be invited to Katya's pa rty.

.. at



by .. during'" for \' in ... on .. until


I'M w,..;hrl,:)

+0 .~;ve. JO'.A 5~

AI S~ 5+<:\""" ~




pwh,o, 1'"" GlO'~ r



fo t..ClVe.

Cll('e.,:~dJ re-e.l;",:) ..->er'Vous )

10 ,~;ve- <:\ ~I s~ 1 M but he ;s J";"'J 10 ~ QW<:\'! 5 _ _ _ two w\-.ole. So J ft..,,* Soo""::'or1e1-0 Sel,! some-/1.,;"J'




>"lee.d ~o <=t"




;f Jou

me- !L>'1OW


c.ome.? I

~ r..-;do.J QI f1..Ie,. l< so fl.'IQf 1 sOt'!' oul H...e. food <:VIc.l So Ot"

! )n see











3 If you carry on eating like that you'll put on weight. 4 When you arrive in London, you'll need to


find an


5 I like to have a holidoy for two weeks in the summer.

6 There's the postman - I wonder if ,'11 hear from Maria today.


7 Do you feel exhausted if you have to speak English all day?

9 Make sure you come back 10 the house before 12.

;"'[Ol"""",f.(>'\ <:\bouf Ke.",,'S dCl1 Mc;W [e,.<:\v;",:) , pQ(,fJ' If's J";"J fo be. ' , - 181k. I I 11 s/<:l('/ J. ~ouf 8 0 c.I~J <:\>'\d 1 ;"'<:l,~;"e,. ;/ w;1I p"o!:>Cl61)' J" (>'\ 3 I Of' ;z. 0 'c..IClC-1<, ;1"\ fhe MO(''';'',') - /0\). \<.""'W whc\+ fM-se H''I'''Js Qr"e.. \;1<,,,,.


Meanin9f> of get


:robs and


7 Put the letters in the correct order to find the names of different jobs. Then complete the sentences with the jobs. framer pmbuler mehancic poecinarnt eciaceinlrt tachere ddoor potilcina 1 A _ _ helps students, for example, 10 learn a language. 2 An _ _ repairs lights, wires and other electrical items. 3 A _ _ is a kind of builder who works with taps, baths, showers and heating. 4 A _ _ makes sure people don't break the law. S A _ _ 's job is to make laws. 6 A _ _ repairs cars and motorbikes. 7 A _ _ makes you better when you are ill. 8 A _ _ looks after sheep, cows or grows corn.

8 What would you like to be?

'Reading for pleasure . .... ·~·;!::i~·'~Y:':~':'.:::·""77.'~'!": (.



,;;~ ~a;Ik-[e;fI~It'Y;M

, ,



, •

h. ~~

<\Vh~~ Hu~kleb~f:r.y Finn meets limp a runaway, they decide to '.lTap~t.t6getJieJ; dbwn the great Mississippi'River on a raft, , ': '1 n?v~r-had a home;' writes Ruck, 'or went to school ': Ji~~ all the 0ther 60ys.l slept in the streets or in ,!!\tlie woods, 'and I could do what I wanted, , ',,~f!e;n j w'ahted. It wn$ a[m.e life: t" '::'Wc'~gotb.ut the'raft as fast as we ~ould, put , :' ~11' ~ut\thin'gs on it" tied the t-alloe OD :~~hiDd, ~'ncl"inoved off dO'WD the river. .1f>. Wllen i,t began to get light, we hid. \" "When' i~..was dark we travelled on. ,''.,'. ,: : 'Q'D the" fifth n,ight we pass~d St , :':,:' ,Loois', and wc dc,t;idcd to go on \ :, '::,": 'd~wp', to Cairo in Illinois, sdi the (,",:'!~:',r"a£t th'e:re and get a ~oat to, Ohio, ;:':,; \ ,,, fbcfe~~e no slav~s In Ohio. '.", :.::!,:, :,:'Wd}lept for most of that day and :: '::,', ' ,\Vc began our journey again when it ~;: :" ,'':'\ '\!'a~,'~ark, Aftenome time, we saw ~': " ,20 I'lg~ts OD th~ Illinois sick of the ~'~,~, I,: '" ,~ivef ano Jim got very excited, He ::--', :,:,:' tho~gbt it ,was Cairo, Jim got the ~, "" '::" ,\~~noe ready and 1. went off in it to take a ':"':: ":':t~:.)()k,aNh'(;)se lights. But it wasn't Cairo. •,",\'-:'",2'5, ~fter. that, wc went down the river. It was ,\: \ '" ',: vcr1,dark that night and it wasn't, easy to see \' :\: \,; ,wher~ \Vc were going, Suddenly, abig steam boal . ,.", camCl-'at us vcry fast. and the next minule it was right ~.' .', ' , Svi:~'us ..fim and J.lumped off thc raft into the water. The ,\ ," ,,~, " . 1; ,,' 3~ :boa~thll the nft and wont up the nver, 1}W.~~n"J\cam:e up out of the water, I couldn't sec Jim anywhere. I called 'I!: :\~'", "l\l\'lt:'nis,n:amc again and again, but there was no answer. 'He's deadr I \>: :. '" t~6~8~t S'Ibwly. I swam to the side of the river and got out. I saw thal I ,', \' ,:: ': ~as':near a'Dig old wooden house. Suddenly a lot of very angry dogs ,\

t ,:.

jumped out at me. They made a terrible npise and some~llIecalled irbm, ,."35: the house. 'Who's there?' ,'" . . 'Ceorge Jackson: I answered qui~k1Y. 'I've' :>.~ faUen off a river boat: . ,\ Well. the people whelived i~.,tbat' house wcre'",err kind; and'.lhey, .40 took me in and gave me 's'q~e , new clothes and ago(;>d" , . meal. I loJd:thern tbatmy, family were ,all dead, so thcy said I' could stay.. 45 \vith tbem' as lon'g as }: wanted.. h was a ,. bc:autjfld house and:.. the food was g~0a: ' there. so I stayed. 50' il. few days lator. onc of the slaves in tbe house came 10 me and said. 'Come with mer Together, we went (;5 down to some trees by the river. 'In there!' he said and went away. On tbe ground, I found a1man:: asleep. It was Jim! I was really 60 pleased to see rum. When the " steamboat hit the raft. Jim told me,the rafl didn'l break up, Jlm swam af1er ~t 3l)d , caught it. Then he began to look for 'me. ' ~,:" ':.: We decided 10 leave at once, It's an right living in a house for a l'ittli: w.hile. but you feci more free and easy and comfortaQle on a' raft. '



Unde.rstandin9 the. stor..,


1 There is one piece of incorrect information in each


These verbs are all in the story. What are they used to describe?

sentence. Can you find and correct it?


Huck and Jim put all their things in a canoe tied behind the



2 moved off 3 decided to go on down

2 Jim knew that the Iights on the Illinois side of the' river weren't Cairo. 3 When the boat hit the raft, Huck and Jim were in the canoe. 4 The dogs near the old wooden house were friendly. 5 The people in the house invited Huck to stay for the night. 6 It was Huck who discovered Jirn. 7 The stea mboat had destroyed the raft. 8 Jim and Huck decided to go back to the beautiful house.

got out

4 went off 5 jumped off 6 went up

7 came up out of

8 got out 9 jumped out

10 fallen off 11 went away 12 decided to leave

Tal ki ng about your reactions r-~~~---~~~.~rY~~f.~''''~,·.·._"~_.'.·.·''·'.·'·'·'·'·'·''·'·.·'.·




Would a life like this suit you? Why? / Why not? How does /-luck feel about the kind of life he lives?



Grammar 1

Rewrite these statements in reported sp~erh beginning jack said...

5 complete lne text using the past simple active or passive form of the verbs in brackets. One of the most famous April Fool's jokes of all time


The station

Jack said he liked travelling. 1 I've always wanted 10 be a pilot. 2 We Hew to the USA ]a~1 year. 3 My brother likes HyinB loo. '" We're going to fiy to AU:ltrCllia for our :5l1l1l1ner holiddy. 5 nllell you all about it when I gel back. 6 I'm re311y excited abuul i I.

3 ()rnplete the sentence') using don't need to or have to. 1 You _ _ Hy jf you don'l want 10 - you can go by (rain. You _ _ hi!v(~ a paS5port to travel al)road.

3 In any big city, you _ _ be careful when crossing the Slreel. YOLl _ _ be rich (0 travel. You (al) do it quilt (heapl)l. 5 You _ _ check in [)clore you get on a plane.




jilrn was Cl great success and millions of people


You _ _

check in hefore yOIJ gel on a


In some countries, the nrst day in ,c..pril, which /5 ta/led (call) April Fool's Day, is a traditional day for playing tricks and practical jokes on your friends. People l _ _ {lik·e) to try to make others believE in

things that are not true. Newspapers also 2 _ _ ijoin} in the fun and, in Britain, made-up stories 3 _ _ {print)

ever!Jbod~ 4












'"~,~ .f';,••_.{/"No't:,.,,':!"/;q"~'"0·« .. -:~




01 with lo

good difference


7 Complete ,he sentences using a word rrom A and a preposition from B in 6. Example I don'llike Kience vet)' much, bill I'm really interested in


Margarel hasn'l heard from her ~on 'for a month, She feels very him bec(luse he usually rings home

once a week.

2 The car skidded on the icy mid and

a wall.

3 I\nna was very her elder brother bf>c.ause he won all (he races at lhe school ~ports day, 4 Maybe we can have <1 picnic outside tomorrow, maybe !lotil all the wearher. 5 The terrible winds an<llhe Hood did a lot or _ our house and it will lake a long time la repair everything. 6 He's gone 10 see the dOdo( because he's got a _ _

_ _ his back. 7 The twins look eKllctly the sa rTle - none of the teachers can tell the

reports are 'hoaxes', and so it's probably the only day when the papers S_ _ (read) carefully.

•.•, ......., .....-_,..,--.i"l;;••

Match the wQrd\ in A with (he prepositions in 8.

in <:Ilrnost every newspaper. Of course, (know) that some oj the news




4 Complete the text using t!'le present simple ac'dlfe or passive form of the verbs in brackets.


(believe) the stor~ completely.




the sun to dry before being packaged and sold. The

Jack about his holiday. Rewrite MilrY's

quest ions in reported 5peech. 1 Are you still keen on lIying? 2 Did your family have a good holiday? 3 How long have you been back? '1 Did you enjoy being in AU51raliil 7 5 Where are you going for your nexl holiday? 6 Would you go back 10 AusIrJli<l?



was pfayed (play) by a TV staticn many years ago. 1_ _ (make) a programme about Italian ~ spaghetti trees. In the film, ltali~ln fi;lrmers 2 _ _ ~ (show) picking the pasta from spaghetti trees, and the ~~ film ) _ _ (explain) how the pasta 4 _ _ {IeaveJ in ~

I like travel iing.

2 Mary a~k~d



She's ~ a~



gre,1l tefHlis plaYEr and she's


Listening 8


;;;'(l~6 Listen to four people talking about their plans for next summer. Choose the correct ~nswer, a, b, cor d.

11 Number the parts of the letier in order. The letter is a reply to this advertisement.

1 What does the girl say about Hying? a She enjoys flying because it ~avl'S time. b She finds Hying much more comlonable than driving. c She prefers other form~ of transport to flYing. d She thinks train travel is much safer than flying. 2 What plans has the boy made for the summer") a He'~ going to look for a job. b He's going camping in Eastern Europe. c He's going to a hotel with his family. d He's going touring with a friend.

3 What does the girl feel aboul summer holidays?


a They should give you the chance to do something different. b They should provide people with an opportunity to relax, c They arC' simply (Ill ex(U~ for people to do nothing. d Thev are illl fanlastic





I would be grateful if

l. l


I look forwa rd to


4 What is t he boy lookin~ fOMard to) Cl eat ing in expensive restaura nls c




laling around doing nothing sunbathing in a hot climate Iravelling to his holiday destination





... .,



.."". <:


Dear Mrs




you could tell me whether it would be available that week.

I am writing to enquire about



sinceI' ly



In pairs, say whether you agree or disagree with Give a reason for your opinion.

H booking your apartment in Nice next April.


1 2 3 4 5

r:verybody should have a job they enjoy_ We do not need money to be happy. EduGltion is the most important thing in life. Every country is different. If you are h<lPPY <It home, you are happy al school or at work.

10 JLloe is talking to

travel agent. Complete the conversation using the prompts.

Assistant Jane Assistant Jane Assistant Jane Assistant


Good morning. Can I help you? 1 (book / number of nights / place) Certainly. When would you like to travel? 2 (day and time) How much do you want to spend?

3 (cost)

Do you want bed and breakfast or half board? 4 (type of accommodation wanted) Assistant How would you like to travel? 5 (type of transport) Jane


Assistant How many people are travelling with you? 6 (number of people) Assistant Right. This is what we can offer you.



.. .... ~


The exact dates would be (Tom



hearing from you. f-



K April 11 th to April 18th." ....-


- -




L. M











...... -".:1'>

Grammar reference

Unit .. The present simple and the present continuous The present simple Form Affirmative and negative form

I understand the signs. You don't understand them.


Tanya lives in Engli:md. She dOe<in't live in canada.




Some verbs are not normally used in the present continuous form. The common ones (often conneded with feelings, thoughts and belonging) include: believe, belong to, dislike. hate, have, know. like, love, own, need,prefe~ think, undc~tand

Adverbs of frequency We commonly use adverbs of Irl'quency wilh the present simple. These include: alwo)'~,

Question and negative quest'lon form

often, usually, sametim~, rarely, neyer


Do you see her very often? Don't you see her very often?

Does John go lhere every week? Doesn't John go there every week?

Use We use the present simple to talk about: a regu la r routine or a habit. The students do a projecl every term. 2 iacts wh ieh stay the same for a long time, She lives and works in Or.jord. 3 somel'hing tllar is always true. Symbols wmmunicare ideas, A red lraJli( light means 'Scop",

can, can't and (not) be able to We use the modal verb can IQ talk about ability. / con swim We con read. They can't drive, We use be able


instead ol can:

when we need to use the infinitive with to. One day I hope to be able lo vi)i{ Australia,

2 with modal auxiliary verbs such as wiff, mighc mus拢. You will soon be able to speak English really wefl. They might not be oble to come 10 [he porty.

The present continuous Form Affirmative and negative form

I'm studying hieroglyphic), She's not going to Egypt this year. Question and negative question form

Are you changing your course? Isn't he learn ing to drive?

Unit Z The past simple and the past continuous The past simple Form Affirmative and negative form

He played the guitar in the band. The band didn't record an album.

Use We use the present continuous to talk about: 1 something which is happening at the moment of spedking. I'm reading oboul t/le pre>enl tense righf now.

2 something which is happening around now, but not necessarily at The moment of speaking. I'm studying computing tlli) term. We're preparing a presentation in our Geography doss.



changing situation over a period ot time. English is becoming more and more popular.


Question and negative question form Did the musicians appear on N? Didn't they win an award? Note

Some regular verbs double a single consonant before the -ed: drop -+ dropped hum -/ hummed Many verbs are irregular and their past simple forms need to be learned: beg'ia --+ bcgan buy-+ bought can-路I could drink -+ drank hear -+ heard win -+ won wri re ---> wrote

Use We use the past simple: 1

to talk about a completed Clction in the past, often with a li me reference. He leomed to play the guitar Imf year_

2 to talk about a sequence of l)ast events and to tell stories. 7he postman rang the bell, posted (he leller and left. 3 with the past continuous to talk about an action which i nterrll pted another. I was listening to the radio when the dODrbell rang.

Articles Using articles 1 We use the definite article the when we know which thing we mean or there is only one of something. rile Great WoII of China the book I gave you 2

We use the indefinite article 0 and on when we aren't specifying exactly which one. I'm going to sec a ftlm on Satl/rday They're producing un album,

3 We use the indefinite article a and an to refer to something for the first time and the definite article the when we mention it again. foday we ore performing a new song. The song is jor our new album, 4 We use the definite article with su pctlatives. the besl james Bond film the first bond I sow

The past continuous

Unit s Comparatives and


superlatives of adjectives

Affirmative and negative form

I was learning a new system at writing. They weren't using a computer.

The comparative form 1

If the adjective is shorl, we add -er. sm{}II-, smaller


If [he adjective is short Clnd ends in e, we add -r. lorge -, lorger

Question and negative question form Were you looking at the signs? Wasn't she designing a website?


