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BACTERIOLOGICAL INSTITUTE RAYMOND LEMAIRE INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR CONSERVATION MASTER OF CONSERVATION OF MONUMENTS AND SITES INTEGRATED PROJECT WORK 3 2012-2013


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Team members: Nasim Zand Dizari, Architecture, Iran Niels Dabaut, Geography, Belgium Francis Carpentier, Arts and Heritage, Belgium Taline Ayanyan, Architecture, USA

The photographs used in this integrated project are taken by one of the team members between December 1, 2012 and May 31, 2013, unless otherwise specified. Cover photo: Š Universiteitsarchief Leuven

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Acknowledgements We would like to thank the following persons and institutions that have contributed to our integrated project work: Raymond Lemaire International Centre for Conservation. KU Leuven Prof. Dr. Thomas Coomans Prof. Dr. Krista De Jonge Prof. Paul Lievevrouw Prof. Christian Ost Ann Schram Prof. Dr. Koen Van Balen Prof. Barbara Van der Wee Dr. Björn Van Genechten Prof. Dr. Em. Luc Verpoest GIS Service Leuven Martine Verbist KU Leuven Lingling Bi Sarah De Rademaeker Lyvia Diser KU Leuven Universiteitsarchief KU Leuven Technische Diensten Iris Heylen Zeljka Knezevic Sara Philips Björn Smekens Dr. Joris Snaet Onroerend Erfgoed Vlaanderen Clara Verloove Universiteit Gent Mario Baeck Prof. Dr. Michel Piette Université de Liège Prof. Dr. Francis Tourneur Stadsarchief Leuven

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

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CONTEXT

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HISTORICAL Leuven and its University Science and Bacteriology in Leuven and Beyond The Bacteriological Institute and After LEGAL Ownership and Management Serial Protection Scope of Protection Fragmentation of the Technical Services SOCIO-ECONOMIC Leuven as a Geographic Entity Facts and Figures Vision of the City of Leuven

17 21 27 51 55 56 57 59 65 67 69 71 75

ANALYSIS

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URBAN Methodology Direct Impact Areas Indirect Impact Areas Interconnection of Urban Areas Relationship of Buildings on the Site ARCHITECTURAL Methodology Van Arenbergh’s Architectural Concept Building Chronology Reconstruction of Heyday (1897) Functions Evaluation of the Spaces Spatial Quantification TECHNICAL Structure Roof Drainage Ventilation Materials Pathologies

79 81 87 99 101 121 131 133 143 151 159 179 183 191 193 201 203 211 221

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VALUE ASSESSMENT HERITAGE VALUES ECONOMIC POTENTIAL

CONSERVATION VISION MASTER PLAN FOR CONSERVATION Heyday Reference Authenticity Guidelines OPERATIONAL MASTER PLAN Programme Intervention Plan Scenarios Multicriteria Analysis Tourism Vision

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251 253 254 256 257 265 267 271 278 284 286

CONCLUSION

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Photograph looking down from the roof of the Rega School’s 1983 addition towards the roof of the Bacteriological Institute

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INTRODUCTION

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In 1897, Joseph Denys (1857-1932) asked Augustin Van Arenbergh (1870-1937) to design a new “Institut de BactĂŠriologieâ€? on a site between the current Vital Decosterstraat and Sint-Maartensstraat in Leuven. Today, the eclectic main building of the Bacteriological Institute is protected as a monument but has lost its former glory and is out of use since 2005. At the end of the nineteenth century the Bacteriological Institute in Leuven, the first of its kind in Belgium, was driven by a progressive scientific spirit that can still be witnessed in the functional and sober interior. The necessity of horses for the scientific research led to the building of a significant stable complex, designed by Van Arenbergh as well. Today these stables do not exist anymore. They have been demolished during the 1960s and replaced by a new medical school (Rega-school). From this moment onwards, the Bacteriological Institute was taken out of its original context, which led to the unrecognizability of its original functioning. A later extension of the Rega-school from 1983 has been built at 1,25m next to the Bacteriological Institute, blocking off space, light and air. The revalorization of this lost site became the

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main narrative of this integrated project work where each step (context, analysis, value assessment, conservation vision) is meant to provide a solid basis for the elaboration of the next step. At first, the founder and architect of the Bacteriological Institute, Joseph Denys and Augustin Van Arenbergh, will be historically contextualized, before elaborating on the current legal status of building and site, its use history and socio-economic surrounding. This contextualization will mainly be informative to prepare the upcoming analysis. Secondly, an urban, an architectural and a technical analysis will attempt to make the building understandable and uncover the real identity of the building and site. The interpretation of historical sources, an Urban Historic Landscape Characterization and an in-depth survey of the building were the main tools for this analysis. Unlike the context, the analysis is not mere information but the result of careful measurement, interpretation and understanding. It will serve as the basis for the evaluation, where the values will be extracted out of the analysis and presented in a more subjective way.


During the value assessment, both the heritage values and the economic potential of the Bacteriological Institute will be explored and actively used to defend a conservation vision later. This vision is not meant to give one clear answer to all conservation problems but to explore tools and programmatic possibilities that can help future stakeholders to understand the building in its site, and to agree on a master plan that can serve as a reference document for future interventions.

Introduction:

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CONTEXT

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Map of Leuven 1649, in: Novum Ac Magnum Theatrum Urbium Belgicae. Amsterdam: J. Blaeu, 1649.

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HISTORICAL

Context

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Situation of the site of the Former Bacteriological Institute in 1777 Background: Map of de Ferraris (From: Province of Flemish Brabant (GIS Service)) 0

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2. Map of Leuven 1777 showing situation of the site of the former Bacteriological Institute as respresented by circular black marker

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Legend Former Bacteriological Institute Site Former Bacteriological Institute

Situation of the site of the Bacteriological Institute in 1891 Background: Map of 1891 - Institute Cartographique Militaire(From: Province of Flemish Brabant (GIS Service)) 0

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2. Map of Leuven 1891 showing situation of the site of the Bacteriological Institute as marked by red polygon

Context: Historical

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4. Map showing the Leuven city wall, with a 1649 map overlaid on a modern aerial photo

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Leuven and Its University The origin of Leuven goes back to the 9th century. Leuven was a little settlement on the eastern borders of the river Dijle. The place was an important node on the route between Flanders and Germany. The city formed itself around the first infrastructures of the Dijle. These infrastructures were Carolingian reinforcements between the different Dijle arms: a fortification site on the Dijle-island, a harbour near the Vismarkt, which served as a transhipment on the route between Antwerp/Mechelen and Gembloux/ Wavre. The last important infrastructure at that time was the river crossing near Brusselsestraat. For the fortification of the Dijle-island the river was partly replaced to form outside canals. The dimensions of the first city wall are developed with the demographic evolution of the city and the relief of the area in mind (fig. 4). The oldest street pattern in the centre integrates the meandering course of the Dijle. The perimeter of the second city wall is much wider. That way parts of the hills on the western side of Leuven became part of the fortified city. De steenwegen (paved streets) were built during the Austrian reign in Flanders. They form straight connections to the most important city in each region, starting from the main city gates.

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Leuven had four phases of growth in the evolution of the city. The city itself calls these four phases, the Medieval Settlement, Industrialization, Democratization and Individualization. According to the Structural Plan of Leuven from 2007, they want to grow more and form a fifth phase of growth. The phase of Medieval Settlement was a dark period for Leuven, which suffered a period of ups and downs. Both in terms of politics and economics, Leuven had some bad and good, wealthy years. This was also the time when the city walls were built. The construction of this first city wall was the cause for several new canals to divert the Dijle. Beside the city wall the roads were paved during this medieval period of the city evolution. The city within the walls was radial-concentric, following the Dijle. The first structures within the city were constructed parallel with the river. The bridges crossing the river were of big importance since they linked the west and east side of the city. When the second city wall was built in the 14th century, the city’s surface was increased by seven times. The dense medieval structure of the inner city is still visible in today.

STAD LEUVEN, Leuven Morgen: Ruimtelijk Structuurplan Leuven, 2007, p. 33-143.

Context: Historical

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The next phase in the evolution is the phase of Industrialization. This phase of growth refers to the shift from agriculture towards an industrialized economy in Leuven. Especially when the railway was constructed during the 19th century, the city’s industries started to flourish. Various factories and companies found their location in or near Leuven. This economical growth created an increase in wealth for the city. Also the population increased and a new middle class was formed. The industrial growth and the location of many companies was situated in the north and the east of the town of Leuven, just outside the second city wall. The next phase was Democratization, in which the new democratic electoral system was the trigger for a new phase of growth. The suburban and residential areas of Wijgmaal, Wilsele, Heverlee and Kessel-Lo grew as well. Major constructions appeared in the city, such as the hospital site, the convent, the prison, some schools, residences and university buildings such as the Bacteriological Institute in 1899. The last phase of Individualization was characterized by an increase of private car ownership. The hegemony of the car led towards an ex-

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pansion of the road network that also changed the population of the inner city. The people exchanged their old, small houses in the center for new, larger houses in the new suburban areas. This was the period when the second city wall was converted into a ring road. The housing that was left in the inner city got occupied by the growing amount of students of the Catholic University of Leuven. The University is based in the city of Leuven since the 15th century (fig. 5). The origins of the University are situated in the university hall and five other buildings in the city center. The expansion of the University towards Heverlee was established after World War II. The urban life and culture in Leuven and the University have always been intertwined. During the 1960s the University has been divided into two separate entities: a Flemish part (Katholieke Universiteit Leuven) and a French-speaking part (Université Catholique de Louvain). The Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KUL) stayed in Leuven while the Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL) created its own campus-city in the South of Brabant, known as Louvain-la-Neuve.


A plan for the development of the KU Leuven came in 1965. The University was divided into three core campuses. The idea of this plan was to group different programmes together to save time for the different students and professors. In this way, the human sciences were situated around the city park, while the physical and applied sciences were developed around the Arenberg Campus in Heverlee. The medical sciences stayed grouped around the old hospital site in the inner city but slowly moved outside the city after the construction of a new hospital at Gasthuisberg. Besides the grouping of the programmes, links were created to connect all three of them.

With the programmes City of Knowledge and Decision-making Centre, the city would like to develop conference facilities that connect the university and its spin-off companies. The city wants to support the development of convention facilities. The Structural Plan is not really clear on how to develop these spaces and states that the University itself needs to examine the existing conference infrastructure and see how it can be expanded and optimized.

According to the Structural Plan of Leuven, the University counted 13000 employees and 25000 students in 2007, a number that is still growing every year. Due to this number, the University has to contribute to the urban life of Leuven, while the environment of Leuven should contribute to the University. The University is, next to other developments, one of the most important factors in the growth of the city. The way the University expands or grows will determine the future urban design of Leuven as a city.

Context: Historical

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Buildings of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in 1913 Map: Annuaire illustrĂŠ de L'enseignement catholique en Belgique (1913) Background: Othographic picture 2011 0 50 100 200 (From: Province of Flemish Brabant (GIS Service))

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5. Map showing buildings of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, with a 1913 map overlaid on a modern aerial photo

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Context: Historical

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6. “Laboratoire de Neurologie�, in: Mark DEREZ e.a. (ed.), Album of a scientific world: the University of Louvain around 1900, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2012, p. 171.

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Science and Bacteriology in Leuven and Beyond The Architecture of Science More than a century earlier, at the end of the nineteenth century, the University was in expansion as well. At this time, Belgium was one of the most industrialized countries and its universities were profiting from this wealthy climate. While State Universities such as the University of Ghent benefitted from large subsidies, Catholic Universities such as Leuven often had to look for private patrons to finance their new scientific buildings and equipment.2 The recently discovered Album de l’Université Catholique de Louvain with photographs of Emile Morren of around 1900, shows how the soberness of the interiors of the university buildings in Leuven at that time was a direct consequence of the economic reality, where private gifts had to be well spent and strictly used to serve science only (fig. 6, 7, 8 and 9): “Le luxe on y renonça: quant aux perfectionnements imaginées ailleurs dans l’intérêt de l’hygiène et de la science, il n’en est aucun qu’on ne voulut réaliser”.3 Although the mainly Gothic Revival exteriors of the new university buildings symbolized the

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catholic character of the university (“ce style chrétien du moyen âge, qui traduit si bien les aspirations de la foi”4), their rational construction and use of materials was as advanced as other modern buildings in Belgium at that time. The Institut de Vésale or anatomical amphitheatre of Joris Helleputte (1852-1925) from 1877, was one of the first new nineteenth century buildings of the University -previously colleges of the Old University were used- were the Gothic Revival style was introduced for a modern programme in need of light, air and hygiene: “Deux cents élèves purent cependant s’y rendre commodément et s’y trouver parfaitement à l’aise, avec de l’espace, de l’air, de la lumière à profusion”.5 The Introduction of Bacteriology in Leuven It was in this building that Joseph Denys (18571932) would start teaching pathological anatomy and introduce bacteriology within the Catholic University of Leuven. The field of bacteriology had known some remarkable evolutions during the second half of the nineteenth century and was given a chapter of over one hundred pages in the publication Le mouvement scientifique en Belgique 1830-1905, an

Joris SNAET, Interview from May 31 2013. “Inauguration de l’Institut Anatomique”, Revue Catholique, 17, Leuven: Peeters, 1877, p. 511. “Inauguration de l’Institut Anatomique”, Revue Catholique, 17, Leuven: Peeters, 1877, p. 508. “Inauguration de l’Institut Anatomique”, Revue Catholique, 17, Leuven: Peeters, 1877, p. 507.

Context: Historical

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7. “Auditoire de Chimie générale”, in: Mark DEREZ e.a. (ed.), Album of a scientific world: the University of Louvain around 1900, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2012, p. 117.

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8. “Auditoire de Zoologie”, in: Mark DEREZ e.a. (ed.), Album of a scientific world: the University of Louvain around 1900, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2012, p. 155.

Context: Historical

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9. “Laboratoire de Physique”, in: Mark DEREZ e.a. (ed.), Album of a scientific world: the University of Louvain around 1900, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2012, p. 131.

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10. Joseph Denys, in: Jean SUIS, “L’Université de Louvain-II. La faculté de médecine”, Patriote Illustré, 13/1, 1897, p. 18.

Context: Historical

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overview of scientific developments, published on the occasion of the world exhibition in Liège or the Exposition Universelle et Internationale de Liège in 1905: “Dans le développement grandiose des sciences biologiques au cours du dernier siècle, une large part revient, sans contredit, à la bactériologie. Aucune autre, parmi ces sciences, n’a fait autant et d’aussi rapides progrès. Il va une cinquantaine d’années, elle n’existait pas même de nom; aujourd’hui, la grandeur de ses découvertes et l’immense portée de leurs résultats l’imposent à l’universelle attention”.6 The beginning of the 20th century was the heyday for bacteriology. As a branch of microbiology, its development had been caused by the microscopic observations of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) during the second part of the 17th century. Only when researchers such as Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) proved a connection between bacteria and diseases and successfully immunized animals against diseases through vaccines and serums (1880-1881), the science of bacteriology gained its momentum.7 Around 1890, German physician Emil Adolf von Behring (1854-1917) discovered a serum

for the treatment of diphteria. After this discovery, serology became a “progressive and fast-growing branch of pathological bacteriology” and there was a hope that other bacteriological conditions could be treated with a serum as well.8 One of the scientists sharing this hope for new discoveries in the field of serology was Joseph Denys (fig. 10)9 Originally from Ruysselede, he studied pathological anatomy in Strasbourg, which he would later teach at the Catholic University of Leuven between 1884 and 1920. Within his classes of pathological anatomy at the Catholic University of Leuven, he started to include elements of bacteriology from 1885 onwards.10 The university annual of 1900 proves that Denys, who was even the dean of the medicine faculty at that time, managed to institutionalize bacteriology successfully.11 For his research, experiments and classes, Denys could count on the cooperation of teaching assistants, young doctors and doctoral students.12 The period photographs often show Denys in the middle of his staff (fig. 11). Although these pictures are representations of a carefully staged reality, they nevertheless show us the ambition of Denys to be a scientist in the midst

6 Emile VAN ERMENGEM, “Les sciences bactériologiques et parasitologiques”, in: Le mouvement scientifique en Belgique 1830-1905, 2, Brussels: Société Belge de Librairie, p. 3. 7 “Bacteriology”, in: Encyclopaedia Britannica, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/48314/bacteriology (accessed on May 12 2013). 8 Lyvia DISER, “Stables of the Bacteriological Institute”, in: Mark DEREZ e.a. (ed.), Album of a scientific world: the University of Louvain around 1900, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2012, p. 174. 9 Lyvia DISER, “Stables of the Bacteriological Institute”, in: Mark DEREZ e.a. (ed.), Album of a scientific world: the University of Louvain around 1900, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2012, p. 174. 10 “De eerste medewerkers van Gustaaf Verriest”, in: KU Leuven - Faculteit Geneeskunde, http://med.kuleuven.be/ nl/geneeskunde/vc/anatomie/de-eerste-medewerkers-van-gustaaf-verriest (accessed on May 12 2013).

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11. Joseph Denys in his laboratory at the Carnoy Institute: in: Jean SUIS, “L’Université de Louvain - II. La faculté de médecine”, Patriote Illustré, 13/1, 1897, p. 17.

11 Annuaire de l’université catholique de Louvain, 64, Van Linthout, 1900, p. 16. 12 Lyvia DISER, “Bacteriological laboratory in Villers College”, in: Mark DEREZ e.a. (ed.), Album of a scientific world: the University of Louvain around 1900, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2012, p. 178.

Context: Historical

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12. “Institut Bactériologique”, in: Mark DEREZ e.a. (ed.), Album of a scientific world: the University of Louvain around 1900, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2012, p. 179.

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of the action. As the first bacteriological patron, Denys was seen as a pioneer, an innovator and a “tireless worker and organizer”. He managed to enthuse and inspire the younger generation (“la jeunesse laborieuse”) and realized his scientific goals through a “close-knit research team”. In 1920, he retired and was succeeded by Richard Bruynoghe (1881-1957).13

as seen through a microscope. In these laboratories, small experimental animals such as rabbits were “infected with streptococcus or pneumococcus and then treated with serum”.15 The technical equipment consisted mainly out of “standard instruments for optical measurements, a steam sterilisation device and the necessary apparatus for sterilising sera”.16

When Joseph Denys introduced bacteriology in Leuven, he was allowed to use a couple of laboratory rooms in the Carnoy Institute for Cellular Biology, located in the Villers College in the Vaartstraat.14 The only retrieved photographic sources (photographer Emile Morren) showing the bacteriological institute in use, date from this period before the new building in the Vital Decosterstraat was used. With their large 18th century windows, these rooms proved light enough to serve as laboratories. The furniture pieces were sober and strictly functional. Researchers were not sitting in chairs but on severe stools, as if they were not allowing themselves to let comfort distract them from making accurate observations. The walls seemed to be painted in one homogeneous dark color, only allowing some didactic pictures as decoration such as the representation of rod bacilli

Morren’s photograph from the Album de l’Université Catholique de Louvain shows the laboratory as a clean, ordered space where knowledge is produced (fig.12). However, another photograph from Morren, published in Le Patriote Illustré from 1897, shows the same laboratory in a more messy and busy state, caught in the midst of the research action. What the photographs are unable to express, is the particular smell in these laboratories. In his article for Le Patriote Illustré, Jean Suis vividly describes the uninviting smell and takes the reader outside for some fresh air: “Sortons prendre un air plus rassurant”.17 Since bacteriology in Leuven was focused from the beginning onwards on the developments within serology, hygienic stables for the keeping of horses, providing serum fluid, were nec-

13 Lyvia DISER, “Laboratory in the Bacteriological Institute”, in: Mark DEREZ e.a. (ed.), Album of a scientific world: the University of Louvain around 1900, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2012, p. 182. 14 Lyvia DISER, “Stables of the Bacteriological Institute with inner courtyard and pond”, in: Mark DEREZ e.a. (ed.), Album of a scientific world: the University of Louvain around 1900, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2012, p. 172. 15 Lyvia DISER, “Bacteriological laboratory in Villers College”, in: Mark DEREZ e.a. (ed.), Album of a scientific world: the University of Louvain around 1900, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2012, p. 178. 16 Lyvia DISER, “Laboratory in the Bacteriological Institute”, in: Mark DEREZ e.a. (ed.), Album of a scientific world: the University of Louvain around 1900, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2012, p. 182. 17 SUIS Jean, “L’Université de Louvain - II. La faculté de médecine”, Patriote Illustré, 13/1, 1897, p. 18.

Context: Historical

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13. “Institut Bactériologique - Ecuries”, in: Mark DEREZ e.a. (ed.), Album of a scientific world: the University of Louvain around 1900, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2012, p. 175.

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essary. The Villers College could not accommodate these new needs so Denys had to look for another site in the neighborhood. On a piece of land next to the Aardappelmarkt (“Potato Market”) between the current Vital Decosterstraat and the Sint-Maartensstraat, preliminary stables were built in 1896 for the Brabant thoroughbreds, who had become the new symbol of bacteriology and who were well looked after by stable hands (fig. 13).18 To retrieve the serum from the horses, the following process was followed. At first, a horse was injected with a harmless quantity of diphtheria bacilli. This produced a reaction in the horse’s blood composition although the nature of the reaction remained unknown. However, what was proven before by von Behring and others was that blood serum from a horse had therapeutic value on humans. The horse’s blood was later collected in sterile receptacles by the laboratory workers and stable hands. In the laboratory this blood was further purified and sterilized in order to make blood serum. In a first testing phase, the blood serum was dosed to small experimental animals before being given to human patients. After this cycle,

the horse naturally needed rest before the next injection (see earlier fig. 10).19 The new site for the production of serum fluid, was located next to another masterpiece of 18th century architecture in Leuven: the Kolveniershof: “This was the gigantic guild house (à l’italienne) of the former militia guild of St. Christopher, one of the associations that had been responsible for maintaining law and order in the city and that had a shooting range and a practice area here. In the nineteenth century, the Civil Guard very appropriately had its headquarters here”.20 Augustin Van Arenbergh (1870-1937) Only a year after the building of the preliminary stables in 1896, Joseph Denys asked for a building permit in 1897 to build a new, fully equipped Institut de Bactériologie with accompanying romantic garden and stables. The fact that Denys and not the University signed the building permit application, could be a sign that the Bacteriological Institute was also financed with private money and functioned as a private institution that was connected to the University. Although Denys was later described as the first patron of the Institute (see earlier), it remains unclear whether he financed

18 Lyvia DISER, “Stables of the Bacteriological Institute”, in: Mark DEREZ e.a. (ed.), Album of a scientific world: the University of Louvain around 1900, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2012, p. 176. 19 Lyvia DISER, “Stables of the Bacteriological Institute”, in: Mark DEREZ e.a. (ed.), Album of a scientific world: the University of Louvain around 1900, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2012, p. 176. 20 Lyvia DISER, “Stables of the Bacteriological Institute”, in: Mark DEREZ e.a. (ed.), Album of a scientific world: the University of Louvain around 1900, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2012, p. 174.

Context: Historical

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14. Lower right picture: Architect’s name on the building permit, in: STADSARCHIEF Leuven, Doss. n° 59865, building permit from August 2 1897. 15. Left picture: “Architectenwoning van L. Van Arenbergh”, in: De inventaris van het bouwkundig erfgoed, ID 72629: https://inventaris.onroerenderfgoed.be/dibe/relict/72629 (accessed March 13, 2013). 16. Right picture: “Burgerhuis”, in: De inventaris van het bouwkundig erfgoed, ID 72626: https://inventaris. onroerenderfgoed.be/dibe/relict/72626 (accessed on March 13, 2013).

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the Institution on his own or through other private parties. The reason why he asked architect Augustin Van Arenbergh (1870-1937), remains unknown (fig.14). Perhaps they were neighbors, as their common address of Blijde Inkomststraat 22 Leuven could indicate?21 Or maybe Denys wrote down the address of Van Arenbergh’s office when asking for a building permit? This would make sense since Van Arenbergh lived in the Blijde Inkomststraat 24 (see further).

fore the turn of the century. As an adolescent, Augustin Van Arenbergh already worked in the practice of his father. His first personal projects were rather traditional, slightly influenced by the Gothic Revival trends in Leuven.22 His architectural archive has disappeared. His known oeuvre is therefore incomplete and could only be identified through the Flemish inventory Inventaris van het Onroerend Erfgoed and the article De architectenfamilie Van Arenbergh by F.A. Lefever:

Augustin Van Arenbergh was not part of the University’s architect circles gathered around Joris Helleputte. However, as a member of one of Leuven’s most prominent architect families, Van Arenbergh was of course not just anybody. Until today, Augustin Van Arenbergh remains unknown in comparison with his grandfather Alexandre Van Arenbergh (1799-1877) and his father Louis Van Arenbergh (1834-1888), both provincial architects and famous for their churches and private houses such as Louis’s own house in the Blijde Inkomststraat 24 (fig.15), where Augustin would continue to live until his father’s death. Coming from a family of provincial architects, Van Arenbergh was only deputy provincial architect for a short while be-

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1886 House for Baron Orban de Xivry, Stationsstraat 88 Leuven 1893 House for Fr. Tielemans, Blijde Inkomststraat 19 Leuven (fig. 16) 1897 Bacteriological Institute for J. Denys, (current) Vital Decostersstraat 102 (protected since 2010) (fig. 17) 1897-1898 Parish of Sint-Engelbertus, Deurne 1897-1898 Vicarage, Diest 1898 Vicarage for the parish of Sint-Bernardus, Lubbeek 1901 Shop for H. Sauvage, Brusselsestraat 9 Leuven (demolished) 1905 Villa Les Tilleuls for R. Peters-De Jongh, Naamsesteenweg 467 Heverlee (protected

21 STADSARCHIEF LEUVEN, Doss. n° 59865, building permit from August 2 1897. 22 F.A. LEFEVER, “De architectenfamilie Van Arenbergh”, in: Jaarboek van de Geschied- en Oudheidkundige Kring voor Leuven en omgeving, 28, Leuven: Peeters, 1988, p. 19-21.