Use We use the pa~r (Of)linuous:

to talk about something that was going on at a particular time in the past. At midnighl I was talking to him on Ihe phone_



to describe iln action which continued for some time in the past. My brother was liying in Paris in 1999,

t() talk about an action in the past which was going on when another action happened or interrupted it. Morie was listening (0 the radio when ~he IJt{){d the news,


Some verbs are not used in (he PClst LOntinuous torm; these include: believe, belong lo, consist, depend, know, meon, need, prefer, seem

Some verbs no/ normolly used in the continuous form

GIn be used ill continuou~ tel1~es with a different meaning_ What do you think Dj (:::; is your opinion of) this music? He iSlhinking tJbout (= is imagining and planning) his interview tomorrow.

If lhe adjective ends in y. we change the y to -fer.

msy --+ cosier 4

1I t he adjective is one syllable (J nd ends in a single con:.onant, we double that con:.onant and acid -er. big -, bigger


If the adjective is long, we use the word more. J11lere5ling -- more interesting

When we make comparisons between two things. we connect them with than This CIty is biggn than my home town. The local shops ore more convenient than [he ones in the town cell/re, When we make negative comparisons between two things, we don't change the adjective and Ihe conne<:ting words are not os __ . os. This dly i5 nor as big as my home town. T/le locol shops Ofe nor as convenient ns the ones in the lown [fntrf'_ Note

Some comparGltives Me irregulM: good -+ beller for -~ further

bad V,J()rSE little - â&#x20AC;˘ .~m{}lIer

The superlative form

whose or who's?

We use the definite orticle the in front of the adjective and:

whose is a relative pronoun; we use it la talk about belonging iJnd ownership,


if the adjective is short, we add -est

That's the neighbour whose daughter organised rhe celebration. Over there is the person whQse name J can't remember.

small-t the smallest 2 if the adjective ends in y, we change the y 1.0 -ies1. easy -~ the easiest 3


if the adjective i~ one syllable and ends in a si ngle consonant, we double that (O(lsonanl and add . e5t.

who's IS a contraction of who is or who has. That's rhe neighbour who's (= who is) cele/)rat;ng her birthday toooy. Tho/'5 (he neighbour who's (:::: who has) go/the big I,ouse on the

big - I the biggest


it the adjective is long, vve use the word


beauli/ul - t the most beautIful When we identify the p!<lce or group to which the superlative belongs, the conneCTing word is in.

Unit. The present perfed Form

the largest city in Europe rhe nicesl person in (he clo5s

Affirmative and negative form John has lived in Alaska since October, He and his colleagues haven't left Alaska since then.


Some su perlatives are irregular:

800d -, tile bes/ for -, the jurlhest

bad -~ the worst lillfe -, lire 5ma/lcS(

Question and Mgative question form

Has he experienced such cold weather before? Haven't Ihey ever wanted 10 return to

Some adje(liv~s do not have a base form: they are

a W<lrmer climate?

superlative because of their meaning:

the first mon lo lalld 011 tile moon


the las[ petrol station in town

We use the present perlect

Relative pronouns


We use the relative pronouns who, (/101 or wllich in relative clauses that define another clause:

and before. Have you eyer been to an exercise class,' No, I've neVf?r had any intereSl in jitnes." classes,

'Ne use who or thal for people.

There is the girl who told me about (he cinema.


2 We use which or that for things. Which is fhe film (hot you wanflO see?

still hoyen't completed {he questionnaire. Have you finished yours yeU


to talk about SOmf:ll)jng which i~ still going on now or is stilllrue now, often wilh for ,(Indsince.

We've been memhf'fs of the heall}) club jor (wo months, We u~ for to talk about the length of time and since 10 talk about when an ani'on started,

The corn (that) we plallted did not grow. We cannot leave out who, whidl or rlwl when it is followed by a verb, Ihe IInmigronts who arrived in [he Uniled SlOte5 were of variou')

nu tionali{i~s,

10 talk about ~melhing which happened in the past but still has an effect in the present. often with already, just, (not) yet a na still. I


We Gill leave out who, which or thot if il is followed by a noun or pronoun. The man (thot) YOllr ,Ii-sler married ;5 an American citizen,

to lalk about somethine which hCls or hasn't happened before in our general experience. often with ever, never

We've fived hut for 3 years, We've been here sina 1998, '1

instead of a present ten~e aher when and if (0 talk about S<Jmething that might (not) be finished now or soon,

When you've finished your book, we can go for 0 walk, If you've had enough 10 eor. I'll fake your plate.


The present perfect or the past simple? 1 We use the present perien to ta Ik aboll t a p<lsl experience that has or hasn't happened at some time in the past, but \\'e are not sure when, or sorne{hl ng that hJS been true from a timp in the past until now. I have been 10 Fran(e elg!ll times I hOlre 1iv~d in Froflce for three years. 2

We use the past simple to talk about something that happened at a specific time in the po'>l.

I went 10 Frarlce i/1 1983.


obligation from a feeling of what is right or important. We mustn'l stay too fong; you look exhausted. You really must visit the NallOfJof Pnrk; it's beautiful.

We use hove to to talk about an obligation that is a rule or law. It sometimes has an addition<ll sense of obligation because of ;)(1 <:lfrfaJ\gement or ne<e:>~ily. I have to sec the doctor 01 ~ix. Du you have to go 10 the chemisl 's fir~e We use nol allowfld to la talk about something that is

prohibited by rules or law.

rhey're not allowed to visilthe pork unoccompanied. You're not allowed to en/er WiaIUU( a ticket.

Vni-t '5 Future forms The present continuous We use the present continuous to talk

"Unit & The present perfect about arrangements


we have. made for the future.


He's studying Biology at university next Yfar.


and negative form

John has been backp(lcking in Eu rope. They haven't been swimming for months.

going to We use going 10:

Question and. negative question form

1 to tal k about intentions. We're g()ing to do some shop{ilflg. 2

to mi:lkc predictions based on what we (an see. I know it's going to snow; look ar the sky.'

Has he been practising his skills? Haven't they been learning to climb?

Use We use the present perfect continuous:


for actions which have happened often over a period 0'1 time.

We use will: 1

to mt>l<e


I've been twimming I"r'.']ilIQrly.


It will be m the shops next year 2

2 (or on action which began in the past, has been going on

lor some lime, and is perhaps ~Cill going on. The continuous form emphosises the length 01 the aClion.

to milke a req uest.

W/f! yOil le/ch me some frutr juice !,(lm thc fridge? 3

to nit! ke Cl decision.

I'm rcolly Ihirst}l; 1'/1 have (J fillY drink. 4 to make a promise. I'll phone yOLJ when I get /Jome. S to express determination.

if {he experimenl Jails.

We certainly won'. SlOP

The studenrs have been learning firs 1 aid al/lerm.

.3 lor recently finished actions with a result in the preserl!. He's been running; look, he's out of breath. 4

with for and since lor an aoion which is still going on now or is still true now.

We've been doing ouldoor Dcl/vities since the ',Iurl of the course. 'Wc use for lO lalk <'lbOlll lhe length of rime and since to tall< ilbolJt when an ad ion s1i>rted.

must, mustn't, have to and be not allowed to Wl~ l)Se

must and mlJstn't

to talk about

a personal feeling of obligation. { ml/st \'isit my mother; she's nor well. 2

,In obligation imposed


mu~tn 'f

by II Idw or an authority.

drive loo fast in the park.

We've been living here for three years, They've been developing confidence since lhey storled the study programme.

The present perfect continuous or the present perfect simple?

may, might, could, probably and definitely


We use may, might and could to talk about future possibi lilies. /1 moy rain fI/is ofrcfl/oon,

The present perfect continuous gives importance to (In d(tiunlhat has been going on for a period of time,

We've been writing application letler5 for t!le wune, A time expression often emphasises the length of the anion, They've been practising [heir speech aff day.

2 The presl'nl perfl'd simple gives importance to the result or completion of an action.

/ might go to the parly on Saturday You (QuId come to (he porty We use probably and definitely to say how sure we are about something.

We w,lI probably go 5wimming lomo/mw. Wc definitely won't go swimming tomorrow

We've written all our applicalion letters. A lime expression often says how many times something hilS happened. You've practised your speech three times.

Unit It Conditionals -ing forms

The first <onditional

We lJse -;ng forms: 1


(no/) feel like, con'( help, mjoy, can't :.Iand./oncy I foncy going fa lI,e cinema tonight, i1f1er cer\ain verbs, sULl1 as:



2 afler verb pi us preposi lion combinations, such as: interested in, tired of, good aC, keen on. look forward lo, fed up with. I om loobng lanyard ro visiring Fronce. 3

belore verbs. olten (oml)inec! wilh a noun. Vrmcing is fun. Li5cening la mwic can b~ relaxing.

We form the tirst <onditional with:

If -I-



, it's warm,

+ wi/: -I- infin,ilive, 1 we WIll go sWImming.



We use the first (onditional to t<.llk about something which mayor may not happen in the fu lure. If we move 100 hO(fiC will, a garden, we'll


a dog

The !e<ond conditional

Unit "7 The past



We form the second conditional with:

The past perfect

If If If

We use the past perfect to talk about an action which h<Jppened amI fin i:shed belore another aC1ion in the past.

+ I



would + infinitive

I had enmlgh money,

I wou Id buy Cl bigger car.

they heard the music,

they'd buy the album.


The past simple or the past perfect? 1 We use the pasl simple to tell the reader about

We use the second condilional: Cl 'chain' to talk <lbout somethin8 which is unlikely to happen in the future,

of events that took place in the past.

_ . . â&#x20AC;˘ NOW We sow () shark, started swimming, and reached llle beach just in lime. 2


We use tll e P<lS! si m plc and Ih r. past pe rfeet togelher in a complex sentence. We use the past perfect to talk about the action which happened fi rst, a nd the pi'lst sim pie to lalk "bout the action that followed. _. lost

..NOW returned

I had lost my watch, 50 I returned to {he beach laler. Note The past perfect is the past lorm 01 the present perfect.


If I won a million pounds, I'd buy a hou5e tD give C1dvice.

If I were you, I'd buy n bigger hOIlst'. Note

After I, he and ~he both mor~ informal.



were are

possible bm was is

should, ought to and shouldn't

3 Present perfect

We use: 1 should and ought 10 to talk about what it is a good idea to do. You should' go 10 Morocco; it's an interesting place to visit. lie ollght ta ring his friend, now that he'I bock from holiday2 shouldn't to talk about what 1I is a b<1d ide<l to do.



past perfect

'We have toured aroUlld the city: the girls said. The girls said (thar) they had toured around the ri/y.

.~houJdn't eal

so murA


Past simple -. past perfect 'We bought a ticket for thE' ferry.' the tourists explained, The tourist) explained (that) they hod bought (J lilkel for the


Other changes in reported speech

'Unit!J Reported speech

When we move the ten)es of direct speech to tenses further back in the past:

we make changes ID lime phrases and olher words which have a connect ion with the I>re~cnt.

Reported statements


When we change direct speech to reported speech we use a reporting verb, e.g. say or tell, sometimes followed by t ho l. 'I've bee n 'ill rli ng at l30n di 13each.' Rosi e sa irI. Rosie said (that) she'd been surfing al f10ndi Beach. don't t'hink the ticket is loo exoensive. Rosie said 10 Mark, Rosie told Matt (that) she didn't think the ticket was too expensiv/:',


2 If the reporting verb is in the present tense, we do not change the form of the tense in the reported statement. 'I hired a mOlorcycle to see Sydney.' Rosie says. Rosie says (that) she hired a motorcycle ID see Sydney.



today ...... that day tomorrow¡ â&#x20AC;˘ the day ofter / the following day yesterdny ~ the day be/ore / the previous doy this / these -. that / those here -. there

2 we make changes to present modal". (on could will - l wou Id may - l might ----0




3 we do not make changes to Ptlst modill~. 'I ought 10 I might I could / wOlllcl go,' SOphie said. Sophi<.: s(lid (that) she ought to I might I could I would &0.

Changes in reported statements We usually change the prolloun, the verb tense and the punctuation.


Reported orders We ca,1l use t811 or ask.,. infi nitive to report orders. Ask is more polite than tell.

enjoy going to different places,' Mike said.



Mike SfJid (OJal) he enjoyed going tf) rllfferent places. 2 We leave out unneccssory words and change any possessive adjectives 'No. I'm not bringing my sister with me.'


Norry said (that) he wtHn'l


bringing his sistN with him.

Changes in verb tenses When the reporting verb is in the p<1sl tense, we c.hange the verbs in the direct speech to a tense (urther back in the past:

We use the verb asked and an indire<:t object + the i()finilive with to when we report polite orders or (ommanch.

'Plc'{)<'c join he tour of the CiN: the guide said to us. fhc guidl! asked us to join the {DUI DJ the ciry.

:2 We use the verb ÂŁold and an indirect object + the infinitive with to when we report


or commands.

'Si:t down.' the father said la his daughter. The fother told h;,~ daughter to sit down.

3 We use the verb a5ked or told and an indirect object + not + the infinitive with to when Wf: report negative orders or comm<'lnds.

Present simple ...... past simple

'Don't gel on tile bu~ yet,' the driver said to the passengers. DIe oriver told I asked the passenfers nDt to get on the hus

'The trains are always on li me: Peter said. Peter said (thol) the trains werf. always on lime


2 Present continuous -----+ past continuous "'m looking at the lime'able,' Joanne said,

joanne said (that) she was looking ut the timetable.

Question and negative question form

Reported questions When we change a direct question to Gl reported question. we:

to be Were Wasn't

change the pronoun, the word order and the verb tense. 'When are you going to the restaurant?' John asked Simone. John asked 5imone when she was going 10 (he rl:sla(l((ln(.


su bject the messages the town

past partici pie transmitted? destroyed

by a volcano?


We do not use the verb in the question form in the reported question.

We use the passive:

use /1 or whether if there is no question word in the direct question.

1 10 talk about processes. Firsr of 011 the machine is switched on, the program is loaded cnd the application is activated,

'Are you Slaying in Sydney long?' John asked Simone

John asked Simone i/I whether she wa5 Slaying in Sydney fong.

have to, don't have to, need to and don't need to

2 when the ac(ion or result is more important or interesting to us than who or what did it. Billions of dollars were fost in the Wall Streel Crash. 3

to focus on who or what is affected by an action, Tile (own centre was destroyed,

We use have to and need to 10 express a necessity or

req ui rement


You hove to buy a Ucket in advance. YOll need to look ofter your passport

We use the word by 10 talk about who or what does the action. The lown centre was destroyed by the bomb.

We use don'l have to and don't need to 10 express whal isn't necessary. You don't have to look for 10 find {/ good rC5(ouran(. You don't need to take a swearer,' ils hot,

We leave out the word by when it is not important to know who or what does the <lction. English is spoken all over lhe world.

Words and prepositions Unit ..,U The passive

We use prepositions to connect adjectives, nouns and verbs with Cl following phrase. Many of these combinations can be learned.

The present simple passive


Form Affirmative and negative form subject I to be Email messages are Those computers Men't

I past participle sent made

every day. here.

Question and negative question form

to be Is Aren't

I S.ll bject pasta the photos

past participle eaten developed

in Italy? here?

The past simple passive Form Affirmative and negative form subject Thelridge The cars


to be was weren't

past participle delivered bought

yesterday. in the sale.




angry with

advantage of

care about

aware of

advice about

crash into

capable of

attack on

depend on

fa mi liar with

damage to

dream aboul

fascinated by

difference between

escape from

good at

disadvantage of

gaze at

interested in

discussion about

listen to

patient with

memory of

prepare for

responsible for

problem of

shout about

Nole: Oefinilions taken from tht Oxford \lJordpOW(l' Dictionan' (b o.\iord Unj\'~rsit)' Pr<::S.S, 2(00 J~BN 9780 191m24 1 (Ihird editIOn).

Unit 1

repetition I,rep 'tof"! [C,U} doing Slh .1gaio: slh IIl;]t you do or Ihat happen~ i!%<1;n: to !el/m by


semaphore i'scm;.f~:1 tU] a system lor sending signals In whldl YOll hold your arms or IWO llags IrJ p2l1iculi'lr rxxilions 10 rep~l dilJerem letlffi 01 lhe alphabet sign language /'SlllJl he')9\Vld:y' fUJ a way of communicating ust<! especially by pt"Opl~ who ColnnOl hear or Speilk. using Ihe ilall<J~ 10 make signs inslead 01 spoken lVords tap /1fI:pJ (US filII t'l)a t)'PP of r!<lndlt Ihal ~'Ou tum 10 kl ,~lel. eas, ('1< Qlll i a ptpe or container: Tum the hOlflotd fOP on/off. tights IWllS/ 1pl] (US p,lnt\ho e) a p'e(e of l~il1 clothing. usualll' worn by women, thilt fits tightly from the waisl over lhe legs 'lnd letr: 0 pu;r of

repetition "(" ,. answerphone l'a:n~f:lUnJ [CJ a mochinr thdt answers HIe lelephone imd reeOld) rrlC)~g~ fro'il the people who call: I rang him and !efl (J meiS6ge on

his onswcrphone_

h'pol~d3i1 [c.uJ a spoken or wrinen stalemen I Silyi ng you arc ~(fY fnr st h you have done: pleml? orccpt OUI opulop,;", JI>I 111" tleloy b~throb~ f'bo:tlr~obl (e::p US) =cireSSII1(! gowl billfold J'bl1f:luldl (W) ~ w,,11 t


dlatroom flfretru:m! I'tfa::trum! le] an areil on rhe Inttrrle[ Where people can rommllnlratc wilh each other tbe chemi~t's l'k~J11J!'1.S1 (US dnlg,tole) Cl shop Ihilt

selb medicines ,oao. comera film, ell civilisation /,slvolal ':t.eJJn/IC UJ a society which has it~ own (uhure and way ollile: Wesrern ,ivilisork)fl cam munit.,. fk:;' mj\l:lJotillCJ a group of people who have something in common: the Asioll comrmm/ty in Britain dressing gown l'drt~l1J !luunl (US b,IIIIIOllf) [Cl ~ piece cf clolhing like a lo~e COli with a brit. which you wtilr before or aher a balh. belore you get dressed in Ihe o,nlog, ell drugstore (dr"gst(\:1 (VS) "rhp hem"I" earthquake /'~:nkw~'lk/[C] violcnl movement of the l'arlh'~ surface: rllOU50nd, of hom~5 wcre dCSlroyed in (lie eanllquokc cm"il f'i'mcll/l(] all f!eetronic nll',>agc \h~1 i~ ~enl Ironl olle compuler 10 anolher: I'll ynd you on "nroj/lurno,,~w,

cmoticon /''In:'lollkon/[Cj a symbol showing al1 c~pre'

iOn on a lilCl' 'ill ch ~s ~ smile, which is written lIsing lilt' k,ys on ~ compute" etc 10 show 110W you feel aboul the messagt you arc writing iauc ll'f::>:s.n/ (US) -I,ll' flag mregl [e] a pieCl' 01 dOll I wilh a s(lCcial pallern 00 it ioined 10 a Slid:, Every tOunrry has ils own Nag Itillshligh I'I1:cIlart! (USj '" 1(Ill h litt Illn! (US ('11'\,,'llll') [q a n1;lehioe ill a IMse building tllat il used lor carrying ~eople or thins> hOTII OllC 1100r to anothel: If's Oil tllr Ill/NI flo()! SO wc(1 beller tole 'he lifl. loneliness !'l:>u Irn::>s/ [tJ) the feeling 01 being unhappy bCG1U e ~'(lll are not wilh Olher peopl~ or h~\'e no friends ,uIJlrllvl' loncl\' message f'me<'d31 ICI ~ wrillen or spoken piece of infonnillion thal yOil se,," to or leavr lor !, person wllen you canllO\ >/leak to Ilim!hct: lohn js nor hcfC 01 !h" moment. COn I late a m~e? I) he's 1101 in, I'll letlVf 0 message 011 his answerphOflc. Morse code f,m;,:. 'budllu} il sy<.lem for ending messag€l, using cornbin~tiom of long and ,han Sflund$ or flashes of li~ht to rc~re,el\t II'll"'. of the aIphab~l and "umbers: We senl the mt"5soge in

MOISC cpde

nalul'iIl disitSter I, nmllr;>1 d'·7.o;'I~ le] an evenl (i1uSed by natur<lllon;es \\lcl1 2S the wtdlh~r, which hun a lot 01 people and damage builrlings, ctc: earthquakes, floods and OtllCf notural dilos/ers p3ntybo5l> I'p",nt i!t.)uzf (US) '" tighl"

penfriend /'penfrcnd! Iq a per~on lhat yOu h~ve become lriendly wilh by ...,riling leUff> 10 himlhe'_ often it pt:l"'5on yov hdve :lever mt I pho" call rf~on kJJ/lCI th.: all ct Ip;o..,kinS 10 \b on the lelephone: (ould I mote 0 phone coli please?

r('pt: t


torch 1l:l:lJI [Cl (US ll~, Ii ,h') a smal el('ctric light lMl ~ GIrl\' in \'Our hand: Shine lire lordl under rhe solo ond see if you {on find my ring, ve~t lvestf (U5] \"ll>lCO<it volcano Ivnl'kcl0~l)1 [cl ipl'l['r,lnl) \,ol(ill1o;) a ll10umain with i\ hole ,l ,ltt'r ai lh~ 10J), through \\11ich ~eam, hOI nJelled rmk ,1', ,fire, etc



come OUI: When ,lid lht volcrmo /1151

say l,e,l (3rd pers sins fm:S 'he3'.1; pi. (JP Silld IsedI) '" ~ll to sb: 5<l IIIal . to spe~k or tell sb slh, uSing words: 'please mme boO;,' sl,e s/Jid, speak Ispi;k! (Pt JlO~P lspoukJ; pp IJOKPII I's~LJbn!) (1'101 us~ in the conlinuous tenses) 10 know <lnd 1lc .able 10 ~ se a language: Does (Jf/rane hete ipeok Gerf/lon? survive J~·vaJ.vf to continue to liw or exist in or after a dilficull nr di'lngerolls situation: Ollly five possengelS fUlvivr::d Ihe f)lo~e Clash, telllteV {pt. pp ;old ft()oldJj t,,1I ,IJ "Ill th.ll .. IPII ~h ,,,bOil! " 'el slf. to Ib ID give ir,I\>"""I;OI1 to sb by speaking or .." lio~: 5hl'mld trio: Ihol he! mOlller W(lS ill. train Hre'"! to l~d(.h ;] person to do 'Ih whLch IS dilliwll or need! practice lranslate !tncn,j'ltnl [0 chilnge sth wrillen or ~poken from one I.lnSUi'lge 10 illlother: Tllis book has 1x!('1J lfonslmcd /Iom [.U(fJ 1nro EIlSINI, nL'lIn tr



used lo fju:S! I u Moca I verb for la Ib~!\ abou t ~th

Ihal happelled oflt:n or contjlluouSly in the Pilst: She II51'd

to live witlr her porenls (=

1111 ,liP

c!oesn-l IILIY). Wt' u~l,~lly use did to

form negalives and Questions with we 10: I ditl~'J


/ikF JOIL Did she


u_'e 10 be in your {/Ul"


waistcoat /'wclsk:!otl (US \ ,'j [Cl iI pie<c of t1othil1l1 wilh bullons dowo the l'Ol,l find 1'10 ,Hms that is Oft(,1l worn over J shirt Jnd tinder a jad<et as p~rt

of, man's


walltt twohl! (US t 11Il11 1d) [cJ a small, fiar. fold'l\g tilSoe, usually madr 01 leather. in which 'DU k~p paper money. plll~ir raIds. Clc

Verbs (are Ike;,1 (aH'I"!)') I1 h ,th lO be uotried abolll or inler~l'<J in sb! Ih: Mon!")' is Nw olll'lll1i"g lIe (all'S obotJI.

change Ilfcllld31 to bream dilferen 01 10 nta~e sb/sth dilfcll'nt: n,is rolYl' hlls (hon cd (J lot _~inu I

wos }'oung.

chat irJ~I! CII,1 \'.1111 10 ':> <11})UI '1'1 10 tJlk la sb in a friemJly, inform~1 wa . The IWO i!.1(lIIdmothtfs ,JI(I[lt'd oDour rlJ~ old Iloys. d,slroy /dl'ilr:"/to dllmJge sth so bacll~'lh,'j1 il <.a11 no longer be uStO or na longer e~ists: The budding wos d(5frDy(d by fire, dial/'d,'I:l11 01,111111" !it,llltd 10 push the bullol\S or move Ihl? dial on ~ tdelll10nc in Older I~ (;,11 ~ lelephone number: J diol/td lhe lorong nlJmbu. disappear l,dIS;l'pl<>1 to SlOp cc is jli~: vanl~h: Plum cnd onimoJspai:-s ore. d'.lllppeoring III an alarming roff. memo,i ,.. f'mcr.l\;>rav) ro learn 5th so (~l you (In remember il txaclly: Altors hove III memoriSt lhl'ir

Jint.s. coun nH,.-llhJI \ phone Ibun/ (injormal) 10 peak to sb on Ih~ lelephooe: PhW1& m~ when )'Ov 8N Ihi:1'i:. practise I'prldtls/ 10 do an activity orlrJin r~ul<lrly lO that you become vcI)' good ill'Slh: Pioaj~c YOUt inglisl) by \'IJ'iritlg 10 a peilfiiend. noun prc~(.!I«: re~ise In'\"\l'Ij to re<ld 01 5lUGY again 5th [llat \'Oll have learnt, csptrially IVh~n preparing I()r an ~am 01111 rf"1 ron

ring frJl)/ (PI rodn, f....:ful: pp rull'! ir.,'}/) '111& I;..:,"t:,u p, 10 phone sbiS1h: Whol tinle will you Ijng me wlrJarrow?

.b 'I In m" 'r III do n~ '11, I sblsth lrom clying; She saverJ the /Joy Irom

)ave iselv/-) ~10P

dro\"'ninl? in l!le river.

Adjectives ancient /'';lnl~nll very old, onc;enJ clviliS<71ions

common I'kom~nl ~Iwed by or lJelnn~,nR 10 two or morr people or grouf)S: Wc h(JVI:: (J con/mOll ilJleTJ 1 in .'?O'dining

convinced !k:m'''m·lf (11111 IJelor{' 11 noun) complelely sure, bo [)[h: H,'s fQnV;nW1 uf fJl5 abilily (0 win,

sod I /' ~or'1/ CoMN l(.'~ with nteel i ns [)COllle ,lnd enjoying youcscH: She hOs a busy sociol life,

Phrasal verbs die out 10 SlOP happeni n8 or disapP<:3r: rtn Innf;Uog(j die- "Ill e~'tly


Idioms in return a\ a reward or ,csj>on>e

Unit 2 Nouns 'l(hlevement la'IS;;\'I'\I"l'Il1 le. u) \111 Yllll h~ done sucrosfuJlv, CSJl('{1311y tl1rOlll;'1 hard wor\( ar ~irr· 511r ftll 11101 WInning the X!>ld m,do} W05 her gl~orC'Sl o{hievemenl action film j';ckjn rllml ICI a film on Ihe teleVIsion, at \\)<: ei nema, ete wh leh colllains <l IOl of {Xci li "8 C'Vcnts

adaptation !.IMil:.p'tC1{ol (Cl a play or film lhalis bilsed on a IIl!'1el, tIC. ~d~rth menllod',,:.1Hnl)OU lll~ iojlJlfYI(Il "dVl'rl I'(CdV3:t/:" I~df) {Cl ~ ~i~ce of informaliull in a new,paper, on televi,iulL, d fJiclurc on ,l wall, ~ic that Irie, 10 persudde IJcoplc to buy 5th: an adveriisement for 0 pay drink vNb d IVf'rlise album l'a:ll>:>mJ [cl a cc>llcn;on of songs on ant: CO, G1SSCIIC. etC' Tilt! bor.t} qre about 10 relCtJi{ J1Uif It/IIJ olbum_ am ilion 1.~rn'brl'nl [cl Ith that you very much w~nl III 11av~ or do, It Iw} alwoys blXrl !le-r ambi/iof1 to win all Olcor_ He has ochieved h/.I ambition oj beUim,ng 0 film 1UJ'-

application 1,:l:ph'keJJIl! (C,U) :3n:, Jpp!l[,1lion'lo sb) ~for sth' a lonnal written requrn, t"'lpecially for a job: ApplicoliOll5lor che job should be modr 芦J

release lr:ilr.sI (Cl the act of making a book, film. record. piect' of news. ctc aY<lilable 10 the public

(he Personnel Manager. 10 fill in an applical;on form

review Ir,,'vju:/IQ a newspapef 01 magazine article. or an ilem on lelevision or radio. in which sb gives an opinion on a new bool(, lilO'. play. etc: The film got a bed n:view. science fiction 1,S8I;lllS 'ilk,fnl [ul books. films, ele. about events Ihallake place in the fUlure, often irh'olving leavel in space subtitles /'SJlblanlzl [plllhe words OIl lhe bottom of 1he picture on lelevision or at the cinema_ The sub路 tilles Iranslate Ihe words of a foreign film Of programme or help people wilh hearing problems talent 1'1;l:1~l/ le. ul ' 131~nl, 101 \Ih', a nalural skill or abilit)~ 5ht: IlOs 0 colenllor pointiog. thriller {'On!;)1 [cl a film. book. elC with a very ex(i'ing $101)'. often about a (rim(' voiceover I'V:>I~lIv';Jl (cl informalion, (ommen~ in a film. lelevision programme, eI< lhal are given ~y a ~rlOn who is not $ccn on Ihe y.reen: She earns

artist /'a:llst! (C] 1 a pro(C,"'lsionill entertainer such as a singer, a dancer or an actor 2 somebody who producES art, Espedally paintings or drawings ballell'blI:lcl! le] a performance or work which consiSl.'i of a style of dan(~n& lhal lells a 5/.ory with music but without words career Ib'n:>(r)1 Iq lhe seriC,"'l 01 jobs so has in a particular area 01 work: Soroh is tllinkinR o~r 0 career in polic;es.

charity I'lfll:r;ltii [C, UJ an organisation thaT collects money to hel p people who are poor, ~iCk, etc. or to do work that is useful 10 SOOt!)': lYe well! un 0 sponsorr:d walk to raise money for charft>'.

comedian {k;,'mi:di(lnl (e) a pmon whose job is 10 entertain people and make lhem la~h, lor example by lelling lhem jokes comedy I'kom;l(!il ICl [pI c0r11edlt,) a "'m,lllay. ~'l( that makes you laugh and lhat has a happy ending concert halll'kon5<'t b:l:l/lcJ a building where people go to lislen 10 musk being played confidence /,I;.ollrld:ln~ tU) rllnhrl"IIII' rill ,bl~lh trust or Slrong beliel in sb!$1h: I how: no confid~nce in

his abilily


dfl lilt: job.

debut f'delbjll:/!C] a rir~l i,ppl'a'ilnce in public of an actor, ele: She made lIel rlc:b/ll in wndon in 1959. dedication l,dedl'kcl$nj Iv) wanlinglo ~ YOUI lime and energy IQ Sill bec:aust' you feci il is important: I odmill! hcr dc:dicaliun to !ler ((/rcer. dre~m Idri:ml Iq somelhing Ihal you want very much to happcn, although it is not likely: Sire finally achieved her dreom of profroional singer.