Context: Historical

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17.“Voormalig Instituut voor Bacteriologie�, in: De inventaris van het bouwkundig erfgoed, ID 206651, https:// inventaris.onroerenderfgoed.be/dibe/relict/206651 (accessed on March 13, 2013).

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since 1978) (fig. 19-21) 1906-1908 Buildings for E. Empain, Heliopolis, Egypt 1922 Reconstruction buildings after WWI, Naamsestraat 4-6 Leuven (fig. 18)

to create the effect of being in the midst of the garden (fig. 21). Van Arenbergh used a similar round-shaped wintergarden as he did a couple of years before in the Bacteriological Institute (see further).

Rumor has it Augustin Van Arenbergh spent some time in the office of architect Paul Hankar (1859-1901), where he got enthused by the new style or art nouveau. In a private villa in Heverlee, Villa Les Tilleuils (1905), Van Arenbergh’s art nouveau is at its best. The new style can not only be witnessed on an aesthetic level, through the organic decoration of the woodwork or the floral motives in the omnipresent stained glass, but is also present on a spatial level. The central staircase (fig. 20) -massively lit through a large stained glass cupola- serves as the node of the house, communicating with different rooms and (in-between) levels, similarly to Paul Otlet’s (1868-1944) townhouse in Brussels from 1896 by Octave Van Rysselberghe (1855-1929) and Henry Van de Velde (18631959). As in the townhouses of Victor Horta (1861-1947) or Gustave Strauven (1878-1919) in Brussels, an inner window opening onto the staircase emphasizes the interrelation of the different spaces. The glass winter garden had

In 1900, Van Arenbergh won the Concours de l’Académie Royale de Belgique, a competition of the Royal Academy of Belgium. His monumental project of a large square and palace was published in the architectural journal L’Emulation23 and would lead to his involvement in Héliopolis, the utopian (garden) city of industrial Baron Edouard Empain (1852-1929) near Cairo in Egypt. Head architect Ernest Jaspar (1876-1940) invited Van Arenbergh and other young architects to contribute to this modern city near the desert, characterized by large avenues with water provisions for all buildings. The architects were asked to design their buildings in an eclectic mix of ancient Egyptian and islamic influences and Van Arenbergh’s art nouveau had to be tempered.24

• •

However, this eclecticism had always been present in his work, especially in the Bacteriological Institute, his most significant work in Belgium. In this way, the facade in Italian-influ-

23 Augustin VAN ARENBERGH, “Concours de l’Académie Royale de Belgique”, L’Emulation, 1/25, 1900, p. 36-43. 24 F.A. LEFEVER, “De architectenfamilie Van Arenbergh”, in: Jaarboek van de Geschied- en Oudheidkundige Kring voor Leuven en omgeving, 28, Leuven: Peeters, 1988, p. 23.

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18. Right picture: Panden in Wederopbouwstijl, in: De inventaris van het bouwkundig erfgoed, ID 206128, https://inventaris.onroerenderfgoed.be/dibe/relict/206128 (accessed on March 13, 2013). 19. Left picture: Central staircase Villa “Les Tilleuls”, in: “De burgerij en haar landhuis: Heverlee/Leuven Villa Les Tilleuls”, in: Cornet Pascal e.a. (ed.), 22 Keer binnenkijken: wonen in toen en nu, Ghent: Borgerhoff & Lamberigts, 2007, p. 46.

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20. Left picture: Central staircase Villa “Les Tilleuls”, in: “De burgerij en haar landhuis: Heverlee/Leuven Villa Les Tilleuls”, in: Cornet Pascal e.a. (ed.), 22 Keer binnenkijken: wonen in toen en nu, Ghent: Borgerhoff & Lamberigts, 2007, p. 46. 21. Right Picture: Central staircase Villa “Les Tilleuls”, in: “De burgerij en haar landhuis: Heverlee/Leuven Villa Les Tilleuls”, in: Cornet Pascal e.a. (ed.), 22 Keer binnenkijken: wonen in toen en nu, Ghent: Borgerhoff & Lamberigts, 2007, p. 46.

Context: Historical

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22. Institut BactĂŠriologique - Ecuries, in: Mark DEREZ e.a. (ed.), Album of a scientific world: the University of Louvain around 1900, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2012, p. 173.

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enced Renaissance Revival with historicising elements was completely different than the sober and strictly functional backside and interior, where historicising elements were rather absent. Paul Hankar’s art nouveau influence is visible in the combination of brick and natural stone, the crafted wooden staircases, the wrought iron bannister towards the cellar and the omnipresence of daylight in the building. The identity of the Bacteriological Institute will be further revealed in the architectural analysis. Bacteriological architecture in Belgium On February 2, 1899 the new Bacteriological Institute was formally opened and from that moment on Denys could really start to develop bacteriology as a “fully-fledged science in Leuven”:25 “L’Institut bactériologique de Louvain, l’un des plus importants de l’Europe, a été transféré, en 1899, de l’Institut Carnoy, consacré surtout à la biologie cellulaire, dans le vaste établissement actuel, occupant un terrain de plus d’un demi-hectare. Il se compose d’un corps principal de bâtiments avec logement pour le directeur et ses assistants, laboratoires

nombreux, salles de travail commun, auditoires, musée, etc., et de grandes écuries pouvant loger une trentaine de chevaux destinés à la préparation des sérums. Ces écuries, avec des chenils étendus, etc., sont réparties au fond d’un beau jardin. Tout est spacieux, bien aéré et combiné d’une façon heureuse et même pittoresque.” (fig. 22)26 Joseph Denys’ “Institut de Bactériologie” was not only the first entirely new institute with laboratoria and auditoria in the University of Leuven27 but also the first newly built bacteriological institute in Belgium. However, the private laboratory of E. Van Ermengem (1851-1932) in Brussels was the first place where the methods from this new science were tested and applied in 1882, quickly followed by chairs and laboratories in bacteriology between 1884 and 1887 at the Universities of Liège, Ghent and Leuven.28 Around 1905, when Le movement scientifique en Belgique 1830-1905 was published, these major universities had all created a new bacteriological institute. Since 1895, each province had even taken the initiative to develop bacteriological laboratories at the disposal of doctors and researchers, in a massive attempt to eradicate transmittable diseases. Given the

25 Lyvia DISER, “Stables of the Bacteriological Institute with inner courtyard and pond”, in: Mark DEREZ e.a. (ed.), Album of a scientific world: the University of Louvain around 1900, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2012, p. 172. 26 Emile VAN ERMENGEM, “Les sciences bactériologiques et parasitologiques”, in: Le mouvement scientifique en Belgique 1830-1905, 2, Brussels: Société Belge de Librairie, p. 10-11. 27 VLAAMSE REGERING, Ministerieel besluit houdende bescherming als monument en stadsgezicht van Universitaire Instituten en Instellingen te LEUVEN (Leuven/Heverlee), May 5 2010, p. 4. 28 Emile VAN ERMENGEM, “Les sciences bactériologiques et parasitologiques”, in: Le mouvement scientifique en Belgique 1830-1905, 2, Brussels: Société Belge de Librairie, p. 10-11.

Context: Historical

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A

B

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The main Belgian bacteriological institutes in 1905 (source: Emile VAN ERMENGEM, “Les sciences bactériologiques et parasitologiques”, in: Le mouvement scientifique en Belgique 1830-1905, 2, Brussels: Société Belge de Librairie, p. 13-89.): A. Institut d’hygiène et de bactériologie, Université de Gand, Ghent B. Institut de bactériologie, Université de Louvain, Leuven C. Institut de bactériologie, Université de Liège, Liège D. Institut de bactériologie, Université de Bruxelles, Brussels

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E

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E. Institut Pasteur du Brabant, Brussels F. Institut d’hygiène et de bactériologie du Hainaut, Mons G. Laboratoire de bactériologie de l’Etat Indépendant, Léopoldville (Congo)

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limited size of Belgium, the number of bacteriological institutes and laboratories was quite exceptional. In 1905, the main Belgian bacteriological institutes included:29 (p. 44-45) • • • • • • •

Institut d’hygiène et de bactériologie, Université de Gand, Ghent Institut de bactériologie, Université de Louvain, Leuven Institut de bactériologie, Université de Liège, Liège Institut de bactériologie, Université de Bruxelles, Brussels Institut Pasteur du Brabant, Brussels Institut d’hygiène et de bactériologie du Hainaut, Mons Laboratoire de bactériologie de l’Etat Indépendant, Léopoldville (Congo)

traditional at first glance, the construction and use of materials was applied in a strictly functional way. Since Cloquet was an engineer as well, all sorts of new technical innovations were used for the purpose of science and hygiene: electric shutters in the auditorium (fig. 23), glass bricks in the facade (fig. 24) or lava stone lab countertops (fig. 25). Rounded off ceramic baseboards (fig. 26) facilitated hygienic maintenance and the carefully studied ventilation system imported fresh air and pushed the impure air back out (fig. 27). In the Bacteriological Institute in Leuven, a similar ventilation system had been introduced and special hygienic tiles were used (see further).

Mostly, laboratories were housed in existing buildings but in the case of the Université de Louvain, Université de Bruxelles or the Université de Gand, new buildings were erected according to modern hygienic regulations. In 1905, architect Louis Cloquet’s (1849-1920) Institut d’hygiène et de bactériologie in Ghent was the newest and most advanced bacteriological institute. Although the historicising facade looks

29 Emile VAN ERMENGEM, “Les sciences bactériologiques et parasitologiques”, in: Le mouvement scientifique en Belgique 1830-1905, 2, Brussels: Société Belge de Librairie, p. 12-16.

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23. Lower left picture: Auditorium with electric shutters Rommelaerecomplex 24. Upper middle picture: Glass bricks Rommelaerecomplex 25. Upper right picture: Counter in lava stone Rommelaerecomplex 26. Lower right picture: Rounded off ceramic plinth Rommelaerecomplex 27. Upper left picture: Ventilation hole Rommelaerecomplex

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28. Indication of the cornices and parapet, in: STADSARCHIEF Leuven, Doss. n째 116620/5285, building permit from September 20 1961.

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The Bacteriological Institute and After From the preliminary stables in 1896 onwards till the 1950s, the complex and site of the Bacteriological Institute kept its original function. On May, 12 1944 the Institute was severely damaged due to a bombardement in the neighborhood by the allied forces. After these damages, the Institute seemed to have never fully recovered. The heyday of bacteriology was already long past. The original pioneering spirit where professors, assistants and students lived and worked together was no longer existing. The once brand new building, symbol of bacteriology’s enlightened scientific status, had become old-fashioned. In 1961, the cornices and parapet of the main facade were taken away due to water infiltration (fig. 28).30 The consequence of this decision was that the building lost one of its main aesthetic features, leading to a further under-valuation of building and site for years to come. From 1962 onwards the site of the Bacteriological Institute would be split up in two pieces. The former stables towards the Sint-Maartensstraat were demolished and a new medical school, the Hogere School voor Medische Analisten en Diëtisten (the later Rega-school) was built and extended in 197131 and 1983.

30 31 32

In 1966, the main building of the Bacteriological Institute was transformed into a medical center for students of the University, the Universiteitsklinieken St.-Rafael. The change of function implied a serious reorganization of the spaces and the auditorium and main laboratory on the first floor were divided respectively into different room and even different levels, which will be discussed later during the building chronology. Between 1990 and 1991, the function of the building changed again. The Instituut voor Land- en Waterbeheer van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen (“Institute for Land- and Water Management of the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences”) moved in and stayed there until 2006. In 2006, Existenz, a student association of the Faculty of Engineering used the building for their yearly thematic week.32 Since 2010, the Bacteriological Institute (not the whole former site) is protected as a monument. Meanwhile, the Faculty of Bioengineering is temporarily using the main auditorium for the use of experiments on tropical fish. The introduction of big aquaria within the monument are leading to different pathologies, as will be discussed later.

STADSARCHIEF LEUVEN, Doss. n° 116620/5285, building permit from September 20 1961. STADSARCHIEF LEUVEN, Doss. n° 116763/5338, building permit from December 21 1962. Zeljka KNEZEVIC, Email from March 6 2013.

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1980

1890

[1896] preliminary stables 1990

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[1899] inauguration of the new “Institut de Bactériologie” 2000 1960 [1983/1971/1962 ] demolition of the stables from 1897 and development of the Rega-school

2010

1970 present [1966] transformation into Universiteitsklinieken St.-Rafael

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[1991-1990] transformation into Instituut voor Land- en Waterbeheer van de faculteit landbouwwetenschappen

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2010 [2010] protected monument present [2013-2010] temporary experiments by bioengineers

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LEGAL

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Ownership and Management The Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (KUL) is still the current owner of the Bacteriological Institute and the daily management of the building is taken care of by the Technical Services of the University. According to their homepage, they are responsible for:33 • •

• •

33

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the development, conservation, management and operation of the immovable properties and the technical infrastructure development and implementation of a comprehensive real estate and space policy for construction, buildings, space and energy facilities execute and manage construction and renovation works provision of logistics services to support other units and staff such as mail distribution, transport and relocations, cleaning and maintenance, monitoring and security, support for events, ...

“Technical Services”, in: KU Leuven, https://admin.kuleuven.be/td/en/index (accessed on May 20 2013).


Serial Protection The former Bacteriological Institute has been protected as a monument through a ministerial decree by the Flemish Government on May 5, 2010. The ministerial decree or Ministerieel besluit houdende bescherming als monument en stadsgezicht van Universitaire Instituten en Instellingen te LEUVEN (Leuven/Heverlee) was the final result of a serial nomination, consisting in thirteen significant university buildings and cityscapes in Leuven:34 1.

the former Anatomy Theatre of the Vesalius Institute from 1876-1877 (see earlier) 2. the former Bacteriological Institute from 1897-1899 3. the Renaer House from ca. 1700-1878 4. the former Dorlodot House from 1897 5. the Cole Museum from 1905-1923 6. the Paleontological Institute from 19051923 7. the Pathological Institute from 1906-1907 8. the Thermo-technical Institute from 19251931 9. the Special Schools for Engineers and their immediate surroundings 10. the former Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences from 1932 11. the Agricultural Institute from 1937

12. the Gymnasium of the Gymnastics Institute from 1938-1939 13. the Gymnastics Institute with immediate surroundings of the Gymnasium Although the ministerial decree does not explicitly mention their interrelation, these buildings were consciously selected. They are all testimonies of the modern expansion of the University between 1870 and 1940. Their historical significance was the main reason for protecting these thirteen buildings and sites. Only three buildings (Dorlodot House/Agricultural Institute/Gymnasium) are also protected for their artistic value. However, the Bacteriological Institute is not amongst them and it seems that the attribution of the artistic values (“artistieke waarden�) happened in a rather random way. An evaluation of the artistic values of the Bacteriological Institute will be provided in the upcoming value assessment.35

34 VLAAMSE REGERING, Ministerieel besluit houdende bescherming als monument en stadsgezicht van Universitaire Instituten en Instellingen te LEUVEN (Leuven/Heverlee), May 5 2010. 35 VLAAMSE REGERING, Ministerieel besluit houdende bescherming als monument en stadsgezicht van Universitaire Instituten en Instellingen te LEUVEN (Leuven/Heverlee), May 5 2010.

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29. Original door handle on the ground floor level

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Scope of Protection The actual protected area of the Bacteriological Institute does not cover the whole former site and stops where the former Rega-school, built after the demolition of the picturesque stables and garden of the institute, starts (fig. 30).36 However, this protected area is enlarged through the protected adjoining Kolverniershof (monument) with its protected former shooting range (cityscape) (fig. 31). Although the whole building of the Bacteriological Institute is protected by law, some interior elements are explicitly mentioned in the decree in order to prevent a misunderstanding of what needs to be conserved and where new interventions are possible. The interior elements listed in the decree are:37

and the other buildings on the nomination list, the KU Leuven contested their protection as a whole. Especially the protection of some of the interiors, including the Bacteriological Institute, seemed unrealistic in their eyes. The KUL argued that the keeping of original furniture and equipment would be a heavy burden in the future and would make re-use almost impossible. The contesting arguments of the KUL were later overturned and the protection proceeded.38

1. the polychrome cement (ceramic, as will be discussed later) tiles (fig.32) 2. the parquets and paneling (fig.38) 3. the staircases (fig. 36) 4. the wooden doors and windows with opening mechanism (fig. 29) 5. the remaining book stacks in one of the laboratories (fig. 37) 6. the large laboratory with cast iron columns (fig. 33) As the owner of the Bacteriological Institute

36 VLAAMSE REGERING, Ministerieel besluit houdende bescherming als monument en stadsgezicht van Universitaire Instituten en Instellingen te LEUVEN (Leuven/Heverlee), May 5 2010. 37 VLAAMSE REGERING, Ministerieel besluit houdende bescherming als monument en stadsgezicht van Universitaire Instituten en Instellingen te LEUVEN (Leuven/Heverlee), May 5 2010, p. 5. 38 “Adviezen en bezwaren: bespreking 27.04.2009�, in: VLAAMSE REGERING, Ministerieel besluit houdende bescherming als monument en stadsgezicht van Universitaire Instituten en Instellingen te LEUVEN (Leuven/Heverlee), May 5 2010.

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30. Map of protected area in: Clara VERLOOVE , “Leuven: Vital Decosterstraat 102: Het voormalige Instituut voor Bacteriologie”, in: AGENTSCHAP R-O VLAANDEREN (Onroerend Erfgoed Vlaams-Brabant), Universitair patrimonium Leuven: Deeldossier 11: Instituten en Instellingen, doss. DB002289, March 11 2008.

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Listings and Protections in the Neighbourhood Background: Cadastral Map Leuven (From: Province of Flemish Brabant (GIS Service)) 0

Legend Protected Monuments or Cityscapes Bacteriological Institute Kolveniershof Part of 31. Map ofSint-Geertrui listed andAbbey protected Shooting Range Kolveniershof Listed Buildings Legend Listed Buildings or Cityscapes Protected Monuments Listed Relic Institute Bacteriological

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32. Upper left picture: Ceramic tiles from 1897 33. Upper right picture: Laboratory with cast iron pillars 34. Lower left picture: Mechanical shutter 35. Lower right picture: Pressed cardboard paneling

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36. Upper left picture: Wooden staircase in the main hall 37. Upper right picture: Library piece in the laboratory wing 38. Lower picture: Parquet

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Fragmentation of t h e Te c h n i c a l S e r v i c e s Within the technical services, there is also a Monuments Division, currently supervised by Zeljka Knezevic. Their specific tasks and responsibilities are not mentioned on the homepage of the Technical Services. They are the advisory organ of the Technical Services when it comes to making decisions on KU Leuven buildings that are protected as monuments. Knezevic confirmed that the Bacteriological Institute is no longer meant to be actively used by the KU Leuven. However, if the building would be sold, contract clauses could prevent the monument from an uncertain future. There was the idea to turn the building into residences but this was deemed inappropriate by the Monuments Division, more in favor of a cultural function combined with a horeca function (hotel, restaurant or cafĂŠ) to attract people and make it economically viable.39 Whether these requirements will provide a sustainable future for the Bacteriological Institute will be further developed in the chapter on the conservation vision.

stitute- into non-subsidized student residences, has been the responsibility of this division. Since the protected area of the Bacteriological Institute does not include the whole former site, this new project was developed independently from the neighboring monument.40 This strict separation between the New Construction Projects Division and the Monuments Division prevents an integrated approach and resulted in some problematic architectural consequences, as will be discussed later in the analysis. Today, the building permit for the student residences has been granted already by the City of Leuven. As with the protected plot of the Bacteriological Institute, the former Rega-school is owned by the KU Leuven. With the KUL still owning the whole former site of the Bacteriological Institute, a reconnection between the different buildings on the former site is still feasible.

The monuments division is separated from the New Construction Projects Division, supervised by Sara Phlips. The reconversion of the former Rega-school -built during the 1960s on the spot of the former stables of the Bacteriological In-

39 40

KNEZEVIC Zeljka, Email from March 6 2013. Iris HEYLEN and BjĂśrn SMEKENS, Interview taken on May 29 2013.

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Current and Historic Waterways in Leuven Background: Cadastral Map Leuven (From: Province of Flemish Brabant (GIS Service))


Leuven as a Geographic Entity Leuven is the capital of the Province of Flemish Brabant (Vlaams-Brabant) in Belgium and part of the Flemish Region. The city of Leuven is situated about 30 kilometers East of the Belgian capital Brussels. Besides this geographic location of Leuven, the city is situated on the node between three geological entities in Belgium. These are the plains of Low-Belgium in the North, the plateau of Brabant South of the city and the Hageland hills from the South East to the North East. The Dijle-river, crossing the Hageland hills, flows through the city center from South to North. The Hageland hills are crossing the city from East to West. They vary in height from about 70 meters up to 100 meters and are mainly wooded. From East to West the names of these hills are Roeselberg, Gasthuisberg, Zwanenberg, Kesselberg, Lemingberg, Wijnberg and Schoolbergen.

century. Also the railways connecting Leuven to Brussels in the West and Liège and Genk in the East are important line infrastructures within the city. The most important line infrastructures are the highways. Leuven is situated on the E40 and E314 highways, which give the city easy access to major cities in Belgium. Other important links are the steenwegen, promoted as good alternatives for the highways and giving access to the directions of Tienen, Mechelen, Brussels, Diest and Namur (see earlier).

The inner city of Leuven is located in a bowl formed by the Hageland hills and the plateau of Brabant. With the broad valley of the Dijle this bowl is connected to the lower plains in the North. Besides the Dijle, other water infrastructures are present in Leuven (fig. 39). In this way the Canal Leuven-Dijle was important for the industrial access during the 19th and 20th

Context: Socio-economic

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A

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D

Demographic and employment statistics for Leuven. All information based on STAD LEUVEN, Lokaal Sociaal Beleidsplan, 2008-2013. A. Share of age groups in total population of Leuven (in percentages) B. Share of age groups in total population of Leuven (in percentages) C. Foreign inhabitants in Leuven (1997 – 2007) D. Employment in the different sectors in Leuven

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Facts and Figures Demographic Leuven counted 91933 inhabitants on January 1, 2007. This is expected to reach the number of 97000 inhabitants in 2025. The demographic evolution in the city of Leuven is different than other Flemish cities because of its big internal and external migration. During the past ten years, 7000 people have been immigrating or emigrating. These figures are due to the higher education and the possibilities for young graduates in Leuven. However, when these young graduates start a household with kids they often leave the inner city. This can be seen in the following figures. In Leuven there is a high birth rate (higher share of the 0-2 age group) but this share lowers when the children get older. Because of the low amount of young people in the city (between 0 and 20 years old) and a high amount of working individuals, there is low green pressure and a low grey pressure in the city. In 2005, 46% of the households were single people. While the average in Flanders is 29%, the inner city of Leuven has 63,9%.

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There are also a lot of different nationalities in Leuven. Approximately 153 nationalities were counted in 2008. This figure keeps on growing, together with the amount of inhabitants with a foreign nationality. Employment The economy in Leuven is dominated by the tertiary and quaternary sector and therefore a lot of highly skilled people find a job. The figures for these sectors are three or even four times higher than the averages in other Flemish cities. There are a lot of job opportunities for highly skilled people, but there are also a lot of highly skilled people that are unemployed. Leuven as a University city has a lot of highly trained inhabitants, so there is a huge offer in these sectors. Meanwhile there is a smaller offer in low skilled people. This explains why there is more unemployment amongst highly skilled people than amongst lowly skilled people. These figures are both significantly different than the Flemish average.

STAD LEUVEN, Lokaal Sociaal Beleidsplan, 2008-2013.

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Income Both the average taxable income of the inhabitants of Leuven (€27.729) and the median income (€21.062) are higher than the Flemish averages (€ 25.163 and € 19.384). But within the city there are big differences in income. The persons with a living wage are higher in Leuven than in the rest of Flanders or the Province of Vlaams-Brabant. Housing In the last decennia and years the housing market changed significantly in Leuven. Housing and land prices increased and are far above the Flemish average prices. Cultural market and participation Figures for the amount of exhibitions and cultural infrastructure show that Leuven has a similar cultural participation than other Flemish cities. The level of participation is quite low. In Leuven, 27,8% of the inhabitants are actively or passively participating in the cultural market, while the other Flemish cities have a score between 25% and 50%. If exhibitions, museums

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and historical places are taken into account Leuven, gets the highest participation grade in Flanders. 83,7 % of the inhabitants visited a cultural event in 2005. University During the academic year of 2012-2013, 41255 students were registered at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. With 22 364 female students and 18891 male students, the girls have become the majority. There are currently 6724 international students, 3445 of which belong to the EU and 3269 from countries outside the EU.