~oming 0

effect "'fckl! IC,V] (.111; 1'11<-11 (Ill ,bi~lh. a changc lhal h caused by slh; a resull: Her sllouring hod no cffect



failure f'fellj~/' tU) the lad of not being .)Ille.' 10 g~l whal you w~nl: Her pion ended in faiJur(. 2 IcJ a person or lhing Ihal is nOI su(c(~slul: His first at/cmp! IH skalillg was a miselable fu;lure. nppn,ilf'. ,ue, ,."

fame:: /felml tU] being k.nown or lalkcd about by many people be(au~ 01 whal you have achiel'ed: Pop stars achieve fome 01 0 young age, goal/g3ul/ (e] you r pu rpose or aim: This y~or I s/7()uld acllieve my goal of visiring alii/le capital ciries of Europe.

historical epic Ihl,slDnkl 'I:p.kf ICl a long film Of book that (onlaill5 a 10' of aClioo and is based OIl tJlings thal happened a long time ago horror film I'hD~ fdmllq a film lhal makes you feel flightenefJ musician Imju zlfnJ (e] a pef"iOn who plays a musical instrument or wfites music. especially as a job noise InOl7J [C) a sound, especially a loud Of unpleasant one: Did you I,ear 0 IIO/1e downS/airs? performance 1p;>'f:J:m;ln~1 re] lhe a~ of performing sth in lront of an audience record I'reb;dl [C) a lhin round piece 01 pl<Jslic which can ~tofe mU$ic so Ihat you can play il when you want to: He spent the c>cning listening 10 old records.

recording Sludlo Ir:l'b:dil) slju;<h'Jul(C] the place where the process at milking a CO, ca~tle. elC I~kes place


The film 1I'0n', go

tour IllJ~(r)III:):(r)1to travel around a place: We lOurr:d southern Spain for L1tree weeks.

on r("'''5I: unril next yerJT.

o 101 of mOl/ey rloin8 voiC("Qv("{') lor 1Y odvertisfOlenLS.


apologise l;l'pol..o;>arrl ,lpoln<:",路 iln ,1,1 I for ,th'IO say Ihal you are socry lor seh you have done: Yw'lI Ilave to upologisc In your ((OChe" for being late. Jl ,un olpologl

arrange 1~'remJ3" "rr.lll:~' I" ,h, '11. ~rr,"'~l' ',Ihi .. Ill 'b to make plans and prepar.ltions so that $th can happen in Ihe lulure: I've arranged co go 10 Ihe cinema wilh Ion como{{ow night benefill'bcnrfn/l 'I hi f((11lI ,Il,: to recl"i\"c an advantage from sth: 5nrollbusif/t'sscs hllvc vCM!ited Irom !he changes in IIle law.

boo Ibll:/,o make a sound to show Ihal you do nOl like sb/sth: The audience boo~d .~/Iell Ihe boddie came on stage.

clap Ikla;pl 'CI,1ppHl' 1,lpp" tl" 10 make a noise by hilling your hands together 10 show Ihat you like Slh: The oudi<'OCt clopped as soon as the singer wo/UtI on stage.

dub Id"bl (prC1 pori rlllhl>lfI~ pr/pp club!:. ill (hdl ,I: I H" J ,Il' 10 change the sound in a lilm lO thal wl1attht aClOfS said originally is spoken by a(lO~ using il dillcrtnl languagt fancy I'f:cnsil (3rd pcrs sing Idn(Il'~: pt,pp fanClt'd) (informa~ 10 like the ide::a of having or doing sth: to want slh or to wam 10 do Slh: I don', flinty going out in Ihis rain.

form If:>:ml 1 to begin 10 ex;sl OT make Slh exist 2 10 make or organise slh: 10 farm a government lose lIu:"L1 [pt,pp ICI\I Ilosllj nOI \0 ",in 01 be ucc('Sslul at Slh: We played Iyell bUI Vie IoSl}路I. opPc"lle \\10 nominate /'nDDuncn/ OOnllOdtt ,b/srh loca, \It>' 10 formally suggest (hal sblsth should be gh'en a job. role. prize, ete.: The nO\l'(1 h05 been nomilloled lo! che &JoUr ptiu.

receive In'si:v/lo gel or accept Sllllhal sb sends 01 gives 10 you: co receive 0 pnollt' coli op POSIlt" ~I',i' record Ir;, b;d/lO put mu~i(, a !ilrn, a programme, ete onlO a (0 or casscnC' so that il can be listened to or watched again laler: rht: band hos rccencly recorded 0 new ol&um.

spot !spor( (p, "pOlled pp ,POtllOg) 10 see or nolice sb/slh: I\'t' spoiled" corlple 01 spelling misrakfl.

succ:;eed Is;lk'~i:dl '"(,e'"tJ 111 ~[hiin doing sth, (0 manage to achieve whal you wanl; 10 do well: $he succeeded ia pos.sing tN e:xom. opposile' f<ld noun "ll ((":l

AdjectiYe~ ambitious/(Cm'blr~

having a Slrong desir~ to be successful, to have power, de: You have la be ambilious 10 buome 0 sucanful pop 5/ar.


3fr1bllion ashamed I:l'$clmdl reeling guilty or embarrassed about sb/sth or because of slh you have done: She fe/I ashamed of her bad behaviour. (IppOSI!l"

proud determined Id.'I:J:mrnd/ having firmly decided to do 5th or 10 succ~d, even if it is difficult: She was determined Co find 0 beller jab. nu 1I11; eleflllll1,lllllll differenll'ulff":mtl not the ~me: The Iwo houses arc yery di/lerelll ill slylt:. OPP'J'>IW ~lInlJ.lI disciplined /'dl~phnd! h3ving the ability to train )"Olll mind and body so thal you control yuur acliom and obey rules; You !love 10 have a disdplined approach to your work. noun: {I1~lOlm

embarrassing IUI1'b;rr~~ll)l making you 1et'1 uncomrorlalJlc or shy: 5he asks too many embarra~illg


enormous /I'n~:rn.l..'" verI' big or v~ry great: an enormous building opp,,"I,' IllIy xdting Ilk 'sal1l~1 making you leel very i111crested and happy famous Nelm<lsl well known to many people 1I011ll I,m

fun It:oUJ! amusing Qr enjoyable: Jaoe is r~a"y fun (= I enjoy being wilh hef). glamorous f'9':cm"r~sl seeming more exciting or allractive lh:!n ordinary things or people: lite glamorous world of show business

hard-working I,ho:d 'w:d:n)1 working with a lot 01 cfloll and tnergy noun h,lrd wnr~ impressive lim'p~slvl causing a feeling of admiration and reslJect because of the imporlance, si2e, 1l1l~lity, elC olsth: an impressive building

lucky f'1"kiJ ~'lIl",er, IIIc~It,,1) (used about a person) having ~U(C~S <lnd good things thal come by chance: He's lu(ky 10 be Clliye nflcr on aaidenr like rllnt. (IOUIl. lllr~ o!lpn~III" unlu(~y poor Ipuo/ not having enough money to have a comforlable life Oppo)IC~ rIlll positive l'pDzol.rv/tllinking Of lalking aboul the good lhings in a Situalion, in a way that mJkes yuu or sI> tlse feel hopeful and conlid<ml: Positive thinking will help you ro SUCLecd. UPPO'lt~:

nt ,:.;. 111\'(' proud Ipraodl feeling pleased and SJlisfted ahoul th that j'Ou have or slh you have done: They ore very proud aJ tll~ir new /couse, OllpoSlte: a~ham~t1 romantic IrOlu'm.1:nllkl connecled with love or a ~exual relationship: a romantic film short 11'0:11 (used aboul a person) less than Ihe normal height for a man or woman Ol)r>mil~ 1,111 similar f'slm~l;}llike sb/slh but nOl cxadly the same: Your handwriting is very limilor 10 mine. on!llhill' clllfcrcnl skinny f'skrnil (used about a person) 100 lhin Opl)!"!"t". ,,"llbuilt successful/5:lk'sesO! having achieved whal yeu wanled: having ~ome popular, rich, Ne: a SU(xessful businessman noun. ~U(Ct'~s talented i'(,dontrd! having a natural skill or ability: Sh~'s 0 ralenred musician. noun: talent

tiny I'lami! (Iinier: tiniesl) very small: tile baby's tinY fingers opposile: e.normous tiring /'taL:lrI:lJI making you want to rest or slceD: Teaching is a very tiring job. well built I,wel 'bIltl {used about a pe,.;on) \\'Ith a solid"strong body opposite: skinny

Phrasal verbs break up to come to an end: I hpir marriage has

broken lip.

Idioms g t!go nowhere to ma kc no progress or to have no

success: We are getling nowhere arguing like Ihis' keep in touch (with sb) 10 slay in conlact with sll by speaking or writing 10 him/her make it (used about arrangements) to be able 10 be Drescnl at a place, I'm sorry, I won't be able 10 moke il (for example to a party) on Sorurda)'

Unit 3 Nouns accommodation !:l,kOJn<l'dcrJnl Ill] a pl~(e for so 10 Iive and slay in: Wc lived in rented occommodolion bcfore IlUying Ihis 110 use, amenity 1~'mi:l1~lil ICl (pI oll1lenille') somelhing thJt makes a place pleasa nt or easy to live in: Among

Ihe town's amenilies ore lWo (lncmf/S and a ;ports centre, aunt la: nil IC] Ihe sisler of your fill her or molh~r; the wife o( your uMle brother I'brAi)~/ Je] a man or boy who has the ~ame parenlS as anOlher Ilcrson carer I' ke::.r~1 [Cl ~ person who regulMly lookS .llter sb 11'110 is unable 10 look ilfter himself/hersell [)ecause 01 "ge, illne~s, etc cousin /'kJ,.zn! [Cl the child of your aum or uncle e~-partner Ich 'po:tn~(r)1 IC] a person's former partner father-in-law No:/j:l(r) In b:1 lel (pI f,ltlwr<,路in.l~w) the latller of your husband or wife flatmate I'fl1Crmcnl re] " person who shares a flat wi th olle or more others foster-family I'fo,r" fl~nlJlil [cl ~ f~1l1ily whi) lakes a Clli1d who needs iI h<Jnw Into their lam Ill' .lnd G,ues for himlher Wit hout be(om Ing the lega I parent: (I fosler-mothn grandchild I'gra:ntS~tldl (pI grdl1(khildrl'ni (~Iso gr<mlllldugll"" /'gnend~:l~/: 'r"llrJloll! '-)r:ens.m) [e] the daughrer or son of your child grandfather /' grreofa:oal ( also informal gr~ndad /'grrondrod/: gr~ndp~ I'gra::npo:) le] thc lather 01 one 01 your pilfenll grandmother I'grlCnnJAo;l1 (also informal granny /'gr.eni) [e] the mother of one 01 your p.3fent; houseboat I' ha(Jsbaut/ [e] iI boat on il river, ete wherE'sb Iives and which USUd Ill' my; in onc place housework I'h'wswa:kl [LJ] the work lhat IS needed to keep a house clean 3nd tidy husband l'llAzbandl [Cl iI ma n that a woman is married to igloo /'Iglu:/ lc] (pI igloo,) a ,ma II house that is built rrom blocks of hard snow mother l'mA!);;{ (informal mum ImAm/) IC] the female parent of a person


I'nefju:1 I'nc\'ju:!lCJ the son of your brother or si;(er, or Ihe son of you r husband's or wife's brother or sister niece Irwsl [C) the daughter 01 your brother or siSler; the daughter of your husband's or wile's brother or sister notice j'D:>UUS! le) a piece of paper or a sign giving information. a warning. etc that is put where everyone c.Jn read it: There's a natice on Ih~ board

saying thot the meeUng hos been canal/w. only child 1,~lJnJi '!SaJldl [e) a child who has no brothers or sister: As an only (hild, I was quite

lonely when I 1'.'05 grOlYing up. pressure {'preS~1 le. ul worries or difficulties th~t you h.lve because you have 100 much to deal with:

Peer pressure con force children to rebel against authority. public transport IpAhlrk 路tr<ensfY.l:U [Uj (the ;vslem 01) buses, trains, etc that ru n according to a series of planned limes and thal anyone can use: to trovel by publit IrUfl5port relative /'rcbtrvl!e] a member of your family rent !reotl !u,e] money that you pay regularly lor use of l.lod, il house or a building: 5!Je h(J5n'l paid ha ren! for (wo months. sister /'SISI:>/ IC] a girl or \\'oman who has the Xlme parl'nts as another [lcr,OIl ~tepfattter ('stepfo:()~(r)llq Ihe man who h<1; m.wied you r mother when your p.lrent, are divorced or your falher is de<"ld stepmother /'stcpmAo~1 {cl tile woman who has mamed your fmiler when yuur parenl~ arc divorced or your mother is dead ~uburb I ',.,b:<:!ll [C] an area where people live that is outside the central pan 01 a lown or ci ty: Mosl people live in lire SIJbllfb5 or)(1 \York in tile cenlre of fQIVn. uncle /',,,]kll le] 1I1e brOlher 01 your father or t11Olher: the husband 01 your allnl wife !lVn rCl [Cl a woman Ihal a man is married 10

Verbs bully /'buljj to use your wengl h or power to 11 Ult or Irightc~ sI> who i~ weaker or 10 make him/her do

They bullied her at school until she go~e them Iler money. divorce !dI'v~:sl to legally cnd your marriage to sb: My parenr::. gol divorced wlren I was three. envy I'cnvil 10 ",;ml sth thal ,b e1sc has; 10 feel jealou~ of so beGluse helshe has slh you WAnt: I envied her happy childhood. foster /'fost~1 to take a child who needs a home inlo your own family and to GMe for him/her wilhoul bt<oming Ilis/her parent: She fostered Ihe child UlJlil he YJ~s eighteen, miss Imrsl 1 to fail 10 go to or do sth: She missed wab of ~hool baous<: of lbt: occident. 2 to led sad becau;t si) j~ not wil h you any more: He missed her desptrolely when she /ejr separate /'sep<lwL! 10 SlOP living together.lS J couple with your wile, husband or partner: His parents separoled when he wos su'/J 0 boby. share !!e~(r)l sh~r(' ,sth witll sb' to have, "'C, do, or pal' for slh together with anotl,er person or other people I shore 0 jlat with four ot/lN people. ~t1l:

Adjectives available 1;l'verj:>bU (used about things) thal you can get, buy, elC: The room 10 renl i, nOl ~vntlable

unlil nex! mnnth

caring J'ke~n1JI showi ng that the feel ings 01 other people arc impor1ant to you, We must work

towards 0 mare coring society, close Ikbusl clo e (I sblsth) 1 near: Is {he hole! dose to the beach? 2 (used about a retatlve, friend, elc) knowing sb very well and liking hi mlher: She

ond her father hod never been very dose, convenient Ibn 'vi: ni~ntl su Itable or prdct;ea I for J particu la r purpose: nol causi ng dirF,(ulty' A omall

cor is more convenient for parking In busy street5. OPPolite.'. difficult /'dnI.k:lltl (used about a person) not friendly, reasonable or helpful: He W05 always 0

difficult child en suite Inn '''\'I :1/ (used about a hed room and balhroom) formi ng nne uni t: Ihe bedroom has a

bathroam en suite, expensive Irgs'pensrvel costi ng a lot of money: HOU5e.\ are very expensive in tllis ar~a, oppo,i1 (he,ll! heavy /' hevil (heJvl r: Ile~V(esl! weighi ng " lot, <lilh'culllu lift or move: The piano wos/oo heavy co lif/. UI!~U"ltt:路 Iighl horrible I' h or"hll {in/of/no!) bad m unpleasa nt: rlris co/fee ta51es horrible' independent 1,lndl'pcncl~utl nol needing or wanting help: He Icll !lome to be InclcpCI/()ent of hll


kind lkalndl ~1I(t1 (to ~IJ), kind ((Jf ,1]) 11(1 du ,tll) caring ~boul others; Iriendly ~nd generous,

[veryanc'5 been sa kind 10 us since wc come here. noisy /'u:>rzil (11ol"Cr, 1101'>l,sl) m~bng ~ 101 ollou{t and unpleasanl ~oun~s: full oJ noi,e 'JPflo,it(,: qlltl't patient /'pcrSntl able to sl~y CJlm Jnd nol gel ~ngry, especially when there is ~ difflcu It I' or YOll h~ve to wait a long limc: She's very pOlient witll YOllfl,~

children. /'rao~111 having greal Slrenglll or lorce: a powerful car!compurer rcla~ing In' lrok;sl Q/ pIL'as,mt: hel ~i tlg you to r!:'St and become le,s worried reliable In' la I~hl/ (used aOfiU I <l person) \h.1t you <.an trust 5he'.l a very relwble babysltter responsible In' spons:lbl/ (used abou t a person) Ihut you C<ln trust 10 behAvc well ~lId in a sensible way: Moria is responsible erllJugh to (oke her filile si.ller 10 school, selfish I ',e1frS/ till nkl ng only 'lbou! your own needs or wishes dnd not abOUI olher peonk's: Fm sick of yoor selfish behaviour - think of others for a change! oppo,ili" IJI,,~lfi,h ~mat1!~ma:tl fash iOfiable iI nd usuillly expensive: a smart cor/restaurant spoilt /sp-'tltl (used ~bolJ t a chitd) rud~ and h~tll y behaved IJeGl use he/she has aIWJys been given everYlhing he/she want, strict ISlnkll not illlowing people to break ru Its or to behave badly: strict parents/teodras 1houghtfu I /' O,,:tfll Ihinking abou I whilt 01 her people want or need: It WfJS very Ihoughtful Df you ID send her ftowers. understanding I,And~'sla:ndtrJI ~howing kind feelings towards sb: synlpa thelie. Slie's very ullderSlOnding obnUI tile problems teenogers face nowadnyl.


Phrasal verbs bring sb up to care lor a child, teilching himlher how la behave, etc He was broughr up by his ollnt, fall out (with sb) to argue and to ;IO~ being fflend II' (with sb)

get into 5th ro become involved in (0

~\h; 10 Slarl


get into 0 !igh[/on Qrgumellt

get onlalong with sb to ha~ a friendly relationship with sb: ()() YQU g('l on wc!1\Yith your wlkoguc'? grow up la develop into an adult: to m~lure; Whol do you want la be whell YO<J grow up>

lll()k after sb/sthJ yourself to be r~ponsil>le lor or llIke care of sb(5tI'i{yourself: rhe 0/11 lady's }()" 1(}Qt.ef/ 0/(" 011 her final)cn put up with sb/sth to suffe' sbl~lh unlJle<lSilnl <Ind not complaill about it: I don't kllow how lhey (JUI IIfJ


t/J~ I1Qi';e.

spl it up (with sb) to cnd a marriage or rdalionshill: I /(;'~

rp/il liP with hf5 gid/rie(ld,

stay on {at...) to continue SIlHlyl n&, wo,klng, <:1< somewhere tor longer than cxp~ed or oll~r p<:ople ho\'e kit. He Hoyed on 01 w'ool o/lt'r doing GCSEs, take after sb to Inok or Othave like all older member 01 your lamlly' He rakes of/er hi5 UII(lc, 11 sb off la speak to sb angrily$t" he/she ha~ done sth wrung, The froch"r raid m(' off lor nOI dOlflg my homCW(lrl.

Idioms be!make friends (with sb) 10 be/become a friend 01 sb: He fillds it Mrd ro make /riemJs wilh ofi/('r childrr:n.

gtt into trDuble gel into a ~illlation in which ~l)IJ can he criticised or punished: He gal inlO !rouble willl filt police,

make sure (of sth/that...) to do slh in oruc', 10 be «'rlain Ihat sth else llappens: Wc will n!ok wre Ihor you enjoy YOllr Yisil, make up your mind 10 decide sth: They're /x}/It loyely - I COll'r make up my mind.

Unit 4 Nou liS ankle i'lI:l)kllle] lhe pafl of \,ou, body \\'h~,c y,-)\/( fOOl join~ your leg back /b,''Ck{ ICl Ihe part of your body between Ihe neek and Ihe bottom chest /tresr! [Cl Ihe lOP Pill I ollhe I,onl of your body chin {tJm/[C] Ihe pan of your face belmv your rnoulh danger /'dellld;p/ tu,Cl the chance thal w/slh mal' be hun, lQlled or damaKed or Ihal Slh bad may happen' WI,en he ,IOW rill gun, he realised flI.1 lift' was In rfon~er. ;ldICUI\L danscrous diet {,dnJ~tJ le] the food that Cl person usually eats' Ilry 10 hove 0 heallhy, balancecl diell= including all the typ~ of food th~1 OUf body needS). verb: diel ur 1l~!ICI on~ 01 Ihe two pans of Ihe body ot a person 01 an aOlm~lthal ilrt" used for hea<lllS elbow I'elb;)()( (Cl lh~ rlilre whet'(' Ihe bonc~ pi )'\Jllr aIm join and '{Cu r Mm benti~ evil !'i:v!/luj illorce lhol LaU\.C'S bad and harmlul things to happ~n: Tht ploy i5 abOUI rhe good and tvil,n 011 of lA

eye la,! re) one of lhe two Of?,arlS ,n YOUI bodv th... you use to see with: Jle'5 gal IJlut: tyCi. eyebrow !'albruu/!C1 lhe line 01 hair Ihal is above your evr. fear 1fJ:>/ [CU) the feeling lhat \'OI{ have when sth dangerous, painful Of frighlening nlighl h~l1pt"n: )hiJ book helped me get oyer my jF,Qr of dogs


finger !'rfrJg~ l<:J one 01 lhe live pans althe end 01 l!ach hand: She wore rings on alf her ftn8~ foot ifot! Iq (pf'td (fi:iJ~ IIle 'owelt part of your body, at lh~ qnd of your I~, on which \'OU sla'ld. hand Ih:endl[C) Ihe pari of your body al Ihe end of you r arm which has five fingers: He took the child by Ihe hand. head lhooi le] ih~ part of your bQdy al10ye lhe netk: SIre tu.rned hcr "rod (0 looA' III flim. headache I'hedelki lel a pain in \'Our head: I've got

a (("i/:lle Ireodalhe. heart Iho:ll le) lhe organ imide ,'OUr ch~t which 5ends bluQd rQ;Jn(\ )'Qur bO(j\': Exadsing make )'fJur hr,Orl bc(}/ fo}(,:r. knee Ini:![C] the plate \Vhf-re your \(-g bends in Ihe middle: Sbf'/dl and hurc lIer knee. lip /Ilp{ {e) ~ilher of Ihe two soh edges 411 the opening of ~lOur mouth: 10 1/55 sb on the lips. monstE'r f'rnooSl~1 le) (Ill sloril"lolll <:rc~lU~ Ihot i\ large. ugly and lrighlening mouth !mliu61!C) the pall of your lace thal you use lor eating and lpeaking: ro open/r:lo~ yuur mOlflh nail (nerl/lC) (I thin hartll.ayer that coycrs lhe <;IIU uf a fillger or l':le: 10 (!Tt ynur rrtlR('rll{/ilsltOtnoif5 ne<:k lnu{ Iq the part ot your body Ihal ioim your head 1.0 jour shoulders: She lYrupped 0 scarf Ground her nc(k,

nose In:,oz/{C1 the p~rt of your 1«(1.:, aoo\'e your mouth. :h.11 i'I uo;ed lor bre}.thins ~flO s'"elliHS pain (pc,"{ ICI the unpleilSilnt feeling lhat you have when a part of your body MS b€\:n hurt or when '{QV are ill: He hod [)Oins ill his d1e";/. panic f'j'l;2nrkl {UI" 5udden feeling of te~r (ha (annol ()l? mnlfoll~rl .1nrf ~IOp" ',Oil from thinl:i.~ dearl\,: There \Vos complere [)On;c IVllen Ihe alarm wcntolf. plaster I'plo:st:)! [Cl ~ ~malllllC(c of sti<ky nliltellal Ihat is used \0 (oyer iI cut. cle 00 the oody: Put (J

plaslu on i( until it SlOpS bleeding, pulse rate I'p"l~ reIl! le, usually singl the regulal speed 111 wh'ch blood h pushed around your bodi' by Ihe action pf )'Our hcaH' HllTr pulll; rOle ;(lCff,05t5 ojrer cxc"i\(. shoulder I'J:>olcbl [C) ,he p:.ort (ll yOur b<l(l}' lJetW(~f\ the neck ~nd lhe lOp af your arlll: Sh~ kl/ 0511'1'1' will, /re/head on his shoulder, soul {s<Jull!Cl the inner l)illt 01 ,t J)CIwn containing his/her de;:pe.,t thoughts and feelIngs: T1terc II'OS (1

feeling of ,'iOdnN dt:tp in her ,lOul,

stomach I'sl'\nl~kll(1 the orsan in your body where load goes at,,·! l'ou have eat~,a ~t stoma<:h a<:he /,stlllu;lk clk! [c.ul a pilin in your stomach: (\'t' 80/ (0) tcrrible stomach oclll'. therapy 1'00r.>.pI! [U] t/elltmtnt 10 help or <life ~ mental or physical illness. usually without drugs, or me(lical opcralion~' 10 have rhcropy thigh !Oall [Cl rhe top PMt of your leg, above the knee thumb !6hIDl (Cl the shOll thid: f(nzer at the side or, each hand toe !130/lej ()Cl( of the Icn slll<llt part~ .11 lhe end of each fOOl tODthache I'lu:Oe,k! [u. C, usu.lII~' sins! d pain in your tooth or teeth: / "/1' got 5ucfl bad roorllache, 1 (on'loptn m)' mQ<Jcll. treatment f'tn:tIU~l{ [U.C) Ir. It Ill'''' ,Im ~1I11 the use 01 medicine or medical cart 11/ ClIl't" ,Ill illnes.., or injury: co need med;wlucalmef1l waist i\\'cls~1 !(] the nanow~st pan around Ihe mIddle of your body; HI' pUI his arms around her wai1/.

wrist !mJiICJ III~ narrow pall ai, the cnd 01 your arm whf'fC II Joins your Mno

Verb!l adore 1~'d':J./ to like slh/~b v~rv mu(h: Shc odor~ choroloce, beat {bi:t{ (pr "I; pp b<:dt<:n f'bi:tnf) to make a r'tgular sound or rnovement: Ha hearl beal jo~ur os site ran la pick tip her child.

break /br~lkllpl bril~e lor~ok{; pp IHOkt", rb~ok~n!J 10 separale, or mal:e stll separale. into IWO or more piece~: He broke his leg in a cor oaidenr,

detest !d,'lesl! 10 hate or not like Sb!Slh at all: I dett'Sr rhe 5melf of boiled cobbol/l', disappear !,dls:l'p':>/ (0 become impossible to see or 10 find; to vanish: He di50ppeored into 0 crowd oJ people.

dislike Id,s'la,k! to think that sblslh is unplc'asanl fascinate rr~"Jn"1l1 10 atlr~Cl or inttre5t sb very much: (hinl'se cul/Ute has always f05Qtloted m~. ,,,11' ,I", Id'l ""lll'd, !<!)( IrIdl'll~ heallhi:III'<'<ll (up/m,pr, 10 become h,-althy <lgui n; Tile cut wilf heol up in 0 It:'>v cloys, hurl fh:l:l! (pt. pp IlIrl1) 10 feel painllll: My leg hllrts, lend !klld/ (pr, pp k'lll) kml ,h ,th: Icnd ~Ih ICl ,1110 "lluw )b to u~ sth for a short time or to give sb money Ihal must be paid back <I flcr <I ccrt<'lin dmounlof lime: (ould you /(:lId me £10 IIl/til Friday?

love !lAv{ to like or enjoy slh YCry much: I (rJVe hOrror films.

prepJre Ipl"3'pc;l(r)! pr,'p,ll< .,h,\lh) (IIl1 'hi'llI, 10 get ready or 10 milke sb!slh le<ldy: no lu:/perl me prl'pare /or IlIe exam,

recover !rr'k/lv':J(r1/ f<'1 l)V,'r \111"" ,Ih) to become well agail1 ,llCer you II(lve been ill; It took him IWO man 111.1 10 rcrolll:r from Ih<: opcrotiall, Sal re /~kc;~!

la make a person or an animill frighlened: rile wdden noise scored us all, st:lnd {S!ll:l\cl! (used in negative sentence~ and Queslions, with /XIn!collld) 10 not like Sb{5lh ~\ dlf: 10 hate sb!Slh: ( can'l stand beillg laIC for work, taste ltelsl!lo Iry a small amount 01 [00(1 Uf urink 10 see if you li)(e il: erm IIOsl1' 0 piece of that ch«S<'?

terrify j'lcrrf:u! (prCi parr Il'r"rvillg; Jrd (X'rs 5ing pro Icrnht:"\: pI, pp tt"rrih€'Cl) la frighlen lb yery much: Spiders leffify rife. twist !tWISI! la bend Of lurn 1111 'ilia d Ilarli(lIl~r )!Iape, oft~n one i I lJot'S nal go In niltulally: 10 be benl jn 1111' way: lie twilled hi5 olllcJe ploying squash.

vanish {'y,e",!! to d,sappear suddenly or in iI w~y that you cannot explain' When he CUf,lNI fQUfld, she'd Yf)OI:wd. wonder !'w/lnd~ 10 \V~rH 10 know 5th; 10 a5l: yourseJl quest,ons aboul sth: IlYondr:r whrll the new leacher Will be like.

AdJective5 amusing !;,'mju:2llJ{ causing you to laugh or smile. He'5 0 yery omu5in8 per5011 orld lIe ma~es me lough 0101,

annoying I;)' n~]IDI making you I~el dn~ry or slIghtly angry: it'S so olulQyinJl, 1I1ar Ihere's no phone near IJt~rl'!

astonished h's\DmJtlto be very sUfpn~d: I WI/5 o5tonished by lhr:'llofl. astonishing 1;"11 Qnlfllj! v<'ry ~'lrpming: His general knowledge i5 0510m<hing.

authentic I:>:'!lenllkl ln~l you know i~ r/lal or genuine: an aUlhenll( lnini'se re(lpp. nppo511 J' ,fi,"1 awful/'~:f;)Jj very bad or unpleasant We had an awful holiday. It mined evcry Utly, balance /'blel~sl1 keeping or showing a b~lilnte, so differe1l Ihin~ or parts of things exist in eQual or COITl!Cl amounts; A balanced diet

skk - t think it lVas the fisill ate.

is importont for good hwlth.

bored Ib:>:dl ored "'dth srh feeling tired and perhaps sligh1ly annoyed because sth is not interesling or because you do not have anylhlng 10 do: "m bored with coting rhe some tiling every day.

boring I'b:>:fll:J! not a\ all inlCl'('sting: d\11I brilliant /'bnhQnt/1 very <lever, skiUul or successfol: That's a bli/fiont ideo! 2 (inj(mfllJ~ very good: Thm wns (I blilJion/ film: chcap /lfi:p/low in price, CQSlinC little money (J1J1J1"ltl' l'XrL'INvr dangerous I'JomJ3:lrOllllkel'( 10 (duse Irljury or da mage: a dOllgefous allimal/drive:r/ilif1e55 delicious ldi'hJ~s/ having a vP.ry pleasanlla~te disturbing /dr,'13:buJ/ maki~g you worrIed or up~el IlulI/ld Ihe film vcr)' d,slurblf1g,

emotional /I'm.>u.f::>nll (;lU~llg slrong feelings: He gave on emorional speech. enjoyable /1Jl'd3JI~bll giving pleasu.c: Thonk! for cJlhausled /lg '7,.:1:~lIdl vtry lired eJlhausling hg'~,:I:~tIlJI making sb very lirfd: Teaching young children is allall.ltillg wOlt.

fantastic men 'tt\;~\II(/ (i"lormo~ very good: excclll'II1 lasdn ted /'rlll~lllcl\ldl very irlleres\ed i'l 5th: Ht was foscinaled by make.'.

freezing f'fri:wJI litlfofmn0 very cold fresh !freSI (used especially about food) produced or pi<ked very reccntly: not Irozcn or in a lin' fl~l /;r(ad/ffUil!/lowcr; Irightene J'rl1lllndl frlgl1ll'IKd of ,bf,th ~fr~i(l of a particular person, IhinB or StlUJI ioo. frightet'ling I'fr31lnJ 1)1 milking you leel atraid or shocked: tl Irigh/ening aperiencf! healthy I'helflil nll'<I!llIi('r, Il<'dlll1ll"U hellJillR 10 produce good heallh and keeping you tree from illness: Q healtfly dier}li!eslyle IlPlll)\III' 11111'h,lllJ\, horrible I'hor.>bll (inlormo0 bad 01 unpleasam: This (offCl: ttlSWS horriblel

hot /hotl ,hVIII'f h~'\1 ..t (u .n ~bolll fnotl) (,)u~illg ~ burning feeling in your moulh: spicy: a I)IJJ amy OrpO\llr nlll interested /'tnt.rCsudl rn ,"r d 1111 \111/< J uiI,'n',I('!J 111 dOli ! ~th, 'n1l'fl">lea ID do ~I w~nlin~ to know Gr hear more aboul slh/,o They

really not


/'IOlr:lSnl)/ enjoyable and entenaining: holdinR yOllr allention: on in/l:fI:s/ing


low-fat 1,IaLl 'f;ell (used aboul tood) containing only a very small arnount of fat: (} low-fal yoghufl opposite full-fat maximum I'm~ekSlm;)ln/ ~ large, faSl. et, a\ is possible. or Ihe mn~1 Ihal is po$Sible or allo\lIed: Fot moxlmum elfur, do the exercises /Wiu 0 day. l)iJpo<ile, Il1In 1111 IJO I

simple f'SJmpl/ easy to do, understand or use: nol dimwit or complicated sore I :! (used about a part or Ihe body} painiul. specially \Vhen (ouched: My feet lVcrr SOff! after walking so far. sorry I' onl • 10 ~. ~ heJ' -le Sold or disappointed: Iwos 5Qrry to hear your fathe! wo, if/. spicy r"j)<lIsil containing a subslance. especially a powder. thal is made from a plant ,,~d used 10 give flavour 10 lood: Do you like iPicy food? surprised !s;)'prnlZd/leeling or ~ho\Ving surprise when slh happens lhat \'<>u (10 not expect: IlVos very sUfprised 10 see COlD there. I Iholli/hl she was obfood.

sweet (swi:t/ containing. or astrng as if it conlains, lot or S\Jgat: T/I( child/cn lo"c sIYC'l"/things, fJ(1)HI\IH



tasty /'ll:lslil

having il good lIilVO\rt' , I· t, Il'h ,. t nder /'lcnd:>(r)1 (used aboulloodl ~ and e3W lu Cll or bite IIPI~ Ill. l I' terrible I'lcr~bll ve bad: 01 poor Qualit'(. a terrible ),1'111

I. It


a tosly nlllshfoom souc/.'

on enjoyoble evening.

Werfn'( inlnfSJff1 in my news or oJ!! I'm in teres II'd jn gomg IQ univel5J·(Y.

rotten I'rotnl (u~ed about lood) old and not fresh enough or good enough 10 use op Sl! fresh sad t~ lXlddcr- l<ldde:>l unhappy or causing sb 10 feel unhapp~' 0 sod soog salty /'S;3:ltii having the taste of. or including 100 much salt: I didn't like the meat. 11 was roo wiry. sick !SIl:J leeling ill in your stomach so that you may vo il (= b ing lood up through your moulh}: II"J




I rrified /'tcnfaldi It ',It \'l!ry allaid: Hc's /t'rrified 01 ro(s. lerrifying I'tcnfalll)/ m"ki g 'Ou feel ''Cry afraid: 0 twifying lilm

tired I'tal;x!tleeling (hat yOu need to r tor c p: 51,e WOi tiled ajtel a IlOfd doy's

tough ltArl (useO espccially about cut and cat ClJlIII"'h I, 11(11 r


al) dilli<lIlt 10

Adverbs anyway /'~niw"'ll (IJ C:IJ to <h;tngc: the uhjeCl or 0 back to a subjc:<t being discussed belor ): l\Jlyw(}y. I(,or'l cl10ugh about my jJlolllems. How are you?