E

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Employment, income, and housing market statistics for Leuven. All information based on STAD LEUVEN, Lokaal Sociaal Beleidsplan, 2008-2013. E. Share of unemployment for each educational level F. Inhabitants with a living wage in Leuven G. Prices in the housing market in Leuven

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Vi s i o n o f t h e C i t y o f L e u v e n Through a structural plan, mobility plan, marketing plan, regional plan and cultural plan, the City of Leuven shows its vision on the future. Within the mobility plan, safety, livability and environmental quality are stressed for the residential areas. Safe and attractive pedestrian routes and an extensive cycle route network with bicycle parkings are proposed. New car parks are proposed. The status of the driver will determine the location of these car parks. The status of the driver can be either visitor, long-term user or resident. The goal is to limit the traffic within the inner city and make public transportation more dominant. Improving the car parks is also a priority in order to improve the quality of the environment. Besides this mobility plan also a cultural plan was developed. Before this plan there was no real coherent vision for urban culture within Leuven. The city of Leuven wants to integrate cultural projects in the city center such as the recent Museum M. These projects should also highlight the heritage values of the city. Existing sites of high historic value were determined through the structural plan: the medieval core, the Great Béguinage and the Small Béguinage were identified as some of the key heritage areas. Sites with potential for cultural integration

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are the Philips-site, the Vaartkom and the site of the old hospital. The City would like to encourage multifunctional places within the inner city. Public or semi-public spaces with community facilities should be able to connect different individual areas throughout Leuven. Residential and nonresidential functions should be mixed and contribute to a heterogeneous urban life. The City of Leuven also developed a marketing plan where they tried to show strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) for five functions in the city. Those functions are living, working, recreation, healthcare and education. The conclusion of the marketing plan is that Leuven needs to make better use of the present knowledge, creativity and skills to produce innovative and quality projects that provide benefits for the city as a whole. The marketing plan sees Leuven as the creative city in Belgium. The plan tries to see the city of Leuven as a brand or product. To achieve this goal the participation of the University is extremely important. Besides this goal they also want to establish a permanent training center and a regional adult education center through the joint collaboration of City, University and other educational organs in Leuven.

“Beleidsplannen”, in: Stad Leuven, http://www.leuven.be/bestuur/beleidsplannen/ (accessed on June 2 2013).

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Listings and Protections in the Neighbourhood Background: Cadastral Map Leuven (From: Province of Flemish Brabant (GIS Service)) 0

Legend Protected Monuments or Cityscapes Bacteriological Institute Kolveniershof Part ofof Sint-Geertrui Abbey 41. Map listed and protected Shooting Range Kolveniershof Listed Buildings Legend Listed Buildings or Cityscapes Protected Monuments Listed Relic Institute Bacteriological Kolveniershof Part of Sint-Geertrui Abbey Shooting Range Kolveniershof Listed Buildings Listed Buildings Listed Relic

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Methodology Urban Historic Landscape Characterisation (UHLC) Characterization of an area in landscape terms tries to take into account multiple ways of valuing. These ways help to manage changes in the future. During the 1990s there was an increased interest in denoting a broad and generalised understanding and appreciation of the overall character and significance of the environment or heritage of a region. This was seen on a landscape scale.43 A landscape is a product of hundreds or even thousands of years of cultural action but is at the same time cultural by itself because it is perceived today. This idea of the landscape as a cultural fact was given within the European Landscape Convention.44 The approach of Historic Landscape Characterisation (HLC) treats the landscape as a perception of environment. A HLC of an area tries to identify, describe and map the main historic influences, which have formed and defined the present day landscape. The result and product of the HLC helps to develop tools for practical input into landscape management decisions at a local level, including further supplementary planning guidance.45

This landscape analysis of an urban neighborhood is necessary for the scope of this integrated project on the former site of the Bacteriological Institute. The methods of HLC are not exclusively made for rural landscapes. Recent HLC in the UK are currently used to help in understanding urban landscapes. Within a HLC there are some objectives that define context or place in the sense of how buildings and monuments relate to each other and to other aspects of the historic and natural environment. Next to that they try to understand the past, the trajectory of change and continuity, which has brought the environment to the stage we have inherited and which provides the start for future changes. And at last they provide a big picture, which can serve as a base for future inclusivity, a frame into which others can add their perceptions and views.46 These features of the HLC method makes it an ideal methodology to try to characterize and define the present day areas around the former Bacteriological Institute of Leuven. It makes it easier to understand this area historically and to feel its current values and future needs.

43 Graham FAIRCLOUGH, “Historic Landscape Characterisation in England and a Hampshire case study”, in: Graham FAIRCLOUGH and Stephen RIPPON (ed.) Europe’s Cultural Landscape, 2002, p 69-83: www.englishheritage.org.uk/ server/show.nav.1293. 44 COUNCIL OF EUROPE, European Landscape Convention Florence, 2000: http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/EN/ Treaties/Html/176.htm. 45 Jo CLARK, “Using Historic Landscape Characterisation”, 2002, in: English Heritage’s review of HLC Applications, 2004. 46 Jane GRENVILLE and Graham FAIRCLOUGH, “Characterisation: Introduction”, in: English Heritage Conservation Bulletin, 47, 2004.

Analysis: Urban

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UHLC applied to the former site of the Bacteriological Institute An UHLC is essentially like any other HLC an exercise in understanding the continuities and changes that have contributed to the present day character of a certain landscape. UHLC tries to gain a complete understanding of the urban region through a detailed research of its character using a diverse array of techniques and skills. These techniques and skills include looking at the past and present land use, historic sites, density, types of buildings, social and economic background and negative features which may detract from the special character.47 In this integrated project the UHLC was used to characterize the neighborhood around the former Bacteriological Institute in the City of Leuven (fig. 40). The method used for the UHLC follows the English Heritage guidance on carrying out this sort of study. First of all it was important to define a clear boundary of the study area. This area was defined by using the existing statistical sectors developed by the City of Leuven. This boundary and all required data were put into a GIS (Geographic Information System) for the ease of revision and analysis

during the process. The analysis could be split up into three specific types of analysis. There is a historical analysis of the area, a spatial analysis and the final character analysis.48 The historical analysis was done by analyzing successive historic maps while the Flemish inventory on built heritage (Inventaris van het Bouwkundig Erfgoed) was consulted to see what buildings were listed in the area and from what time they date (fig. 41). Using such an inventory is essential to define the special character of the area since some of the buildings or sites are dating from a period going further into history than the used maps. The spatial analysis was used to examine the character and interrelationship of spaces within the study area, and to identify key views and vistas. The open spaces and green zones (fig. 42) in the study area were assessed for their importance in the character of the urban landscape. Furthermore a number of key views and vistas were identified, most of which frame interesting buildings or monuments in the study area. Especially Renaat Braem’s (1910-2001) towers of the Sint-Maartensdal social housing project (1960), the Kolveniershof, the church of

47 ENGLISH HERITAGE, Guidance on Conservation Area Appraisals, Swindon, 2006. 48 BIRMINGHAM ARCHAEOLOGY HERITAGE SERVICES, Character Appraisal Study and Boundary Review of the Church Square: Oldbury Conservation Area, Birmingham, 2008: www.laws.sandwell.gov.uk/ccm/cms-service/download/ asset/?asset_id=738860.

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42. Green spaces in the neighborhood of the Bacteriological Institute Public Green Spaces

Analysis: Urban

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the Sint-Geertrui Abbey and the industrial sites of the Vaartkom are important. The final character analysis investigates the relation of the Bacteriological Institute with these different buildings and the way other buildings have a visual impact on the former site of the Bacteriological Institute and vice versa. By walking through the neighborhood, different perspectives could be experienced that -although not on the site- belong to the site as well.

• • • • •

architectural and historic qualities of the buildings contribution of key unlisted buildings audit of heritage assets contribution made by green spaces negative factors

After the historic and spatial analysis of the areas a chapter will explain the link of the most important areas with the building and site of the former Bacteriological Institute.

The understanding of the landscape through field visits, desktop study and spatial study gave the possibility to divide the study area into several character zones. The UHLC of Birmingham49 was used as an example for the assessment of each zone, but an own interpretation was given to this method. The significance and special interest was evaluated under a number of criteria. These criteria are explained within the three points of analysis (historical and spatial). For every area the history is explained and there is an analysis made for the current spatial situation. This analysis is made with the help of following criteria: •

activity within the area and its influence

49 BIRMINGHAM ARCHAEOLOGY HERITAGE SERVICES, Character Appraisal Study and Boundary Review of the Church Square: Oldbury Conservation Area, Birmingham, 2008: www.laws.sandwell.gov.uk/ccm/cms-service/download/ asset/?asset_id=738860.

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Urban Historic Landscape Areas (fig. 43) Different areas are being determined within the study area of the Northeastern part of Leuven. These areas are determined on the following criteria: • • • • • •

history of the different areas (historic) influence of the area in the city of Leuven (social) functions present in the area (economic) heritage/cultural assets in the area (cultural) green spaces in the area (recreational) perception of the City of Leuven on different areas in the city (governmental)

Two of the areas are described differently because they may not have a direct impact on the functioning of the former Bacteriological Institute in the future. However, they may have an indirect impact since these areas in the city center, Keizersberg and Gasthuisberg contain most of the university buildings where the functions of bacteriology at the KU Leuven moved to. For these areas their current and spatial appearance are described.

Analysis: Urban

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Area of Diestsestraat Area of Mechelsestraat Area of Vaartkom

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Direct Impact Areas Vaartkom area51 The canal Leuven-Dijle was dug between 1750 and 1752. On December 21, 1752 the canal was filled with water. It took until 1763 before the canal could be used due to problems with locks and dikes. From that moment on Leuven got a new inland port instead of the one next to the Vismarkt. On this point in history, the Dijle river lost its economic significance and the center of gravity for trade and industry shifted to the North East of the city center. On the location of an already existing loading and unloading point next to the Keizersberg, the current Vaartkom was constructed. At this point the flow of the Dijle was changed. The Dijle-bed now flew as Nieuwe Dijle via Twee Waters to Wilsele. This structure of the canal and Vaartkom was used by ships between 1753 and 1759. In 1759, all shipping was shut down because of dike breaks and the collapse of locks. In 1763 the site was repaired and being inaugurated for the second time. The importance of shipping in general was lost because of the arrival of railways. At that time the canal became a real industrial waterway with a local function, especially used for raw materials. At the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centu-

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ry a lot of industrial companies were situated at the Vaartkom, the core business of most of them was grain processing. These companies saw the ships as easy and cheap transport for importing their materials and exporting their products. During the last decennia the Vaartkom started to lose more and more of its importance. The connectivity of the road network, the shift from industrial to more commercial functions and less vessel traffic in general were the reasons for this decrease in interest. Today the water of the Vaartkom is used as marina and owned by NV Zeekanaal and Waterwegen. The area of the Vaartkom is a very special zone in Leuven. The area is growing towards a stylish, vivid and green city district. Creativity and social interaction are meant to become the most important factors in the area. The goal to reach a qualitative mix of living, working and leisure experience at the water side would provide Leuven more dynamism. Besides the renewal of the area, some of the buildings which are of architectural and/or historical importance are intelligently transformed, such as the case of De Hoorn (see further). However, a lot of new buildings are being constructed while unused industrial buildings are slowly dilapidating at the same time.

50 “Leuven�, in: De inventaris van het bouwkundig erfgoed, ID 20526: https://inventaris.onroerenderfgoed.be/ dibe/geheel/20526 (accessed March 13, 2013). 51 Gust VANDEGOOR, Het kanaal Leuven-Mechelen in heden en verleden (1750-2000), Winksele: Hagok, 1998.

Analysis: Urban

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[1940-1937] construction library Tweebronnen

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Analysis: Urban

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The industrial buildings should become the base of urban renewal. The materials of these buildings are often used in the new buildings as well (e.g. use of bricks for the new headquarters of Inbev). The objective of the renewal is to develop a new area in a sustainable way. Providing local facilities for the people living in the neighborhood could therefore avoid an unnecessary use of cars. A mix of activities is also better on a safety level. Since social sustainability is essential as well, place is foreseen for new social and affordable housing. The new vision on the Vaartkom is a long chain of streets, squares, green spaces and water sides to keep its open character. In fact the whole project is conceived as a network of public spaces. The old connection between existing places will be revitalized. The different parts of the Vaartkom are not longer an island but are part of an ensemble. The Vaartkom is meant to become a residential area, combined with a lot of creative, cultural and recreational functions. The proximity of the station and easy access by public transport are assets of this part of the city. A disadvantage is the longer walking distance towards the city center. This needs to be taken into account since the site of the former Bacteriological Institute is situated along this walk.

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Vital Decosterstraat area The Vital Decosterstraat is a long street, connecting the Ladeuzeplein with the Vaartstraat and has a slight downslope towards the Dijle-river. The street crosses Bondgenotenlaan, Diestsestraat and Rijschoolstraat. The striking bending roadline follows the ditch outside the first city wall (1156-1161). Before the street was called after former mayor of Leuven Vital Decoster, it was separated in two different parts. Between Ladeuzeplein and Diestsestraat the street was called Marengostraat. The street was called after the Italian city where Napoleon Bonaparte achieved a victory in 1800 and was constructed on the former shooting range of the Grote Gilde van de Kruisboog. The second part of the current street, between Diestsestraat and the former Houtmarkt (the later Aardappelmarkt) is known since the 14th century and was called Bakeleynstraat, named after the former moat situated at this place. In 1785 the moat was dammed and the street was renamed Weezenstraat. On the West corner of the street with the Diestsestraat the house of Vives was situated, at the East corner there was the first Monastery of Jesuits where the first orphanage was founded in 1636 and was called Weezenstraat (“Orphan


Street�) for this reason. The street was seriously damaged during the First World War and rebuilt afterwards. During the second half of the 20th century large-scale buildings were introduced in the street such as the Bank offices of the current ING and BNP Paribas. Within the area of the Vital Decosterstraat, the most important function is residential. Recently the part close to the Diestsestraat was redeveloped into a pedestrian zone. Apart from the bank offices, schools and administrative functions are available within the area and the city library Tweebronnen is just around the corner. There are almost no green or open spaces in the area apart from some trees in the streets. Public transport is not directly available and parking spots are often very difficult to find. Other car park possibilities nearby (or in the area) are Parking Inno, Mincklersparking and Parking De Bond. This area is of secondary importance compared to the commercial center and the Vaartkom area. However, these areas are not far, which is an asset for the future of the Bacteriological Institute. Diestsestraat area The Diestsestraat is one of the oldest and most

Analysis: Urban

important roads through Leuven. It is one of the five streets to form the historic road network of Leuven together with Brusselsestraat, Mechelsestraat, Naamsestraat and Tiensestraat. Each of the five roads to the surroundings of Leuven led to a medieval city gate. The Diestsestraat begins at the choir of the Church of St.-Pieters and leads towards the Diestsevest. The city gate at Backeleyn (Vital Decosterstraat) closed the street during medieval times. In the beginning the gate functioned as a prison, but was ruined in 1360. It was rebuild in 1386 and totally demolished again in 1778 to broaden the Diestsestraat. The houses in the street were not only residential but also commercial, including hospitality and bars. From the 19th century onwards the evolution of the street moved parallel with the on of the central station of Leuven. The street became an important connection between the station and the city centre. When halfway through the19th century the Bondgenotenlaan was constructed the Diestsetraat became a more secondary connection in the centre. Today the Diestsestraat is together with the Bondgenotenlaan one of the most important commercial streets in Leuven. After the Bondgenotenlaan, the Diestsestraat is today the second most important shopping

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street of Leuven, directly connected with the station and inner city of Leuven. 66% of the street is pedestrian making it difficult to reach by car. Public transport is also restricted in this area. Almost all historic buildings and warehouses are transformed into buildings with two or more levels. At the ground level there are shops and the top levels are often residential or for storage purposes. There are almost no green spaces in the Diestsestraat, except for some small trees. The connection towards the North of the city is underdeveloped. An important monument is Henry Van de Velde’s former technical school, currently functioning as the city library Tweebronnen (see earlier). Its monumental facade faces the Rijschoolstraat but in the Diestsestraat its main entrance is carefully placed within the existing urban fabric. From this entrance onwards the public can reach the Rijschoolstraat by walking through a complex that functions as a small city within the city. Lepelstraat area The Lepelstraat is a historic L-shaped street in the middle of Leuven. The street begins at the Diestsestraat and ends in the Pierre Joseph Van Benedenstraat. During the 14th and 15th cen-

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tury the street was known as Deweersenkeybergh and Oversten Keybergh, referring to the hills with small boulders. These hills at the east side of the city are crossing the Lepelstraat in a perpendicular way. Today, the street is mainly destined for housing. Bondgenotenlaan area The Bondgenotenlaan and the area around it are part of the 19th century district around the station. It forms the connection between Rector De Somerplein, Marterlarenplein and the station. The Bondgenotenlaan was the first street realized in a network of streets between Diestsestraat and Tiensestraat, a master plan supervised by city architect François Henri Laenen (1801-1849) in 1839. The city wanted a straight connection between the station and the city center instead of the curvy and narrow Diestsestraat. In the initial plan there was space for an open square halfway the Bondgenotenlaan, which would have been called Brabantplein. Since the square was deemed too expensive, only a widening of the road was realized. This little square connects the Justus Lipsiusstraat and the Koning Leopold I-straat. The Bondgenotenlaan was already open in 1844 and was a


44. Perspectives Sint-Maartensdal, in: VIOE Brussels, Archive Renaat Braem, doss. 384.

Analysis: Urban

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five-meter-wide cobblestoned road. In the beginning, the construction of buildings along the road was very slow. The second phase of construction happened in 1862 when the Bondgenotenlaan was extended until the Grote Markt. The construction of this part of the street was an interference with the historic city center. Many inhabitants and owners in the area were expropriated. During the First World War in August 1914, the houses and the street were almost completely demolished. Today the Bondgenotenlaan is still one of the most important streets in Leuven. The street connects the station and the core of the city in a straight line. Buses and cars are allowed in the street with pavements on both sides. There are important connections for public transport towards Heverlee, Gasthuisberg and even Mechelen. The buildings in the street are often a hybrid of commercial and residential functions with the ground floor reserved for the shops. Vismarkt area The Vismarkt is a square enclosed by the Mechelsestraat, Karel van Lotharingenstraat, Vissersstraat, Augustijnenstraat en Busleyden-

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gang. Until 1327 the marketplace belonged to the dukes, after which the square was owned by the city of Leuven. Because of its location next the Dijle-river until the middle of the 18th century, the marketplace was the most important square of Leuven. The marketplace was a place for commercial activities and was used as a port for Leuven. When the Vaartkom was constructed in 1750, the function of the Vismarkt got lost. While the old structure is still visible, the places where the boats used to dock are now park spaces for cars. Bars, restaurants and shops are situated on the ground floor of the buildings while residential functions are present on the upper levels. It is easily reachable from the Vaartkom by car but has more restricted access from the inner city. There are no stops for public transport, which is a major problem in this part of the city. Not only the old structure is still visible, also old buildings add to the former atmosphere of the port. Sint-Maartensdal area This area consists of Sint-Maartensstraat, Jan-Pieter Minckelersstraat and the Rijdende-Artil-


lerielaan. The high rise buildings of Renaat Braem (1960-1972) are constructed on the site of the former priory of Sint-Maarten (14331784) and later the barracks of Sint-Maartens were built here. Braem’s modern high rise towers and lower volumes are build within a green space. The terrains are situated on the slopes towards the Dijle-river and two streams that merged there. Another stream, the Leibeek, is currently flowing under the Rijdende Artilleriestraat and becomes visual at Twee Waters, next to the redirected flow of the Dijle. The site of Sint-Maartensdal can be situated in the first urban expansion area of Leuven, between the first city wall (1156-1165, Vital Decosterstraat) and the second city wall (1357-1363 Diestsevest), and in between the medieval roads towards Diest (Diestsestraat) and Aarschot (Vaartstraat). Today this area of the city is mainly a residential area with, next to Sint-Maartensdal, some small shops, a garage and some schools. The North end of the area is close to the industrial area of the Vaartkom. The most important function in this neighborhood is the residential one. In the design of Braem, Sint Maartensdal became a closed entity in the city. The blocks

Analysis: Urban

were situated within a park environment and only pedestrians were allowed. The place and the location of the different blocks were geometrically planned (fig. 44). The most important factors in defining the exact location were the viewsheds of the buildings and the orientation towards the sun. Block 2 is situated on the line from the North towards the South. Tower 1 is located on the sightline of Rijschoolstraat, Diestsesteenweg and Aarschotsesteenweg. Also the Mechelsesteenweg is situated within a sightline of the project. The only topographical feature that restricted the view here is Keizersberg. These sights, program restrictions and a prominent presence in the cityscape were probably the arguments to change the intentional plans towards a more symmetrical and monumental setting. The three tower buildings and the three building blocks -with associated central heating volume- were built between 1963 and 1969. The central and highest tower is flanked by two building blocks with 10 floors each. The two slightly lower towers both have 17 floors. The third building block is situated at the Northwest of the site. The park space between the building blocks and tower 1 became bigger by building the blocks eccentrically with respect to the axis between the towers.

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Kardinaalstraat area The Kardinaalstraat is the street leading towards the Vaartstraat coming from the Jan-Pieter Minckelerstraat. The first part of this area was already known within the 13th century. It was an area to connect the Vaartstraat (Koestraat) with the Rameydebeempt, a courtyard on the right bank of the Dijle-river where cloth weavers dried their cloths on wooden frames. The street itself was also called Yzeren Draeckstraat because of the presence of a brewery (Eyseren Draeck). From the 19th century onwards the street was called Kardinaalstraat because of the presence of the brewery Den Cardinael. Today the Kardinaalstraat connects the Vaartstraat with the backside of the breweries along the Vaartkom. The most important function in this area is clearly residential. Besides family homes, there are also a lot of student rooms in this neighbourhood. Most of the houses here are built at the beginning of the 20th Century. Mechelsestraat area The Mechelsestraat is one of the most import-

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ant streets in the city center and part of the five main accesses towards the city centre of Leuven. Along the Mechelsestraat there are several historical spaces. Starting from the Grote Markt, the first place is the Zeven Hoeken since it is a node between seven roads. Between 1850 and 1930 this area was transformed with the houses against the Church of Sint-Pieters being demolished. At that time the Matheus de Layensplein was developed as well. The part of the street between Zeven Hoeken and Vismarkt was called Schipstraet from the 13th century on. Between 1878 and 1884 a reorganisation of the place took place. The Dijle-river between Leibeek and Vaartstraat was replaced. The Visbrug was also removed at that time. The Mechelsepoort, a city gate from the second city wall, was constructed in 1358, partially rebuilt in 1445 and demolished in 1807. The city gate of the first 12th century city wall, the Borchstrate-BinnePoorte was situated next to the Ley. This gate was a city prison in the second half of the 14th century and a university building from 1426 on. The gate was demolished during the French period. The area was also known because of its narrow corridors. The Werfgang, Lauriersgang, Sint-Gertrudiusgang, Luipaardgang and Jerusalemgang all disappeared during the 20th


century. The street and the area retained its heritage with witnesses from different periods. Today the Mechelsestraat connects the Vaartkom with the inner city and connects Leuven with Mechelen on a bigger scale. Functions in this area are mainly housing, although there are some restaurants and bars. This area is the area where the Small BĂŠguinage is situated, one of the main attractions in the neighborhood of the former Bacteriological Institute. Leuven center area The historic medieval center of Leuven contains both Oude Markt and Grote Markt. The Grote Markt got its current shape around the 15th Century. The marketplace was first a part of a cemetery around the 11th century Church Sint-Pieters. In the 15th century the square was transformed. The transformation from a cemetery towards a central meeting space in the city happened radically. This transformation of the urban environment was the start of the desired revival of Leuven as a first class city. This status was lost in favor of Brussels earlier on. Together with the foundation of the University this transformation was one of the assets for Leuven. The

Analysis: Urban

Oude Markt is the historic central square of Leuven. Only since the 16th century it is called Oude Markt because of the construction of the current town hall in the middle of the 15th century. During the First World War the center of Leuven was badly hit. Only a few buildings remained at the Oude Markt. This was the time the city center was adapted to the new traffic requirements. This disaster is the reason why most of the buildings in this area of the city date from the 1920s. The center of the city has always been linked to the University as well. It is both a center for the city and for the University. Today the city center is an ensemble of squares, connection roads and small streets that connect the different squares. The main function on the ground floor in this area of the city are leisure, restaurant, bars and touristic attractions. The traffic in the city center is reduced due to restrictions for cars but is an important hub for public transport. On the Rector De Somerplein there is an important station for buses.

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45. Areas with an indirect impact on the site of the Bacteriological Institute Legend Keizersberg South East Area UZ Gasthuisberg

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Keizersberg South East Area UZ Gasthuisberg


Indirect Impact Areas South East area The South East area of Leuven is determined by its University buildings, currently used for the humanities at the KU Leuven. Important for this area are the Naamsestraat, Tiensestraat and Maria-Theresiastraat (fig. 45). The main buildings in this area are the Central University Library , the Pauscollege, the campus of the social sciences or the buildings of the economic school Groep T. These buildings are often replacements of buildings that were situated in the city center of Leuven. Now the University is grouped around this part of the city together with its Arenberg campus in Heverlee. The former Bacteriological Institute remains the last unsold KU Leuven Institute outside these two areas, which have a good connection to public transport as well. Besides the main University buildings and other important infrastructure, a lot of student rooms and residences are provided in this area of the inner city.