Ph r.asa I 'o'erbs get over slh

deal wilh a problenl successlull\': ro get OVCf YOlJr IWI 0/ fiying if you


'l'ou"" have

wont ro travel round rile wllrld.

have a temperature (used about a per onllO be hOller than normal because you are ill keep on (doing sth)to rontill c doing slh or 10 repeat an action nlan (imes. ~ornelimC) in an anllO\'ing way: He keeps on irlterruf}linll mc,

Idioms can'l sland 10 nollike sb/S1h at all: to h,1le slll'lh: 1 con 'I srofld I/Iot woman" she's so rude. {be/get} out of br ath (to bt'}slart) br(.'alhing ve,,' Qllickl\" for example. aller physiall exercise

Unit 5 Nouns the atmosphere I'lelm4,rla/!c. ulually singl1hc mixture 01 gaSCj (hat surrounds Ihe earth or any Other slar, pi. net, ete. tile earth's atmosphefl' beach Ibi:IS/[CJ an area of slllall SlOnes or :l<Jnd beside the se,1: to sit on the beach breeze Ibri::zI [e] a light wind. e\p~cia lIy a pleaS3nl onc. a summer breeze campaign Ika:m'pcml [t) a pl.n to do a number of things i~ ordtr 10 achieve a special aim: to launclt an odverlislflg/e1uticm campOlgn verb l<lIIlDdl~1I carbon dioxide I,ka:h;)n dar'nk~;lld/lull,yrnb()1 lO ) a gas with no colour or smelllhat people and animals breathe out vllheir lungs climate /'kla.m~tl ICl Ihe normal wcal11cf conditions ot J p..l rlieular region: f)

rJry/IJlllllid/trapicol climale

competition J,konlp1" Ilj,,1 [<.1 an organisrd event ill which IX'Oplc Iry 10 Win sth, Tltey hold 0 compt1itJon evcr), y~ffr tu fJnd thc bcsl orlisl,

crop /km,,! [<.. u~ually plural] .llIlhe pl~l1ts IlIill itre grown on filrms lodood. Rice and soyu lJelJns are lire main craps J>(lt:. desert /'dC7:>11 [c.ul" large are~ of land, ulually covered wilh Silfld, that is hot and has very liule water and very lew plants drinking water f'drll)ku) \V~:I~I ful waler Ihal i~ Xlf\' 10 drink droughl Idrautl [c.ul a lunl: ~r1od wilhOu\ r~ln: Drought has IJfJf.'£Icd mony cuunlril!S in AlficQ. [U,q music, liln"


cle uS('d 10 mler~t and amuse rx:oplc the environmenl/m 'v;uronnl:llIt! [sirISllhl! n~llml world, for exampl th lar d. air and waler, in which people, animals dnd pldnts live: We necd slrongu IOWJ ro plo/ea the environment.

event h' vcnll [C) a plMlned pUblic or social ocea ion: a ~"lool t'vent tine Ifam/le] a sum of fIlon ~'Ihal you have 10 p~y lor bre~lr.il1g a 1.1\11 or role: 0 parl:in~ fine flood IflAdl [e::] a large amounl 01 water that hilS spread from a river. the sea. elC and lhat COWl'> an area whi<h should be dry: People ir(lve been forced to leave their homes bccoU.le 01 rhe floods, flooding /'nAdJ~/lul a Silu.11;on In ",111ch a 1....l<e amount of waler covers an Mea whICh ~hould be dry: 7hefc will be heavy //Iin with locol flooding in some areos,

fog IrTJr!1 (U,q a thick while. cloud U\'" lonn, dose In Ih\' land or I\'a. ~og mak"s it diffiCUlt for us 10 we' PMchcs 0/ denlC fOR orc rntlking dfiv;nN dangerou . old I~'< 11\" ftJ!>~v

forest ('fOn..L! [C.U) a lar~c arl'a 01 land rJ'JVercd wl1h lree\ fossil luel I'fosl Ull:alJ [c.ul a natural fu~1 such as coal or oil. that wa~ formcd million, of years ago from d~rl animdls or pl"nt, in Ih~ wound: CorUOJl liJonde is pmduced in huge amourJI\ when frx:sil fliels OfI' burned

gale Iged./IQ a very strong wind: Sl'VffO! trCl:} blcw down in the gale. globaf warming I.'ll:>ohl '",:>:m'l)l [siO!!1 the inerease In llle temperature of fhe earih's atmosphere, caused by the in &ascs the greenhouse eUect i'gri:nhnus lfekl/lsin&) the warming 01 thee.Hlh·\ atmosphere as a re~,,11 01 halmlul gases, etc in tile air





greenhouse gas I,gn:nhaus '9&sl [Cl all)' Clr lhe gases Ihat are Ihoughllo (ause Ihe greenhouse effect. especially CJrbrl!l dio\ldr Ihe ground 19 raond/lsing) the solid surface 01 the earth: We sot on the ground 10 eol Ollr picnic. heatwave /'hi:twerv! (q a period 01 unusually hot weather hill 11111{ le] iI high Mea of land lhal is nOl 01\ as a mounlain: We Jive at the top of hill. hurricane /'hto.rok:m/l(] a violent ~(Qrm wilh vel)' slrong winds ice cap I'als k:ep! [C) a layer 01 i<e permanenllv covering paris of the eann. especi<llly aroumi lhe Nortll and Soulh Poles: Ihl! polar ice C'l(75 island I' albndl IC) a oiC'Ce of land lhat is surrounded by wat~r: rnl! (il~ek illof/(}s islander /'mbndol ICI a rerson who livel on a small isl,lOd lake II\llk/lCl a la~c a r<."a 01 Wilier thal i~ su rrOl,odrd by land: Tllcy 'vc sonr: 'iQi/ing (In rhe



lightning appear~



a brighl f1a!Jl 01 light lhal in Ihl? sky during a ~orm: 1/1C Ir{'c WU)

oy ligblning durmg II/(: $(Qrm.

mountain 1'1111\001001 [Cl a vl?ry high hill ocean l'ouSrl! [Cl one of Ille live major areils 01 l-ll\ w~ter I'hat covel m~1 DI I he ei\nh's surlace: Ih, 11I1an(i( / Pad/ic


patch Ip<l:tIlIC) a pan 01 a surface IlIal is dilkrcnl ill ~orne w~y from Ihe area around it: Orive core/ully. Fog po"',,~s

ore /orecosl,

plain JplclIllllJ " larg<." ~rl.'~ or H~l l<1nd with f~w trees pollution Ipo'!u:Su/[U) lhe adion or making the air. waler, ele nirly and dangerous: Major sleps ale being token la cootrol Ihe pollution a/beaches,

pressure {'preS;)! Iu) (used about the weatller) the 10rc(' of th<." atmosptll~r(' on the eanh's surlace: A bond of highlJuw prcnurr is moyillg acros) I/le COrmlry.

restriction Jrl'~lnk.InJ rCSlnCllQlllSJIl slh: [Cl a rule or law thallimil5lhe l1um~r, amount. ~le. Irecdom Ne. of sb/sth: parking rewiClions in lill" city Unlre \'erb n:SlnO river I'n~ le] a IM&I:. nalulill flow of waler Ihal goes dUOSS land dOld rnlD Ille sea: Ille River Nile rumble /'rAmbl/lCl a deep heavy sound' a rumule of Ihunder in lire dillonu: sea I~i:/ (\lllhe ~Il waler Illat coverS lar~e paris of Ihe surlace or 'he eant!: 7/le sea IS quite calm/rough wrJil'j sea le-vel .I' $'~ 1v"Vli [V]lhe average level o( (he sea

5hGwcr 1'[;10$)/ [Cl ~ lhol1 period of rairl: rncrc'/1 be o few sh()wcn IaIer. source I,.;,:s! re] a place, ~enon or thing where <;Ih comCl or sla III (rom or wherl:' slh is ob1a'ned spell /srd/I<l ~ ,hart rfliod o( rim~, ,1(Jr/ny spell slorm Isc~:ro/l(] ~ry h~d wtatller, wilh ~ lot 01 rair), \lrOI1Z w, n<ls, eK I rhiMi I/Iere', going IQ be 0 SWrm. adjective slOrnly lhunder l'Oto.odoi {u] the loud nOIse thal you can hed! when there is a storm, Thllndcr (an llsually be he<lrd aher a lIash or 11~11I1l"1l':. 1in can I, nn 'hen,' le] a cl05ed metal conlai ner In which lood. paim. ele is stored and sold tornado !t;):'nCld~ul [Cl (PI tornado",) a violen\ storm with a very strong wind Ihat blows in a drtle valley /''''elil [Cl Ihe low land between (WO mountains or hills. which ohell has a river running Ihrough it


weather /'W~~ [U]lhe c1imal( al a certain place and lime. how much wind, rain. sun. ele Ihere is and how hot or cold il is: What's /hI' weal/rer lilre where you


weather forecast l'W'c~ 6:ko:stl (Cl a descriplion of the wt"J1her that is eJ\peClcd lor Ihe neXl day or nextlew days \,:rb fort'.,J,r wedding i'wedlf)/[C] a marriage ceremony aod often Ihe meal or pany Ihat follows it 'lhe reception

Verbs affect !~·fd.t/lo make sb/sth change in a particulaf way: to innuence 5bl5th: Thil diseasr: a!fl!cts the oroil/.

expand /lk ',pa:o& 10 become or 10 make 5th bigger: Th" oceollS are apandi"g. melt !mclt( 10 ch~nge or make 5th change Irom a solid to a liquid by mC-1ns of hNI: Alllhl! snow had melted if) the Stili.

pollute fp~'lu: tf to make air. rivers. etc dirt)' and dangerou): Tro/ftc fumes arc polluting ~c" cilies, predict lpn'dtktl to Xl\' thal sth will hdppen in Ihe future: Sdetltim corlrJol (Jrcdicr exactly w/len eort"qu(l~'es will happen. 11(11111 prcdlrliCln prolect Ipr<l'tektl prnlnl ~bl'\lh c'~liln,lllrQm ,Ilito keep .sll/sth S<1fe: 10 defend sb/lth: P(/rCII!S try 10 pro/ca their children /rOnl danger. re<ycle /n:'s,"kll 1 10 put used objects and materials liuough a flroCesS so thallhey can be used again: rccycled pOper 2 10 keep used objc(IS and materials ami use thcm again: Don'{ t!lrow olYny your plasti, wrrier vag.s - req'c/~ Ihem! rise Irar7J (pt l(JW Ir,,07J: {JP '''''n {'rv.nn to movc upwards: (0 become higher. stronger or (0 increaSl:: The temperalor(. I/Os risen /0 nearly forty degrees. spread Isprcdl to affect a larger area or a biggl'r Rloup or people: The disease spread rapidly omong tile refl/gees. trap !lr.cp/lo c<lleh and keep or store sth: Special glass panels /fOP hear from tile sun. warn !wJ:n! to tell ~b about 5111 ullpleasant or dangerous that exists or might happen. so Ihill he/she <.an avoid il: TIle lYeathermall wornro us ouour /hl' possibilily of /looding.

Adjectives aggre~~i\'e Ij'grCSl\'1

argue: an aggressiv/' dog biodegradable lbaloudl'gerdJbll that un be absorbed back ;rlI0 the eanh naeurally and so nOI harm the environment chilly !'tIlli! :chllhcr chllh6l. (used aooul lhe weathl.'r) 100 cold 10 be comforlable: Take (I jumper with you. /('s 0 bil chilly QUl.side.


greot time in Prague.

heavy I'llcvil ;hca\,lcr, lH:<lYl61 stronger or more than usual: heavy roin high (h~r/ above the usual or normC\1 level or amount high wind/lemperolUres light IhuII not slrong in amoun!. degree. etc: a light wind/bruD:

locall'boklf of a particular place near \'0\): UXor flooding i5 eKprxled.

lovely !'Ito.vli/ ver)' nice: enjoyable and pleasant marvellous /'mo:v~bsJ ~ry good; wanderlul miserable /'nllzr~blf unpleasant; making you feci unhappy: miserable wcolher peaceful .I'pi:~n( calm and quiet: a (Jt'(Jc£!,,1 Yillage perfect /'p:drkl,! complelely good: Wilhoul faulls or we<lkl15Ses: Th~ holiday was perfect.. reasonable i'ri:zn::>bll quite good, high. big. elC but not very: The food wa5 rea'Wrrable. rich InlSI (used about 5Oil} containing the 5U bsla I1ce5 thal make it good lor growing plants in ro tky I'rokil covered wilh or made of rooo: 0 rocky fond~(Jpe

rude lru:dl nol polite smelly I'smelil (informo~ having a bad smell steep Isti:pI (used about a mountain, a hill. a road, etc) rising Of falling quickly; at a ~hmp <I ngle stresslul i' $1l"*OJ causing worry a od preSS11 re: a SI ressful jr>b strong Istror)1 (used abQUI a nalural forc€) powerful:

srrong wind/Jun sunny I'Sto.niJ having a 101 or light Irom lhe sun: a sUllnydoy lreeless I'lri:losi withoul tr«s wellwell '.\',<'11,·/. '.\','rt,·\I) (used about lhe w~alherl wilh a lot of rain wid~pread I'w'lldsprcdl round or happening OVN a large area; aHectiog a largt number 01 people: The StOrm (ou5ed wide5pr,YJd damage. windy I'wmdi/ (\VIIIII,,-r, \VlIlIllI·,I; wllh a lot 01 wincl: o windydoy

Adverbs absoluleJy I'lCbs:llu:tlil completely; tol~lJy: 1/'5 absollllely freezing outside! really I'rbli1 very: very much: I'm reolly (ired.

Idioms green living a life5lyle aiming 10 prolecllhe environment

cool!ku:1/ lairl)' (old; nOI hOI oc warm: WhOl I'd like is


long cool drinl:..

damp Id~mpl a liule wet often in a W<lY ,hat cs unp(e<lsant: rhe (old damp fng/illl climOle dark Ida:k! with no light or wilh very Iiule lighl deep Idi :pf going a long \VOly down from tf«> lUrla~: a deep liver disgusting Idls·gto.slIl)l very unpleasant dry Idrall dller dll~~1 having liule or no rain: 0 bOl, dry Slimmer

endangered lin'demdj~ (used about animals. plants, elc.) in danget 01 dis.lppearing from the world: The giam ponda is an endangered spec.i~. environmental 111l,valf::>o'/Ueotll conne<le<! wilh the nalural world. in which people. pl'lnl\ and an imal~ljve


read)' or likely 10 fight or

el<1inct hk 'slIl)ktl (used about a type of animal. plant, etc.) no longer existing: Dinosaurs ore cx:rinC1, noun ~xtll1(tlon ClCtreme /lk'Slri:ml not normal or usual; serious or severe: extreme weather condition. greal IgreuJ {injorman good: wonderful: We had

Unit 6 Nouns accommodation /<>,kDffi\l'derfnl [uj a place 10r sb 10 live or slay adventure /~d 'ventJ~1 [Cl an experience or an event Ihat is very unusual, exciting or dangcrou~ allowance iJ'laUODS/ [cl an amount o( money th~t you receive regula rly, ror exam pie Irom your parents babysitter l'bclbjsn~1 [Cl a person who looks after a child fQr ~ Short time w/lile Ihe parents are Dui

cave !kCIV! [(I <l la!)ir. hole 'In Ihe \Idf of a (lill 01 hill, or under the ground comfort J'kN:oJ~l/ [(I something that makes YOllr life easier or more ple,'s~nt. th~ comfvrts of modern


course !k:xsJ Iq a cam plete se ne> ut lesions llr sludies: I'v(' duided tQ enrol on " compuler

couru. CV I,~i: 'vi:1 1110&1 rurrirldurll vilil 1k:>,rlkj~J~m 'vi:1UII; a formal list of your educallon and work experience,oneo used when you ale Iryl n& 10 get a new job degree [e] IdJ'gri:1 an official dDcum~l1i gained b\' sll(Ce~sllllly ('ompi(liI18 ~ course at university or college: She's gold iUgru in PIl/loWphy. desert island I,dez:ll '",I~ndl [Cl all 1)I<ln<l, especially a tropical one, where nobody lives

diploma !dl'pbum~ [C] <l certitic~te lllill YOU receive when you (omp!ele a eau ~e of ~ll/(Jy, ollell at a college: I'm Sludyirlg for 0 t1i"lomtt ifl hO(ci monagemenr,

/Im'pbtm:mU [U] the ,t;lle at having a lob: 10 be in/out oJ employment ,'dJ, clivE" empll1\,prt enthusiasm /111 'Oju:zi=m/[UJ a $l'rOllg feeling uf rxcilement or interest in ~th Jnd J desire 10 1)~OOle IIlvulved in It. jon showed gre{l[ emlllo~ment (l~ld

enlhusiaJm for 111(' ncw plOlal,

,djt'rth plllllll'I.lqj, e~am Irg'z..~m/ [C] (also formal eX<lmlnallon) J written. spoken or pr~clicOlllest 01 wh~1 VDlI I;:no'l'I' or can do: 10 take 011 exam c~peru:n(e ilk'spl:>ri:>M/1 IV] the things that yl)\) have done in your life: the knowledge or skilllha\ you get from seeing or doing \'lh: She /ins five years' work operience, llCl some/hing that has happened 10 you (often s\h unusual or excilillg): She wrote a booA abOUI ll~r UPf/i,'nces in A/ri(o, e~perlmel1t/lk'speruilOl)lJ Iq a scienlific lest thal is done in order 10 g<!1 proof of slh or new

knowledge: 10 {orry ollrido 011 experiment further ed ucaliol1 0:':0),,1' cd3U'kcJInlIU] (abbl I I) edll(~lion for people who have leh ScllOOI (lJul nOI a university) gap year I"wcp j,:>/ICI ol year betwet-o S(h(J()1 ~nu university when some ,wMnH e~m mO'ley, l/avel. clC gra e Igrcldl ICI a m<lr\( that is given lor sct100l work, CIC or in an =m: 10 gel high/Iow glodes higher education 1,lulI"r cd3u'kclJn! [U] (oblll Ill) education and training ,l( a college or univerSIty, especially to degree level horizons !h~'rlll?l\z/ Ipl! lhc limits of yuur knowledge or expenen,e: forei!<1I /fOl'el ti (} good way of expand inK your hilrizons,

houn f'au:rL.! [pi] Ihe perIOd of time whel\ sb i~ working: Employees rlrf! demonding )hol'~I W<lrking hours,

Initiative h'nrJ~I'[V/lu) [he ability 10 see and d[} \'I11al is necessary without wailin~ tor sb 10 tell you' Don't tap asking me wholto do Use your inilialive, Jo~ Id;)1)b/lc] llie work Ihal you do re&ularly 10 t.>ln money: She gm 0 jab os () \IIoi/fess, knowledge I'n ohd:>J IlJ, sing) inlor malion, unde~lilnding and skills thal YOll have gained through leaming or experience loads IbudzJ Ipl] 10,1t!, (01 sth! (informll~ d la rge number or an amount 01 Iblslh: She'~ Rot i()(Jd~ of friends, 0 poSlIc: lew

opportunity !,op;l'tju:n;lli/ [C) a chance 10 do 51h thal you like to dO; J situation or a tiOle in which It is POS1ibte 10 do llh that \'00 would like 10 do I hov£ {} golden opportunity 10 go tQ Amf'flw now tllm my silolu liv~ there,

project I'pcod3ektJ le] a p'e<e 01 work, often in~oJving m~111' people, that ~ Illaooed and orgalllsed carefull\': a major projel.1 to f'I'<1l1~ pollution in our livers

qualiticalion (,lcwold','!.:el.ln.llC! an ('xam lhat \,OU have pa~sed or J course 01 sludy III<)( YOU have completed: She left school 01 15 with no !olmol qualificoriofls-

quality /'kwoJ~lil [e] (pI \Illal,lll,) lomething thal is typi('al of i\ oelson 01 thing: vi,ky hos 011 rhe qualilies of 0 good manoge r,

rate Ircltl (C) a lixed amount ot money thJ( Slh costs or Ihal sb is paid: What's the hourly rote aJ pay' reference I'rcf~nsJ IC]a slalement or Ietler des<rib,ng a pe~on's ,halacter and ability thal i, given 10 a possible future employel: My bo:iS gave

me () BOod Iffelenu. salary l's..c1~rif Iq the money that a person recei~e5 (uwally every monlh) for (he work he/she has done shift work r fifl w:d:J (U] a p riod of lime WQrkcd by a group 01 workers who start as another grOUll finishes skill/skLl/lC) (In ability that you n€Cd in order 10 do a job, an <lctivily, et< well: managcment skills test Itest/le] a short exam 10 measure sb\ koo\ cd or skill in SIlt: to do 0 spelling l/?St training /'lrernll)/IU) the process 01 learning the skills that \'OU need to do a job: staff training undergraduate I,And;>'gr;\:d3\1 (/ [(I n univcrsirv Sllldenl wllO ha 1101 yel taken his/her firSI cl 'grre uniform I'ju:nlf:'1:Ill! [C.Ulthe set of <lathes \mrn al work by the member of certain organisations or group and by some school hildren: I didrl'l know 11" was 0 policeman !x:wu5(' Ill! WOSl/'I in uniform, voJunle~r I,VI)I~n'lI:>!

(c) a person \~ho oilers or agrees to do slh without being fOlced or p<'id to do il ve-rlJ \ ,)1111I" "I wage IlI'cld;y' lsillg] (also I,,;,g<"~ p~ lhe regular amounlol money that you earn for a week', work work !w:l:k/ rU)the job lhat vou do, especially ill order to earn mOlll'y: 11 's diffi<ulllo find '.ark In Ihisdly,

Adjectives academic I,<l:b'demrkl connected wilh slJbject5 of inlerest to the mind, ralh~r Ihan le<hni(al or practical subjects: (Jwd<.m'c 5ubi~(/~ Slid) QS History

ambitious ~m'blf~sl hif\'ing d strong desire tu be successful, have power, etc challengin I'II,.,lmd3'1J! forcing you 10 m~ke a 10\ of effort: 0 cholle/lging task' crb rhiJllcllgc full·time I,ful 'laun! for th" whok of Ihe normal period 01 work: He h(J5 0 lull' rime job, further /,f3:l>;)J mOle, If you need IJny further illformol/on, pleuse do not


10 (Oll/Oel me.

part·time I,pa:l '/alml for only a part of the working day or week: a port-timl' joh temporar' /'tempr:lri/las(1 n~ for a ~ or! lIme:; nOI permanent: 0 tempofllry Job unique Iju'ni:k/ nOllike anything else; being the only on~ of its IYlle tl~pO'lle (Ullunon useful tju:sfll hwing some pr~ctical use, helpful vocational /v;>u'ket,j':mU <or1necled ..... Ith the skills, knowledge, ele Ihat)'{)u need to do a parllclllar job: vocationollroioing/quolijicotiolJ.\ voluntary J'vDl~ntriJ done or wClking withoul P3ymenl: She dors voll..ln/(lry wor/( ot the fOalI Jlospilal,

Adverbs abroali /:.'I>I':'I:<.I!ln or to anulh~r colllllry or countries: She oJten grJeS ovrlJatl 011 busim'U-

Phrasal verbs build up 10 become grealer, marc powerful or la!G1.'r in number: rile press 11 re boil/up oyer /he nexl few weeks,

get into sth 10 be ~d milled 10 a university, \(hMI, ('rc get on with ~b to hove a friendly re!alinn,hip With sb look af1er sb/sth to be respun~IM for or 111 kc QJ re of ,blsth: CJJuld you look {lfter Ihc child reil Ihis evening?

look back (on sth} to think abouI Slh In your poSI look for sb/sth 10 Iry 10 find ~b/slh look forward 10 ~lh/dolng sth 10 will( with ple~sure lor $1h 10 happen: I'm reolly iookmg fDrward/a

sumg my brolher ago ill , look through sth 10 read sth quicklv look sth up to search for in(ormalion in ~ book: lu


look op

apply I:>'plal! (pr~ port apph ins: Jrd pas sing prel ,ippllcs; Pt. pp pphc apph 'I 51). l'lr s ~ to ask !or sth in wriling: I've opplitd for l!l(}t job, build Ibtldl Ipr. pp I)Jllllbllt/J to make Slh by PtJlling piecet rnaleriJls, el( togelher: 10 build a


word in 0 dic/ioomy

lake sth up 1 10 Slart dOing slh rf~IJ lariy, for example as .. hobb\' I've token lip yoga leeenlly 2 10 sl~rl or be&in Slh such as a new jail: He llikes up his dunes ner.1 week,


lI""sc contilct /,konl:ekU 10 leleohone or wrile 10 sI> earn 13:n110 gel money by working: How m()£h does

take part (in sth] to join Wil11 other J\euple in an aaivilY: EVCtyorlt look PO" in the dfswS£]on

{} tkmiS/ earn?

e.nclose fm'klJuz) to puI Hh in an envelope... package, et' with Sill elSt: I ~ndos~ my CV, filil/fellt to nOI be successful in Slh: CD foil an e:wm u~p


Unit 7


graduate f'grn:d3\lcrtl !!.I, dual<- in sth'l i rom ~th 10 gel <l first) degrt'e from a university, elc Sht glodUOled in His/(}ry from O1:/old UlliverSlty,

provide Ipr<l'va,ul pro\'ld sb I', ,th ,b 10 give SllllO sb or make sll> available fOI sb to use; 10 supply slh worry twonJ ,pt, pp I'.. urrini \'.orr, 'dboul <,bislh' 10 Ihink II};It SIll mighl happen oc has happened: He wOlrie if I don 1 phone eyer,. weeJ:1'.nd.

NOLlhS archery I'a:l!mil [U!lhe spon of shoollnR arrov.-s athlete I're61ill [l] a person who (an run, jurJlp, ~I( very well. especially one whu t~kel pari in spoo, <ompelitiom, ell

basketball I'bo :~kltb:J:1I \UJ a &~rne for two teams of live players. There is a net bJ'JH) fixed to <3 metal ring high up al (";I(h end ollhe court and the playe~ try 10 lhrow a balllhrough Ihe other team's net in order 10 score poin~ bobsleigh I'bobslcl/ [Cl a racing vehicle for Iwo or more people lhal slides over snow along a track camping /'klempl!)f IU]living ill a lent, el( on ho'iday: 10 go camping climbing /,klnrrnllJI IU] lhe ~pM Of ac<ivity of climbing racks or mountains coach Ihnljl[CJ a per.;on who \lains llftlpre \Q compNe in cenain sporl): a lennis rooch condulion /hn'klu:3n/IC) all opinion Ihal )'Ou reach after thinking about sIll (.3refully: / finolly drew the conclu1ion Iho! he did not WC1nr ro oe

involved. cOllrt fb:t! [Cl an area where ct'rt3in ball gal1le~ alt' played: 0 lenf/is!5quash Courl cricket I'knknl [V} a game that is played wilh a bal a lid ball on a I,,,ge ar~a of grass ',1 1'1 t(h by two learnS al eleven player> crowd Ik.l'I1Udl!C, wilh singular or pluralvfrb! il large number of people In one place: rill: ClQwO wos/were extremely noisy.

[Cl il \III~II room lhal is lIIi1dc by separating 011 part of a I"rgcr room:

cublde f'kju:brkll

a loilel/sl/ower culllcle encourar:ement Im'k"rldjfl1,'ntl [e,VI the aa 01 giving hope, support or conliden(~ 10 51): The tetJcltcr gave her students IQ/s 0/ encollragemcnl. equipment /J'k.wlpm~nll (V) lhe things thal arc needed to do a pilrlieular actIVity: sports equipmeot fan 11';,1:01 [Cl somebody who admires or is W!ry crllhus;astic aQoul illIJOrl, Cle: lootboll/orlS giant f'd3arontllCl an exlrell1ely tall, wons person Ice hockey /'ars hukillUI iI g,arne thal is 1>laycd on iec by twot~afllS who Iry to hi1 a small flat rubber object i,l pili k) inlo a ROJI with long wooden sticks jeHkllng i'c1:;CI $ki:l~1 [U]lhe activity 01 1ravellillg across water on a vch icle willl i1l1 cngint', like a rnolorcycle kayak i'kUI:l:kl (Cl a light narrow b().1llor onc per\OIl, Ihat you mOve lhrough Ihe wal~r vsinl:( a ~ick wilh a f1at pari al each end (,l p.iddl,') legend /'led,?lldl rCl 1 an old ~10r)' lhal mayor mav nOI be lrue 2 ~ (MIOUS "erion or h~nt: 0 blJseball legend

lifestyle !'Ialfslutl/!cl the WdY that you live the Olympi< games 1:>,lJmplk 'germz! (I'll an inlertlational sports competilion which is orsaniscd eV('ly four years in a different country paddle !pa:dll a short pole Ihat is flat and wiil~ at one or bolh ends and I hat you U!>C for moving a small boal through water player /'pleUlI [Cl a person who plays it game or spon ritual I'rnJu:)1! Iq an aClion, ceremony or process which is alway~ done inChe same way: He olwoyS

follows the some riruol. rollercoaster /'r~ubbust:>! (e) a narrow metal Irack lhal goes up and down <lnd round light bend" aoo Ihat people ride on in a special veliicl~ tor fun rugby /'rhgbil{Uj a gilme 111al is played by two teams 0113 or 15 playe~ wilh a rou n<Jish ball thill (.3n be carried, kicked or Ihrown scuba diving !'sku:b:> da'VI!)! IU) the spon or activity of swimming underwater using special equipmem IQ( breathing


skaling /'ske'IH)f [u] Ihe activity or sport of moving on ice wearing special boots: Would you like to go

skoring lhis weekend? ski-jumping I'ski: d3JUllPllJ/ [Vllhe sport or ~C'livity of ~kiing down a hill Ihal is (overed with snow, 10 see how far you c.<ln Ilaveltllroush Iht' air before hitting Ihe ground slogan f'sl<Jugo.nJ (Cj a short phrase that ;s ca5Y to remember and is often "sed in advertising or polilics , sneaker 1 snj:k~1 (US) ~ lralll~r snowboarding r$U~ub~:d'lJ! {U]lhe }port or activily flf (ravelling a<ross mounlains co\'ered in SIlOW, on a type of board Ihal you fa~len 10 both lee! spectator !spck'lell:l! [C) a person who is walChin& an evenl, especially a sporting evenl, al it happens stereotype f'sleoJHllp/lCf a Iixed idea about a particular type 01 SJ~r)Qn or Ihing, which is ohen JlQ! lnue in reality: /n advcrti'iCments. wom~{/ (lfe

Adjectives superstitious f ,su:p;>'strJ:>sl having a beliel that cannOI be C'xpl~ined by reason or science: Hc's super1lirious about che trainer! he WeDrs on the day oJ a big ma/ch. unlucky 1I\I1'!"kil (unhltkr\·r. unluckie51) having or ('dusing bad luck: Thirrcen is ojtel1lliolJgllt 10 ~( all vnlucky number,

Adverbs extremely /Ik'stn:mlil very: Lis/cn care/ully /1ecaU5<-

this is exrremely impartunt, pretty I' pmil (inform(J~ quite; fairly: I'm pretty «'rtain lle'lf agrec.

rather I'ro:6~1 quite: 10 SOln, extent

often 5lacutyped os housewlvC$

stride Istraldl{Cl Cl long slep superstition ',~,,:pJ'suJoJ [CUi a belief Ihat cannot be t'xplained by reasoo or srience team Ili: Ill/le] a group 01 people who pluy a sport or game tog<:lh<.:r against anolher grOllp: An' you


was ralli,'r


slightly I'slaltlil a liltl,: I'm slighUy olckr (/)(111 her. spectacularly Isp~k'I'-I:kjJbljl in 0 very greallVay: 1/ was a s(JCetaculorfy imWfssiv" race.

Phrasal verbs

inion the !(!Qm?

tennis I'lemsl [Ul a &lIl1I(' IQr \Wo or lour players who hit a ball over a net uling a piece Q' equipment ri' l, 't tllal is held in Qne hand lent itent! [e] a )l1Iall slruc1ure mad~ of cloth that is held up by lJolt:~ lInd ropes. You use a lent to sleep in when you go (.3l11ping track Ilra:1.:1 ICI a piece of ground, often in a circle, for people. C;lf~. cle 10 have races on: 11 running

put sb off (sb!sth/doing sth} make sb nol like sb!s\h or nOl wantlo do slh: The occidcfIl plJ( me 011 driving for oges.