(fig.45)

ven is one of its essential features. From the Keizersberg, the Bacteriological Institute can be seen on the axis University-Industry (Arenberg-Center-Vaartkom), which will be further elaborated later. The walking distance from the Bacteriological Institute is quite far and difficult to reach by public transport. The same goes for the area around Gasthuisberg, where the University hospital Universitair Ziekenhuis (UZ) Gasthuisberg is located. However, the area of Gasthuisberg is relevant to the Bacteriological Institute since this is the place where bacteriological research in Leuven is continuing under the division Laboratoriumgeneeskunde (“Laboratory Medicine�).

Keizersberg and UZ Gasthuisberg area The Keizersberg with its abbey on top of the hill is one of the main touristic attractions in Leuven. The view over the whole city of Leu-

Analysis: Urban

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University Buildings and Educatio al Buildings in Leuven Source: Galileo - GIS Service Leuven Background: Cadastral Map (From: Province of Flemish Brabant (GIS Service))

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University Bu

Legend Site Former Bacteriological Institute Former Bacteriological Institute University Buildings Buildings with educational function

n Buildings in Leuven University Buildings and Educational Source: Galileo - GIS Service Leuven Background: Cadastral Map (From: Province of Flemish Brabant (GIS Service))

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Source: Galileo Background: C (From: Province

46. University and educational buildings in Leuven Legend Site Former Bacteriological Institute Former Bacteriological Institute University Buildings Buildings with educational function

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University Bu

Source: Galileo Background: C (From: Province


Interconnection of Urban Areas Node University-Industry and Historic-Modern Leuven The analysis of the different neighborhoods and areas makes it possible to derive different possible links between the site of the former Bacteriological Institute and the different points of interest in the different areas. The conclusion out of this analysis is that the building and the site are on a node location between the city center and the industrial site of the Vaartkom (fig. 47). The city center, as analyzed in the UHLC section, is also a central location for the University of Leuven. A link with the city center therefore means a link with the University. Since the University of Leuven owns the building, the link with the University is not only geographical. However, the University has its mind set on grouping its buildings around its existing campuses in the center, Arenberg and Gasthuisberg. The Bacteriological Institute is therefore isolated from the other university buildings. The axis University-Vaartkom is also an axis historic-modern Leuven where the historic city center within the first city walls slowly evolves into the Vaartkom, the result of early modern

Analysis: Urban

and contemporary development. Besides being a key location between inner city and Vaartkom, the site is also an important link between the historic housing of the inner city (Vismarkt/ Small Beguinage) and the modern social housing project of Sint-Maartensdal. Also here the former Bacteriological Institute and the site symbolize the link between both residential areas. The historicising facade of Augustin Van Arenbergh’s Bacteriological Institute is even symbolically turned towards the historic Leuven while its modern backside is turned towards Braem’s highrise project. Accessibility In order to know the physical link between the Bacteriological Institute and the Urban Historic Areas, the accessibility needs to be measured. First of all the bike network and the public transport network were checked within the inner city (fig. 48 and 49). Next to that, the travel time needed to go from main points of interest within the zones to the former Bacteriological Institute were looked up. This happened through the route planner of Google Maps, where it is possible to calculate the travel time for pedes-

101


Legend Former Bacteriological Institute Site Former Bacteriological Institute

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47. Links and connections between the areas around the Former Bacteriological Institute

102

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m 500


Legend Public Transport in Leuven (Bus De Lijn) Background: Orthographic picture (From: Province of Flemish Brabant (GIS Service)) 0

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Former Bacteriological Institute Site Former Bacteriological Institute Public Transport (Bus)

48. Public transportation in Leuven

Analysis: Urban

103


Legend Former Bacteriological Institute Site Former Bacteriological Institute Roads Periphery Primary Traffic Traffic Access Leuven

0

50

Source: Structural Plan City of Leuven Background: Cadastral Map (From: Province of Flemish Brabant (GIS Service))

100

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49. Traffic Access in Leuven

104

300

400

m 500

Secondary Traffic Low Traffic Car Park


trians, bicycles, cars and public transport. For public transport, the walking times are included as well. Traffic problems could not be taken into account for the cars. The inner center of Leuven is not easy to reach by car but the Bacteriological Institute is situated in a primaire verkeerslus, meaning that it is accessible by car. The calculations in distance and time were done for nine buildings or points of interest from different areas to the Bacteriological Institute: 1. Station (Bondgenotenlaan area): a. Car: 1,2 km in 3 minutes b. Public transport: 1,2 km in 12 minutes c. Pedestrian: 1,2 km in 15 minutes d. Bike: 1,2 km in 5 minutes 2. Grote Markt (Leuven center area): a. Car: 600 m in 3 minutes b. Public transport: not available c. Pedestrian: 600 m in 7 minutes d. Bike: 600 m in 2 minutes 3. Central Library KUL (South East area): a. Car: 1,9 km in 5 minutes b. Public transport: not available c. Pedestrian: 700 m in 8 minutes d. Bike: 700m in 2 minutes

Analysis: Urban

4. Openbaar Entrepot voor Kunsten (Vaartkom area) a. Car: 1 km in 3 minutes b. Public transport: not available c. Pedestrian: 650m in 8 minutes d. Bike: 650m in 2 minutes 5. Castle of Arenberg a. Car: 4,2 km in 10 minutes b. Public transport: 4,2 km in 28 minutes c. Pedestrian: 3,2 km in 38 minutes d. Bike: 3,2 km in 13 minutes 6. UZ Gasthuisberg (Keizersberg and UZ Gasthuisberg area): a. Car: 2,7 km in 8 minutes b. Public transport: 2,7 km in 15 minutes c. Pedestrian: 2,1 km in 24 minutes d. Bike: 3,2 km in 13 minutes 7. Kunstencentrum STUK (South East area): a. Car: 2,5 km in 7 minutes b. Public Transport: 1,5 km in 11 minutes c. Pedestrian: 1,2 km in 14 minutes d. Bike: 1,2 km in 5 minutes

105


8. Great Beguinage: a. Car: 2,9 km in 7 minutes b. Public Transport: 2,5 km in 16 minutes c. Pedestrian: 1,7 km in 17 minutes d. Bike: 1,7 km in 8 minutes 9. Leercentrum AGORA (South East area): a. Car: 2,4 km in 7 minutes b. Public Transport: 2 km in 17 minutes c. Pedestrian: 1,5 km in 17 minutes d. Bike: 1,7 km in 8 minutes Visual impact of and on the site of the Bacteriological Institute Different urban perspectives and views can be experienced in the Bacteriological Institute, on its site or in its surroundings. These can be from the site of the Bacteriological Institute towards the surroundings or from the surroundings towards the site and building. The most important view on the Institute is from the Karel Van Lotharingenstraat, when looking towards the main tower of Sint-Maartensdal. The monumental facade is exact in the axis of the street and defines the square in front of it (fig. 50). From the former shooting range of the Kolve-

106

niershof, the ‘modern’ side of the Bacteriological Institute reveals itself in the way the different sober volumes show the inner functions of the buildings such as laboratories, circulation galleries, staircases and the ramp for accessibility of the animals (fig. 51). During spring and summer, this side is partly hidden behind the vegetation. From the Vital Decosterstraat itself, the building only shows up when standing right in front of it since it has been built perpendicular to the square (the former Aardappelmarkt) in front. When standing in the middle of the former garden of the Bacteriological Institute, the monotonous back facade of the Rega-school is blocking the view on the Sint-Maartensdal towers (fig. 52). From within a later added floor in the former eduactional laboratory of the Institute, there is a good view on the ‘modern’ Leuven, characterized by the Vaartkom and Sint-Maartensdal. Important structures along the Vaartkom can be seen at the backside, which strengthens the connection that is geographically already there (fig. 53). The later extensions of the Rega-school from 1971 and 1983 have blocked the former perspectives from the laboratory volume in the garden towards the former shooting range, the Vaartkom and Sint-Maartensdal (fig. 54 and 55).


1. TRAIN STATION

2. GROTE MARKT

1,2 km in 2 min.

600 m in 3 min.

1,2 km in 12 min.

N/A

1,2 km in 15 min.

600 m in 7 min.

1,2 km in 5 min.

600 m in 2 min.

4. VAARTKOM

3. CENTRAL LIBRARY

1,9 km in 5 min.

1 km in 3 min.

N/A

N/A

700 m in 8 min.

650 m in 8 min.

700 m in 2 min.

650 m in 2 min.

5. ARENBERG CASTLE

6. UZ GASTHUISBERG

4,2 km in 10 min.

2,7 km in 8 min.

4,2 km in 28 min.

2,7 km in 15 min.

3,2 km in 38 min.

2,1 km in 24 min.

3,2 km in 13 min.

3,2 km in 13 min.

7. STUK

8. GREAT BEGUINAGE

2,5 km in 7 min.

2,9 km in 7 min.

1,5 km in 11 min.

2,5 km in 16 min.

1,2 km in 14 min.

1,7 m in 17 min.

1,2 km in 5 min.

1,7 km in 8 min.

9. AGORA

2,4 km in 7 min. 2 km in 17 min. 1,5 km in 17 min. 1,7 km in 8 min.

Analysis: Urban

107


50. Perspective from Karel Van Lotharingenstraat towards the Bacteriological Institute and Sint-Maartensdal

108


51. View on the Bacteriological Institute from the former shooting range of the Kolveniershof

Analysis: Urban

109


52. Former garden of the Bacteriological Institute with Rega-school

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53. Panorama towards the Vaartkom from the teaching laboratory

Analysis: Urban

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In the front side of the Institute, an apartment building from the 1960s is blocking the view towards the city centre (fig. 56) although it is hard to figure out what view would have been there since the monumental windows towards the street have been closed off. In a lot of rooms at the North side of the building, the Kolveniershof can be seen (fig. 57). A negative factor is the view towards the Colruyt-building and the parking lot in front of it, which have been placed on the site of a former brewery (fig. 58). From the Sint-Maartensstraat, the continuous wall and front building of Colruyt has a large impact on the perspective towards the Kolveniershof (fig.59). Given the significance of the former shooting range, these walls could be at least covered with greenery to create a better focus on the Kolveniershof (fig. 60).

112


54. Problematic extension of the Rega-school from 1983 next to the laboratory wing

Analysis: Urban

113


55. Problematic extension of the Rega-school from 1983 from within the laboratories

114


56. Apartment building in the Vital Decosterstraat blocking the view towards Leuven

Analysis: Urban

115


57. Kolveniershof as seen from the Bacteriological Institute

116


58. Colruyt supermarket as seen from the Bacteriological Institute

Analysis: Urban

117


59. Perspective from the Sint-Maartensstraat over the former shooting range towards the Kolveniershof

118


60. Colruyt corner building with Sint-Geertrui abbey in the background

Analysis: Urban

119


61. Situation plan new student residences, in: Iris HEYLEN, Verbouwing tot studentenresidentie, plans and sections, n째 123-01, Leuven: Technische Diensten, November 11 2013.

120


Relationship of Buildings on the Site 52

Cadastral evolution The existing buildings on the site of the former Bacteriological Institute are: • Augustin Van Arenbergh’s Bacteriological Institute from 1897 • Charles C. Devadder’s Hogere School voor Medische Analisten en Dietisten (Rega-school) from 1964, with extensions from 1971 and 1983 A closer look at the cadastral maps shows how the site evolved from a large empty space in the city towards a dense building block in the the streetscape of the current Vital Decosterstraat, the Kolveniershof and the Sint-Maartensstraat. The former Bacteriological Institute and Rega-school currently enclose an inner garden, partly used as car parking. In 1855, the site had a couple of buildings towards the Vital Decosterstraat (then Aardappelmarkt), next to three early 19th century townhouses from the same typology. On the corners of the Kolveniershof and Sint-Maartensstraat, a couple of smaller constructions can be seen. The river Leibeek runs through the site from the Vital Decosterstraat towards the Sint-Maartensstraat.

In 1879, three more townhouses from the same typology are built next to the existing ones. The buildings towards the Aardappelmarkt are demolished and replaced by one new construction. In 1880 a couple of new constructions are added between the existing one towards the Aardappelmarkt and the Kolveniershof. In 1898, the whole site is cleared to prepare the upcoming new Bacteriological Institute and its stables, ready in 1899. The main facade of the institute serves as the final “keystone” and closes off the perspective from the Vaartstraat towards the Sint-Maartensstraat, while at the same time turning the Aardappelmarkt into a new public square. A stable building with carriage entrance is built towards the Sint-Maartensstraat and holding stalls are built over the Leibeek, probably for facilitating the water drainage from the horses. In 1963, the main stable building is first demolished, followed by a part of the holding stalls covering the Leibeek in order to clear the site for the future Rega-school, finished in 1964. The school has two wings, towards the Sint-Maartensstraat and towards the Kolvenier-

52 KADASTER VLAAMS-BRABANT Brussels, Leuven, n° 16a(1855)/ 22a(1879)/ 18a(1880)/ 15(1898)/ 14(1899)/ 25(1963)/ 29(1964)/ 11(1971)/ 12(1983)/ 22(1989).

Analysis: Urban

121


1) Before 1855

2) 1855

3) 1879

4) 1880

5) 1898

6) 1899

Cadastral evolution based on historical cadastral maps. Brussels, Kadaster Vlaams Brabant: 1) Leuven, 1855, 16a 2) Leuven, 1855, 16a 3) Leuven, 1879, 22a 4) Leuven, 1880, 25a 5) Leuven, 1898, 15 6) Leuven, 1899, 14

122


7) 1899 - 1963

8) 1963

9) 1964

10) 1971

11) 1983

12) 1989

Cadastral evolution based on historical cadastral maps. Brussels, Kadaster Vlaams Brabant: 7) Leuven, 1963, 25, sheet 21 8) Leuven, 1963, 25, sheet 21 9) Leuven, 1964, 29, sheet 17 10) Leuven, 1971, 11, sheet 7 11) Leuven, 1983, 12, sheet 7 12) Leuven, 1989, 22, sheet 9

Analysis: Urban

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shof. The Leibeek is now completely covered. In 1971, the Rega-school is extended towards the Kolveniershof and towards the Sint-Maartensstraat. The final extension of the school comes in 1983 and is built right next to the Bacteriological Institute. The limited distance of 1,25 m has disastrous consequences for the daylight penetration through the large laboratory windows and for the accessibility of the door on the ground floor towards the former garden (see earlier). The impact of the Rega-school The problematic extension of 1983 was not revised in the current finalized project by the New Construction Projects Division of the Technical Services (fig. 62). On April, 5 2013 a building permit was granted for their reconversion of the former Rega-school into non-subsidized student residences. Project architect Iris Heylen explained that the Rega-school was extended between the 1960s and 1980s and was even destined to be further extended after demolition of the Bacteriological Institute. Given its protected status today, the Bacteriological Institute now needs to cope with the former ex-

53 54

124

pansionism of the Rega-school. Concerning the problematic distance of 1,25 m between the two buildings, fire regulations demanded a gap of at least eight meters. However, since the extension was already existing, an exception was granted on the condition that an additional emergency exit would be provided elsewhere.53 In total, four service departments were consulted: • • • •

Fire department of the City of Leuven ARO Dienst Onroerend Erfgoed Vlaams-Brabant Vlaamse Milieumaatschappij Dienst Huisvesting Stad Leuven

None of these departments had serious complaints on the project.54 Considering that monuments have a support zone in a radius of 50 m and that the future functioning of the monument is seriously harmed by the 1983 extension, one could only wonder why ARO Dienst Onroerend Erfgoed Vlaams-Brabant greenlit the project as well. Because of the strict financial restrictions to house as many non-subsidized studios and student rooms in the former Rega-school, the

Iris HEYLEN and Björn SMEKENS, Interview taken on May 29 2013. Iris HEYLEN, Email from May 29 2013.


demolition of the former extensions was never considered as a real option. The idea of the project architects to turn the former auditorium (fig. 63) on the ground floor into a student cinema was also repealed for financial reasons. Cinema Zed, Leuven’s arthouse cinema housed in the arts center STUK, was also not really interested in a cooperation.55 The former extensions of 1971 and 1983 will contain the larger studios while the main building, built in 1964 by architect Charles C. Devadder (fig. 64), will house the smaller student rooms. In total, 89 student rooms, 6 apartments and 40 studios will be placed in the former Rega-school, together with a limited car park and a large bicycle shed in the garden (fig. 61). The windows of the former circulation areas towards the Kolveniershof will be enlarged to house student rooms, but more importantly, to enhance social control on the deserted Kolveniershof at night (fig. 65). The existing interior of the building will be completely demolished and re-organized. The facades will get an extra layer of insulation and will be covered with fiber cement boards.56 While the Rega-school has led to the demoli-

55 56

tion of Augustin Van Arenbergh’s stables from 1897 (fig. 66), the building from Charles C. Devadder from 1964, without its extensions, does present some qualities that are still visible today. During a short site visit, the following architectural qualities could be identified: • •

• • • • • •

the adaptability of the original structure the alternation of symmetrically placed windows towards the Sint-Maartensstraat and asymmetrically placed windows towards the Kolveniershof (fig. 67) the main staircase on the corner of the Sint-Maartensstraat and Kolveniershof, separating the building into two wings (fig. 68) the interior of the main staircase with excessive daylight and blue-colored steel handrails (fig. 69) the alternation of the outer surface materials: concrete, bluestone and brick (fig. 73) the top floor laboratories with original builtin wooden furniture (fig. 70) the original color pattern of the front door (red) and the windows towards the Kolveniershof (blue/green) (fig. 68) the green color pattern in the corridors

These qualities will not be used as assets in the

Iris HEYLEN and Björn SMEKENS, Interview taken on May 29 2013. Iris HEYLEN and Björn SMEKENS, Interview taken on May 29 2013.

Analysis: Urban

125


62. Upper picture: Elevation of the student residences as seen from the former garden of the Bacteriological Institute, in: Iris HEYLEN, Verbouwing tot studentenresidentie, plans and sections, n째 123-01, Leuven: Technische Diensten, November 11 2013. 63. Middle left picture: Auditorium of the Rega-school 64. Middle right picture: Name of architect C. De Vadder in Rega-school of 1964 65. Lower picture: Elevation of the Rega-school as seen from the shooting range in the Kolveniershof, in: Iris HEYLEN, Verbouwing tot studentenresidentie, plans and sections, n째 123-01, Leuven: Technische Diensten, November 11 2013.

126


66. Upper left picture: Van Arenbergh’s stables as seen from the Sint-Maartensstraat, in: STADSARCHIEF Leuven, doss. n° 116763/5338, building permit from December 21 1962. 67. Upper right picture: Rega-school seen from Sint-Maartensdal 68. Lower left picture: Wooden window frames of the Rega-school from 1964 69. Lower right picture: Staircases of the Rega-school from 1964

Analysis: Urban

127


70. Upper left picture: Laboratories on the top floor of the Rega-school from 1964 71. Right picture: Corridor of the Rega-school towards the Kolveniershof 72. Middle left picture: View down to the Bacteriological Institute from the roof of the problematic extension of the Rega-school from 1983 73. Lower picture: Rega-school of 1964 with extension of 1971 on the left

128


new project, with the exception of the adaptability of the original concrete structure. The real threat to these qualities and to the qualities of the Bacteriological Institute is the extension of 1983 (fig. 72) towards the Kolveniershof, which will be conserved in the new project. The extension of 1971 towards the Sint-Maartensstraat is less threatening to the site, as it provides some urban continuity with the neighboring apartment block (fig. 73).

Analysis: Urban

129


130


ARCHITECTURAL

Analysis

131


74. Elevation, section and plan of the main facade, in: STADSARCHIEF Leuven, Doss. n째 59865, building permit from August 2 1897.

132


Methodology Historical sources In order to understand the architecture of the former Bacteriological Institute, historical research was combined with a survey and continuous observations on site. Initially, archival and literature research only revealed a couple of sources and works that could be directly used to understand the Bacteriological Institute and its site: •

Brussels, KADASTER VLAAMS-BRABANT o Leuven, n° 22a, 1879 o Leuven, n° 18a, 1880 o Leuven, n° 15, 1898 o Leuven, n° 14, 1899 o Leuven, n° 25, sheet 21,1963 o Leuven, n° 29, sheet 17, 1964 o Leuven, n° 11, sheet 7, 1971 o Leuven, n° 12, sheet 7, 1983 o Leuven, n° 22, sheet 9, 1989 • Leuven, STADSARCHIEF o Doss. n° 59865, building permit from August 2 1897. o Doss. n° 116620/5285, building permit from September 20 1961. o Doss. n° 116763/5338, building permit from December 21 1962.

Analysis: Architectural

o

Iconographic collection, n° 52, Decosterstraat • Leuven, TECHNISCHE DIENSTEN o P. STROOBANTS, “Instituut voor Landen Waterbeheer”, in: KU Leuven atlas van de universitaire gebouwen, n° 10501, plans from April 25 2002. o Clara VERLOOVE, “Leuven: Vital Decosterstraat 102: Het voormalige Instituut voor Bacteriologie”, in: AGENTSCHAP R-O VLAANDEREN (Onroerend Erfgoed Vlaams-Brabant), Universitair patrimonium Leuven: Deeldossier 11: Instituten en Instellingen, doss. DB002289, March 11 2008. • Leuven, UNIVERSITEITSARCHIEF o Inv. n° 2908, photographs Bacteriologisch Instituut after the bombardment on May 12 1944. o Postcard collection Bacteriologisch Instituut. o Mark DEREZ e.a. (ed.), Album of a scientific world: the University of Louvain around 1900, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2012, p. 172-183. • Leuven, UNIVERSITEITSBIBLIOTHEEK o Jean SUIS, “L’Université de Louvain - II. La faculté de médecine”, Patriote Illustré, 13/1, 1897, p. 17-18.

133


o

Emile VAN ERMENGEM, “Les sciences bactériologiques et parasitologiques”, in: Le mouvement scientifique en Belgique 1830-1905, vol. 2, Brussels: Société Belge de Librairie, p. 12-16.

Augustin Van Arenbergh’s original plans for the building were not found through any of these archives. Extensive research through issues of the magazine L’Emulation, which often published photographs together with plans, did not reveal any publication on the Bacteriological Institute. Two photographs of the Bacteriological Institute, together with the previously mentioned list of functions are published in Van Ermengem’s article in Le mouvement scientifique en Belgique 1830-1905. The photographs show the main facade and the garden towards the stables. The same picture of the stables can be found in the undated Album de l’Université Catholique de Louvain, of which a facsimile has been integrated in the recently published Album of a scientific world: the University of Louvain around 1900. Here the photographer of the picture towards the garden with stables is identified as Emile Morren, the same photog-

134

rapher who made the picture for the article on Denys in the issue of Le Patriote Illustré in 1897. The building permit file of 1897 does not include plans but a blueprint of the main facade (fig. 74). A section of the structure of the facade, together with a plan of the facade with door and window openings can also be found on this blueprint. Another blueprint contains an elevation of the stable building towards the Sint-Maartensstraat, together with a similar section and plan of its facade (fig. 75). The only photographs of this side of the stable building were found in the building permit of 1962 (see earlier fig. 66) when pictures were taken before its demolition. Before the cornices and brick parapet on the main facade of the Bacteriological Institute were taken away in 1961, detailed pictures were taken and are still present in the building permit file of 1961 (see earlier fig. 28). While the main facade has been documented over and over again through period photographs from 1897 till now and through old postcards, original photographs of the rear facade and of the interior were not found. The most important documents regarding the interior are photographs taken during WWII af-


ter the bombardment of Leuven by the allied forces on May, 12 1944. To document the war damages, pictures were taken of some interior spaces with indication of their function on the backside (see further). The cadastral maps of the site between Vital Decosterstraat and Sint-Maartensstraat could be used to date the origin of the different buildings on the bacteriological site and as a document of the gradual fragmentation of the site. Apart from that, the cadastral map of 1899 was also used for the architectural analysis since a round-shaped volume, probably a winter garden, not currently present anymore, can be seen in the cadastral picture of 1899 (fig. 76). On May 31, 2013, during the final stage of the integrated project, the most important architectural-historical documents were found in the archives of the Technical Services of Leuven. Although their Monuments Division had previously declared that the Technical Services were only aware of the above mentioned plans of 2002 and documents concerning the protection of the Bacteriological Institute,57 its whole building history since 1950 had been present all that time in their archives. In a final quest for

57

the original plans, historian Joris Snaet from the Monuments Division was contacted and thanks to him plans and documents on the Bacteriological Institute were found in the archives of the Technical Services. The most exciting discovery were undated plans and dated plans from 1963 where the functions of the Bacteriological Institute were mapped. The undated plans even include a plan of the now demolished stable building. The already made hypothesis of the original spatial distribution, circulation and functional mapping could now be compared. Although the plans date from after WWII, they approximate the original situation of 1897 very closely. After analyzing the historical documents, surveying the building and analyzing the lately discovered plans, the building can now be finally fully understood. The following sources were extracted from the archives, added to the list of historical documents, and used for some additional corrections: o o o

Leuven, TECHNISCHE DIENSTEN Institut de BactÊriologie, plans. K.U.L. Bacteriologisch Instituut, plans, April 13 1963. W. KELLENS, Laboratorium voor landbeheer, plans and sections, n° 10501, May

Zeljka KNEZEVIC, Email from January 29 2013.

Analysis: Architectural

135


75. Elevation, section and plan of the stable facade, in: STADSARCHIEF Leuven, Doss. n째 59865, building permit from August 2 1897.

136


76. Original layout of the site, in: KADASTER VLAAMS-BRABANT Brussels, Leuven, n째 14, 1899.

Analysis: Architectural

137


o o

14 1990. M. VERBIST, Instituut voor Maatschappelijke Gezondheidszorg, plans and sections, n° 10501, June 13 1968. A. VERHEYDEN, Universiteitsklinieken St.-Rafael, n° 10501, plans and sections, July 26 1966.

Survey Existing Information Before a detailed set of drawings was discovered on May 31st, 2013, the group began with the above listed set of plans from 2002, provided by the Technical Services. The plans were useful in that they covered much of the building, including areas which are difficult to access like the basement level, the main auditorium space, some of the upper attic levels, and the expansion into the adjacent house at Vital Decosterstraat, 100. But it was quickly observed that these photocopied plans were not very reliable. The easiest way to tell this was the fact that the outline of the building between the different levels did not match when overlaid digitally. Incorrect information of the interior was also discovered in these drawings.

138

Some doors and windows were not drawn in their correct locations, for example. Needs Assessment Assessing the insufficiency of information needed to fully analyze the building at that time and the building’s need for interventions in the near future, it was decided that an accurate survey of the building would greatly benefit the project, as well as any future efforts that had to be carried out. In addition to a detailed photographic record, the following is a list of drawings produced through the survey: • • • •

Floor plans: basement, ground floor, first floor, second floor Roof plan Section Front facade elevation Resources

With these needs, a detailed plan was laid out according to the available time and equipment resources, which were the following: Hand measuring tools (measuring tape/Disto)


available for the duration of the project. Since the site was local for the group and easy to access, this method proved invaluable. Leica Total Station available for two supervised survey days with Bjรถrn Van Genechten Leica Scan Station 2 available for one supervised survey day with Bjรถrn Van Genechten Survey Methodology Based on these resources, the following plan was developed for creating the drawings. The most efficient methodology was to collect as many of the interior measurements as possible through hand measuring. After that the Total Station would be used to capture more difficult areas (e.g. staircases) as well as provide a control network to check the accuracy of our hand measurements (fig. 77). This control network would also allow to tie in the laser scan data collected of the exterior of the building. Laser scanning was chosen for the exterior of the building since there were many large and complex volumes to measure, and this tool was the fastest way to capture them (fig. 78). Through high-resolution sub-scans of the front facade, a control network was also derived for creating a rectified photo elevation.

Analysis: Architectural

Creating the Plans and Section As soon as each set of information was collected, it was input into AutoCAD in the appropriate layer from the following: Hand measurement layer: measurements were put in directly as a 2D drawing. Total Station layer: The 3D lines and control points were flattened to 2D and used as the coordinate system to align the hand measurement layer. Laser Scan layer: The needed information was traced in 2D directly from the 3D model within the Leica Cyclone environment. These lines were then imported into AutoCAD. No alignment was necessary, since the laser scan data and Total Station data were also tied to the same coordinate system. Interpolation layer: Supplemental lines were created in areas where an interpolated connection was necessary between the hand measurement and total station/laser scanning layers. The information in this layer is treated as a list of measurements to verify on-site. Layer adapted from the 2002 plan of the Technical Services: This layer includes areas of the

139


building that were difficult to survey due to accessibility issues. Here, we attempted to remove the distortion from the photocopied plans of the Technical Services by aligning the plans with the drawings created from the previous four layers. This includes the basement and attic levels and should be used for visual reference with an understanding of its lower accuracy. Because parts of the building were inaccessible, the team relied on the Technical Services drawings, and later the drawings from 1966 and 1990, acquired on May, 31 were used to complete any missing information. Creating the Elevation Due to the large size of the front elevation and the level of detail in materials, an ortho-rectified photo elevation is the simplest and fastest method. Because the facade bends at either end, photographs had to be taken from three different angles, each with as little distortion as possible. Control points for each photograph were obtained from the laser scan data by creating vertex points within the Cyclone software, later exporting them as tab delimit-

140

ed text. These text files, once converted to the correct format, could be imported into BjÜrn Van Genechten’s ImageMap software and used to rectify the photographs. The photographs were then imported into AutoCAD and traced.


77. Upper picture: Screenshot from the Total Station 3D file 78. Lower picture: Screenshot of the laserscan data in Leica Cyclone

Analysis: Architectural

141


79. Articulated volumetry of the Bacteriological Institute as seen from the garden

142


Va n A r e n b e r g h ’s Architectural Concept Augustin Van Arenbergh’s Institut de Bactériologie was designed in 1897, during a period of architectural renewal in Belgium. In 1893, architects Paul Hankar and Victor Horta both designed a townhouse in the same neighborhood in Brussels that meant a renewal on different levels and was later seen as a new beginning for modern architecture, whose style was later commonly named art nouveau. Both architects were influenced by Viollet-le-Duc’s (1814-1879) rationalism, where the architecture was the result of the underlying constructional principles. The facade of Hankar’s own house was revolutionary in the way it projected the inner functions towards the outside. By looking at the large window openings of the asymmetrical facade, bypassers could easily see where the staircase, the fumoir or the bedroom were to be found (fig. 81). This legibility of the interior from the outside would later become a common principle in modern architecture, and can be witnessed at the back side of the Bacteriological Institute. Another characteristic of Hankar’s renewal was the way he combined natural and industrial materials and used them where they served the construction best. In this way, the facade combines natural stone, bricks, un-

Analysis: Architectural

painted carpentry and painted steel, resulting in a colorful and expressive composition. Horta’s Hôtel Tassel was even more remarkable in the way it revolutionized the spatial distribution of the 19th century townhouse. Starting from the construction, he introduced cast iron and steel into residential architecture to create a house that was tailor-made for his client, rather than reproducing the common typology where the different rooms were ordered in an enfilade . By separating the house into two separate wings, Horta could introduce daylight into the usually dark middle part of the townhouse. This open middle part between the wings contained a wintergarden, footbridges, a cupola and inner windows distributing the daylight and interconnecting the different levels of the two wings. This kind of theatrical interior was completely new within residential architecture but could already be seen in the buildings of Alban Chambon (1847-1929) or in the Koninklijke Vlaamse Schouwburg (Flemish Theatre) by Jean Baes (1848-1914), finished in 1887. Baes’ facade in Flemish Renaissance Revival, uses a sort of loggia consisting in three huge

143


arched windows (fig. 80). This element will return in the main facade of Van Arenbergh’s Bacteriological Institute. His facade is also structured through the monumentality of the three arched windows forming a loggia. Similar to Hankar’s facades, Van Arenbergh uses yellow and red brick for the facings and natural stone for the plinths and other elements such as window trims. The symmetrical composition, the loggia, the expressive use of materials and colors and the insertion of ceramics give this Renaissance Revival facade an eclectic character that is more inspired by the Italian Renaissance than by the Flemish Renaissance. With the introduction of ceramics from the Manufacture de Céramiques Décoratives de Hasselt58 (see further), Van Arenbergh managed to decorate his facade according to the upcoming new style of the art nouveau. However, he had already previously been using these horizontal bands of ceramic tiles in the house for Baron Orban de Xivry, which was built in 1886, a couple of years before the start of the art nouveau.59 The back facade and the garden volumes are in contrast with the eclectic facade (fig. 79). Van Arenbergh did not apply any particular style here. While the front facade was functional in

the way it had to represent the status of the Institute towards the public, the back facade and its volumes were not supposed to distract the scientific staff from their work. The main material used is red brick, combined with arches and bands in grey-blue bricks (fig. 82). Other elements such as the window sills are made out of Petit Granit. The only decoration of the garden volumes are the ceramic tiles under the cornice of the laboratory volume (fig. 83). While the loggia with three arches windows is also visible in the back facade, the symmetrical composition of the front facade is not present anymore. The placement of the window openings are now the direct result of the functions. The staircases, circulation galleries, the auditorium and the laboratories can be derived from the outside. Apart from custom made window openings, the main building, auditorium, circulation galleries, staircases and laboratories even get their own volume (fig. 84). This principle, where each function is indicated in a separate volume, would later become a prominent feature of H.P. Berlage’s (1856-1934) architecture or can be witnessed in Victor Horta’s Hôpital Brugmann (1906-1923) (fig. 85), where the sober brick volumes also formally resemble the Bacteriological Institute.

58 Mario BAECK, Email from May 28 2013. 59 F.A. LEFEVER, “De architectenfamilie Van Arenbergh”, in: Jaarboek van de Geschied- en Oudheidkundige Kring voor Leuven en omgeving, 28, Leuven: Peeters, 1988, p. 20.

144


80. Upper left picture: Koninklijke Vlaamse Schouwburg, in: Le mouvement scientifique en Belgique 18301905, 2, Brussels: Société Belge de Librairie, p. 505. 81. Upper right picture: “Huis Hankar”, in: Iris Monument: http://www.irismonument.be/nl.Elsene.Defacqzstraat.71.html (accessed May 31 2013). 82. Lower left picture: Blue-grey bricks in the back facade 83. Lower right picture: Ceramics under the cornices of the laboratory win

Analysis: Architectural

145


84. Upper left picture: Staircase-shaped windows as seen from the former shooting range of the Kolveniershof 85. Upper right picture: Victor Horta’s Hôpital Brugmann, in: http://www.chu-brugmann.be/nl/virtu/horta-campus.asp (accessed on May 31 2013). 86. Lower left picture: Postcard showing the original transparency of all spaces on the first floor, in: STADSARCHIEF Leuven, iconographic collection, n° 52, Decosterstraat. 87. Lower right picture: Louis Cloquet’s teaching laboratory for bacteriology in the Rommelaerecomplex, in: Le mouvement scientifique en Belgique 1830-1905, 2, Brussels: Société Belge de Librairie, p. 59.

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Given the importance of the horses to the bacteriological research, the former stable buildings and garden were the pride of the Institute. As can be seen on Emile Morren’s photograph of the stables from around the turn of the century, their romantic appearance with castle-like turrets indicates the high status of their inhabitants, the horses. The historicising dormer windows refer to the traditional model as can be found elsewhere in Leuven, such as in the Great Beguinage (fig. 22). The interior of the Bacteriological Institute follows the trend of other university buildings at that time where historicising elements are kept at a minimum to serve the strict needs of its scientific function. Since the building did not yet have electricity in 1897, large windows were used everywhere for a maximum amount of the daylight. Especially the teaching laboratory behind the loggia, where microscopes were used, was massively lit. However, this only partially explains the double height of the room and its three large windows towards the front and the back (fig. 86) An interior picture of Louis Cloquet’s Bacteriological Institute in Ghent (1905) gives an idea on how such a teaching laborato-

Analysis: Architectural

ry was organized (fig. 87) The large amount of gas lights for all the students could be another reason for the double height of Van Arenbergh’s laboratory. More than in other rooms, there was the danger for gas leaks, in which case there had to be enough air available in the room (see further). The laboratories in the garden wing, where experimental animals were dissected, are well-lit as well but are less high. In order to light the enclosed inner spaces on the right wing of the main building, Van Arenbergh used interior fanlights above the different rooms to light the inner corridors and storage rooms (fig. 88). Similar fanlights have been used to light the auditorium since the circulation galleries next to it prevented the use of windows on ground level (fig. 89). These long circulation galleries from the main building along the auditorium towards the laboratory volume, are an essential feature of the building, creating a promenade architecturale where the scientific staff was able to look at the garden and surroundings during their walks within the building (fig. 90). In the section of the building, one can also see that the laboratory volume is not on the same level as the main building and transverse auditorium

147


wing. Although the particular reason for this difference in levels remains unknown, it adds to the spatial experience of the promenade architecturale where the walk up the stairs confirms the sacral status of laboratory science (fig. 91).

148


88. Upper left picture: Fanlights above the doors of the former studios 89. Upper right picture: Auditorium currently used for experiments 90. Lower left picture: Perspective throughout the circulation galleries 91. Lower right picture: Section

Analysis: Architectural

149


92. Wallpaper of Victor Servranckx in the cloakroom on the groundfloor

150


Building Chronology Determining the exact date of the architectural elements and different interventions proved to be more difficult than expected. The combination of historical documents, survey and on-site observations was still not enough, mainly due to a lack of the designed and executed plans of Augustin Van Arenbergh and the lack of historical sources for the interior. Concerning the front facade, the main historical documents are period photographs as kept by the University Archive, the City Archive and found in different postcard collections. However, none of them contains an exact date. Only occasionally, there are elements that suggest the date, such as cars or the clothes of people in the pictures. The monument with sculpture of former mayor Vital Decoster by Louis Jotthier (1866-1942) in front of the Bacteriological Institute, dates from 1910. However, as is the faith with many of these monuments (e.g. Henry Van de Velde’s monument for composer Peter Benoit in Antwerp), it was replaced and only present in the Vital Decosterstraat since 1987.60 The front facade pictures were not only relevant for analyzing the original design of the facade but also revealed the original absence of the current stained glass in the windows. By zooming

in on one picture, information on the interior could be revealed as well. In this way the interior wall in the left wing on the first floor (rooms 115-116) was not there, meaning that the space was originally much larger and transparent. On the same picture (fig. 86), the window profiles of the wintergarden (room 17) could be vaguely seen after its shape was already discovered on the cadastral map of 1899 (see earlier). In general, the building has kept a lot of its finde-siècle character. Most of the later interventions have harmed the architectural quality of the building but are reversible. The majority of these interventions seem to have taken place right before and after WWII and during the 1960s when the building became the University Health Center Universitaire Gezondheidscentrum van de Universitaire Klinieken St.-Rafael. Smaller interventions were made in 1990 when the building was changed into the Instituut voor Land- en Waterbeheer. All these interventions did not respect Van Arenbergh’s original concept of light, space and circulation. A rare valuable addition is the wallpaper in the cloakroom on the ground floor (fig. 92). This wallpaper was recently attributed by Luc Ver-

60 “Monument Vital Decoster”, in: De inventaris van het bouwkundig erfgoed, ID: 206628, https://inventaris.onroerenderfgoed.be/dibe/relict/206628 (accessed on May 2 2013).

Analysis: Architectural

151


poest to artist Victor Servranckx (1897-1965), one of the pioneers of abstract art in Belgium. From 1917 onwards, Servranckx designed wallpapers for the Brussels-based Usines Peters-Lacroix (U.P.L.). In 1921, he would become artistic manager and surround himself with friends such as René Magritte (1898-1967).61 After comparing this cloakroom wallpaper on December, 2012 with a sample on the exhibition Victor Servanckx /// De jaren twintig in Ostend, this attribution can be be confirmed and the wallpaper can be identified as U.P.L. M14800, manufactured around 1922.62 The changes in the building that can be situated before and after WWII are characterized by an overly decorative approach, which contrasts heavily with Van Arenbergh’s sober and severely scientific interior. Especially the doors and panelling in the left wing on the ground floor near the entrance (room 16), have undergone such a make-over. The doors and handles seem a copy of the original doors and handles from 1897 but in a more kitschy way and with the use of lower quality wood (fig. 93). However, these changes do not harm the structural and spatial qualities in the way the changes since the 1960s have.

The removal of the original cornices and brick parapet from 1897 together with the painting in white of the original wooden window frames in tropical hardwood constituted a major infraction on the building (fig. 94). The qualities of the balanced facade with its playful polychromy were now downplayed to a large extent. While the disappearance of the former winter garden, together with other unknown interior elements can be attributed to war damage, other damaging interventions were not caused by war, but by a short-term vision in its quest for more surface. In this way, the former main laboratory, visible through the loggia from the front side, has been divided in two levels around 1968,63 containing seven spaces, with the front windows blocked by plywood boards.

61 Ann VERDONCK, “De abstracte kunst van Victor Servranckx: van tweedimensionaal canvas naar driedimensionale interventies”, in: Phillip VAN DEN BOSSCHE e.a., Victor Servranckx: de jaren twintig, Ostend: Mu.ZEE, 2012, p. 59-60. 62 Phillip VAN DEN BOSSCHE e.a., Victor Servranckx: de jaren twintig, Ostend: Mu.ZEE, 2012, p. 218. 63 M. VERBIST, Instituut voor Maatschappelijke Gezondheidszorg, plans and sections, n° 10501, Leuven: Technische Diensten, June 13 1968.

152


93. Original doorhandles on the left and replacements on the right

Analysis: Architectural

153


94. Picture showing the facade as it is today

154


0

1

5

10m

Basement chronology Original Until 1950 After 1950

Analysis: Architectural

155


0

1

5

Ground floor chronology Original Until 1950 After 1950

156

10m


0

1

5

10m

0

1

5

10m

First floor and second floor chronology

Analysis: Architectural

157


95. Place of former wintergarden, repaired with red bricks

158


Reconstruction of Heyday (1897) Functions After the historical research and the survey of the building, the heyday of the building could be determined and a reconstruction of the original functions and circulation could be made. Since the later interventions were never executed with any particular vision in mind, there was an immediate consensus to use the building’s inauguration date of 1899 as the time when the building was in its best shape. Due to the lack of the original plans from 1897 and the removal of a large part of the original interior equipment, the reconstruction of the initial functions of the building could only be the result of a measured guess. Two historical sources proved essential in our quest for these functions. The first one was the previously mentioned overview Le mouvement scientifique en Belgique 1830-1905 where Emile Van Ermenghem lists some of the key functions in the Bacteriological Institute: “Il se compose d’un corps principal de bâtiments avec logement pour le directeur et ses assistants, laboratoires nombreux, salles de travail commun, auditoires, musée, etc., et de grandes écuries pouvant loger une trentaine de chevaux destinés à la préparation des sérums.”64 According to the author, the Institute contained housing for the

director and his assistants, a lot of laboratories, common working spaces, auditoria, a museum and large stables for thirty horses. Another important source was the collection of war damage pictures, taken after the bombardment on May, 12 1944. As previously mentioned, the functions of the rooms photographed were all written on the backside and the location of the pictures could all be identified during site visits. This last source could not be trusted completely, given the time span between 1897 and 1940. According to our observations on site however, we found no reason to believe that these functions have changed since 1897. Based on these photographs and our observations, the following functions could be mapped with 80-100% certainty: • • • • • •

circulation spaces a small laboratory in the basement the main auditorium in the central wing a large laboratory on the ground floor a small laboratory on the ground floor the central laboratory in the loggia on the first floor

The remaining functions mentioned in Le mouvement scientifique en Belgique 1830-1905,

64 VAN ERMENGEM Emile, “Les sciences bactériologiques et parasitologiques”, in: Le mouvement scientifique en Belgique 1830-1905, 2, Brussels: Société Belge de Librairie, p. 10-11.

Analysis: Architectural

159


0

1

5

10m

Basement first hypothesis

160

Auditorium

Staff living

Lab and lab related

Director living

Offices

Clinic

Circulation

Kitchen

Inaccessible


96. Upper left picture: “Side wall garden side”, in: UNIVERSITEITSARCHIEF Leuven, inv. n° 2908, photographs Bacteriologisch Instituut after the bombardment on May 12 1944. 97. Upper right picture: “Side wall garden side” anno 2013 98. Lower left picture: “Laboratory basement right”, in: UNIVERSITEITSARCHIEF Leuven, inv. n° 2908, photographs Bacteriologisch Instituut after the bombardment on May 12 1944. 99. Lower right picture: “Laboratory basement right” anno 2013

Analysis: Architectural

161


0

1

5

10m

Ground floor first hypothesis

162

Auditorium

Staff living

Lab and lab related

Director living

Offices

Clinic

Circulation

Kitchen

Inaccessible


100. Upper left picture: “Auditorium”, in: UNIVERSITEITSARCHIEF Leuven, inv. n° 2908, photographs Bacteriologisch Instituut after the bombardment on May 12 1944. 101. Upper right picture: “Auditorium” anno 2013 102. Lower left picture: “Laboratory ground floor”, in: UNIVERSITEITSARCHIEF Leuven, inv. n° 2908, photographs Bacteriologisch Instituut after the bombardment on May 12 1944. 103. Lower right picture: “Laboratory ground floor” anno 2013

Analysis: Architectural

163


0

1

5

10m

Ground floor first hypothesis

164

Auditorium

Staff living

Lab and lab related

Director living

Offices

Clinic

Circulation

Kitchen

Inaccessible


104. Upper left picture: “Small laboratory”, in: UNIVERSITEITSARCHIEF Leuven, inv. n° 2908, photographs Bacteriologisch Instituut after the bombardment on May 12 1944. 105. Upper right picture: “Small laboratory” anno 2013 106. Lower left picture: “Laboratory ground floor”, in: UNIVERSITEITSARCHIEF Leuven, inv. n° 2908, photographs Bacteriologisch Instituut after the bombardment on May 12 1944. 107. Lower right picture: “Laboratory ground floor” anno 2013

Analysis: Architectural

165


0

1

5

10m

Ground floor first hypothesis

166

Auditorium

Staff living

Lab and lab related

Director living

Offices

Clinic

Circulation

Kitchen

Inaccessible


108. Upper left picture: “Small laboratory ground floor”, in: UNIVERSITEITSARCHIEF Leuven, inv. n° 2908, photographs Bacteriologisch Instituut after the bombardment on May 12 1944. 109. Upper right picture: “Small laboratory ground floor” anno 2013 110. Lower left picture: “Photo of the facade from the garden”, in: UNIVERSITEITSARCHIEF Leuven, inv. n° 2908, photographs Bacteriologisch Instituut after the bombardment on May 12. 1944. 111. Lower right picture: “Photo of the facade from the garden” anno 2013

Analysis: Architectural

167


0

1

5

10m

0

1

5

10m

First floor and second floor first hypothesis

168

Auditorium

Staff living

Lab and lab related

Director living

Offices

Clinic

Circulation

Kitchen

Inaccessible


112. Upper left picture: “Laboratory first floor”, in: UNIVERSITEITSARCHIEF Leuven, inv. n° 2908, photographs Bacteriologisch Instituut after the bombardment on May 12. 113. Upper right picture: “Laboratory first floor” anno 2013 114. Lower left picture: “Laboratory first floor”, in: UNIVERSITEITSARCHIEF Leuven, inv. n° 2908, photographs Bacteriologisch Instituut after the bombardment on May 12. 115. Lower right picture: “Laboratory first floor” anno 2013

Analysis: Architectural

169


116. Upper left picture: Basement, in: TECHNISCHE DIENSTEN Leuven, Institut de bactériologie, undated plans. 117. Upper right picture: Ground floor, in: TECHNISCHE DIENSTEN Leuven, Institut de bactériologie, undated plans. 118. Lower left picture: First floor and second floor, in: TECHNISCHE DIENSTEN Leuven, Institut de bactériologie, undated plans. 119: Lower right picture: Ground floor stables, in: TECHNISCHE DIENSTEN Leuven, Institut de bactériologie, undated plans.

170


LABORATORIES

Furnace

Storage

Coal Cellar Institute

Coal Cellar Prof

Rooms (Housing)

Kitchen

Kitchen Institute

Kitchen

0

1

5

Rooms (Housing)

Rooms (Housing)

10m

Newly developed hypothesis on uses of basement level

Analysis: Architectural

171


Library/ Museum

Animals

LABORATORY

LABORATORY

AUDITORIUM

Storage Sink

Carriage Entrance Meeting Room

MAIN HALL

Living Room Prof Clinic

0

1

5

10m

Newly developed hypothesis on uses of ground floor level

172

Administration

Office Prof

Waiting Room


ATTIC

ATTIC

STAFF ROOMS

STAFF ROOMS

0

1

5

10m

Storage Sink Stairs Prof

Bath room Prof

TEACHING LABORATORY

Bed room Prof

Assistant Studios

Entrance Prof

0

1

5

10m

Newly developed hypothesis on uses of upper floors (first floor above, second floor higher above)

Analysis: Architectural

173


were mapped as well but remained highly hypothetical. Observations on site, especially the presence of molded ceilings, ventilation grids, floor materials or window shapes, were used to attribute these functions in a first reconstruction of the original functions (see p. 160 - 169). After the discovery of the additional plans from the Technical Services, this first hypothesis could be partly confirmed and partly revised. This set of undated plans and plans signed in 1963 both contain the functions of the Bacteriological Institute from right after WWII (fig. 116, 117,118 and 119). As was the case with the war damage photographs, the mapped functions seemed close to the original functions of 1897 as described in the historical sources and observed on site. For the final hypothesis of the original functions, the functional zoning of the building from the first hypothesis did not have to be changed. The main building volume was divided in three vertical zones, next to the transverse auditorium volume and laboratory volume: •

zone with housing for professor Denys and his staff (main building)

• •

o basement: spaces B10-B22 o ground floor: spaces 15-20 o first floor: spaces 113-118 o second floor: spaces 213-221 zone with main hall and teaching lab (main building) o ground floor: spaces 9-14 o first floor: space 110-112 zone with offices and rooms of scientific assistants (main building) o basement: spaces B1-B8 o ground floor: spaces 1-7 o first floor: spaces 101-109 o second floor: spaces 201-208 auditorium volume o basement: spaces B23-B38 o ground floor: spaces 13/21-26/32-34 laboratory volume o basement: spaces B39-B45 o ground floor: spaces 27-31

The original circulation and accessibility was further clarified through the finding of the plans as well. The private apartment of professor Denys was only accessible through a front door in the main hall and contained his living room with the now demolished wintergarden on the ground floor (room 17) (fig. 95). On the

65 The room numbers used do not refer to the numbers on the historical plans but to the produced plans for this integrated project work.

174


first floor, Denys had his bedroom (room 115116) (fig. 120 + 121) with adjoining bathroom (room 117) (fig. 122), the only one in the whole building and only accessible by him. On the second floor, the rooms of the house staff were situated, directly linked to the kitchen in the basement with a separate service staircase. A small door in the carriage entrance (space 1920) served as the front door of the housing for the staff. The zone with the main hall and the teaching laboratory was accessible through the main staircase (room 7) (fig. 123). Professor Denys had a separate entrance (room 114) to the teaching laboratory from his private apartment. The studios of the scientific staff were located on the same floor and could be reached by taking the main staircase or by a separate staircase next to the facade (space 101) (fig. 124). On the ground level of this zone, the administration of the Institute was housed with a separate room for a secretary (room 10), a meeting room (room 3 and 8) and the office of the professor (room 6) with adjoining waiting room with interior door (room 4). In the left side of the main entrance, the former clinic (room 16) was situated (fig. 125), which was later annexed into the

Analysis: Architectural

private home of the professor. The new information also led to the discovery that the circulation galleries (spaces 21 and 34) both had stairs down to the garden. Another disappeared staircase (room 27) was found in the laboratory volume, leading towards the attic. The same room was used as the entrance for the animals that were brought in the laboratories for research purposes. The presence of the ramp next to the building was probably meant to even guide horses from the stables into the laboratory (room 28) when necessary. This explains why the laboratory volume was further removed from the main building and was the closest to the stables. The undated plans of the Bacteriological Institute also contain a plan of the demolished stables. This is the only document containing information on the spatial layout and functions of this building (see earlier fig. 119). From the Sint-Maartensstraat there was a main entrance leading towards two large stables and towards the garden where additional holding stalls for the horses were situated.

175


120. Upper left picture: Former bedroom of the professor 121. Upper right picture: Former bedroom of the professor 122. Middle left picture: Former bathroom of the professor 123. Lower right picture: Main staircase in current state 124. Lower left picture: Staircase in the main wing towards the South

176


125. Former clinic in current state

Analysis: Architectural

177


LOW VALUE MEDIUM VALUE

HIGH VALUE

VERY HIGH VALUE

INACCESSIBLE

Value mapping of the spaces on the basement level Low value Medium value High value Very high value

178


Evaluation of the Spaces After the historical research and survey and before the redaction of the masterplan, all the spaces were evaluated as an outcome of the architectural analysis. The spaces were evaluated in their current state but their significance is mostly derived from their original function from 1899, since this was the time when the spaces made sense on an architectural level. A lot of importance was given to the circulation spaces since their built surface of 567m2 represents a large part of the building surface, as will be discussed below. Apart from the circulation areas, three spaces were given a very high value, not only based on their historical significance but also already on their future potential. These spaces are the former teaching laboratory on the first floor behind the monumental arched windows, the former auditorium on the ground level and the main laboratory with the cast iron columns in the back volume. Other spaces such as the private apartment of the professor were given a high value but are not on the same level as the previously mentioned spaces since they do not define the building in the way those other spaces do. A medium value was given to most of the other laboratories and offices since they are not unique but inter-

Analysis: Architectural

esting on a typological level. A couple of spaces were assigned a low value since they were transformed in such a way that the original architecture is not legible anymore, such as the added toilets in the circulation gallery (rooms 22-24) that replaced the former stairs. A large original architectural element that has been given a low value is the staircase towards the facade (spaces 1, 101 and 201). This staircase seems to be the victim of the formalism of Augustin Van Arenbergh’s facade and is built in such a way that it not only blocks the daylight but also prevents the windows from being fully opened. In the upcoming section on the master plan for conservation, the evaluation of the spaces will serve as the starting point to define the zones that need to be conserved and those where interventions could be possible.

179


LOW VALUE MEDIUM VALUE

HIGH VALUE

VERY HIGH VALUE

Value mapping of the spaces on the ground floor level Low value Medium value High value Very high value

180


LOW VALUE MEDIUM VALUE

HIGH VALUE LOW VALUE

VERY HIGH VALUE MEDIUM VALUE

HIGH VALUE

VERY HIGH VALUE

INACCESSIBLE

Value mapping of the spaces on the first floor level (above) and second floor (higher above)

Analysis: Architectural

181


Area 342 m2

Area 360 m2

Area 822 m2

Area 648 m2

0

1

5

Usable floor area by level

182

10m


Spatial Quantification In order to understand the possibilities provided by the building for future use, a quantification of available spaces has been applied keeping its current programmatic layout in mind. The spacious building provides 2172 m2 of floor space on four levels. The basement level contains 648 m2 of floor space, the ground floor level 822 m2, the first floor level 360 m2, and the second floor level 342 m2. A more detailed quantification has been carried out and illustrated per floor level in the following categories: • • • • • •

all four levels. Fifteen large spaces constitute a total of 411 m2 on all four levels. Finally, four auditorium/assembly spaces constitute a total of 387 m2 on three of the levels.

Circulation Sanitary Small spaces (between 0 and 10 m2) Medium spaces (between 11 and 20 m2) Large spaces (between 21 and 50 m2) Auditorium/assembly spaces (larger than 51 m2)

The following diagrams show the breakdown of these categories of spaces. Circulation spaces constitute a total of 567 m2. Five sanitary spaces constitute a total of 22 m2 on all four levels. Eleven small spaces constitute a total of 79 m2 on three of the levels. Twenty-eight medium spaces constitute a total of 468 m2 on

Analysis: Architectural

183


Area 54 m2

Area 71.7 m2

Area 270.2 m2

Area 171.35 m2

0

1

5

Total area of circulation spaces by level

184

10m


Area 2.9 m2

Area 2.2 m2

Area 5.5 m2

Area 11.6 m2

0

1

5

10m

Total area of sanitary spaces by level

Analysis: Architectural

185


Area 22.7 m2

Area 8.9 m2

Area 0 m2

Area 47 m2

0

1

5

Total area of small spaces by level

186

10m


Area 77.2 m2

Area 98.4 m2

Area 100.2 m2

Area 192.2 m2

0

1

5

10m

Total area of medium spaces by level

Analysis: Architectural

187


Area 66 m2

Area 101.5 m2

Area 131.6 m2

Area 115.5 m2

0

1

5

Total area of large spaces by level

188

10m


Area 80.3 m2

Area 80.3 m2

Area 226.4 m2

Area 0 m2

0

1

5

10m

Total area of auditorium/assembly size spaces by level

Analysis: Architectural

189


190


TECHNICAL

Analysis

191


126. Lintels and pilars in metal in the backside facade

192


Structure The layout of the Bacteriological Institute is well fitted into the site whose shape was born out of a complex cadastral evolution (see earlier). The complex configuration of the building’s articulated volumes is also reflected in the structure. Understanding this structure was difficult due to the lack of documentation found. However, documentation was found on May, 31, which helped shed some new light on certain aspects. The information available initially consisted of the blueprint of the facade which was retrieved from the building permit of 1897 (see earlier), as well as our own survey documentation and visual inspection of building elements and materials. Foundation The structure is made up of a substructure (the basement level) which has a ceiling height of about a meter above ground level. The basement level supports the superstructure through foundation walls with footings that extend into the ground according to the recently acquired drawings from 1966 when the Bacteriological Institute was turned into a University Health Center. As would be expected, the layout of the foundation walls follows the layout of the super-

structure walls which they support. The floor of this level is a thin concrete slab. At an unknown date, a grid of metal column-like structural supports has been added in the basement level (fig. 128). The grid generally follows the shape of the main auditorium space above, suggesting that these may have been added in order to support the new use of the space by the Faculty of Bioengineering for their experiments (see earlier). Horizontal Structure None of the acquired plans clearly show the composition of the horizontal structure. Based on a visual inspection, the horizontal structure of the ground floor is composed of bricks with some metal supporting members. According to Louis Cloquet’s contemporary Traité d’Architecture, cast members within floors were used at the time and offered the possibility of larger tiled floor areas. Cloquet shows an example of his metal-brick hybrid system using vaults, although this is not the case in our building (fig.127).66 The prevalent use of floor tiles on the ground floor of the Bacteriological Institute further support this observation. Higher on the first and second floors, where tile finishes

66 Louis CLOQUET, Traité d’architecture: éléments de l’architecture, types d’édifices - esthétique, composition et pratique de l’architecture, 2, Paris/Liège: Librairie Polytechnique/Baudry, 1898, p. 207-2

Analysis: Technical

193


127. Upper picture: While no vaults are used in the Bacteriological Insitute, the illustrated system of using cast elements in conjunction with brick is a probable detail of construction used to support the ground floor level. Construction detail, in: CLOQUET Louis, Traité d’architecture: éléments de l’architecture, types d’édifices - esthétique, composition et pratique de l’architecture, 2 and 3, Paris/Liège: Librairie Polytechnique/Baudry, 1898, p. 208. 128. Left picture: arrangement of temporary supports in basement 129. Right picture: Cast Iron pillars in the backside laboratory

194


130. Picture taken form the roof of the Rega-School, showing the structure of the roofs of the former Bacteriological Institute.

Analysis: Technical

195


131. New roof section, in: VERBIST M., Instituut voor Maatschappelijke Gezondheidszorg, plans and sections, n째 10501, June 13 1968.

196


132. Left picture: Facade section, in: STADSARCHIEF Leuven, doss. n째 59865, building permit from August 2 1897. 133. Section and plan, in: VERBIST M., Instituut voor Maatschappelijke Gezondheidszorg, plans and sections, n째 10501, June 13 1968

Analysis: Technical

197


are rare, it is likely that the floors are made of a wood frame construction. The use of metal is most clearly visible in the back volume, where cast beams are carried by cast columns. All of the window lintels in this volume are also cast (fig. 126). As mentioned previously, there was a platform built in the main laboratory space (rooms 110-112). The 1966 section drawing where the platform can be seen does not show its material/structural composition. There is more clear documentation, however, of the composition of the full floor subsequently added in this space in 1968. The 1968 section drawing shows how new reinforcement was introduced between the large windows of the main lab in order to install I-beams traversing the space. The added structure between the windows is composed of reinforced concrete (fig. 133)

tic floor in the back volume (room 30). As discussed in the horizontal structure section, there is a clear presence of the use of metal members in the structure. This brings up the possibility of steel members being also used within the vertical structure as reinforcement. With the exception of the iron columns in the back structure, and the apparent grid of columns in the entry hall on the ground floor (rooms 9, 11, and 12), the best conjecture on the vertical structural system is that it is composed of load-bearing walls. Looking at the thickness of walls on the plan of the ground floor, it appears that there are “core� areas within the layout which have thicker walls. These core areas include the outline of the main laboratory space (rooms 110-112 on the first floor), the two staircases flanking the facade (rooms 1 and 18), and the outline of the main auditorium (room 13).

Vertical Structure

Roof

Again, none of the acquired plans show the composition of the vertical structure. Based on a visual inspection, the walls are composed of brick and mortar, with a cladding layer of bricks on the exterior walls. The only exception to this are the cast iron columns which support the at-

The complex configuration of the building is most clearly expressed through the system of roofs. The system is made up of a set of eleven distinct roofs, six of them flat, three of them gable, one of them a gable with a hipped end, and the last one a square hip roof (fig. 130).

198


The blueprint from the building permit of 1897 shows a partial section through the central gable roof of the front volume (fig. 132). Based on visual observation, the roof structures are made of wood. As will be discussed further in the pathology section, a number of these roofs is in a bad shape and in need of repair. It is evident that the gable roof to the South of the main laboratory volume has been replaced. This was confirmed by the newly found section drawing of 1968 (fig. 133).

Analysis: Technical

199


Roof Drainage System

200


Roof Drainage As was previously discussed, the roof system’s complexity follows the volumetric articulation of the Bacteriological Institute. Because of this complexity and the identified pathologies related to the failure of the roof drainage system (see further), it is very important to understand how this system is configured. In the adjacent diagram, the drainage system has been mapped based on on-site visual observations and aerial views from online mapping services. While downpipes are visible on the courtyard facades of the building, there is a marked absence of them on the front facade. It is unclear whether the diversion of the roof drainage system from the front facade was a design requirement imposed on the architect, or a design decision based on aesthetic preference, which was not uncommon around 1900. In order to achieve this diversion, an internal drain pipe is used, running from the street-facing gutters to the back facade. This internal drainage pipe is clearly visible running through rooms 217-219. The failure of these drain pipes from unknown reasons is the cause of the most significant damage to the building. The replaced roof on the opposite side (see earlier) is presumed to have a similar internal drainage pipe, although

Analysis: Technical

it is not visible where these pipes run. It can be surmised that after running through the downpipes, the runoff connects to the Leybeek which continues to run underground through the site. While the complexity of the roof system is an inherent component of the architectural design, it does make for a delicate system which is difficult to maintain. As can be seen in the forthcoming analysis on pathologies, the lack of maintenance has already resulted in major damage to the system, necessitating urgent interven

201


(Left) Photo of main laboratory windows, with operable lites at the lowest portion and the at the upper (Right) The wall of the back volume, which houses multiple laboratories is pierced with openings that have since been filled-in.

202


Ve n t i l a t i o n The ventilation of occupied spaces is an essential consideration in the design of a building, whether through natural or artificial means. Because natural and man-made processes produce pollutants within a contained space, it is important to have a well-functioning ventilation system that allows for the replacement of “exhaust” air with fresh air. Moreover, temperature control is another function of a building’s ventilation system. Cool air must be introduced in hot months, and warm air in cold months. In the case of the Bacteriological Institute, where many occupants gathered, and functions involving combustion and organic materials occurred, the design of a good ventilation system would have been paramount. This is especially the case in certain spaces within the building, namely the laboratories, where experiments occurred producing some probably noxious smells. The auditorium, as well, would have been an important space to consider for ventilation because of the large groups of occupants who would have gathered there and polluted the air simply through their vital functions. In a chapter about ventilation in his Traite d’Ar-

chitecture, Louis Cloquet discusses the considerations in designing a ventilation system. He emphasizes the amount of air per hour that should be replaced in a space according to the number of occupants and the type of use. Hospitals with ordinary patients, for example, should allow 60 to 70m3 of fresh air per hour, while short meeting halls or amphitheaters should allow about 30m3.67 At the current state of the Bacteriological Institute it would be difficult to measure the rate of ventilation due to the changes made to the spatial layout (namely the main laboratory in rooms 110-112) and the closing of ventilation holes. But even a cursory visual observation of the building yields to the observation of a purpose-designed ventilation system, particularly through the presence of these original ventilation openings in the various facades. These original ventilation openings have been mapped and illustrated (see p. 204-207). In addition to these ventilation openings, windows and their placement play an important role in the natural ventilation of the spaces. Architect Van Arenbergh seems to have employed a number of different techniques to

67 Louis CLOQUET, Traité d’architecture: éléments de l’architecture, types d’édifices - esthétique, composition et pratique de l’architecture, 3, Paris/Liège: Librairie Polytechnique/Baudry, 1898, p. 9

Analysis: Technical

203


0

1

5

Ventilated walls on basement level

204

10m


0

1

5

10m

Ventilated walls on ground floor level

Analysis: Technical

205


0

1

5

10m

0

1

5

10m

Ventilated walls on upper levels (first floor above, second floor higher above)

206


Cross ventilation using prevailing wind conditions in the main laboratory spaces

Analysis: Technical

207


ensure the proper ventilation of the Institute’s spaces. A number of techniques fall under spatial configuration. One of these is the use of large volumes to increase the air capacity of a space. According to Cloquet, when a location is occupied intermittently, its capacity has considerable influence on the pollution of the air inside.68 The more air capacity a room has, the more pollutants can be diluted. This is most clearly exemplified by the main laboratories and auditorium as previously mentioned. Another important aspect of ventilation is the placement of windows and dedicated ventilation openings. Placing windows and openings on two opposite walls, for example, allows for cross ventilation through a space. While no documentation was found as to the original design intent of the architect, an analysis of the volumetric configuration of the spaces shows the way he treated the main functions of the Institute as extending limbs, allowing for a maximum of exposed surface area for each space to have access to outside air. Furthermore, a distribution of openings in the lower and higher portions of the spaces take advantage of upward air movement. Cloquet explains this phenomena of air warmed by the occupant and

heating methods rising to the top. He further elaborates that instead of trying to dilute noxious gas into a large quantity of fresh air, there is a clear advantage in helping these gases in their natural movement, and to mix them as little as possible with the fresh air.69 Especially in the laboratory spaces, it can be inferred through the openings on the exterior walls that this effect would take place if the system is restored to its original state. The volumetric configuration of the building further takes advantage of prevailing wind conditions. Again, this is especially the case with the laboratory spaces which would need the most ventilation. According to the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium, prevailing winds come from the Southwest. A North aligned map of the building shows that the large windows on the Southwest and Northeast of the main laboratory space would have taken full advantage of the cross ventilation provided by the prevailing winds. The laboratory in the back volume as well, with windows on its South, East, and North facades is perfectly designed to this end (see plan p. 207). Unfortunately, the erection of the 1983 extension of the Rega-school has since blocked the East facade of

68 Louis CLOQUET, Traité d’architecture: éléments de l’architecture, types d’édifices - esthétique, composition et pratique de l’architecture, 3, Paris/Liège: Librairie Polytechnique/Baudry, 1898, p. 93. 69 Louis CLOQUET, Traité d’architecture: éléments de l’architecture, types d’édifices - esthétique, composition et pratique de l’architecture, 3, Paris/Liège: Librairie Polytechnique/Baudry, 1898, p. 93.

208


this volume, jeopardizing the functioning of the natural ventilation system. If the extension is to remain, a modification should be designed to the ventilation system, possibly through mechanical means.

Analysis: Technical

209


136

137

Materials found on the building’s facade: 136. Sandy limestone above the carriage entrance 137. Main entrance steps in Petit Granit 138. Baelen limestone on the ground level of the main facade

210

138


Materials Exterior Materials

Belgian Bluestone Bricks

The exterior walls of the Bacteriological Institute are brick masonry walls. Different types of bricks are used for this. The type of bond is a cross bond, the layers of headers alternate with the layers of stretchers. For the front facade hard baked yellow and red bricks are alternated and are an integral part of the polychrome and symmetrical facade composition. The back of the building uses sober red bricks, alternated by blue-grey bricks to accentuate the window openings and for long horizontal bands. After the war damage of WWII, a different type of red brick has been used for reparation works. In this way, the whole shape of the former winter garden can be recognized through the use of the different type of brick. Sandy Limestone Within the front facade there is also a lot of sandy limestone used for the decorative parts of the arches, capitals and cornices. These parts of the facade are very visible, because their beige colored surface layer turns into black crust due to rain and acid rain (fig. 136).

Analysis: Technical

The commonly called Belgian Bluestone is a blue-grey compact crinoid limestone, typically used throughout the 19th century in Belgium. The stone can be treated in different ways. In the Bacteriological Institute the Petit Granit is often chiseled, sawn or shaped. The color of the stone is dependant upon the amount and the dimensions of the crinoids inside. A variety of colors is available and this type of natural stone is most often used for the outside of the building. Petit Granit is also used in the interior for the thresholds or the small steps leading the the garden (fig. 137). Pink Limestone (fig. 138) Pink Limestone or Baelen Limestone (“Marbre rouge à crinoïdes de Baelen”) is a local ornamental stone from the area of Limburg in Flanders. These type of stones have been quarried at least since the 16th century. This type, employed for exterior use, is a stone that was not qualitative enough to serve as a marble for decorative use inside.

211


Interior Materials Marbles and Polishable Limestone In many spots Carrara marble is used in the building in a variety of ways. One of the varieties is the Carrara brouille (fig. 139), which is a type with blue-grey veins and a glassy fracture. This type is used in big pieces and plates in the former gate area (currently rooms 19 and 20). Also Carrara marble in the varieties of Arabescato and Calacacta (fig. 140) is used. These are white marbles with dark coloured veins and they vary in colour from grey-black to beige. This type is used for the stairs and steps from the former gate area into the building and are probably not from 1897. Another type of Italian marble is use for the fireplaces in the building: the Bardiglio or Bardiglietto (fig. 141) marble with a grey-blue colour with shades of black. For the fireplaces in the building, different marbles and polishable limestones are used such as Black Belgian Marble (fig. 142). This is a polishable limestone and not a metamorphic marble type. It is often used in buildings as decoration. The fireplace in the Bacteriological Institute which is finished in Black Marble also

70

212

Mario BAECK, Emails from March 19 and 28 2013.

has segments in Griotte marble (fig. 143). This type of Red Belgian Marble is cherry colored, often flecked with small dashes of purple. Besides the Belgian polishable limestones, there is French marble used in some of the fireplaces, which are often polishable as well. They are often used for the inside window sills. Examples here are French Pink Marble and the Yellow French Marbles, such as the Jaune Lamertine (fig. 144) . Tiles70 Within the interior and in some parts of the facade of the Bacteriological Institute ceramic tiles are used. Inside the building there are original floor tiles, replacement tiles and new floor tiles present. The original floor tiles from 1897 can still be found in the main hall, the circulation galleries, the corridors and some laboratories (fig. 145). Since these tiles are scratch resistant, they are not cement tiles but ceramic tiles, probably from Utzschneider & Jaunez (Jurbise), as confirmed by Mario Baeck. The use of these ceramic tiles makes sense in a bacteriological institute since they are hygienic and resistant to wear and acid.


139

140

142

143

144

145

141

Materials found on the building’s interior: 139. Carrara brouille in the former carriage entrance 140. Carrara marble (Arabescato/Calacacta) in the side entrance 141. Bardiglio marble for the fireplace of the professor’s office 142. Black Belgian Marble for the fireplaces 143. Segments of Griotte marble in the fireplaces 144. Yellow French Marble for some window sills 145. Original ceramic tiles 1897, probably from Utzschneider & Jaunez

Analysis: Technical

213


146

147

148

149

150

151

152

153

154

146. Tiles of Frères de Boch in the cellar 147. Painted-over Boch tile 148. Ceramic tiles from the Manufacture Céramique Décoratives de Hasselt 149. Model 135 of the Manufacture Céramique Décoratives de Hasselt 150. Hexagonal tiles from the Céramique Nationale de Welkenraedt 1920s-1930s 151. Flamed colored tiles 1930s 152. Flamed colored tiles 1960s 153. Cement tiles 1960s 154. Later addition of wooden paneling in French-classical style

214


Original tiles of Frères de Boch can be found in the cellar. The faience of the current toilets (former kitchen) in that cellar (rooms 12-20) is also made of Boch tiles (types 562, 565 and 568) (fig. 146) . In the former bathroom on the first floor (room 117), a lot of these Boch tiles can be found as well, but here they are currently coated in white paint (fig. 147) . Under the carpet of the former bathroom Boch tiles (type 805) were found as well, which first led to the hypothesis that this space was the former kitchen of professor Denys, before the recently acquired plans were discovered where it was mapped as a bathroom.

from the Céramique Nationale de Welkenraedt (fig. 150) or the “krakelingen” from the 1920s-1930s. The other floor tiles in the building were often replaced when the building changed functions. The flamed coloured tiles in the back volume of the building are typical for the 1930s but are probably placed after World War II (fig. 151) . During the 1960s a lot of common cement tiles were put in (fig. 152) . In the small slope at the entrance hall leading towards the auditorium (room 12), composite tiles can be found. These were often used during the 1960s and 1970s (fig. 153) . Wood

Some of the tiles used outside in the front facade are exceptional ceramic tiles from the Manufacture de Céramique Décoratives de Hasselt (fig. 148) . Model 135 (Frise Renaissance) is used for the frieze (fig. 149) while model 24 and 25 are used for the colorful outcroppings. The ceramics of the original inscription “Institut de Bactériologie” were probably also from this company but this could not be confirmed since they were taken away together with the cornices and parapet during the 1960s. Other ceramic tiles found in the Institute date from later periods such as the hexagonal tiles

Analysis: Technical

Wood is used both inside and outside. The exterior doors are in wood, as well as the window frames. The original wooden shutters in the rooms on the ground floor are still working and in a good state of conservation. Inside wood was used for decorative and finishing aspects as well. The panelling in a room on the ground floor (room 16) found its inspiration in the French-classical period (fig. 154) and was probably added later when the former clinic was annexed to the living room of the professor. The parquet floor here is probably still original.

215


Other panelling in pressed cardboard can be found in the professor’s office (fig. 155) (room 6). All the staircases are made out of wood and formally resemble the staircases of Paul Hankar (fig. 156) . In addition, in the backside of the building, the former library (room 29) still has an original wooden bookcase (fig. 157) . Metals Cast iron and steel are used for original components such as: • • • • • •

Pillars and beams in the laboratory volume (fig. 158) Window lintels on the exterior of the laboratory (fig. 159) Art nouveau whiplash handrails of the staircases (wrought iron) (fig. 160) Ventilation holes in the front facade Rails covering the cellar windows in the front facade (wrought iron) Ventilation holes at the backside Glass

During the survey, the quality of the glass could not be investigated in detail. After the bom-

216

bardment in 1944 however, most of the glass windows at the backside were completely broken, as can be witnessed on the photographs taken afterwards (see earlier). The different stained glass windows in the upper parts of the windows on the front facade were probably added later since zooming in old photographs and postcards revealed that they were not present around 1900. Some of these stained glass windows are strictly geometrical (fig. 161) while the ones in the professor’s office (room 6) are figurative (fig. 162) .


155

156

157

158

159

160

161

162

155. Pressed cardboard paneling in the former office of the professor 156. Wooden staircase against the front facade 157. Original book stacks in the former library 158. Cast iron columns in the laboratory wing 159. Cast lintels on the outside of the laboratory wing 160. Wrought iron art nouveau handrails 161. Later addition of geometric stained glass in the side entrance 162. Figurative stained glass in the former office of the professor

Analysis: Technical

217


Second Floor

First Floor

Ground Floor

Basement

0

218

1


Linoleum Carpet Hardwood Plywood/Linoleum Plywood/Carpet Hardwood/Carpet Parquet Boch 805/Carpet Concrete Ceramic Stoneware Tiles (1897) White Marble Hexagonal Stoneware Tiles (1920-1940) Stoneware “Krakelingen” (1920-1940) “Granito” Cement Tiles (1960-1980) “Flamed” Ceramic Stoneware Tiles (1935-1960) Boch Tiles 805 (1897)

0

1

5

Analysis: Technical

10m

219


Pathology found along the southern wall of the auditorium (room 13)

220


Pathologies In order to understand the physical condition of the building, a visual inspection was conducted along the exterior facades of the building as well as the interior surfaces. The findings have been photographically documented and inventoried according to location. Based on this, major zones and patterns of deterioration have been identified, summarized, and illustrated in this section. This documentation should be used as an overview of pathologies found in the building, and not as an exhaustive list.

Each of these sources affects the building in a different way, resulting in a number of pathologies ranging from aesthetic to structural.

It is apparent that the major cause of the various pathologies found in our building is water and humidity. The three major sources of water and humidity are as follows:

In general, these effects are avoidable with proper care and maintenance. Due to the abandonment of the building for several years, this maintenance has not taken place. As a result (and as will be seen), a few of these pathologies present an urgent necessity for immediate intervention lest further damage and even collapse occurs. It is strongly urged that further detailed studies are conducted to understand the severity of the more minor pathologies and a systematic repair and maintenance plan is developed to avoid the exacerbation of these pathologies.

• •

•

Rainwater, which affects the roof structure of the entire building Ground moisture, which affects the exterior walls, especially in the backside of the building where a natural courtyard envelops it Water vapor in the interior caused by the inappropriate use of the main auditorium room (room 13) to hold large aquaria used to conduct experiments on tropical fish by the Faculty of Bioengineering

Analysis: Technical

In order to categorize some of the pathologies on the natural stones for further understanding, the 2008 Illustrated glossary on stone deterioration patterns created by ICOMOS-ISCS was consulted. For categorizing and describing the brick pathologies, the MDDS (Monument Damage Diagnostic System) software was used.

221


E

C

B

A

D

F

0

1

5

10m

Major patterns of pathologies found in the basement level (see further for photos A through F) Legend of pathology patterns Weathering of stones on front facade

Humidity from inappropriate function

Exposed lower quality bricks

Water infiltration through roof

Humidity and frost damage

Non-functioning roof drainage system

Deterioration of gutters

222


N

M

R

P O

K

0

L

1

G 5

H

10m

Major patterns of pathologies found on the ground floor level (see further for photos G through R)

Analysis: Technical

223


T S

0

1

5

10m

0

1

5

10m

Major patterns of pathologies found on the first floor level (above) and second floor level (further above). See further for photos S and T. Legend of pathology patterns Weathering of stones on front facade

Humidity from inappropriate function

Exposed lower quality bricks

Water infiltration through roof

Humidity and frost damage

Non-functioning roof drainage system

Deterioration of gutters 224


A

B

C

D

F

E

Humidity and frost damage (see basement level plan) A. Higher plants and encrustation is visible B. Push-out, biological growth, and soiling C. Cracking of stone due to expanding effect of eroding metal D. Mortar exfoliation and brick encrustation E. Sanding of bricks and mortar Exposure of low quality bricks (see basement level plan) F. Disintegration of mortar and resulting loss of adhesion

Analysis: Technical

225


G

H

K

L

M

N

Weathering of stones on front facade (see ground floor level plan) G. Mechanical damage on sandstone H. Higher plants and black crust on sandstone K. Soiling on bricks L. Exfoliation on Baelen stone Deterioration of gutters (see ground floor level plan) M. Disintegration of wood, soiling, and loss of adhesion for decorative ceramic tiles N. Disintegration of wood

226


O

P

R

T

S

Humidity from inappropriate function (see ground floor level plan) O. Algae on windows and extremely humid air due to presence of open water tanks P. Blistering of surface finish and growth of moss Water infiltration through roof (see ground floor level plan) R. Disintegration of wood in roof structure and finishes Non-functioning roof drainage system (see second floor level plan) S. Leaky interior gutter causing disintegration of various materials (wood, bricks, finishes) T. Deformation of wooden floor boards Analysis: Technical

227


228


VA L U E A S S E S S M E N T During the urban, architectural and technical analysis of the site of the former Bacteriological Institute, its qualities have already been discussed in detail. However, before developing a conservation vision on the site, the main heritage values will be extracted and put in a Nara grid. This overview is not a full list but serves as a tool to communicate those qualities that have struck the team most and which will be used during the development of the vision for the future of the site.

229


ARTISTIC

FORM AND DESIGN

230

Contrast between rich, symmetrical front facade & sober, articulated rear facade

SOCIAL •

Monumental design & curved shape of front facade creates opportunity for public space

Circulation areas define and connect public, semi-public and private spaces


H E R I TA G E VA L U E S

HISTORIC •

Rare example of eclectic fin-de-siècle (instead of Gothic revival) university architecture in Leuven

Mix of historicizing language & modern functions: e.g. main lab visible (modern function) as a loggia (element Italian Renaissance) in front facade

Value Assessment

SCIENTIFIC •

Innovative building programme readable from outside: labs, auditorium, stairs defined through different shape of volume and windows

231


MATERIALS & SUBSTANCE

ARTISTIC

232

SOCIAL

Colorfulness of bricks, natural stone and ceramics in (front) facade

Contrast of materials & colors with buildings neighborhood

Presence of rare ceramics from the Manufacture de Céramiques Décoratives de Hasselt in front facade

Pine wood bench provides warmth to central meeting space

Original (1897) ceramic floor tiles give interior a light and homogeneous character

Presence of rare wallpaper by artist Victor Servranckx in cloakroom


HISTORIC •

Large amount of remaining original (1897) fabric in interior: tiles, doors, cupboards, closets, moldings,...

Value Assessment: Heritage Values

SCIENTIFIC •

Hygienic and sustainable character of original (1897) acid & wear resistant ceramic tiles

233


ARTISTIC

USE & FUNCTION

234

Diversity of space sizes allow different functions in same building

SOCIAL •

Large % of common (circulation) spaces facilitate social encounters

Presence of different front & back entrances allow different functions with different users

Potential of garden to become central meeting point


HISTORIC •

Building tailor-made for its original (1897) function of research, innovation & education

Multifunctional building avant-lalettre

Although former stables are demolished, original garden space still open & unbuilt

Value Assessment: Heritage Values

SCIENTIFIC •

Indoor spaces still suitable for research, innovation & education

Different entrances (7) allow installation new emergency exits in historic structure

235


TRADITION, WORKMANSHIP & TECHNIQUES

ARTISTIC

236

Presence of characteristic fin-desiècle capitals, moldings & lighting fixtures in interior

Influence architect Paul Hankar visible in staircase details

SOCIAL •

Restoration original (1897) craftwork as a potential to re-value & promote crafts today


HISTORIC •

Presence of historic technical elements as examples of fin-de-siècle contemporary standards: e.g. ventilation system, roller shutters

Value Assessment: Heritage Values

SCIENTIFIC •

Study & restoration original (1897) ventilation system as inspiration for today’s discussions on energy performance & sustainability

237


ARTISTIC

LOCATION & SETTING

238

Panoramic view on Vaartkom & Sint-Maartensdal from added floor in main lab

SOCIAL •

Quiet area while still close to city life of Leuven

Potential of garden to be linked with existing surrounding public spaces such as former shooting range Kolveniershof and green spaces Sint-Maartensdal


HISTORIC •

Near historically significant architecture masterpieces such as Stevéné’s Kolveniershof (1740), Van de Velde’s Technical School (1937) or Braem’s Sint-Maartensdal (1956) Fin-de-siécle contrast between historicity & modernity symbolizes site’s location between old Leuven (first city wall) & modern Leuven (Sint-Maartensdal)

Value Assessment: Heritage Values

SCIENTIFIC •

Node in the middle of axis connecting university (Arenberg & city campus) & industry (Vaartkom)

Node between commercial zone (Diestsestraat/Bondgenotenlaan), residential zone (Sint-Maartensdal) and revival zone (Vaartkom)

239


SPIRIT & FEELING

ARTISTIC

240

Presence of large amounts of daylight in high spaces create an almost sacral atmosphere

Interior windows in walls of office spaces provide daylight to inner corridors

SOCIAL •

Circulation interior & exterior create architectural promenades & opportunities for social meeting


HISTORIC •

Potential of restoration to make the heyday (1897) fin-de-siècle architecture & atmosphere perceptible again

Value Assessment: Heritage Values

SCIENTIFIC •

Original (1897) scientific atmosphere still present in laboratories of the garden volumes

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ECONOMIC POTENTIAL Scarce Resources After the identification of the heritage values, the means to safeguard them for the future need to be explored. Since economics is about managing scarce and non-renewable resources, the protected Bacteriological Institute can be analysed in an economical way. This protected monument is therefore a limited resource, because it cannot be replaced or substituted. Classical economics recognizes four categories of resources: entrepreneurship, land, labor and capital.71 The building itself can be categorized under the capital category, while the site and the garden can be categorized as land. For now there seems to be a lack of entrepreneurship and labor. The building has enough possibilities to provide in these categories as well produce a valuable economic product. Dual Market There seems to be a dual market available for the building. On the one hand, the building can be sold on the real estate market and project developers can work with it. This option has been explored by the Technical Services of the University already72 and is almost consid-

ered inevitable. On the other hand the ownership of the KU Leuven makes other services for the building possible. For now the space of the building is used to place aquariums for research on tropical fish by the Faculty of Bioengineering. The fact that the KU Leuven still owns the building and its former site also provides good management possibilities. However, these possibilities are not used or considered at the moment, mainly due to a lack of awareness. Services provided for both buildings could be an advantage for the whole former site. These services could be the rent of some of the spaces to external companies, firms or individuals and/or the services that can provide a solution for the public needs that are there in the neighbourhood with the University staying owner and manager. Considering all of this, it seems that the building is part of a dual market. This dual market is not installed yet, because the building does not provide any services at the current time. The Bacteriological Institute could be sold on the real estate market but this could harm its integration within its former site with the danger that it would further alienate from its surroundings.

71 Arthur SULLIVAN, Steven SHEFFRIN, and Stephen PEREZ, Economics: Principles, Applications and Tools, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2009. 72 Joris SNAET, Interview from May 31 2013.

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Imperfect Market If the building would be sold, the market for it would be an imperfect one. Different sellers can provide spaces and buildings with the amount of square metres that the Bacteriological Institute has, but not one of them is a perfect substitute. The significant spaces and circulation areas provided by the structure of the Bacteriological Institute are special assets and therefore only a few similar buildings exist, which are not exactly the same as would be required in a perfect market. Of course also the price could be manipulated by the University itself, which does also not occur in a perfect competitive market. Furthermore the building has externalities (see further) that are not present in a perfect market. In a perfect market there are no external costs or benefits. Market Failure It may occur that there are no buyers for the Bacteriological Institute, meaning that there would be market failure when using or selling the building. This may happen due to the high short-term costs that are needed to renovate the building. This is also one of the reasons why

the University does not use the building anymore. Being a protected monument, there are a lot of restrictions and regulations to be followed and the cost of the transformation would be higher than the profits that are raised from it. This is why in the future project schemes or programmes to improve and enhance heritage assets need to be developed. These can help to create confidence, improve the image and attract investments for the Bacteriological Institute. It can act as a catalyst to reverse the economic decline of the building.73 Public Good Through its protection, the Bacteriological Institute has become a public good (see further) and these public goods often result in market failure because they do not reflect the prices that individuals are willing to pay for the benefits they receive from its consumption. It is due to this public nature of the building that markets fail when allocating the costs of conservation.74 This market failure occurs when someone passes by the Institute and is intrigued by its aesthetics. At that time the University (the owner of the building) is not able to capture the value the person assigns to the building. As a result

73 “Commonwealth, Conservation of Historic Places: Productivity - Commission”, Inquiry report, Parl Paper, 37, 2006, p. 182. 74 “Western Australia, Review of Heritage of Western Australia Act”, Discussion Paper, 4, 1996.

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the community as a whole rarely contributes to heritage conservation. Because the University does not receive any benefits from the community’s appreciation of the building, the University will undersupply the building compared to the optimum. So while this market failure occurs this may justify the involvement of other stakeholders in the conservation process. This arrangement should be non-market oriented.75

former Bacteriological Institute is conceptually public as it is considered heritage that should be kept for future generations. The fact that the building is not open to the public, while being a protected heritage building, has some consequences for the non-use and for the direct and indirect use values of the building and the site.

Since the Bacteriological Institute is protected as a monument it should be categorized as economically non-rival and non-excludable. Rivalry occurs when one person’s use of a good reduces that of another. Hence a public good is always non-rivalrous. Goods are non-excludable if it is physically impossible to restrict a person from using the good. Because of the protected status of the building, the building can be considered as a public or collective good. The building ‘belongs’ to the public in a certain way. Also here there is an important fracture with the former site. The courtyard was not protected and is therefore not a public good. Although the heritage building can be seen as a public good, the building is not open to the public in the sense that the public is not allowed to enter the building.76 So the building of the

When considering a heritage site as a public good, the question of the externalities comes in. These are costs or benefits which result from an activity or transaction and which affect an otherwise uninvolved party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit.77 In the original function of the Bacteriological Institute positive externalities of the Institute on the neighbourhood were for example the profit the community received from the research. The health of the community can be improved this way so they benefit from it. Negative externalities on the neighbourhood may have been the disposal of the toxic materials that were used in the labs. These could harm people in the neighbourhood. Also the horses that were used could have had a cost for the neighbourhood, for example the noise and smell they

Externalities

75 Amelia SIMPSON, “Heritage Status NSW: Are Private owners compensated adequately?”, Environmental and Planning Law Journal, 14, 1997, p. 243. 76 Deen K. CHATTERJEE (ed.) Encyclopedia of Global Justice, London, 2011, p. 434. 77 James BUCHANAN, “Externality”, in: Economica, 29/116, 1962, p. 371–384.

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produced. Nowadays one room of the building is used as an experimental space for research on tropical fish. This has its impact on future users of the building, since the humidity causes a lot of troubles where the future users will have to deal with.

the Institute is the presence of other architectural landmarks nearby such as Renaat Braem’s Sint-Maartensdal or the city library by Henry Van De Velde.

On the other hand the building itself benefits or suffers because of other buildings, infrastructure or objects around it. A negative externality on the Bacteriological Institute is the traffic that is polluting the air around the building and causes pathologies on the outside walls. Another negative externality is the Rega-school. The building of the Bacteriological Institute lowers in value because of the extensions of the Rega School, which are also not revised in the new project for the Rega-school. Another negative externality for the Bacteriological Institute is the uncertain legal and financial future for monuments and sites in Flanders.

Considering the Bacteriological Institute as an economic product in need of a new conservation project will involve stakeholders. Stakeholders for a future project on the Bacteriological Institute have been identified in the table below, together with an impact of the project on these stakeholders. This impact could be a cost (adverse) or a benefit for the different stakeholders and can be major, moderate, minor or even negligible.

The building and its site benefit from the fact that also the neighboring Kolveniershof and its former shooting range are protected as a monument and cityscape. This way the original setting of the building is secured for later generations. Another positive externality for

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Stakeholder Analysis


STAKEHOLDERS

IMPACT (Beneficial or Adverse) Major-Moderate-Minor-Negligible

Owner of the building (KU Leuven + Technical - Increase in property values (B, Mo) Services) - Increase in property taxes (A, Ma) Owner of the site (KU Leuven)

- Increase in property values (B, Mi) - Increase in property taxes (A, Mo)

Nearby owners of buildings

-Increases in property values (B, Mo) -Increase in property tax (A,Mo) -Improvement of the context (B, Mi)

Residents or occupiers of nearby buildings (es- -Disturbances during the works (A, Mi) pecially the new students at the Rega-school -Increase in occupation values (B, Mo) and the residents of the Sint-Maartensdal) Developers or financiers of the future project

-Increase in profits (B, Mo)

Users of the future building

-Cost for new acquisition(A, Mi) -Improvement of the building quality (B, Ma)

Contractors that will work on the site

-Increase in profit (B, Mo)

Visitors of the building

-Enjoy the visit (B, Mo)

Tourists

-Enjoy the visit (B, Mi)

Tourism Agencies

-Increase in business (B, Mi)

Passers-by

-Enjoy the transformation of a forgotten building (B, Mi)

Business on site

-New possibilities (B, Mo)

Nearby business (Colruyt, local shops at -Maintain or even increase the sales (B, Mi) Sint-Maartensdal) City government and local authorities (City of -Subsidy for the works (A, Mi) Leuven) -Increase in revenues (B, Mo) National government

-Subsidy for the works (A, Mi) -Increase in revenues (B, Mo)

Regional government

-Subsidy for the works (A, Mi) -Increase in revenues (B, Mo)

Future generations

-Increase in bequest values (B, Ne)

Value Assessment: Economic Potential

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In an economic analysis of a new project, the stakeholders should be taken into account together with the heritage values and problems of the building and the site itself. In this integrated project, this has been done using a SWOT-analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats): “Strengths are internal attributes of the heritage that could provide benefits, Weaknesses are internal attributes of the heritage that could harm the conservation. Opportunities are external attributes in the urban context whose impacts on the heritage could be beneficial for the building project and Threats are external attributes in the urban context whose impacts on the heritage could be adverse to the building and the future project.�78 SWOT Not all strengths have been listed since they have been discussed during the above mentioned Nara-grid.

78

248

Christian OST, Economical analysis of heritage values, PowerPoint slides from May, 21 2013.


Strengths

Weaknesses

• Protection status: subsidies for maintenance, restoration/member Monumentenwacht • Availability/proximity of green spaces (Vaartkom, Kolveniershof, Sint-Maartensdal) • Tourist bike path • Monumental facade on a public square • Back facades with volume play contrasts with the impermeable character of surrounding facades • Abundance of access points to building • Relatively good physical condition • Natural direct and indirect lighting • Abundance of circulation spaces

• Lack of a vision by University on what to do with the building • Colruyt store disrupts the urban fabric/typologies • Only a few people walk from city center to Vaartkom • Lack of public parking (car and bicycle) • Lack of proper urban furniture in urban spaces surrounding (lights, benches) • Rega-school extension from the 80s too close to the historic building, not allowing use of access point on abutting facade • Disintegration of the original appearance of the front facade due to the removal of the cornices and the blocking of the large windows with plywood boards • Lack of disabled access into building • No current funds for maintenance • Water infiltration in the roof due to the non-functioning interior gutter from front to rear facade • Pathologies in the northern facade due to lack of maintenance and management of landscaping elements

Opportunities

Threats

• Location is a junction between strong poles with different functions in the city (Center, Vaartkom) • Semi-public space to connect different urban parts • New plans for Rega-school as student residences could sustain a new function appropriately linked • Courtyard as an extension of the function • Open space in front • Potential of garden to be linked with existing surrounding public spaces such as former shooting range Kolveniershof and Sint-Maartensdal green spaces • Location in neighborhood of social housing • Diversity of space sizes allow different functions in same building • Panoramic view on Vaartkom & Sint-Maartensdal from added floor in main lab • Existence of relevant body of expertise within the University system (RLICC)

• Neglect of area from city structural plan can lead to further deterioration of physical fabric • Project for new student residences does not reconsider the problematic extension from the 80s of the Rega-school • Construction activities for renovation of Rega-school into student residences may pose physical/stability threats • A function that doesn’t correspond with the neighborhood • The financial future of protected monuments in Flanders unsure with forthcoming changes in monument legislation • Possibilities of increasing safety issues by linking all public and semi-public open spaces north of the building • Possible sale of building by university, even with preconditions, would provide an uncertain future for the building without university control • Restrictions from protection status could ward off possible new ownership

Value Assessment: Economic Potential

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250


C O N S E RVAT I O N VISION The conservation vision is the outcome of the value assessment through the urban, architectural and technical analysis. In developing a vision for the site of the former Bacteriological Institute, the decision was taken to develop a master plan. This master plan is not meant to constrain future architects and developers but should become an active tool, susceptible to change, where the heritage values are actively used as assets and can be at the origin of a future sustainable development of the site and its urban context. The master plan was divided into two parts.

on and which can be executed over a longer period of time, whenever the necessary funds would become available.79 The second part of the conservation vision is the operational master plan, going one or more steps further than the master plan for conservation. This master plan is less strict and is used to try out different functional, architectural and urban possibilities. It can be seen as the preparation of an architectural competition where the options and limits of the site are indicated and where the economic reality is taken into account.

The first part is the master plan for conservation were the minimum guidelines are listed and mapped to conserve the architectural essence of the protected building of the Bacteriological Institute. In this way, the master plan can be consulted so that future interventions are not the result of local patchwork but fit in a coherent vision that can change over time but where the basic philosophy stays the same. This part of the conservation vision is developed without having a certain function for the building already in mind. The urban and economic reality are not yet taken into account. It is a basic document that all direct stakeholders should agree

79 Barbara VAN DER WEE, “Historical research as a basis for master and intervention plans�, in: BOZAR: Master and intervention plans, Brussels: Centre for Fine Arts, 2005, p. 74.

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252


MASTERPLAN FOR C O N S E RVAT I O N

Conservation Vision

253


Heyday Reference Based on the urban, architectural and technical analysis and their outcome, two main insights should serve as basic guidelines: •

•

A future project should not consider the protected area as an isolated monument but should take the whole former site of the Bacteriological Institute into account (fig. 163). The heyday of 1897-1899, when the original site was developed and when the Bacteriological Institute, its stables and gardens were designed and built, serves as the reference period for future interventions.

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163. Cadastral map of the Bacteriological Site, in: KADASTER VLAAMS-BRABANT Brussels, Leuven, n째 14, 1899.

Conservation Vision: Masterplan For Conservation

255


Authenticity To prevent the existing historic fabric from 1899 from degrading even more, the following urgency measures should be dealt with first, before the development of a concrete project: • •

The water infiltration should be analysed in detail and solved immediately. A fixed amount of any future budget should be reserved for regular maintenance and monitoring.

In order to keep the existing authenticity of the Bacteriological Institute, the following minimum prohibitions should be respected: •

The specific architectural style of the monument has a special historical significance and cannot be literally copied in any future new building on the site. Reconstruction can only be allowed when sufficient historical documents are present and when the same materials and techniques are used as in the original design. The windows of the building cannot be blocked from daylight and air by new buildings or extensions, unless they are designed in such a way that they provide an added value and new solutions for daylight

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entrance and ventilation. The polychromatic brick facades cannot be painted or treated in such a way that the color pattern and original materiality of bricks, natural stone and ceramics would disappear. No historic fabric can be permanently altered or demolished before a scientific color analysis could be applied to allow a future material or immaterial reconstruction of the original color pattern from 1899.


Guidelines The following guidelines are the core of the master plan. Their starting point is the evaluation of the spaces which was the outcome of the architectural analysis (pg. 259). The spaces with the highest value were the circulation areas and the three main scientific spaces: laboratory in the garden wing, auditorium and teaching laboratory on the first floor. However, this does not mean that no future interventions are possible within these spaces but any intervention should take the historical and architectural significance of the spaces into account. The same goes for the spaces that have been assigned with a lower value. Although they are not as meaningful as the others, they are still part of Augustin Van Arenbergh’s total concept. Their assigned ‘lower value’ is not an invitation to demolish them or to transform them without reflection. After the historical research and architectural analysis, the following interventions are suggested to return to the original architectural clarity of 1899 as a means to make the building better and more usable for the future. A detailed mapping of the guidelines are visualized on the adjoining plans: • The conservation of the original functional

Conservation Vision: Masterplan For Conservation

• • •

• • • • •

equipment such as the rolling shutters and door handles. The conservation of the original hygienic ceramic tiles in the circulation spaces and laboratories and the replacement of them where they have disappeared. The reconstruction of the original cornices and parapets that were taken away during the 1960s. The building of a new winter garden with the same dimensions as can be measured on the cadastral map of 1899. The replacements of the stairs towards the auditorium and the placement of new seats, following the dimensions of those represented on the photograph from 1944. The restoration of the former ventilation system. The restoration of the main hall, circulation spaces and accesses. The restoration of the auditorium and teaching laboratory to their original dimensions and space. The reopening of all original window openings. The removal of some early interventions from after 1899 that have obstructed the transparency, such as the walls in the for-

257


• •

mer kitchen in the basement (rooms B3-B8) or in the bedroom of the professor (rooms 115-116). The removal of the later added decoration and doors in the former clinic (room 16) to restore the room in its former soberness. The restoration of the animal ramp as a new promenade architecturale towards the back volume.

258


LOW VALUE MEDIUM VALUE

HIGH VALUE

LOW VALUE VERY HIGH VALUE

MEDIUM VALUE

HIGH VALUE

INACCESSIBLE

VERY HIGH VALUE

LOW VALUE LOW VALUE MEDIUM VALUE

HIGH VALUE

VERY HIGH VALUE

MEDIUM VALUE

HIGH VALUE

VERY HIGH VALUE

INACCESSIBLE

Value mapping of the spaces on all four levels: basement (above left), ground floor (above right), first floor (upper left), and second floor (upper right) Low value Medium value High value Very high value

Conservation Vision

259


Urgency Restoration Demolishing

Filling Construction

0

1

5

10m

Conservation master plan for basement level Urgent Restoration Demolition Filling-in (Re)construction

260


Urgency Restoration Demolishing

Filling Construction

0

1

5

10m

Conservation master plan for ground floor level

Conservation Vision: Masterplan For Conservation

261


Urgency Restoration Demolishing

Filling Construction

209 221 215

219

213

202

217 218

214 216

Urgency Restoration

Filling

1

5

0

1

5

Construction

10m

10m

Conservation master plan for upper levels (first floor above, second floor higher) Urgent Restoration Demolition Filling-in (Re)construction

262

205

210

Demolishing

0

201

208 211

220

203

207

212

206

204


Rendering showing the reconstruction of the winter garden with the same dimensions as can be measured on the cadastral map of 1899

Conservation Vision: Masterplan For Conservation

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264


O P E R AT I O N A L MASTERPLAN

Conservation Vision

265


266


Programme Since the operational master plan goes one step further than the master plan for conservation, programmatic possibilities are already explored. Ideas for a new programme are suggested and based on the historical significance of the whole former site of the Bacteriological Institute. Given that the building is geographically positioned on the axis University (Center) - Industry (Vaartkom), the future function of the building could symbolize this link. The fact that the whole former site is still owned by the same owner, the KU Leuven, is an opportunity that would be lost when the building would be sold. However, the University needs to see the Bacteriological Institute as an economic asset as well, where the ‘disadvantages’ of its protection can be financially compensated. By renting out spaces to private companies and institutions, this problem could be partially solved, while still keeping the option open to reverse the function back to a university function. Since the Bacteriological Institute was from its beginning onwards a private institute within the University, the restoration of this link also makes sense on a historical level. The main purpose of

the building was research. Whether this was organized privately or publicly was of secondary importance. Today’s society could only benefit from an environment where private and public research can be united in the same building. The Bacteriological Institute is a difficult product to sell on the short-term-minded real estate market focused on ‘square meters’. The University, a long-term Institute par excellence, could prevent selling its building for a low price and invest in its own heritage. Since there is a need for more meeting spaces and conference rooms in Leuven,80 the University could profit from this opportunity and make their spaces (temporarily) available for those in need for such spaces. The Bacteriological Institute could become a hybrid research-oriented Institute used by the University itself, its spin-off companies, private start-up companies and the neighborhood, with common facilities to save costs for all. According to their financial needs, the University could chose to rent out only the main auditorium and teaching laboratory or also rent out the other spaces such as the other laboratories and former studios of the assistants.

80 SumResearch, Strategic Management Plan Tourism Leuven 2010-2015, http://www.leuven.be/binaries/strategischbeleidsplantoerismeleuven_tcm16-25503.pdf (accessed on March 15 2013).

Conservation Vision: Operational Masterplan

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B36

B35

B31

B32

B33

B34

B30

Urgency Restoration B28

B29

Demolishing

Filling B27

B26

B25

B24

Construction

B23

B09 B02

B06

B22

B21

B08

B11

B04

B20 B13

B17 B19 B18

0

1

B16

B15

B14 B12

5

Intervention plan for basement level Demolition Filling-in (Re)construction

268

B07

B10

10m

B05

B03 B01


29

28

30 27

26

31 32

25 24 23

22

33

13 34

21

12

02

14

19

05

17

20

16 18

1

07

09

15

0

03

08

5

11

10

06

04

01

10m

Intervention plan for ground floor level

Conservation Vision: Operational Masterplan

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Urgency Restoration Demolishing

Filling Construction

209 221 215

219

203

207

202

212

213

201

208

220

217

205

210

211

Urgency Restoration

214

206

Demolishing

216

218

204

Filling Construction

0

1

5

10m

107

111 117

116

118

0

1

115

5

113

112

114

10m

Intervention plan for upper levels (first floor above, second floor higher) Demolition Filling-in (Re)construction

270

102 105

109

110

103

108

106

104

101


Intervention Plan To show that the spaces of the Bacteriological Institute are suited for a new hybrid function, an intervention plan was made to visualize the basic necessary interventions. The previously made master plan for conservation was used as the reference document to imagine these interventions. The following requirements were listed to initiate the design process: • • • • • • • • •

Making as much spaces accessible for disabled persons Communicating with the former site and its buildings Providing office space/workshop areas for the amount of seats in the auditorium Maximizing the double-height former teaching lab Keeping the panoramic view on the Vaartkom from within the building Providing overnight possibilities Inserting a large kitchen and refectory/ restaurant Opening up the building to the neighborhood Providing a solution for the problematic neighboring extension of the Rega-school

After countless efforts to locate one or two el-

Conservation Vision: Operational Masterplan

evators in the building, a final consensus was reached for their ideal location. In the beginning it was deemed impossible to open all spaces to disabled persons but the proposed solution makes it possible to reach all floors in all volumes. A first elevator could be inserted in the nod of the auditorium and laboratory wing (spaces B35 and 31). A ramp would be installed from the ground level towards the basement level, instead of the former furnace (space B36), which has no function anymore. The elevator would be accessible to disabled persons while at the same time serve to transport food from the new kitchen in the basement towards the refectory/restaurant in the former main laboratory (space 30). The second elevator would be actively used as a new, valuable addition to the building and a way to introduce a new contemporary structure. At the ground level, the elevator would be situated in the former clinic (room 16), accessible both from the main hall and the former private staircase of professor Denys (space 15). On the first floor, the elevator would open up towards the same staircase on one side, while creating a small airlock towards the facade (space 114), which would become a new entrance towards

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(Top) rendering illustrating concept of of a lightweight mezzanine in the main laboratory space. (Above) Interventions should focus on improving the green courtyard which has a strong relationship with the building.

272


the private zone of the building, destined for a common sleeping room (room 115-116) in case longer workshops are organized. The huge bathroom of professor Denys could also keep its original function and house a couple of showers and sinks (room 117). On the second floor, the elevator would reach its destination and open up towards the void of the reopened former teaching laboratory (space 209-212). In order to restore this room but at the same time keep the panoramic view on the industrial part of the city, a footbridge would be inserted against the side walls and back walls of this space, as a mezzanine. This mezzanine would allow the use of the space even better than originally intended and serve as a footbridge between the two separated parts of the second floor, connecting the sleeping zone with the office zone. This intervention would be made in such a way that it would not harm the architectural openness of the former teaching laboratory. By lengthening it all the way to the side walls, the accessibility of the elevator would be facilitated while at the same time giving the visitors the chance to peek outside towards the Vital Decosterstraat as well. The elevator itself would not be inserted in this space but in the rooms next to it (rooms 213 and 214), with two

new openings towards the mezzanine to provide enough access space. Although the concept of a mezzanine was probably not present in Augustin Van Arenbergh’s design, other scientific buildings from that period did use it in similar double-height rooms. In Le mouvement scientifique en Belgique 1830-1905, the chapter “Les sciences physiologiques et anatomiques” shows an intriguing interior picture of the dissection room of the “Institut d’anatomie” or Warocqé Building in the Parc Léopold in Brussels, named after its founder Raoul Warocqué (1870-1917). On the photograph, an elegant mezzanine in cast iron and/or steel shows how such a mezzanine can be used in a way that it does not obstruct the daylight from the large windows and can increase the spatial experience of the room.81 (fig. 164) This picture was used as an inspiration.

81 Léon FREDERICQ, “Les sciences physiologiques et anatomiques”, in: Le mouvement scientifique en Belgique 1830-1905, 2, Brussels: Société Belge de Librairie, p. 118.

Conservation Vision: Operational Masterplan

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164. Photo showing the elegant mezzanine of the Warocqué building, in: “Université de Bruxelles - Institut d’Anatomie - Salle de Dissection”, in: Le mouvement scientifique en Belgique 1830-1905, 2, Brussels: Société Belge de Librairie, p.118.

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165. Photo showing the exterior of the space represented in fig. 164

Conservation Vision: Operational Masterplan

275


Public Semi Public

Semi Private Private Services

Staircases Elevators

Abstract diagram showing possible zoning for building’s reuse

276

Public

Private

Semi-public

Services

Semi-private

Staircases

Elevators


Rendering showing renovation of auditorium space

Conservation Vision: Operational Masterplan

277


Scenarios The intervention plan could still not provide a sufficient answer to these three remaining problems: • • •

Communicating with the former site and its buildings Opening up the building to the neighborhood Providing a solution for the problematic neighboring extension of the Rega-school

Two alternative options were thought out to deal with these issues. Given that the building permit for the new project by the Technical Services has already been granted, this reality of the problematic extension cannot be escaped anymore. For this reason an alternative was developed taking this reality into account while another, more ideal option was developed as a long-term dream. The first option would try to turn the existing disadvantage of the narrow space between the Bacteriological Institute and the Rega-school into an asset. A new bar, faced towards the garden and open to the neighborhood and the general public, would be located on the ground level (basement on the plans) (spaces

B39-B44) of the laboratory wing. This way the former shooting range of the Kolveniershof would become more connected to the site. This would also be in harmony with the intention of the Technical Services and the City of Leuven to increase social control by making the windows of the Rega-school bigger towards the Kolveniershof (see earlier).82 The narrow space between the two buildings could become a trademark of the site, where an artist could reflect on the absurdity of the situation. The adding of lights between the building at night could serve to highlight it as well. In order to provide a better accessibility to the bar, an intervention could be made to open up the space on the ground level. By replacing the ground windows of the laboratory in a door and opening up the windows on the side towards the Rega-school (room B41), a solution could be found to increase accessibility while still keeping the option to go back to the original state in the future. The original ramp for the animals would be used and further extended in the opposite direction to decrease the slope. The more ideal solution would be to envision the demolition of the Rega-school extension of 1983 and therefore give the Bacteriological

82 Iris HEYLEN, Verbouwing tot studentenresidentie, plans and sections, n° 123-01, Leuven: Technische Diensten, November 11 2013.

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Institute back the light and air it deserves and the possibility to properly restore its ventilation system (see earlier). This would open up the whole site and make it possible to connect the protected cityscape of the Kolveniershof with the protected Bacteriological Institute and its former site. This alternative could maybe not be executed immediately but could become a long-term dream and the next step in the reconnection of the Bacteriological Institute with its site, where the garden can become one big garden again, without parking spaces, and accessible to the students, the users of the Bacteriological Institute, the neighborhood and other residents in Leuven.

Conservation Vision: Operational Masterplan

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Rendering showing the concept of utilizing the narrow space between the Bacteriology Intitute and the Rega School’s 1983 extention, to highlight the meaning and uniqueness of the space through light-based art installations.

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The ideal vs. the real scenario. The Rega School before and after 1983, in: KADASTER VLAAMS-BRABANT Brussels, Leuven, n째 11, sheet 7, 1971.

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Concept for the treatment of the outdoor space as a single functioning body, helping the site become accessible and better integrated within the urban landscape. The removal of car parking to nearby facilities (e.g. Colruyt) is essential in restoring the site’s desirable qualities.

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Multicriteria Analysis The multicriteria analysis is a tool to evaluate these two different scenarios for the project, the realistic and the idealistic one. For this criteria analysis there was no cost-benefit analysis prepared so it is hard to compare or relate this analysis to other information. The multicriteria analysis is more user-friendly than the cost-benefit analysis, but since it does not require any figures, it results in a less scientific conclusion. Both scenarios were assessed on the same set of criteria: • Reversibility • Possibility • Efficiency • Intervention • Maintenance • Openness • Original Site • Social interaction First of all a value was given to all of these criteria. The next step was to add a weight to the different criteria. The values were weighted and a radar footprint was produced out of the results. On the basis of this modest analysis, the idealistic scenario scores the best in the average of the criteria.

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To u r i s m Vi s i o n A former institute of a University brings valuable assets to a neighborhood in a city. The neighborhood and in addition the city should take the presence of a University or one of its building as an advantage. Therefore there should be a strong connection between the City and the University. This strong relationship was re-established 20 years ago in Leuven. The socio-cultural role of the University is fundamental to the societal development as a whole. In this perspective the touristic and cultural context of the former site of the Bacteriological Institute is both a matter of the City and of the University. To set a base for this tourism vision (or possibility towards it) on the site of the Institute, one should take into account the important touristic attractions of Leuven and see whether these are correlated with the project. These touristic products in Leuven are:83 · · · · · · · ·

Churches, chapels, monasteries Abbeys Beguinages University buildings Castles Modern architecture Unique sites Residences

· · ·

Breweries Museums Green spaces

University buildings are a part of the tourism vision of Leuven, so also the Bacteriological Institute could play its role in here. Besides this, the vision of the city also tries to elaborate the function of the Vaartkom as a new touristic attraction in the city. Also in this case, the site of the Bacteriological Institute could be an asset to link up the center and the Vaartkom. The building and its site have a strategic location in this regard. The former Bacteriological Institute should integrate both assets and function as a node between University and city on the one hand and as link between city center and Vaartkom area on the other. Since the building is still owned by the University, there could be a possibility to develop a heritage trail in Leuven. The other buildings that were protected within the same dossier as the Bacteriological Institute in 2010 could be a base for this trail (see earlier). These testimonial buildings of the modern expansion of the University between 1870 and 1940 would fit perfectly to show the atmosphere of the time

83 SumResearch, Strategic Management Plan Tourism Leuven 2010-2015, http://www.leuven.be/binaries/strategischbeleidsplantoerismeleuven_tcm16-25503.pdf (accessed on March 15 2013).

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the buildings were built in. Other possible heritage trails could lead the visitors towards former Colleges of the University in the proximity of the project site. These could be for example the colleges in the Naamsestraat (Heilige Geestcollege, Koningscollege, College van Premonstreit, Atrechtcollege, Van Dalecollege, Vigliuscollege , Amerikaans college, Sint-Annacollege and Hogeheuvelcollege). These buildings are also protected monuments and show the history of the University between the 15th and 19th century. Colleges that are sold for other public functions could be a part of the heritage trail connecting the Bacteriological Institute to its University history. The Villerscollege and Luxemburgcollege are examples of former university building that were transformed into city archives and a primary school. Other transformed buildings from the same period as the Bacteriological Institute such as STUK (former Institute for Chemistry) and AGORA (former Pharmaceutical Institute), are other good alternatives to integrate within the trail as well.

mosphere of the Institute and what the activities were during its heyday. As a reference here the project of De Hoorn in the Vaartkom area could be used. There they tried to create a semi-public building that allows people to enter the building and follow a small guided tour through modest information panels in different rooms and other gadgets referring to the history of the brewery. In De Hoorn, beer cards can be found in different rooms referring to the history of the building. Rather than making again another museum, a heritage trail could integrate the University buildings throughout Leuven and open up their remarkable interiors to the public.

The proposed heritage trail around the city of Leuven should be continued within the Bacteriological Institute itself. The heritage trail within the building could show the former at-

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CONCLUSION The Bacteriological Institute is not an isolated monument but a building connecting on different levels with the city. On the one hand it is a testimony of the progressive scientific spirit at the end of the 19th century and the architecture it produced, where the outer historicising appearance confirmed the traditional values of the past and the interior the modern values of the present. On the other hand, historical research revealed that the Bacteriological Institute is only one part of what was once a coherent whole, a site that was and is still situated between the old Leuven of the University and the new Leuven of the Vaartkom. By taking the whole former site as the starting point of the analysis and value assessment, the conservation vision could be broadened from the building itself towards its urban and economic context. By splitting up of the master plan into a master plan for conservation and an operational master plan, ideas for a new program could be envisioned while at the same time providing minimum conservation guidelines that should serve as a reference document for any future intervention, independently from its possible function. Restoring the building to its former

glory could be the start of re-introducing some life and color into an otherwise quiet neighborhood. The fact that the whole site is still owned by the KU Leuven is a great opportunity but does not mean that the building and its site are automatically safeguarded for the future. The separation of the Monuments Division and the New Construction Projects Division within the Technical Services of the University has shown how difficult it already is for one owner to keep the site together and manage its buildings accordingly. We hope our integrated project work can create an awareness that the conservation problems of the Bacteriological Institute cannot be solved on a local level only, but need to be linked to the site, the neighborhood, the University and the City of Leuven.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Sources: Archival sources: •

Brussels, KADASTER VLAAMS-BRABANT o Leuven, n° 16a, 1855 o Leuven, n° 22a, 1879 o Leuven, n° 18a, 1880 o Leuven, n° 15, 1898 o Leuven, n° 14, 1899 o Leuven, n° 25, sheet 21,1963 o Leuven, n° 29, sheet 17, 1964 o Leuven, n° 11, sheet 7, 1971 o Leuven, n° 12, sheet 7, 1983 o Leuven, n° 22, sheet 9, 1989

Leuven, STADSARCHIEF o Doss. n° 59865, building permit from August 2 1897. o Doss. n° 116620/5285, building permit from September 20 1961. o Doss. n° 116763/5338, building permit from December 21 1962. o Iconographic collection, n° 52, Decosterstraat.

Leuven, TECHNISCHE DIENSTEN o Institut de Bactériologie, plans. o K.U.L. Bacteriologisch Instituut, plans, April 13 1963. o HEYLEN Iris, Verbouwing tot studentenresidentie, plans and sections, n° 123-01, November 11 2013. o KELLENS K., Laboratorium voor landbeheer, plans and sections, n° 10501, May 14 1990. o VERBIST M., Instituut voor Maatschappelijke Gezondheidszorg, plans and sections, n° 10501, June 13 1968. o VERHEYDEN A., Universiteitsklinieken St.-Rafael, n° 10501, plans and sections, July 26 1966. o STROOBANTS P., “Instituut voor Land- en Waterbeheer”, in: KU Leuven atlas van de universitaire gebouwen, n° 10501, plans from April 25 2002.

Leuven, UNIVERSITEITSARCHIEF o Inv. n° 2908, photographs Bacteriologisch Instituut after the bombardment on May 12 1944. o Postcard collection Bacteriologisch Instituut.

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Published sources: • • • • • • • • •

Annuaire de l’université catholique de Louvain, 64, Van Linthout, 1900. “Inauguration de l’Institut Anatomique”, Revue Catholique, 17, Leuven: Peeters, 1877. “De burgerij en haar landhuis: Heverlee/Leuven - Villa Les Tilleuls”, in: Cornet Pascal e.a. (ed.), 22 Keer binnenkijken: wonen in toen en nu, Ghent: Borgerhoff & Lamberigts, 2007, p. 46-53. DEREZ Mark e.a. (ed.), Album of a scientific world: the University of Louvain around 1900, Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2012. FREDERICQ Léon, “Les sciences physiologiques et anatomiques”, in: Le mouvement scientifique en Belgique 1830-1905, 2, Brussels: Société Belge de Librairie. SUIS Jean, “L’Université de Louvain - II. La faculté de médecine”, Patriote Illustré, 13/1, 1897, p. 17-18. VAN ARENBERGH Augustin, “Concours de l’Académie Royale de Belgique”, L’Emulation, 1/25, 1900, p. 36-43. VAN DEN BOSSCHE Phillip e.a., Victor Servranckx: de jaren twintig, Ostend: Mu.ZEE, 2012. VAN ERMENGEM Emile, “Les sciences bactériologiques et parasitologiques”, in: Le mouvement scientifique en Belgique 1830-1905, 2, Brussels: Société Belge de Librairie.

Policy documents: • • • • •

“Adviezen en bezwaren”, in: AGENTSCHAP R-O VLAANDEREN (Onroerend Erfgoed Vlaams-Brabant), Universitair patrimonium Leuven: Deeldossier 11: Instituten en Instellingen, doss. DB002289, 27 April 2009. COUNCIL OF EUROPE, European Landscape Convention Florence, 2000: http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/EN/Treaties/Html/176.htm. STAD LEUVEN, Leuven Morgen: Ruimtelijk Structuurplan Leuven, 2007. STAD LEUVEN, Lokaal Sociaal Beleidsplan, 2008-2013. VERLOOVE Clara, “Leuven: Vital Decosterstraat 102: Het voormalige Instituut voor Bacteriologie”, in: AGENTSCHAP R-O VLAANDEREN (Onroerend Erfgoed Vlaams-Brabant), Universitair patrimonium Leuven: Deeldossier 11: Instituten en Instellingen, doss. DB002289, March 11 2008. VLAAMSE REGERING, Ministerieel besluit houdende bescherming als monument en stadsgezicht van Universitaire Instituten en Instellingen te LEUVEN (Leuven/Heverlee), May 5 2010.

Interviews: • • • • • • • •

BAECK Mario, Emails from March 19 and 28 2013. HEYLEN Iris, Email from May 29 2013. HEYLEN Iris and SMEKENS Björn, Interview taken on May 29 2013. KNEZEVIC Zeljka, Email from March 6 2013. KNEZEVIC Zeljka, Email from January 29 2013. Christian OST, Economical analysis of heritage values, PowerPoint slides from May, 21 2013. SNAET Joris, Email from May 21 2013. SNAET Joris, Interview from May 31 2013.

Works: • • •

“Commonwealth, Conservation of Historic Places: Productivity - Commission”, Inquiry report, Parl Paper, 37, 2006. “Western Australia, Review of Heritage of Western Australia Act”, Discussion Paper, 4, 1996. BIRMINGHAM ARCHAEOLOGY HERITAGE SERVICES, Character Appraisal Study and Bound-

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• • • • • • • • • • • •

ary Review of the Church Square: Oldbury Conservation Area, Birmingham, 2008: www.laws. sandwell.gov.uk/ccm/cms-service/download/asset/?asset_id=738860. BUCHANAN James, “Externality”, in: Economica, 29/116, 1962, p. 371–384. CHATTERJEE Deen K. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Global Justice, London, 2011. CLARK Jo, “Using Historic Landscape Characterisation”, 2002, in: English Heritage’s review of HLC Applications, 2004. CLOQUET Louis, Traité d’architecture: éléments de l’architecture, types d’édifices - esthétique, composition et pratique de l’architecture, 2 and 3, Paris/Liège: Librairie Polytechnique/Baudry, 1898. ENGLISH HERITAGE, Guidance on Conservation Area Appraisals, Swindon, 2006. FAIRCLOUGH Graham, “Historic Landscape Characterisation in England and a Hampshire case study”, in: FAIRCLOUGH Graham and RIPPON Stephen (ed.) Europe’s Cultural Landscape, 2002, p 69-83: www.englishheritage.org.uk/server/show.nav.1293. GRENVILLE Jane and FAIRCLOUGH Graham, “Characterisation: Introduction”, in: English Heritage Conservation Bulletin, 47, 2004. LEFEVER F.A., “De architectenfamilie Van Arenbergh”, in: Jaarboek van de Geschied- en Oudheidkundige Kring voor Leuven en omgeving, 28, Leuven: Peeters, 1988. SIMPSON Amelia, “Heritage Status NSW: Are Private owners compensated adequately?”, Environmental and Planning Law Journal, 14, 1997, p. 243. SULLIVAN Arthur, SHEFFRIN Steven, and PEREZ Stephen, Economics: Principles, Applications and Tools, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2009. VANDEGOOR Gust, Het kanaal Leuven-Mechelen in heden en verleden (1750-2000), Winksele: Hagok, 1998. VAN DER WEE Barbara, Historical research as a basis for master and intervention plans, in: BOZAR: Master and intervention plans, Brussels: Centre for Fine Arts, 2005.

Websites: • • • • • • • •

“Beleidsplannen”, in: Stad Leuven: http://www.leuven.be/bestuur/beleidsplannen/ (accessed on June 2 2013). “Vaartkom: Leuven boven water”, in: Stad Leuven: www.leuven.be/leven/stadsvernieuwing/ vaartkom/ (accessed on January 14, 2013). “Bacteriology”, in: Encyclopaedia Britannica, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/48314/bacteriology (accessed on May 12 2013). “De eerste medewerkers van Gustaaf Verriest”, in: KU Leuven - Faculteit Geneeskunde: http:// med.kuleuven.be/nl/geneeskunde/vc/anatomie/de-eerste-medewerkers-van-gustaaf-verriest (accessed on May 12 2013). “Leuven”, in: De inventaris van het bouwkundig erfgoed, ID 20526: https://inventaris.onroerenderfgoed.be/dibe/geheel/20526 (accessed March 13, 2013). “Monument Vital Decoster”, in: De inventaris van het bouwkundig erfgoed, ID: 206628, https:// inventaris.onroerenderfgoed.be/dibe/relict/206628 (accessed on May 2 2013). SumResearch, Strategic Management Plan Tourism Leuven 2010-2015, http://www.leuven. be/binaries/strategischbeleidsplantoerismeleuven_tcm16-25503.pdf (accessed on March 15 2013). “Technical Services”, in: KU Leuven: https://admin.kuleuven.be/td/en/index (accessed on May 20 2013).

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Rethinking the Bacteriological Institute (2013)