Unit 8 Nouns


trainer /'trem:>! {usually pI[ (US 11IcJll'r) a shoc Ihal you wcar tor doing sporl O( as informal dOllring viewer /'''ju:::>/ ICI a person who watches slh on television warm-up I'w,,:m hpl [e] a shon practi(l' or $('ries of gentle cxer(ises {hal yOu do to prep<lre yourscl r lor doing a particular SPOrl or ~ctivity: worm·up



Verbs beat lbi:ll1pl bedl: pp b, JiL'lll'bi:lnr) hedl III \;It ," 10 deleat sb: 10 be blotter 1han slh: Hr: always bcols me 01 relll,ll, compete Ik.:>m'pi:tl LOl1lprtr 111'1111 I'.(dllhl ,b; 10 If\' 10 win or achieve Sill. or 10 try to 00 better than anyone e~: The warlds bese atl1l~'les com~(£ in

lile Ol)'mpics. concentrate I'konsJlIrelt/ 11llll,'l\lrdte'on 'lhiLllllllj\ ,'h 10 give all your attention 01 effon 10 5th: tneed ra «mCCmrOle on passing lIlis exom_ convince Ibn'vTUs!1 l'Jl1IlOCe 5bof 'lh'rh,lt 110 succeed in mJking sI> believe Slh: I couldn 1 convince her (hal / wos righe. 2 lOl1IlIke sb .h1 d" Slh 10 pe~uJde sb 10 do ';Ih: The solcsmo/l convillced rhem

train !lrernf 10 prepare yourself, especially lor a spons event. by practising; to help a peISQn to do this: I'm training for lhe I.tindon morallwn.


buy 0 new ol'cn.

hit /bn/ Ipres por/Illltln:<: pI. pp hll) to knotk a pan of ,our body against sbfSlh: ro hil sb on Ihe nose join /~In/lo become a member 01 a dub or organisation: I've joined an aerobics das:s.. ~ick f)ok/lo hit or move slllsth with your foOl: H~ kicked lhe ha" wide of/he nel. lose !Iu:zl (pI. pp 1051 II~/j 10 not win; 10 be defealed: We played \Yell bUI we 10517'1. serve fSJJ:v! (in lennis. etc) 10 starl play by hitting the ball: He ~fYed IIVO oct.'! in O,or game.

heard Ibl~/lc] the l1air which ~rQW') on a mafl'5 cheeks and (hin cenlury I'SCIll!~ Iq (PI' (,I1II1IIL',1 any period oJ 100 years: People hove ()cell making wine ill/his a(~o /or


chimney sweep /'ljllnni swi:pI [e] a p~r50n whose job is to clean the inside of chimn~ wltlllong brushes coach /koolJ{ Iq a large veh iclc wilh Iou rwheels pulled by har5C~ used in tIle lias! (or carrying passengers cOllage !'koIIU3! [q a small and usu~lly old house, especially in the counlry figure I'flg::>/lCJ a person lhitl you cannol see very dearly ()( Ihat you do nOI know: Thert ~re lWO

shodol'l)' figures in Ihe pllotogroph, four-leaf clover I.f':l: li:f 'kl<lov:>1 [Cl pari 01 a sm.111 wild plant chat has Jour Icaves, instead of the three il normally has, whi(il is IhouBht to bring )'Ou good luck ghosl/g~usll [cl the spi rit of a dead person thot i.1 seen or heard by sb Wll0 is still living: I don'r

believe in ghos15, horseshoe I'ho:sJu:l [Cl <l U·shaped pi~ce of mela' thal is fixed 10 Ihe bottom of horse's fOOl (fIOOt.. Some people believe 111<11 horseshoes bring good luck. inn lml (Cl <I small hOlel or old pub, uwally in the counlry insurance /m'!o:r::>ns! luj inSlll"~IlCf (,1K<linst stll) an arrangemenl with a company in Which you pay them regular amounts of money and tile)' agree 10 pay lile costs il you die or are ill, or if you lose or do mage sth: inswrlJl1cr againsl personal injury

ladder 1'1rod:>1 le] a piece of equipment ih_1 is used lor climbi ~g up ,(h, A. l<ldcl~r ('Orbi,lS of (WO l[)~ pie!~ cl metal" od 01 ro~'C with ste~ fhell between them: Do 'You thlnA le i, unlucky 10 Y'lolk lmdel loddas?

luck flAk!

tu! suC(~s

or &~ocllhings thal haPpo!T1 by this rlwlr/(I! ''''If! bring yOIJ goor!

C~ilnce: fit: SO)'5

luck. ll1emoritll/mc'lD:>:ri~lIlc]

• n1('1110riol :tn, I,rl" some'hmg ltJal is buill Of dcn~ 10 r mind 1leOple 01 ,).1 e\>entlJr (I per50n: {} wo, 111 cmQrirJ I mirt ImJ&i! [C.UJ a <loud m.dl:! or very smJ II drops of water in the ;lir Just abovE I~e SIOUlld, which m"k('S [I difficuil 10 SEe: The fields were O'merl in mill. <lllj~~II'/" rnis motori\t l'rn~ul~rl&lllCj a petlon who dlives a car o sta(lJ~ IUl)'~IO:Jf iCJ hair Ihll gr,)wS on a man'; top lip, b€'t""cen Ih~ mouth J nd IlOS>' llede'5trlan Ip;,'deslri:mJ [Cl a persoll who is \V.!I1dn~ in the sll1'~( (nol tl~ellil\g in <l vehicle) resillellt /';e"I,bn 1/ ;{} d. penorl who Jj'/~) 11. ~ particular r1ac{: Icl{,,1 rf"5!d.'n/5 sailing 1'~ .. r1'lJ) [U] 111e SDor, (If h~lng ill and (or*ol~ing


slladow !"J:cd~()l

is U1usell hI' ~I~ 5lJrf<!ce: rhe


wil h ~od~

rer a dar~ m,H!f on .1 surlil(


light .and thOll a5 flH: slJn 11'('1/1

down. ~illhtillgi'~iU1Jl)j

[C) an oe(.lSion wllcl1 5bllll i~ seen:

rh", IJOYt: /Jr.fn sevcrol si8111ings a}

tile 8110SI,

Ih ~up{rn"lurdll,&u:p~'lla'ljl',)llIsil1gl c"'enl>, lora's and povI't'IS Ihal C(lllllct be flpl,lIned by Il\e '~a ~iencx:: f)() )'Qu bdi.M: in 'h~ IIJlJcrtlolural? thit'f IOU; lCl (P/llle"V "! a P"Wll who SIc. Is Ihins> from ;lnOlher p ~I)

h Ilal1~~orl\ IJCQ~1t or 10 plil(e, e peciallv nri land.lor

v hide I'\'r:"kl/[(] llh

1lllll!;S lrom plne~


t'xample am, bit\'(I~s,lcrne ana bu,c> 'oIltllll {vrkll,,,1 [C] n per 0 or ;Jnim I thal (, i Iljllred, killecl 01 hurt by sh/ll 11: 0 mUlder lIiaim witnus l'wllll::>~/lq;l pcl\on who ye, '11l h~f1PCII anlll'o'ho {<Ill lell Otl1t'l peopk: ~ oul 11 la er: TJ'l:I<' WCf~ /WO IlIilneSS(!( 10 Ihe auiden!,


he IUlllnred. hunl ('O)rsblsth) 11"""t) to 1'\'10 d: I wO~ Iwmil1g arormd for my {JJirse. m~n {mu:tjJ to wll~ WI h a regu:ar . 'P (Ij~e;l soldi~r): 711( IfOOPS marched prnenll(it:l\ltlll'l ~I\"


1111' iJuifdjllg.

. 11 Ihns't

III uop sth Il<.IlD~ing - 0 Ojl st COll1!/. si

wan er !'wDlld..t to ','IJI ~m "helc slo~I\' wiln 110 p<lriiwlar sense 01 dire(1ion or DUIPO : He wos found 0 ronJutttl ~Iar "nderillg tht SJre(/!


AdJe,c.t1ves alnmll\g !)'lo:mITJI

. U

If ighlt'ned or


broad Ibr :d! wide:

a ;l

11<~'rd:l) with


... :h brOOd Shollrdrrl ; right or true

oppn"tf> in(OTI< -

Ida:kI 'used a00...' :.;:. th. n wI1 ile di~tur Jed Id. " L3: lx!. dar~


moll I'm... ,kj;>L,f hJ n l<lrge »(on8 muS(les mysterious Iml"Il;)l"i~ t~l?l 'rOU do mtlJndersrand or ~nnOI (,.>:p~';f1: sfr.Jnge' 0 mysle,ious light in


light; illl.



make sth lip 10 invenl qll, of1en '>l.h th.1 [, nOI true' to make liP 0 Siory ru n "Wily 10 =pi: Ir()ln.


H,' 'l

Flf' llWi1Y

from home run sblsth ayerlo hit. person er iJl1 .nimal w,\h )Our v hicle: Tlu: r:J;,1d I'IIdS fun ()W'I os 1)( lI'OJ amsing



Idioms Ilhe sll il li'110 uHer d. fre-e-

on bo.rd I]Il 0 ;hip or dn were. snjffy un board,


in ~



~ir((~ll: Ail/hI' I'0s.<1:'1I8HS

Unit 9



neat Il1i:1I M(<lngn! 0: do e cMdlllfy:





old.fa,hilln~d I. 011 Id

'rre)ndl tJ ual in t1ld·lashioncd tJollI~

p i , _Ill (u~ed

lidyand ill

ntal OPIICtIlOf>(( UI(

past bUI

JbOul a per5IJn 0' 11lS'he(

having ,kill Ihal is light in W!Oll'. often oc(au~ of kM or illn ,s:) jelt mW:lj go/turn Jiol~ \\Ii/17 f~r, I"u n !pl."npl (used "bool J pe<~1 01 an .;;ni 1 "0 pleaS-lI1t1)' 1<11' Ihe baby's plumo (!reekS p'olclicol /'prll,k\lkV vcry suitabl lor .. particular purpo : useful: Cl prn<II((JI lill/c (Or. ideol/O'llle cr ,n 11 i-' 1 f '77 d ,'r·'Yldl nol able 10 under, (l11c1 or explain sill I IW} pfiuli!d by hil /JdulYiwf, 11' I I k\\'.II~I} \lilholll mlKh Jell ilV 01 m(Jfl\'

IK'llPL a ljUK:t (QU"f'y '1.01108'-' I r f'rcgj:ll:>! h.:wing thp samc ~mount 01 Sl}(J C or Lime bCI\w~n each thillg or Pi"I: l'Ie hav r uk" mallflg5 (!\'I?ry Thr/MalI




.,. J'j':"bil (L1~cd <thOUl peopl.,} dr sslX! in an un1JO\' IV';\', WI'Jr'ng dOlhc that are in bad cond io"

/'J;td:>lli/ </iiftwlllO set be«luse thert i, not much Jigl1l' A $IJddollY figule' Will lom;"/;

'.mds me. d ISo;;;l( np!t'agnl ,lJlpri' d. nl enlted Ot dl usted: I \\Ir1S ,/locked ay lIi} bo/ 1Jf.lwviour. si hlll,,1 ~11"lll,,'r ,111111' thin in ;'/1 al1ra(livl' (0

appro,nh lo,:pr;;oUlj"1 to COIIIC ne., or I1c~rer 10 ~!~lr: The dclyDf IlIe nom npproorl!M, haunt Ih~:llll (~sed about a ghO>I 01 d dt,)d pC1><Ju) to zpp~r in a pliice rt'glllarl. : Tire /1I)1i~ is wieJ II')


Ulxomfol1Llble or 9lV; lIll cmlxmussillJ; Quorion!miS((J/(d5i/uotioo !\hOltly I'g~0511iJ looking 01 $ounding like a !h051: I saw 0 gltosl)y fiRUle in Ihe disto{lce. le;;a1 t1i:gU allowed lit la... "I Des':" , 10n~ly j'I~n li/ 1, no.lkT 1" C\l lal from olhcr people and pl.4(es where ptople [i"r:: a londy (oIl"8/! Oil an jsJond mlddlc-d ed l,lIlKlI '... ld3d/ ( sc-<! dbc:M a pep-on) being betw~n 40 ;lnd 60 years old: (l midnll"-oged

1101 I)OW,

b~'Hlg ~etw,el\ I he


elderly !'cld:lliJ (Used about a pcr~J)II) old: all eI(iI:II}' lady elegant l'ehg;lfIr! having a gocd or an aetroetiltt !'lIe: Sht looktd very elcgrml in het new 01C$S. emb,nrassi ng rim 'boer~~UJf making YOU leeI

0 lall. gm)




lIuI\lal or

unexpe(r~d:" ;lltJIIgc

riO/Si ,L


1<1ldil "",' lldrt,l (us('d<loOul ~ person) n 10 keep thlllgs ill good atdo'; nea 11" unl,d.

diJ Ir', .:, If<, L. (irlforfllOf) It: 11r?l1dy nl?l v diJJ.lle5 peeled f,,'lIlk'$tX"ku<ll nOI ,p ;od ;md lh~relQr~ (Ju,ing surprise' on vflexJ)lC(ed visil tul rjll:&nl seeming younger InJ/1 ,O\l 3re: Sf ~ ill got (J yWlllM OP(JeiJf6liCC, , ( I r",

lash on

Nouns advcrtl'tcd\'311 !<!I'rr!(}I/IIof) a D,ecr ot In(ormat,on In il r\t'....o;P<!per. Oil ItlfVi>ion. ~ piault <In <J >'idll, de tlidl trl~ 10 pmu,rk; )Ieo~l~ lo buy slh, to inler~SI trtcrn in ~ new Job, el[ ,irport I'e::ll',:l:t/lcl a IIIJce wllf:r{~ ~I,ne; ldl'l I~"II ~n<ll<lk( oH dnd I~.:II ha~ build,"S~ k, pac.~;>r'£tl"S IOWilil in anllOUl1tCment h'na(jlls",~"rf [Cl a ,Iillcn'enl th,1I 11."'1< lleollle about ~\h halloun Jb;>'lu:n/ e]" 131ge ba!tt/Orl ll1'ld~o' m.leri~llhat i, Iille~ with g()~ or hot air so 111.1 it (a" (I) InrouS" tile ~ky, Qrryi"g ~f>npl(~ i'l ~ bask~t undemealh il lied and breakfa't ,lx:<I:>11 'hrekr;>sU (dlso Ili'fl) [C,U\ a ~",i( Ih,tl p(ovi(l~ A rOOIll fr)/ lh~' tllKhl and a me.l1 Ihe 111:\1 I olnin& ill (lrival(· Ilou,es or smClIl hOlds: Cl pi:l,e ,ha' provide~ rhl) ~i<e carriage 1'k.1:rtd3' [e) onc: 01 the X:~~Ii"e 9~rl) (a Ir;]in where peopl(' sil: 0 firsl·clo j CM/iog'C' the<k,in nrek LN Iq 1 the aCl of &oinS to a or..• 31

an Jirporl alld t 'IIinA the olli<ial Ihal ',Ou 110lV armed: Allow prcnlY of rime jor ,lteck·i~. 2 he placc where you do lni~: the 'hllrk,/~ de!l: del y 1dl'lcrJ IC.UI a sllU,lli()n Of pCrior1 ollrmc when you ha...e 10 wi',it: De(<,)IS (lIe 111::.:ly because of iJcow traffic. dep r1ur Jdr'pQ~tj~l feuJ ti)e,)G 01 I JVII1" llr

y from t: pIllet: depcft!JfCo/e;, Ime re) the pLace wh('ri' ,hlslh

p,oillg a

dutiniltlon l,uCsn'nclfnl

;$ trdYl'~lIinl>.lo ferry i'reril re] (pJ ferries) a bOill1 at (alli..- p~ople, vchi(1 r goods across d river or <IUOS cl narR/W p:!" of 111' (~a: 0 (I( (cff)' flight /112111 [Cl <1 journey by J~r: They ''''f~ on 0 ~Jf)11 flighl (0 (J11):d1 1c'11 11\ lo'Ur-polttr bed I, b:~t~ 'bo;-d/lCJ a I..rge hffi With a rail post al ea(ll 01 HIt' four (ornl:/s, a cover ']Ilhe lo~ ,md wrt.ins around the- side, g It igclIllG the pI",,, in an aIrport .... htl,; ye &1'1 on or (llf j pl~ne. f>liCO~ prt>Cad 10 gMl 12. !lalf· oard I,ha.:( 'hJ:dl [UJ n PC of

"c(ommodation ai 0) hotel. ere that brl'al:l~ I alld dn cvcoillg m I


journey /'d;?:nll (e) the act ollrilvclling ifom , pl.lC-e to ,nolher. ultJally on land, They mr;&-' e

Adverbs . e. 'wa-..J


for t>n (lhasising

'tN ,0mpk-Ie1~:

"tOr). '{ort'a: quilt' right, ~ film j, owju!


ovcrltwd iv indio.

IUl>Gage 1'l.'9,d:f


bagl, suite, ,<'5, elL t .: