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UD 2 Tutors: Robert Dye / Jason Coleman University College London The Bartlett School of Architecture MArch Urban Design 2010-11

Designing for Informality: Local Strategies for Urban Development Travis Hodges


Designing for Informality: Local Strategies for Urban Development

Travis Hodges

UD 2 Tutors: Robert Dye / Jason Coleman University College London The Bartlett School of Architecture MArch Urban Design 2010-11


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I, Travis Hodges, confirm that the work presented in this report is my own. Where information has been derived from other sources, I confirm that this has been indicated in the report.


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This report presents a model that empowers communities to develop a collective identity as a means of fostering stewardship. A summary of urbanism in Turkey will provide context for this alternative model, which addresses many of the complex challenges facing megacities today. In particular, the shantytown of Kßçßk Armutlu will be the site for the design proposal, which applies grassroots principles of localism and self-organization to confront an imminent threat. Finally, the strategies and techniques will be expanded for application in other communities, resulting in a new kind of urban design practice.


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PART I: Urban Migrations

page 10

PART II: Urbanism in Turkey

page 16

PART III: Küçük Armutlu: A Case Study

page 28

PART IV: Urban Design Project Avoiding Eviction in Küçük Armutlu

page 50

PART V: Local Strategies for Bottom-up Urban Development

page 172

References

page 178


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Part I Urban Migrations


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According to a popular United Nations report, more than half of the world’s population now lives in cities.1 This often cited statistic has been used by countless institutions and publications to support a diversity of claims ranging from humanitarian aid to foreign policy. Despite the application of such data for manipulative purposes, an underlying truth remains: the global urban population is increasing, and fast. The expansion in size and number of cities indicates a dramatic change in terms of human settlement of the planet, but it is just one Figure 1. Urban and rural population of the manifestation of a continuous process that world. has accelerated in the last two centuries. The industrial revolution is largely responsible for expanding urban populations, as the prospect of employment and improved living standards lured people to the city. Because urban growth has traditionally been associated with economic prosperity, access to education, and participation in government, cities perform an important role in human development. In spite of being the continuation of a progressive trend, however, rapid urbanization is occurring today on an unprecedented scale. Exponential population growth is putting enormous strain on the natural and institutional resources necessary for cities to function. National and municipal Figure 2. Italian immigrants in New York, late governments are increasingly unable to meet the 19th century. demands for infrastructure and services. The urban migrations occurring today are different from those of the past because they pose new challenges not addressed by conventional policy.

1  United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs /Population Division, World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision, (New York: United Nations, 2008), 2.

Previous page: Charlie Koolhaas, True Cities: Dubai.


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Figure 3. Babatunde Fashola, Lagos: Confronting Change in a Global Megacity (lecture, London School of Economics, London, November 19, 2010).


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Today’s urbanization differs in many ways from the historic industrialization of the West. Most urban growth in recent decades has occurred in developing countries, many of which lack an effective central authority. In such situations, the necessary investments in infrastructure and state services do not happen. Furthermore, the influx of migrants from rural to urban areas is often not economic, but the result of insecurity or other push factors. Today’s migrants experience fewer employment opportunities and do not contribute to local and national economies as occurred in Europe, North America, Australasia, and Japan. Even in developed countries, the current urban shift in population is creating new conflicts, especially as the cultural and demographic consistency of a city changes. The resulting tension between various ethnic and religious groups increases the need for integration and social services. Hostility often arises as established residents feel threatened by an influx of migrants competing for shared resources. Such tensions are exacerbated by disparities in wealth, power, and education.

Global climate change is a particularly imminent threat. Given that cities tend to generate more greenhouse gasses and other such causes for climate change, a dramatic increase in size and number of cities poses a real danger. Although inhabitants of the postindustrial cities of America and Western Europe boast lower global footprints than their suburban counterparts, the same cannot be said about cities like Sao Paulo, Beijing, or Karachi. But cities themselves are not the problem, as David Satterthwaite claims. Developed or industrial cities have provided a model for unsustainable urban settlements, but new cities will not necessarily follow the same model.1 Urban migrations are happening as a result of events or transactions in the global economy far removed from the situation on the ground. The urban consequences of these distant exchanges are often devastating. In recent years, the extraction of rare earth has lead to unprecedented land deals. Millions of households have been expelled as a result of property being valued more than the people who live on it. The surplus populations moving from place to place illustrate the principle of extreme causality.2

1  David Satterthwaite, Cities of Scarcity, (lecture, University of Westminster, London, May 18, 2011). 2  Saskia Sassen, Fabricating Scarcities, (lecture, University of Westminster, London, June 13, 2011).


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Historically there have been many approaches to development and urbanism that attempt to address these complex issues. Every year, national governments and international financial institutions invest billions in aid to developing countries. Nations that industrialized a century ago possess an overwhelming advantage over those that are only now shifting from agriculturebased economies. In the context of a thoroughly globalized economy, however, it is in the best interest of even the wealthiest industrialized countries to invest in the development of impoverished economies halfway around the world. Allowing a national economy to fail would create economic and political instability in the region, not to mention the social costs associated with accommodating refugee populations and rebuilding governments. The pervasive nature of global telecommunications networks has ensured the widespread documentation of human suffering, such that to permit avoidable violence, starvation, or death is unconscionable.

Industrialized countries are uniquely prepared to provide financial and institutional support to developing countries, but tend to be almost exclusively ecomomic in their approach. The policies promoted by economist Jeffrey Sachs illustrate this conventional approach.1 The strategies effective in Europe or North America, however, must be adapted for application in the global south, where most megacities are located. Not only must donor nations be sensitive to cultural differences, but need to apply solutions that can be effective in the absence of governments and institutions. Effective local governance is more important in the lives of most urban dwellers than good national or global governance, although to be brought about it often requires changes in government at provincial/state, national and global levels.2 Municipalities around the world are increasingly unable to address contemporary urban problems. In this light, alternative solutions must be generated and carried out at more local levels. This shift will require a change in the way citizens view their environment, becoming stewards of their territory.

1  Jeffrey Sachs, The End of Poverty, (London: Penguin, 2005). 2  David Satterthwaite, “The Ten and a Half Myths That May Distort the Urban Policies of Governments and International Agencies,” (London: Department for International Development, 2002), http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpuprojects/21st_Century/myths/myths.htm


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Part II Urbanism in Turkey


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Istanbul is a precursor to a major transformation that is about to happen.1

Turkey’s model for addressing the challenges of rapid urbanization provides an effective prediction for what to expect from mass migrations currently underway in the developing world. In spite of addressing many of the unique challenges associated with this trend, turkey’s policies demonstrate the many failings of conventional development strategies. Just as Istanbul famously lays claim to European and Asian identity, Turkey has a foot in both the developed and developing world. This dual classification is important in fostering an urban development path that is not exclusively eurocentric. Turkey’s industrialization began as a consequence of Kemal Ataturk’s national reforms following World War I. Following the centurieslong continuity of the Ottoman Empire, the new republic facilitated sweeping changes that transformed the social and economic landscape overnight. The state invested heavily in industry, building hundreds of factories in Istanbul alone. As opportunities for employment in these new manufacturing centers increased, cities began to draw thousands of immigrants from the Anatolian countryside.

Figure 4. Rural migrants in Istanbul, 1950s. 1  Doug Saunders, Arrival City (London: William Heinemann, 2010), 162.

Figure 5. Structures destroyed by an Earthquake.


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Figure 6. A diagram illustrating the role of government in Turkey’s urban development.

The demand for jobs far outweighed the housing stock in Istanbul, and most migrants were compelled to construct makeshift dwellings on public lands. Though technically illegal, the government needed an expanding workforce to drive its growing economy. Despite several attempts to destroy the squatter settlements, the government was obliged to grant repeated amnesties to such communities in acceptance of its own inability to provide adequate housing. This informal solution to the housing need became so prevalent that the unique term geçekondu was coined to describe the makeshift communities (a combination of geçe, “night,” plus kondurmak, meaning to happen or appear).

As these informal settlements grew in size and number, they became the dominant urban typology for the city. In a country that had essentially no land tenure arrangements until the fall of the Ottoman Empire, the majority of structures in Istanbul remain illegal or unregistered.1 According to the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IBB), sixty percent of buildings in Istanbul are classified as informal.2

1  Robert Neuwirth, Security of tenure in Istanbul: the triumph of the ‘self service city,’ in Enhancing urban safety and security: global report of human settlements 2007, http://www. unhabitat.org/grhs/2007. 2  Uğur İnan, (presentation, Istanbul Metropolitan Planning Office, Istanbul, January 17, 2011).


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The seemingly disordered geçekondu demonstrate a unique spatial quality, featuring compelling intimate spaces. This informality may result from the topography itself, the lack of survey techniques, a relaxed building tradition, or simply a preference for the subliminal comfort the spaces provide. The communities display a combination of order and disorder, and illustrate the heterogeneous principles of the collage city.1

1  Colin Rowe and Fred Koetter, Collage City, (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1984)


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Figure 7. (left) A typical geรงekondu house in Sarigazi. Figure 8-9. (below) Dwellings overwhelmed by new development in post-gecekondu neighboorhoods such as Sultanbeyli.


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Unlike most Western countries, Turkey’s urban policy grants authoritative powers to the national government. This centralized control enables the implementation of major projects without extensive coordination between stakeholders. In Istanbul, the Municipality is a robust institution with many state-granted powers. Many of these powers are useful in times of emergency, such as the aftermath of the 1999 earthquake when the IBB was given authority to designate “renewal areas” to protect against natural disasters and identify local assets.1 In other cases, however, they provide justification for profit-driven land grabs or mass evictions. The social consequences of these policies are often not considered. Turkey is certainly not alone in its failure to value social sustainability of it’s cities. China has taken a similarly authoritarian approach to development. This can be seen as it fails to preserve the traditional lifestyles of it’s rural populations.2

1  Iclal Dincer, Regeneration & Renewal in Istanbul’s Historic Areas, (lecture at Kadir Has Üniversitesi, Istanbul, January 13, 2011). 2  The economist, http://www.economist.com/ node/21524940

Figure 9-13. (previous page) A depiction of TOKI mass-housing developments.


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Figure 14. New private development in Istanbul threatens the continuity of the historic city. Figure 15. (next page) An aerial photograph of TOKI’s development in Kayibasi, near Istanbul.


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Part III Küçük Armutlu: A Case Study


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Sprawling over a hilltop at the northern periphery of Istanbul, Küçük Armutlu seems like a colorful rural village against a backdrop of generic skyscrapers.


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As

Turkey’s

economy

began

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industrialize in the late 1940’s, the first wave of rural migrants began to flow into Istanbul. At that time, Küçük Armutlu was nothing but a pastoral landscape of fields and fruit trees. The first development on the site was a quarry, which employed ten families from Almuş, a regional city in central Turkey.1 These first families built their own shelters near the quarry owner’s house. The land was public, belonging to the government. This early settlement included agriculture and animal husbandry in the lands adjacent to their houses.

1  İlker Cörüt & Evren Gönül, From Almus To Küçük Armutlu: An Ethnographic Study of the Rural and Sub-Urban Space in Relation to State and Market Intrusions, Journal of Historical Studies, 5 (2007), 33-67.

Küçük Armutlu is a geçekondu community that illustrates the inadequacy of Turkey’s housing policy, and provides an effective case study for this report.

Figure 16. (top) Development has occurred without provisions at the human scale.

Figure 17. Küçük Armutlu in the late 1970s


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1946

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1984

Figure 18. Historic photos of Armutlu

Figure 19-20. Gecekondu growth prior to 1980

Over the next ten years, work at the quarry established a secure income for the migrants, and the promise of economic stability. The population of the early settlement grew steadily as the first ten families accommodated their friends and relatives from the countryside. This first generation of migrants maintained strong connections with their home villages, especially considering that many of their families had lived there for hundreds of years. Their original territory of Tokat, as well as Sivas and Riva to the north, is the home region of the Alevi people, an ethnic and religious minority that make up twenty percent of Turkey’s population1. Like the Kurds, who share the same ethnic origin, the Alevi have been victimized throughout Turkey’s history. Practicing a version of Shiite Islam, they have been systematically persecuted by the Sunni majority since the Ottoman Empire. When these people began migrating to Istanbul and other industrial cities, they were obliged to renounce this important part of their identity in order to avoid discrimination. They came to the city to make money to support their families, often at the cost of their religious freedom.

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Saunders, Arrival City, 164.


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Despite the continuity of agricultural tradition in the villages, it was becoming difficult to maintain the increasing rural population. As one of the national government’s plans to modernize the economy, the Almuş Dam was completed in 1964, flooding large swathes of fertile land formerly cultivated for tobacco production. In the years that followed, the humidifying climate caused the remaining tobacco crop to be abandoned as Blue Mould Disease destroyed the region’s primary product.

It was also at this time that Turkey began an aggressive campaign to increase agricultural production, constructing a national highway system and famously sending 40,000 tractors into the countryside1. The traditional Anatolian farmers struggled to compete as mechanized production methods became widespread. By 1980, Turkey had begun to allow agricultural imports to enter the country, creating further competition. As rural life became synonymous with poverty and destitution, millions of farmers and their families migrated to major cities. In Istanbul alone, the 1980’s and 90’s saw more than 500,000 villagers per year move to the city2.

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Figure 21. Improvised infrastructure

Saunders, Arrival City, 163. Saunders, Arrival City, 162.

Figure 22. Gecekondu construction


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Figure 23-24. Housing construction was often a community effort


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In the late 1970’s, Istanbul’s first development plan was instituted by the Bureau of City Planning. It stipulates that the forests, agricultural lands, and river basins north of the city are to be protected. It is agreed that future metropolitan development should follow an East-West axis. In 1980, the Turkish Armed Forces carry out a coup d’état and rule for three years The military persecutes minorities, especially the Alevi peoples of the Black Sea region. Villagers from Sivas and Almus are criminalized by the military due to the intrusion of radical leftist guerillas into mountain villages. One such group is the D.H.K.P./C., or Revolutionary Peoples’ Liberation Party/Front. Large numbers of families migrate to Istanbul. The increased demand for housing is unmet, driving the majority of immigrants into informal settlements. Hundreds of new houses are illegally built on public land. Access to informal real estate is controlled by a land mafia made up of the first generations of migrants to the area. As the informal housing stock develops exchange value, enclosed lands are divided and sold off to incoming migrants. Figure 26. (below) Conflict between an illegal settlement and security forces in the 1980s.

Figure 25. (above) A migrant worker living in a structure constructed illegally.


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Informal settlements develop in Pinar, Resitpasa, Ferahevler, Derbent, Cumhuriyet, and Çayirbasi. Industry and service jobs center around Levent, Maslak, Etiler, and Samayi Mahallesi. The Military abolishes the Bureau of City Planning. There is an acceleration in development north of Istanbul. The TEM highway and the Fatih Sultan Mehmet bridge are completed by 1988. 200,000 people are imprisoned by the end of the coup. In 1984, in protest of abysmal conditions in Figure 27. Küçük Armutlu in the 1970s prisons throughout Turkey, a group of prisoners initiates a hunger strike for recognition of their fundamental rights. Four prisoners die of starvation before the military intervenes. Residents of Küçük Armutlu vote for the Motherland Party in the national election because it promises to grant deeds for the lands they occupy, but they don’t win. Promising deeds, services, and a moratorium on demolitions in Küçük Armutlu, the Social Democratic Populist party (SHP) wins the national election in 1989. Within months of taking office, the new government reneges on its promises, citing an inconsistency with its social democrat values. The government carries out demolitions in Küçük Armutlu.

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Figure 29-30. Demolitions in Armutlu

major Figure 28. Hunger Striker


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Following the demolitions, the community turns to the Revolutionary Left. The D.H.K.P./C. helps residents to rebuild their homes and occupy new land, inviting their relatives from Almus and Tokat to help in the reconstruction. In 1990, 286 residents sign a petition denouncing the crimes and abuses of the Land mafia. Four days later, the police carry out a night operation against the petitioners. 30 residents are arrested, 11 shot, and 1 killed. 17 police are injured by stones thrown by the residents. Following the intervention of the police in favor of the land mafia, the revolutionary left gains popular support. The Anti-Terror Law is instituted in 1991. It is used by the government to ban independent political activity. In 1993 the land mafia is expelled in favor of the revolutionary left, which convinced residents of their legitimacy to own property. By favoring use-value over exchange value, the revolutionary left established the moral authority in housing policy. The People’s Committee becomes the functional local government in Küçük Armutlu. It develops infrastructure, including electricity, water, roads, and sewer, by lobbying with local authorities and organizing the labor force for the projects. Furthermore it collects money from inhabitants and provides public services for the neighborhood. Figures 31-32. Hunger strikers

Of the 6000 prisoners held under the Anti-terror Law, less than 10% are convicted of any crime as of 1996.1 Prisoners undertake a second hunger strike, this time to protest extreme isolation cells in the country’s high security prisons. 12 Strikers die and more are injured. At the Kartal special-type prison, inmates report being held incommunicado for months at a time in 1998. In the meanwhile, Turkey gains European Union candidate status.

Figure 33. Delegation from the IRA visits the hunger strikers to demonstrate their support

1  Cörüt & Gönül, From Almus To Küçük Armutlu, 33-67.


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Figure 18. Residents of Armutlu mourn the deaths of several hunger strikers

Figure 34. Operation “Return to Life,” 2000

In 2000 the Defense Ministry institutes a new prison typology, the f-type, which isolates inmates in cells rather than dormitories. The prisons are cited by several international organizations as violating the human rights of the prisoners. That October, inmates carry out the largest hunger strike to date in protest of the new f-type prisons. Two months later, faced with hundreds of hunger-striking inmates, the military institutes Operation Return to Life. Over the course of three days, 10,0000 police raid 20 prisons across Turkey. By the end of the operation, 30 inmates and two police are killed. Inmates continue to hunger strike well into the following year. The military’s efforts to forcefeed prisoners results in hundreds of cases of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. The prisons grant some inmates medical leave to recover in their own communities, but most continue to strike to starvation. Küçük Armutlu becomes the headquarters of the hunger strike movement, attracting people from across Turkey.

Figure 35. Security forces entering the community

The community supports the movement by establishing “houses of resistance,” where hunger strikers are looked after and encouraged. New methods are developed to prolong the starvation process, extending the record from 72 to 288 days. The “death fasts” attract political activists, university students, and community members willing to participate.


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In September, police attack a gathering of 300 supporters during the funeral of a hunger striker. Claiming vengeance for a policeman slain in a suicide bombing carried out by the D.H.K.P./C., 800 police invade the community with guns, five tanks, gas bombs, and water hose. By the end of the operation, 150 people are arrested.1 That November, the police station is constructed in Küçük Armutlu. Residents report an increase in crime as a result of the new station, accusing police of colluding with criminals. By the end of Figure 36. A funeral for one of the hunger the year, 38 hunger strikers die of starvation. strikers In the national elections of 2004, the AKP promises deeds in exchange for votes in Küçük Armutlu. They fail to keep their promise. The Center for Cultural Activities is constructed in 2006, providing a location for the Alevi traditional semah (dance) and baglama (stringed instrument), as well as theatre and film. In 2009, Küçük Armutlu shifts allegiance in the national elections to MHP and CHP, citing their concerns about living in unregistered houses. Küçükarmutlu is also a controversial area due to the valuable land it is on. Many places in Küçükarmutlu have views of the Bosphorus. Istanbul Technical University, or İTÜ, has filed many suits to take back the lands on which thousands of people have lived. The university plans to build a Figures 37. Video footage of the police raid in techno park there. The ownership of land Armutlu, 2001. in the area is shared among the university, Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, the Turkish Red Crescent Society and other foundations2 Today Küçük Armutlu continues to exhibit many of the symptoms of Turkey’s development policies.

1  Cörüt & Gönül, From Almus To Küçük Armutlu, 33-67. 2  “Küçükarmutlu Shantytown Area a Leftist Stronghold,” Tourism, Culture, News, Society of Turkey, accessed August 19, 2011, http:// turkeyinformation.blogspot.com/2009/01/ kkarmutlu-shantytown-area-leftist.html

Figure 38. Victims of the 2001 police raid


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Figure 39. The police station, constructed following the 2001 raid.

“Architecture is frozen politics.� Alfredo Brillembourg

Alfredo Brillembourg, Simply Built: A Chance For Our Urban Planet, (lecture at University of Westminster, London, May 18, 2011).

Figure 40. The community center, constructed in 2006


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What does the future hold for Küçük Armutlu?


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C I V E

n o i T


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The residents of Küçük Armutlu face imminent eviction. Proposed Third Bridge

The local community is threatened by globalizing political and economic forces transmitted by the municipal and national governments, but also via financial institutions, investors, and developers. These forces seek to redevelop Küçük Armutlu for a variety of reasons:

MASLAK LEVENT

HALKALI ATAŞEHIR

Istanbul Development Forces Development Axis Central Business District Motorway Proposed Motorway

1. The community occupies land with a very high real estate value due to its picturesque setting beside the Bosporus and it’s proximity to two of the city’s central business districts. The land could earn a windfall profit if redeveloped into luxury office or residential properties.

2. The political history of the community defines its role as a stronghold of resistance. The events of the eighties and nineties have polarized people’s perception of the community, and many myths have circulated as a result. Because the government insists on portraying Armutlu as an extremist’s enclave, it remains a point of political sensitivity.

3. The community is not consistent with the official image that Istanbul is trying to present. Under increased scrutiny from the European Union, international investors, and an expanding tourism industry, Turkey is making great efforts to brand itself as a modern country with low poverty, unemployment, or social instability. Turkey’s geçekondular are not consistent with that vision, and have become the target of mass rehousing projects.

KARTAL Marmaray Tunnel


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Figure 41. Houses demolished to clear a path for a new motorway

Despite the seemingly insurmountable pressures on Küçük Armutlu and its residents, there are several political and procedural factors that limit the government’s ability to evict the entire community. According to the UN Human Rights Commission, the authorities are required to provide housing for every resident they displace. Though the task of rehousing over 22,000 people is indeed substantial, it is not beyond the scope of the government’s own Mass Housing Association (TOKI). Such projects have been executed in the past, most notably in Sulukule, where 5,000 residents (predominantly of minority Roma background) were dispersed and relocated to various TOKI projects at the periphery of Istanbul.1 The neighborhood is currently being redeveloped for 138,000 new flats.2

1  Kerem Çiftçioğlu, “Sulukule: A MultiStakeholder Participatory Planning Process,” in Istanbul—Living in Voluntary and Involuntary Exclusion, ed. Eda Ünlü-Yücesoy et al. (Rotterdam: Diwan, 2009), 27. 2  Uğur İnan, (presentation, Istanbul Metropolitan Planning Office, Istanbul, January 17, 2011).

But although the forced relocation of such a large population is physically feasible, it would create a political liability that most administrations to date have deemed too risky. In light of this potential for volatile reactions, authorities have taken incremental measures to displacing the community’s residents. Over two hundred houses were demolished to clear a path for motorways that now circumnavigate Küçük Armutlu. The construction of a school, a police station, and several parks has also resulted in evictions and relocations to public housing projects.

The fact that Küçük Armutlu has survived longer than many other geçekondu settlements is a testament to the community’s strong sense of unity in the face of mounting pressures. But as the land under Armutlu becomes increasingly valuable to investors and developers, authorities are increasingly willing to take more aggressive measures. In many ways the government is searching for a strong enough justification before taking action to evict the community. Such justifications would need to be defendable against the UN and other international organizations on the grounds that the current living conditions in Armutlu are unsafe or unhealthy.


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2002: 50 houses demolished

2006: 80 houses demolished

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Küçük Armutlu currently exhibits several health, safely, and security issues that undermine the community. These issues include poor water management practices, contamination of the air from coal burning, poor construction quality, crime, and the reputation of being an extremist enclave. Unfortunately, these issues may provide the justification needed to evict the residents and redevelop the community. Several solutions are available to address the health and safety concerns. If a conventional urban policy were chosen, public and private Figure 42. Water contaminated by garbage investors would be allowed to enter the community, facilitating professional expertise and top-down planning strategies. This solution would be consistent with the state’s vision of development, and therefore allow more money to be spent on upgrades and improvements. However, this strategy would inevitably result in mass relocations as new infrastructure and urban plans are implemented. In order to stave off the threat of eviction, the community must act on its own to eliminate the causes of each justification. Only in this way can Küçük Armutlu expect to remain intact and maintain it’s present territory. Although addressing environmental and social threats internally will be a challenge without the support and resources of the municipal government, it is Figure 43. Unmanaged water runoff a project with lasting benefits for the community. By approaching the project on a local level, the community will cultivate a stronger sense of stewardship for the improvements than if an outside institution were to construct them. Furthermore, the process of collaboration necessary to carry out this collective endeavor will strengthen the personal relationships and local networks within the community.


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The problem of air quality is addressed by installing better installation for the homes that burn coal for heat. Coal-burning stoves are replaced by more efficient, cleaner-burning ecostoves. Installing rooftop solar water heaters further reduces dependence on stoves. In addition, planting more trees and vegetation facilitates carbon capture and sequestration.

Figure 44. Contamination due to burning coal fires in poorly ventilated dwellings

Residents address the problem of substandard construction quality by retrofitting faulty buildings. For example, this may entail installing insulation, replacing windows or roof panels, and adding new columns or rafters. A community-wide survey distinguishes the shelters to be improved from those that should be reconstructed entirely. This applies to dwellings on bad foundations or located in natural disaster risk zones. Concerns about crime and delinquency are addressed through a comprehensive series of social interventions that generate employment, strengthen the local economy, and encourage participation from every resident. As inhabitants become more engaged in their community, they become stewards of their environment. Every resident is entitled to greater participation in community affairs, and the threat of collective justice deters potential criminals.

Figure 45. Poor construction practices Lastly, residents must address their public image by reversing the negative perception of Küçük Armutlu held by many outsiders. The community must redefine its identity as a positive enclave of local tradition. In contrast to the perverse political demonstrations and violence of its past, the new community will showcase an array of unique physical improvements. Küçük Armutlu can successfully rebrand itself as a sustainable local community, effectively opening its borders to the outside world. Promotional campaigns will entice residents from neighboring areas to buy local produce, food, and handicrafts. Local commerce will benefit as tourists and other visitors enter the site to experience the distinctive character of the transformed community.


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Part IV Avoiding Eviction in Küçük Armutlu


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The informal settlement of Küçük Armutlu faces imminent eviction. As one of several such geçekondu in Istanbul, the community’s violent political history and numerous health and safety deficiencies make it a vulnerable target for hostile redevelopment. In order to avoid a forced relocation to mass housing projects, residents must address these justifications by making systematic improvements to their environment. This project demonstrates a local approach to improving physical infrastructure, empowering people to adapt the environment to their needs. The interventions have a cumulative effect, cultivating a sense of collective identity in order to project a positive image to the outside.

historical timeline ∞

1940

1960

HISTORY OF KÜÇÜK ARMUTLU 1950 Ten families are employed by a quarry in Küçük Armutlu. They settle on government land next to the quarry owners house

1946

1966

The early settlement features agriculture and animal husbandry 1964 The Almus Dam is completed

Istanbul’s first D Plan is institute Bureau of City

Most migrants are from the Almus region of Turkey

The regional economy suffers due to lost agricultural lands The tobacco crop, the area’s primary product, is abandoned due to Blue Mould Disease resulting from increased moisture

-∞

-70

-50

It stipulates tha agricultural lan basins north of be protected. I future metropo development s East-West axis


Development ed by the Planning

at the forests, nds, and river f the city are to It is agreed that olitan should follow an s.

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context Küçük Armutlu is located on the northern periphery of Istanbul on a hill overlooking the Bosphorus straight. Settled from the 1960s by working class migrants from Turkey’s interior, the community is like many other geçekondu or informal settlements. Surrounded by gated communities and business districts, Armutlu displays a unique diversity of intimate dwellings and compelling common spaces. The dense informal fabric lends itself to customization by the residents, who adapt the built environment to their needs

The community cultivates local social networks, despite the pressures from outside to modernize and conform. The People’s Committee is the community’s authority for local issues and development. Comprised of volunteers, the committee is not an official government body yet collects taxes and lobbies for government services and infrastructure projects. In this way, the community has secured electricity, water, sewage, and roads over the past twenty years.

photographs of Armutlu today

1980

1980 The Turkish Armed Forces carry out a coup d’état 1983 200,000 people are imprisoned by the end of the coup

1983 Residents of Küçük Armutlu vote for the Motherland Party in the national election because it promises to grant deeds for the lands they occupy, but they don’t win.

1984 In protest of abysmal conditions in prisons throughout Turkey, a group of prisoners initiates a hunger strike for recognition of their fundamental rights.

The military persecute minorities, especially the Alevi peoples of the Black Sea region. Villagers from Sivas and Almus are criminalized by the military due to the intrusion of radical leftist guerillas into mountain villages.

Large numbers of families migrate to Istanbul

One such group is the DHKP/C: Revolutionary Peoples’ Liberation Party/Front

The Military abolishes the Bureau of City Planning. There is an acceleration in development north of Istanbul.

1988 The TEM highway and the Fatih Sultan Mehmet bridge are completed

Four prisoners die of starvation before the military intervenes.

1982

The government carries out thre major demolitions in Küçük Arm

Following the demolitions, the community turns to the Revoluti Left. The DHKP/C helps residen rebuild their homes and occupy land, inviting their relatives from and Tokat to help in the reconstr

The increased demand for housing is unmet, driving the majority of immigrants into informal settlements. Hundreds of new houses are illegally built on public land. Access to informal real estate is controlled by a land mafia made up of the first generations of migrants to the area. Informal settlements develop in Pinar, Resitpasa, Ferahevler, Derbent, Cumhuriyet, and Çayirbasi. Turkey begins agricultural imports

-30

Industry and service jobs center around Levent, Maslak, Etiler, and Samayi Mahallesi

As the informal housing stock develops exchange value, enclosed lands are divided and sold off to incoming migrants.


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1996 Of the 6000 prisoners held under the Anti-terror Law, 1 less than 10% are convicted of any crime.

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1999 Turkey gains Euro

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Prisoners undertake a second hunger strike, this time to protest extreme isolation cells in the country’s high security prisons. 12 Strikers die and more are injured.

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-20

December

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1 Following the intervention of the police in favor 1of the 1 land mafia, the revolutionary left1 gains popular support 1

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October 2 1

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1990 286 residents sign a petition denouncing the crimes and 2 abuses of the land mafia. 1 1 Four days later,1 the police carry out a1 night operation 1 2 1 1 against the petitioners. 30 residents are arrested, 11 shot, and 1 killed. 17 police are injured by stones 1 1 1 1 thrown by the residents. 1 1

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1 The People’s Committee is the functional local government 1in Küçük Armutlu. It develops infrastructure, including electricity, 1 1 1 water, roads, and sewer, by lobbying with local authorities and 1 1 1 1 1 organizing the labor force for the projects. Furthermore it 1 1 1 collects money from inhabitants and provides public services for 1 1 the neighborhood.

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nformal housing stock develops 1 1 1 ge value, enclosed lands are divided 1 d off to incoming migrants. 1

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1 1989 Promising deeds, services, and a 1 1 moratorium on demolitions in Küçük 2 Armutlu, the Social Democratic Populist 1 1 party (SHP) 1wins the national election. 1 Within months of taking office, the new 4 1 1 government reneges on its1 promises, 1 1 1 citing an inconsistency with its social 1 democrat values. 1

1

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Following the demolitions, the 1 2 1 community turns to the Revolutionary Left. The DHKP/C helps residents to 1 1 rebuild their homes and occupy new 2 land, inviting2 their relatives from1 Almus 1 2 1 1 and Tokat to help in the reconstruction.

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1 1 19931 The land mafia is expelled in favor of 1the revolutionary left, which 1 1 convinced residents of their legitimacy to own property.1 By 2 favoring use-value over exchange value, the revolutionary left 2 1 1 established the moral authority in housing policy. 1

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military intervenes.

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The government carries out three 2 1 1 major demolitions in Küçük Armutlu.

throughout Turkey, ike for recognition

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1998 At the Kartal special-type prison, 1 inmates report being held 1 incommunicado for months at a time. 1

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1991 The Anti-Terror Law is instituted. It is used by the 1 government to ban independent political activity.

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55

y

Use

rcial

1-2 storey house

onal

3-4 storey flats

al

5-7 storey flats

mosque

wastewater treatment facility

local government headquarters

secondary school

primary school

medical center

mosque medical center

mosque police station

primary school

cemevi community center

sque

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2005

2011

2001 Inmates continue to hunger strike. The military’s efforts to force-feed prisoners results in hundreds of cases of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

The Defense Ministry institutes a new prison typology, the f-type, which isolates inmates in cells rather than dormitories. The prisons are cited by several international organizations as violating the human rights of the prisoners. In protest of the new f-type prisons, inmates carry out the largest hunger strike to date. Faced with hundreds of hunger-striking inmates, the military institutes Operation Return to Life. Over the course of three days, 10,0000 police raid 20 prisons across Turkey. By the end of the operation, 30 inmates and two police are killed.

opean Union candidate status.

10

The prisons grant some inmates medical leave to recover in their own communities, but most continue to strike to starvation. Küçük Armutlu becomes the headquarters of the hunger strike movement, attracting people from across Turkey. The community supports the movement by establishing “houses of resistance,” where hunger strikers are looked after and encouraged. New methods are developed to prolong the starvation process, extending the record from 72 to 288 days. The “death fasts” attract political activists, university students, and community members willing to participate.

2009 Population of Küçük Armutlu reaches 22,000 inhabitants 2006 The Center for Cultural Activities is constructed, providing a location for the Alevi traditional semah and baglama, as well as theatre and film.

September Police attack a gathering of 300 supporters during the funeral of a hunger striker. Claiming vengeance for a policeman slain in a suicide bombing carried out by the DHKP/C, 800 police invade the community with guns, five tanks, gas bombs, and water hose. By the end of the operation, 150 people are arrested. November A Police Station is constructed in Küçük Armutlu. Residents report an increase in crime as a result of the new station, accusing police of colluding with criminals.

2004 In the national elections, the AKP promises deeds in exchange for votes in Küçük Armutlu. They fail to keep their promise.

38 hunger strikers die of starvation.

-5

2009 Küçük Armutlu shifts allegiance in the national elections to MHP and CHP, citing their concerns about living in unregistered houses.


56

understanding the threat The local community is threatened by globalizing political and economic forces transmitted by the municipal and national governments, financial institutions, investors, and developers. These forces seek to redevelop Küçük Armutlu for a variety of reasons: the high real-estate value of the land itself

official development plan for Istanbul municipality

reputation for political resistance and extremism

KAYABAŞI KAYABAŞI

Istanbul IstanbulDevelopment DevelopmentForce Forc nonconformity with “official” vision of development

Development Development Axis Axis

Central Central Business Business Distric Dist Motorway Motorway Proposed Proposed Motorway Motorway

Mass Housing Develo Mass Housing Develop


57

next page: an illustration of the conflicting forces at work in Armutlu Invasive elements within the community: the police station, a tank, & the Ferrari dealership

Proposed Third Bridge

MASLAK

I

LEVENT

Armutlu

HALKALI ATAĹžEHIR

ces

trict

opment

KARTAL Marmaray Tunnel


Küçük Armutlu: Power and Influence 58

Public Transport

Roads Hierarchy light traffic

n te u iver

local dolmuş service

heavy traffic

anb

c u l Te

h

I

st

medium traffic

sity

sta

municipal bus service

armed watchtower

res

er

vo

armed watchtower

lo o

dpat h

h

r ie

r

wastewater treatment facility

r igh securit y b a

high security barrier

nity

gate

ommu dc

ir f

Ko

2008: 9 houses demolished

2008: 33 houses demolished

n a klar h securit yb hig

a r rie

r

mafia

gentrifying retail

d

gate

r a n fil k ö y

commu

ies nit

Ka

2008: 2

ent

ille

settlem gal

E til e r

local government headquarters


ç ts -ge eko

Housing Type apartment building:

u nd

waterf

geçekondu house: Re

low income, traditional lifestyle

şitp aşa

ial ent

t res ron id

high income, established families

Em

irg a n

local government headquarters

2002: 50 houses demolished

POLICE STATION

armed watchtower

8: 22 houses demolished

tank

2006: 80 houses demolished

CULTURAL & COMMUNITY CENTER

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AK party headquarters

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2005: 108 houses demolished

wa ric terf

Ba

t ron

histo

po

59

lt a li m a ni


Küçük Armutlu: Environment RAVINE: Flooding / Erosion Risk

STEEP GRADE: Natural Disaster Risk

Sub-standard Construction

Rainwater Drainage

Existing Treecover

on hazarous c

st

ru

ds

c

ta n o

m i n a ti o n

fr

g

c ti o n

h t e m

o

s

50

100

200

ge conne a c ew

ns

l b u r ni n

0 20

tio

om

coa

Drinking Water Distributor

m in c o plete

Untreated Wastewater

un

Domestic Coal Contamination

m

60

a

ge a n

du


b

su

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61

le

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d e v a

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62

finding justifications for eviction Evicting a community of 22,000 would not be defensible without appropriate justification. Such justifications would need to be defendable against the UN and other international organizations on the grounds that the current living conditions in Armutlu are unsafe or unhealthy. Küçük Armutlu currently exhibits several health, safely, and security issues that undermine the community. These issues include poor water management practices, contamination of the air from coal burning, poor construction quality, crime, and the reputation of being an extremist enclave. Unfortunately, these issues may provide the justification needed to evict the residents and redevelop the community.

Events

0.0 Prim renew th

People’s to avoid

Environmental Projects

Social Projects

previous page: an analysis of the environmental issues that undermine the community


63

0.3 tem at s

developing a strategy

0 Prime Minister Erdoğan and the AK Party new threats to develop Küçük Armutlu

0.1 General Meeting at community center

In order to stave off the threat A.ofIntroduce eviction, the community must strategy and vision act considers on itsstrategies own to eliminate the causes of each justification. eople’s Committee avoid forced relocation

B. Appoint environmental & social task forces C. Institute tax for community improvements

People’s Committee resolves to address the following justifications for eviction: 1. Water management A. Flooding and erosion damage B. Unsuitable drinking water C. Untreated wastewater 2. Air quality A. Poorly-ventilated coal fires

B. Incineration of hazardous materials 3. Building construction

A. Substandard concrete and B. Poor foundation

0.4 inv

Te

Te

Te

Te

Only by addressing each justification can

0.1 Distribute wildflower seeds Armutlu expect to remain intact and maintain residents show support for new initiative by it’s present territory. the community Although addressing scattering seeds throughout

environmental and social threats internally will be a challenge without the support and resources of the municipal government, it is a project with lasting benefits for the community.

0.2 - 1.1 Water survey and analysis task force determines where water coll A. interview residents B. observe and document

C. findings determine boundaries of t 1.1 - 1.2 Agriculture Co-operative facility for operations and storage

4. Security

A. Crime

B. Delinquent youth 5. Perception as extremist enclave

0.3 - 0.4 Community Tent temporary structure to appear at subsequent community events 0.1 - 0.4 Human resource survey task force identifies individuals with special capabilities A. interview residents

0.1 General Meeting at community center A. Introduce strategy and vision B. Appoint environmental & social task forces C. Institute tax for community improvements

B. identify community leaders and social promoters 0.4 Community work day The project recognizes the People’s Committee invite residents to collaborate onnetworks collective projects C. determine traditional wisdom

as the community’s authority for local issues. Team A. collect litter separate task forces to The Committee appoints manageTeam the B. proposed environmental and social trim overgrown vegetation improvements. Team C. plant trees and flowers

Team D. feed and entertain volunteers


64

project overview This project, which proposes a series of improvements for the geçekondu, demonstrates a systematic approach of addressing specific physical and social deficiencies. The improvements are achieved as the result of interventions that grow in scale and scope as the project develops over a period of twenty to fifty years. The interventions have a cumulative effect, cultivating a sense of collective identity in order to project a positive image to the outside. The first interventions are implemented by the appointed task force, either social or environmental. The initial projects are low-cost and temporary, such as community work dsys or handicraft workshops. Among the first physical upgrades, a community gardening campaign encourages residents to cultivate parts of the land around their home. As the project develops, residents make improvements to the surroundings as their agricultural ambition grows. Such improvements include the diversion of water flowing downhill, which previously caused erosion and flooding. This problem is transformed into a benefit with the terracing of gardens, which abates water runoff and provides irrigation.

Buildings

1.1 - 1.2 Agriculture Co-operative facility for operations and storage 0.3 - 0.4 Community Tent temporary structure to appear at subsequent community events

8.2 - 9.4 Community Centre reflects new role of co-op at t

3.1 - 4.1 Agriculture Co-operative II expansion to include meeting space, greenhouse, compost zone, kitchen, and supply store

2.2 - 2.3 Trade Workshop hardware store to provide workspace and project advice to residents

4.4 - 5.1 Handicraft Exchange retail shop to sell goods and workspace to practice traditional crafts

A. permanent market and p

6.4 - 7.1 Biogas Digester I converts compost into cooking gas and fertilizer

B. complete plant nursery a

C. processing zone for agri

D. meeting and performanc

Events

0.0 Prime Minister Erdoğan and the AK Party renew threats to develop Küçük Armutlu

0.1 General Meeting at community center A. Introduce strategy and vision

0.4 Community work day invite residents to collaborate on collective projects

People’s Committee considers strategies to avoid forced relocation

B. Appoint environmental & social task forces

Team A. collect litter

C. Institute tax for community improvements People’s Committee resolves to address the following justifications for eviction:

Environmental Projects

3.2 Community tree-planting day plant seedlings donated from Istanbul Botanic Gardens

Team B. trim overgrown vegetation Team C. plant trees and flowers

1. Water management A. Flooding and erosion damage B. Unsuitable drinking water C. Untreated wastewater

A. Poorly-ventilated coal fires

B. Incineration of hazardous materials 3. Building construction

A. Substandard concrete and B. Poor foundation

B. Delinquent youth 5. Perception as extremist enclave

A. general maintenance B. plant ornamentals in key areas

1.3 Launch agriculture programme offers services to residents of target zone and volunteers A. loan of tools 0.2 - 1.1 Water survey and analysis task force determines where water collects, flows, and causes problems

B. supply of seed C. access to gardening expertise

A. interview residents B. observe and document

1.2 Establish target zone task force identifies specific area for concentrated improvements

4. Security

A. Crime

2.3 - 3.2 Recruit co-op volunteers beautify common spaces within zone

1.4 Commence gardening class at community center weekly course obligatory for target zone residents

0.1 Distribute wildflower seeds residents show support for new initiative by scattering seeds throughout the community

C. findings determine boundaries of target zone

7.1 Community compost campaign collect and recycle domestic and agricultural waste for fertilizer

4.2 Domestic compost workshop teach fundamentals of composting organic waste

Team D. feed and entertain volunteers

2. Air quality

Social Projects

2.2 Handicraft workshop encourage local artisans to teach their trade to other residents

5.2 University student visit Invite ITU students to observe and participate in projects

0.1 - 0.4 Human resource survey task force identifies individuals with special capabilities A. interview residents

A. building and carpentry

A. formal training for co-op volunteers

A. increased irrigation from rainwater harvesting

B. best practices for community gardening

B. community-wide knowledge and support networks

C. access to gardening expertise

C. collective solicitation of resources from institutions

3.2 - 3.3 Conduct land-use survey for future development identifies earthquake risks and ecologically sensitive areas

4.4 Provide market space at co-operative residents encouraged to sell their produce

C. cuisine, traditions, and handicrafts D. music and performance

B. convert uncultivated terrain to agriculture C. manage co-op programmes and facilities

A. canals and storage tanks B. wastewater treatment measures C. connections to municipal drainage canals

2.1 Facilitate temporary food market provides selling space to any resident

B. agriculture and cultivation

B. identify community leaders and social promoters C. determine traditional wisdom networks

A. construct and maintain water infrastructur

5.4 - 7.4 Upgrade water infrastructure (phase II) heavy machinery used to install components

A. address immediate flood risks

C. construct retaining walls

6.3 Expand role of co-op workforce employees and volunteers become agricultura

5.1 - 5.4 Maximize agricultural production integration with other improvements

3.1 Establish garden school

2.2 - 4.1 Upgrade water infrastructure (phase I) provides paid work for unemployed residents

B. excavate ponds and canals

1.1 Database of professional skills community directory of knowledgeable experts

5.2 Domestic water filter workshop instruct how to make filters for safe drinking water

2.4 Invite local hospital to host health fair provides screenings, vaccinations, and basic consultations

4.3 Invite weekly mobile library service local library makes stops at key locations


65

timeline The timeline below describes a systematic approach to improving the community. The process of collaboration necessary to carry out this collective endeavor will strengthen the personal relationships and local networks within the community.

Each intervention’s vertical position indicates whether it is a building, an event, or a project.

Buildings

the colored bars represent the duration of a project:

3.1 - 4.1 Agriculture Co-operative II expansion to include meeting space, greenhouse, compost zone, kitchen, and supply store

2.2 - 2.3 Tr hardware s and project

Events

building projects are red

2.2 Handicraft workshop encourage local artisans t their trade to other residen

3.2 Community tree-planting day plant seedlings donated from Istanbul Botanic Gardens

temporary events are yellow environmental projects are blue

Environmental Projects

2.3 - 3. beautif

13.2 Collaborate with university students and professionals provides opportunities for institutional exchanges A. transmission of technical knowledge B. real-world applications for science research

A. ge

social projects are green

0.2 - 1.1 Water survey and analysis task force determines where water collects, flows, and causes problems

B. pla

2.2 - 4.1 Upgrade w provides paid work

A. interview residents

A. address imme

B. observe and document

1.2 Establish target zone task force identifies specific area for concentrated improvements

C. findings determine boundaries of target zone

B. excavate pond

C. construct retain

Social Projects 7.4 - 8.2 Upgrade central athletic pitch encourages community participation in sport

Time is indicated by this number. Digits before the dot represent months. Digits after the dot represent weeks. 0.0 is the project start date.

the center of community

14.1 Community Center expansion to accomodate new cultural uses

11.3 - 12.4 Aquaponics Facility cultivates live fish and aquatic plants

public interface

A. youth radio station

and greenhouse

A. provides significant economic benefit

B. performance hall for semah and baglamah

iculture exports

B. functions as a virtuous circle system

C. visitors center

ce spaces

9.1 Community work day volunteers develop high-visibility areas

16.2 - 17.4 Environmental Research Center for the development of high-tech sustainability projects A. funded by university and other institutions B. solar and other energy solutions explored

10.2 Community Festival showcase all improvements to date

Team A. plant ornamental shrubs and flowers Team B. paint utility poles, kerbs, and railings Team C. feed and entertain workers

8.1 - 10.2 Upgrade water infrastructure (phase III) comprehensive flow sequence completed

al specialists

re

A. water system fully connected to agriculture

plots

B. aesthetic water features developed C. expanded to areas outside target zone

11.4 Introduce recycling program at former co-op facility separation of household waste for recycling A. provides employment for salvage collectors B. allows community to sell bulk quantities of material

7.4 - 8.2 Upgrade central athletic pitch encourages community participation in sport

12.3 Relocate poorly-sited dwellings construct new houses for displaced families 11.2 Make trainings accessible for every resident continuous courses in sustainable practices A. childcare and meals provided for incentives B. coordinated with community social events

10.2 Expand target zone include vacant areas with agricultural potential

A. survey to determine best location

15.2 Assist co-op employees find work in private sector workers encouraged to provide services outside community

B. community-wide knowledge and support networks C. collective solicitation of resources from institutions

A. Co-op exports a skilled workforce B. employment engine lifts family incomes 13.2 Collaborate with university students and professionals provides opportunities for institutional exchanges A. transmission of technical knowledge B. real-world applications for science research

C. reputation of community grows

17.1 18.2 Develop parks and natural areas designate green spaces as territorial assets A. construct trails and seating areas B. draw attention to local assets or significant views C. encourage local youth to guide visitors


66

Key Plan of Interventions

Domestic biogas units

Community Bio Algaculture Water Storage Tank Research Center

Reconstructed Homes

athletic festival

Commercial Focus Area

hot food

C handicrafts

textiles

Health Fair

weekly food market tea vegetables

baked goods

hot food

handicrafts hot food sweets

oranges spices tea


67

Project Timeframe phase I

(within 1 year)

phase II

(2-4 years)

phase III

(5+ years)

event

Biogas &

Co-op II

Aquaponics Facility

Co-op I

Workshop I Workshop II Community Centre

mobile library

Commercial Focus Area

Compost & Recyling Center

Handicrafts Exchange

2

1

1

1

1 1

2

4

2

1

1 1

1

1 1 1

1 1

2 1

1

1 1

1

1

1 1

2

1

1

2

1

2

2

3 1

2

2

2

1

2

1 1

1

1

4 1

1 1

2

3

1 1

2 1

1

1 1

1

2

2 1

1 1

1

4

2

2

1 1

1

1

1

2

1 3


68 Transformed Open Space

Community Participation

Experienced Farmers

Artisan Food Vendors Temporary Clinic

Recycling Wo

Terraced Gardens

Volu

Visiting Practitioner Mobile Library Handicraft Vendors

Visiting Students Heavy Machinery

New Public Spaces

Agriculture Cooperative

Agricultural Worker Volunteer

Buildings

1.1 - 1.2 Agriculture Co-operative facility for operations and storage 0.3 - 0.4 Community Tent temporary structure to appear at subsequent community events

Events

0.0 Prime Minister Erdoğan and the AK Party renew threats to develop Küçük Armutlu People’s Committee considers strategies to avoid forced relocation

0.1 General Meeting at community center A. Introduce strategy and vision

0.4 Community work day invite residents to collaborate on collective projects

B. Appoint environmental & social task forces

Team A. collect litter

C. Institute tax for community improvements People’s Committee resolves to address the following justifications for eviction:

Environmental Projects

2.2 - 2.3 Trade Workshop hardware store to provide workspace and project advice to residents

Team B. trim overgrown vegetation Team C. plant trees and flowers Team D. feed and entertain volunteers

1. Water management A. Flooding and erosion damage B. Unsuitable drinking water C. Untreated wastewater

1.4 Commence gardening class at community center weekly course obligatory for target zone residents

0.1 Distribute wildflower seeds residents show support for new initiative by scattering seeds throughout the community

1.3 Launch agriculture programme offers services to residents of target zone and volunteers

2. Air quality A. Poorly-ventilated coal fires

B. Incineration of hazardous materials 3. Building construction

A. Substandard concrete and B. Poor foundation

Social Projects

2.2 Handicraft workshop encourage local artisans to teach their trade to other residents

A. loan of tools 0.2 - 1.1 Water survey and analysis task force determines where water collects, flows, and causes problems

B. supply of seed C. access to gardening expertise

A. interview residents B. observe and document C. findings determine boundaries of target zone

1.2 Establish target zone task force identifies specific area for concentrated improvements

4. Security

A. Crime

B. Delinquent youth 5. Perception as extremist enclave

0.1 - 0.4 Human resource survey task force identifies individuals with special capabilities A. interview residents

2.2 - 4.1 Upgrade water provides paid work for u

A. address immediate

B. excavate ponds and C. construct retaining 1.1 Database of professional skills community directory of knowledgeable experts A. building and carpentry B. agriculture and cultivation

B. identify community leaders and social promoters

C. cuisine, traditions, and handicrafts

C. determine traditional wisdom networks

D. music and performance


69

orker Hardware Store

unteers Composting Area

Workshop

New Trees and Gardens

Goods for Sale Salvage Yard

Heavy Machinery

Community Participation Water Storage Recycling Worker

Street Commerce

Public Water Access Community Excursions

Trade Workshop Community Gardening

Recycling Bins

8.2 - 9.4 Community Centre reects new role of co-op at the center of community

3.1 - 4.1 Agriculture Co-operative II expansion to include meeting space, greenhouse, compost zone, kitchen, and supply store

4.4 - 5.1 Handicraft Exchange retail shop to sell goods and workspace to practice traditional crafts

A. permanent market and public interface

6.4 - 7.1 Biogas Digester I converts compost into cooking gas and fertilizer

B. complete plant nursery and greenhouse C. processing zone for agriculture exports D. meeting and performance spaces

5.2 University student visit Invite ITU students to observe and participate in projects

3.2 Community tree-planting day plant seedlings donated from Istanbul Botanic Gardens

7.1 Community compost campaign collect and recycle domestic and agricultural waste for fertilizer

4.2 Domestic compost workshop teach fundamentals of composting organic waste

2.3 - 3.2 Recruit co-op volunteers beautify common spaces within zone A. general maintenance B. plant ornamentals in key areas

5.2 Domestic water filter workshop instruct how to make ďŹ lters for safe drinking water

A. increased irrigation from rainwater harvesting

B. best practices for community gardening

B. community-wide knowledge and support networks

B. convert uncultivated terrain to agriculture plots

C. access to gardening expertise

C. collective solicitation of resources from institutions

C. manage co-op programmes and facilities

5.4 - 7.4 Upgrade water infrastructure (phase II) heavy machinery used to install components

e flood risks 3.2 - 3.3 Conduct land-use survey for future development identiďŹ es earthquake risks and ecologically sensitive areas

walls

A. construct and maintain water infrastructure

A. formal training for co-op volunteers

infrastructure (phase I) unemployed residents

d canals

6.3 Expand role of co-op workforce employees and volunteers become agricultural specialists

5.1 - 5.4 Maximize agricultural production integration with other improvements

3.1 Establish garden school

4.4 Provide market space at co-operative residents encouraged to sell their produce

A. canals and storage tanks B. wastewater treatment measures C. connections to municipal drainage canals

11.4 Introduce recycling p separation of household

A. provides employmen

B. allows community to

2.1 Facilitate temporary food market provides selling space to any resident

2.4 Invite local hospital to host health fair provides screenings, vaccinations, and basic consultations

4.3 Invite weekly mobile library service local library makes stops at key locations

7.4 - 8.2 Up encourages


70

Painters Central Plaza Community Government Street Furniture Commercial Space

Community Gardens

Weekly Market

Landscape Improvements

Artisan Food Vend

Handicraft Production

Prom

Community Centre New Public Spaces

Handicraft Exchange Weekly Market

Personal Responsibility

Entertainers & Musicians

Flexible Open Space Visitors and Outsiders Handicraft Vendors

y Centre co-op at the center of community

11.3 - 12.4 Aquaponics Facility cultivates live ďŹ sh and aquatic plants

arket and public interface

nt nursery and greenhouse

A. provides significant economic benefit

one for agriculture exports

B. functions as a virtuous circle system

performance spaces

9.1 Community work day volunteers develop high-visibility areas

10.2 Community Festival showcase all improvements to date

Team A. plant ornamental shrubs and flowers Team B. paint utility poles, kerbs, and railings Team C. feed and entertain workers

8.1 - 10.2 Upgrade water infrastructure (phase III) comprehensive ow sequence completed

agricultural specialists

frastructure

A. water system fully connected to agriculture

agriculture plots

B. aesthetic water features developed

d facilities

C. expanded to areas outside target zone

11.4 Introduce recycling program at former co-op facility separation of household waste for recycling A. provides employment for salvage collectors B. allows community to sell bulk quantities of material

7.4 - 8.2 Upgrade central athletic pitch encourages community participation in sport

12.3 Relocate poorly-sited dwellings construct new houses for displaced families 11.2 Make trainings accessible for every resident continuous courses in sustainable practices A. childcare and meals provided for incentives B. coordinated with community social events

10.2 Expand target zone include vacant areas with agricultural potential

A. survey to determine best location B. community-wide knowledge and support networks C. collective solicitation of resources from institutions


71

Storage Pond Household Plantings Aquaponics Centre

dors

motional Branding

Existing Municipal Canal Flexible Open Space Water Storage Tank

Terraced Gardens Aquaponics Facility Heavy Machinery Public Parks and Wetlands

Handicraft Vendor

Existing Motorway

14.1 Community Center expansion to accomodate new cultural uses A. youth radio station B. performance hall for semah and baglamah C. visitors center

16.2 - 17.4 Environmental Research Center for the development of high-tech sustainability projects A. funded by university and other institutions B. solar and other energy solutions explored

15.2 Assist co-op employees find work in private sector workers encouraged to provide services outside community A. Co-op exports a skilled workforce B. employment engine lifts family incomes 13.2 Collaborate with university students and professionals provides opportunities for institutional exchanges A. transmission of technical knowledge B. real-world applications for science research

C. reputation of community grows

17.1 18.2 Develop parks and natural areas designate green spaces as territorial assets A. construct trails and seating areas B. draw attention to local assets or significant views C. encourage local youth to guide visitors


72

water analysis The community must solve the problem of flooding and erosion damage with a comprehensive water management system. This system will feature sustainable urban drainage principles to maximize the agricultural benefit from rainwater as it is directed throughout the site. Collection ponds and canals facilitate various stages of filtration while adding aesthetic value. Wastewater and surface runoff is treated as it progresses through the system, which includes a septic field, biogas digesters, and an aquaponics center.

site model at 1:500 scale

flow simulation This video simulates the flow of water across the site. Ball bearings are dropped from the high edge; the topography determines their path downhill and halts or diverts around any obstruction. By documenting the trajectory of each ball bearing, a simple analysis reveals two key findings: • Locations where water collects in pools, causing potential flooding. • Locations where water flows rapidly in channels, causing potential erosion damage.


73

pools of collected water channels of fast-moving water


74

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Sustainable Urban Drainage systems (SUDs) are management practices and control structures designed to drain surface water safely and naturally.

me

sea

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ph

Conventional methods of evacuating surface water, such as gutters, drains, and sewers, do not allow water to soak into the soil. Instead it becomes contaminated as it flows quickly over concrete and impervious surfaces.

Do Re

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75

improvements to the environmental infrastructure

A

irrigation canal

C

B rainwater harvesting and storage

storage pond

E

D

aesthetic feature

F

soakaway

swale

G

C

A

septic field

G F water from Armutlu currently drains into the Bosphorus without treatment

drainage path

the Target Zone is determined as the part of Armutlu with the most environmental threats, and therefore the greatest potential for improvement.

Armutlu


76

Building Projects The buildings described here provide resources and support for the social and environmental interventions. These five structures play a unique role in advancing the development of each project. In keeping with the incremental and grassroots nature of this proposal, each building has its genesis as a room within a family’s residence. For example, the Agriculture Cooperative begins as a garden shed; the Trade Workshop begins as a hardware store. New structures are only built at an advanced stage, when the demonstrated need justifies a dedicated building.


77

Phase I

(within 1 year)

Phase II (2-4 years)

Phase III (5+ years)


78

Community Centre

Handicraft Exchange

Aquaponics Facility


79

Trade Workshop

Agriculture Cooperative


80

Agriculture Cooperative The Agriculture Cooperative is established at an early phase in order to provide support for the community garden initiative. The garden project is one of the most important interventions because it begins small but is a driving force for change. By developing in the three phases described here, the physical environment is transformed. As families cultivate the terrain adjacent to their dwellings, The Agriculture Cooperative provides the required materials, tools, and personal support. As the project develops, the Co-op becomes a community institution, offering educational and vocational programmes for residents.


81

• water flow analysis • retaining walls & irrigation • seed bank • tool lending • supplies storage • recycling & composting • biogas digesters • community meetings


82

Visiting Students Students are invited to observe and participate in agricultural projects. Local schools encourage the community’s youth to learn about gardening, composting, and recycling.

Experienced Farmers Since most of Armutlu’s inhabitants immigrated from the countryside, many have access to generations of agricultural experience. Such knowledge of farming techniques is put into practice with the cultivation of terraced gardens.

Terraced Gardens Heavy Machinery As many of Armutlu’s inhabitants work in the construction industry, several people own bulldozers and front-end loaders. This machinery is used in phases II & III to excavate canals and water storage tanks.

The community garden plots take advantage of Armutlu’s steep slopes with a system of retaining walls, which control and distribute the flow of water through the site. Sustainable urban drainage techniques provide natural irrigation while eliminating erosion and flooding risks.


83

Agricultural Worker The agriculture co-op employs a small number of community members to construct and maintain the terraced gardens

Volunteer New Public Spaces The construction of retaining walls allows for the provision of benches, tables, courtyards, and plazas. These details facilitate community interaction, which is further encouraged by the social interventions which are explained later.

In addition to its paid workforce, the coop enlists the help of volunteers from local schools and associations. Community Work Days are organized to accomplish ambitious projects with large numbers.


84

water analysis finding: water collects here in pools, risking flood and disease intervention: water is collected in new tanks or ponds, where it is stored for future use.

Agriculture Cooperative phase I: the gardener’s shed

garden nursery

caretaker’s lodgings desk/workspace


85

family residence

water analysis finding: water flows here in currents, risking erosion and structure damage intervention: new retaining walls mitigate runoff damage, redirecting water for irrigating gardens

e

storage: tools seeds garden supplies

water analysis finding: water collects here in pools, risking flood and disease intervention: water is collected in new tanks or ponds, where it is stored for future use.


86

Agriculture Cooperative Phase I: the gardener’s shed In the first phase, the Cooperative provides the resources for residents to transform the area around their houses into productive agricultural terrain. In order to implement the transformation of the landscape, the Co-op is managed from a small shed by a single employee. The caretaker manages the lending of gardening tools, distribution of seeds, and provides basic agricultural advice. To the rear of the shed is a garden nursery, where seedlings are cultivated and plants are collected for landscaping projects.

various methods of managing water runoff


87

the terraced garden concept

results of the water flow analysis, showing flooding and erosion risks


88

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Agriculture Co

phase II: the agricultu

greenhouse compost area

garden nursery

storage

e

a g d

c rra

te

retaining walls


89

terraced gardens water storage retaining walls natural irrigation

ooperative

ure supply centre family residence

outdoor storage kitchen shop

y meeting space

e

s

en d ar

s

n e d r

water storage

e

a g d

te

c rra


90

Agriculture Cooperative Phase II: the agriculture supply center In the second phase, retaining walls are built to take advantage of the flow of water down the sloping site. Water is diverted into irrigation canals or storage ponds, while the gardens become distinctly terraced. Where they don’t already exist, stairs are constructed to provide easy access through steep areas. Any areas inappropriate for agricultural cultivation are planted with trees or ornamental plants, or are developed for practical public uses.

planting trees through sustainable drainage techniques


91

details for the terracing of the steep site

h-out the community provides many benefits, both ecological and social


92

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s

ed

c

ra r te

en d ar

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Agriculture Cooperative

phase III: the compost & recycling ce

improved landscaping

recycling centre

compost zone biogas digester

public composting toilets

terraced gardens

s

n e d r

new trees planted

e

a g d

te

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93

aced gardens retaining walls natural irrigation

temporary event space

entre

s

water storage family residence

ter

rac

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ed

ga

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ns

improved landscaping meeting space

water storage parking & temporary event space


94

Agriculture Cooperative Phase III: the compost & recycling center At an advanced phase, some functions of the Agricultural Cooperative are relocated to the Community Center. When this happens, the previous Co-op buildings become a center for compost and recycling projects. Residents come here to learn about transforming their household and gardening waste into fertilizer.

garden detail at an advanced phase

biogas digesters The biogas digester is a unit that converts composting waste into methane gas for cooking or heating. It also produces liquid fertilizer that can be applied to agricultural plots.


95

decorative water features


96

Agriculture Cooperative

the transformation of the physical environment


97


98

phase III phase II phase I

v

Recycling Worker Salvage collectors are already a common sight in Istanbul. They get the recycling campaign underway and transport useful material to the Trade Workshop.

Volunteers The co-op enlists the help of volunteers to collect rubbish and maintain public areas.

Community Participation The second phase of the co-op provides a space for community meetings.

New trees and gardens Trees and flowers are planted throughout the site in order to improve the local ecology and create attractive spaces.


99

Terraced Gardens All arable land within Armutlu can be cultivated by building retaining walls and irrigation canals where necessary.

Recycling Bins Proper facilities for collecting waste and recycling are conveniently located throughout the site.

Composting Area This area is used to educate residents about composting methods, encouraging them to establish such practices in their own households.

New Public Spaces New retaining walls and terraforming from the agricultural project allow for the creation of small public spaces in strategic locations such as bus stops.


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Trade Workshop The workshop provides a space and resources for residents to construct improvements to their own houses and gardens, as well as larger projects that benefit the community at large. The building begins in an early phase as a hardware store, providing tools and materials to residents. The construction of vendor stalls and seating areas for visitors will provide enough work to employ a small team of craftsmen in the workshop. Eventually these craftsmen host a vocational training school, which provides young adults with employment and a place to live for a fixed period.


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• salvage yard • woodworking • metalworking • hardware store • goods on display • vocational training


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Public Water Access New infrastructure from the community agriculture project results in improvements such as water access points, where residents gather and socialize.

Hardware Store

Community Excursions Youth groups designate paths throughout Armutlu, encouraging visitors to explore important community institutions, social resources, scenic views, and ecological assets.

Family-operated shops play a crucial role in the local economy of Armutlu. The Hardware Store provides residents with the tools and resources to make improvements to their homes and grounds.

Goods for Sale This roadside porch displays products from the workshop, especially furniture, for sale to visitors and locals alike.


103

Community Gardening Agricultural terraces provide a ubiquitous backdrop for the improvements implemented by the community

Water Storage Workshop The Workshop recycles salvaged wood and metal scrap, specializing in the construction of street furniture such as benches, tables, and vendor stalls for use throughout Armutlu.

Like elsewhere throughout the community, rainwater is captured and stored for residential or industrial use.

Community Participation The Workshop fulfills the community’s construction needs, facilitating physical improvements that increase in ambition and scope. Local associations consult here for advice and assistance with their building projects.


104

Trad

water storage

hardw

water storage

terraced gardens

natural irrigation

improved hardscaping

new trees planted


105

retaining walls

de Workshop

ware store

workshop workers’ residence


106

Trade Workshop As more projects are implemented throughout Armutlu, the scope of the workshop increases. As the temporary markets grow in size and frequency, additional street furniture will be required. Participants in the workshop’s apprenticeship programme will learn the skills necessary to find employment in various trades such as carpentry and metalworking.

spatial considerations These drawings demonstrate the unique vernacular characteristics of the typical gecekondu dweling. By adapting existing residences for each new programme, the intimate spatial fabric of the community is maintained.


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salvaged material

workshop production

final products


108

Handicraft Exchange The Exchange provides two essential services to the residents of Armutlu: It offers training workshops for locals to learn how to produce crafts such as knitting and jewelry. For this purpose it offers a large workroom for classes and a kitchen for making handmade foods. Secondly it contains a retail shop which is the public component of the Exchange. This shop provides a single space for all of the community’s artisans to sell their wares. Visitors to Armutlu can see here all the locally produced textiles, pottery, metalwork, etc.


109

• handicraft workshops • women’s group • artisan food production • communal work environment • retail shop • support networks


110

Artisan Food Vendors Handmade food production builds relationships and social networks.

Visitors and Outsiders Inhabitants benefit by engaging visitors from outside the community. Armutlu’s wealthy neighbors are prime customers for artisan foods and traditional handicrafts.

Promotional Branding A clear and unifying marketing campaign builds the community’s image and increases visibility.


111

Handicraft Exchange Local artisans are encouraged to display their wares at this shop, which collects examples of the entire community’s handicrafts under one roof.

Weekly Markets Temporary canopies are erected in the Central Plaza and in other public spaces to sell local products.

Vendor Carts

Handicraft Vendors Local artisans produce a variety of unique textiles, pottery, and jewelry. Products are sold at weekly markets and at the Handicraft Exchange.

Mobile vendors amble the streets, adding a dynamic dimension to residential streets.


112

terraced gardens

Handicraft Exchange

artisan craft w

kitchen

parking

handicraft shop

artisa

central plaza natural landscaping artisan stalls: special events & festivals


113

workroom overflow for special events and festivals

an stalls

water storage

retaining walls


114

Handicraft Exchange Here the inhabitants of Armutlu can learn traditional skills and sell their wares for profit. Local artisans are encouraged to teach their craft to unskilled neighbors, especially the younger generations. The interactive experience benefits all participants and develops social relationships. The production of traditional foods and handicrafts stimulates the local economy and gives the community a unique identity within the increasingly globalized urban surroundings.

spatial considerations Istanbul is famous for its vibrant bazaars and markets. The street plays a crucial role for commerce in Turkish society. For this reason, the Handicraft Exchange is not confined to a building, but spills out into the streets and plazas of the community.


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handmade food preparation

communal working environment


116

Community Centre The Community Centre develops out of the Agriculture Cooperative, and represents that project’s importance as a community-wide effort. Situated in a central location, the adjacent plaza provides a space for meeting and socializing, as well as a commercial zone for temporary markets and festivals. The Centre itself provides three key functions: 1.) offices for the People’s Committe and local community government; 2.) an agricultural processing facility for exporting produce from residents’ gardens; and 3.) a garden supply shop for providing seeds, seedlings, and agricultural tools and materials.


117

• community gathering space • event space • festivals • market • agricultural sorting and distribution • community government


118

Painters In an effort to liven up blighted streets, the People’s Committee provides paint to individual households. Entrepreneurial residents may take advantage by starting their own house-painting businesses.

Central Plaza A new public open space in the center of the community provides a much-needed magnet for social activity and commerce.

Personal Responsibility Various campaigns encourage residents to take responsibility for maintaining their environment.

Community Centre This building provides a central focus for the community’s improvements, including local government offices, an agricultural processing facility, and a permanent market for selling plants and agricultural harvest.

Street Furniture Created in the nearby Trade Workshop, benches and tables provide an informal gathering space for residents to meet and socialize.


119

Entertainers & Musicians

Weekly Markets

Street musicians find eager listeners in this place of sociable gathering. A temporary stage is erected for bigger concerts and festivals.

Temporary canopies are erected each week and during festivals, flexibly transforming the plaza into a bustling marketplace.

Community Gardens Communal agriculture plots are distributed throughout Armutlu.

Commercial Space A large space with high pedestrian circulation provides the incentive for local artisans to sell their wares.

Landscape Improvements Volunteers plant trees and ornamental plants in public areas in an effort to improve visibility and improve the community’s image.

Flexible Open Space Streets and open spaces play an important role because they can be used flexibly for a variety of activities.


natural landscaping

120

gathering space overflow for special events and festivals artisan stalls

Community Centre community

agr covered porch

performance space

parking

greenhouse

terraced

gardens

garden supply shop

water storage

o


ens d r a g d e c a terr

natural irrigation

government offices

improved hardscaping

ricultural processing

open trellis structure

loading dock

121

retaining walls

new trees planted


122

Community Centre The Community Centre is the symbolic and functional core of Armutlu’s improvement projects. In addition to providing support for the new social and environmental initiatives, the centre welcomes visitors from outside the community. The Central Plaza is a space for recreation and informal gathering, becoming a busy commercial space on market days or festivals. The flexibility allows for musical performances, public celebrations, and community-wide gatherings.


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recreation

commercial activity

spatial considerations The vernacular architecture of Turkish villages naturally facilitates growth. As families increase, their dwellings are joined together and expand upwards. As Armutlu becomes more dense, the Central Plaza provides a central locus for social and commercial activity.


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Aquaponics Facility Aquaponics refers to the virtuous circle system of cultivation for both aquatic plants and fish for human consumption. Water is cycled through a hydroponic garden, irrigating the plants there with the nutrient-rich wastewater from the fish hatchery. Upon coursing through the garden, the cleansed water is recycled back into the fish ponds. This facility is constructed at an advanced stage in the agricultural project, when runoff water is thoroughly managed and utilized. The array of tanks and gardens is located on relatively flat terrain at the bottom of the steep slope of the community. This marginal site performs as a buffer between Armutlu and the peripheral motorway, helping to restore the pre-existing wetland ecosystem.


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• fish & aquatic plants • assembly and maintenance workshop • agricultural workers • fish market and preparation • flower and plant market • information centre • do-it-yourself kits and parts


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Aquaponics Centre This building includes a workshop where aquaponic farming systems are designed, constructed, and maintained. The centre also contains a marketplace for the fish and vegetables cultivated in the community aquaponic farm at the rear of the building.

Household Plantings Storage Ponds New ponds are constructed in strategic locations to hold water for use in the agriculture project. These ponds restore the natural ecology of the over-paved site by providing a permeable surface: water is allowed to soak into the soil, replenishing the underground water table.

Individual agriculture plots provide households with a supplementary income from the sale of herbs, ornamental plants, and produce.

Existing Municipal Canal This canal currently carries Armutlu’s rainwater runoff to the Bosphorus, .25 km to the east. With the implementation of the agricultural improvements, water that used to flow rapidly off the site is now productively diverted for purposes of irrigation, industry, and consumption


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Public Green Space The marginal space between Armutlu and the encircling motorway is preserved as a restorative ecological zone, providing a refuge for wetland plants and wildlife.

Existing Motorway Despite isolating Armutlu from the neighboring community, this barrier provides a buffer that allows the adjacent wetland refuge to thrive.

Water Storage Tank Located at the lowest point of the community, this storage tank holds water for times of drought.


Aquaponics Centre 128

aquaponic farming a hydroponic garden fish cultivation tank

assembly workshop: + instruction & trainings + system maintenence

produce market

public toilets

fish market

aquaponic farming shop : + informational display + household units + supplies & material

parking

secondary school


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terraced gardens

array:

retaining walls

natural irrigation

retaining walls


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Aquaponics Facility As the community’s experience with water management and agriculture increases, more complex systems are undertaken to take advantage of the site’s natural and human resources. Aquaponic farming produces both plants and fish for economic gain. The commercial potential of this facility can provide employment for residents, and can be used to promote sustainable farming techniques in other communities.


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diagrams of aquaponic systems

construction of water storage tank


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Materialized Fictions This section explores the social interventions that function (often subversively) to build community. They work cumulatively to develop a strong sense of unity among inhabitants, encouraging social networks to thrive. Conventional development approaches often overlook the importance of social programmes to ensure the sustainability of physical improvements. Such interventions can be effective at modifying behavior, but more radical social and institutional adjustments are needed to establish real change. The following social interventions challenge the boundaries of public and private. They are small and temporary but frequent, and many have an economic component which cultivates entrepreneurship.


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Social Interventions: • restorative landscaping • graphic conversations •community gardens • mobile libraries • youth exchanges • branding & promotion • driving school for bulldozers • engaging the other


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Domestic biogas units

Community Algaculture Water Storage Tank Research Center

Reconstructed Homes

athletic festival

Commercial Focus Area

hot food

handicrafts

textiles

Health Fair

weekly food market tea vegetables

baked goods

hot food

handicrafts hot food sweets

oranges spices tea


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Project Timeframe phase I

(within 1 year)

phase II

(2-4 years)

phase III

(5+ years)

event

y Biogas &

Co-op II

Aquaponics Facility

Co-op I

Workshop I Workshop II Community Centre

mobile library

Commercial Focus Area

Compost & Recyling Center

Handicrafts Exchange

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Restorative Landscaping 136

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Trees are planted to initiate change, albeit gradual, withing the community.  With minimal investment, marginal  spaces are transformed into pleasant places worthy of  notice.  Flowers are also planted, reminding residents of  the potential of communal space.

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low-cost, low-maintenance method of  improving the physical environment

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biological benefits, including erosion  prevention and a higher water table

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distinctinve features that mark  memorable or significant places

instrumental in creating a positive  long-term image for the community

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potential economic development

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encourages inhabitants to take responsibility for their environment 1

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Walking paths lead  residents to discover  their neighboorhood

1

critique of current problems

Paint is used to express relationships within the  community’s physical environment.  Painted lines  indicate boundaries, paths, and destinations.  Similarly,  other graphic methods draw attention to significant  problems within the community.  Eventually an informal  economy emerges to fulfil the new demand for painters. 3

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3

3

2

2

1

2 2

4

1

2

2

1

1

1

7

1

1

2

3

1

1

1

1

1 1

1

1

4

1 2

2

1

1

1

3

1

1

2

2

1

5

1

1

3

2

1

1

2

1 1

2 1

1

1 6

1

2

4

1

1

5

1

1

1 2

1

1

1

1 1

1

1

1

1 1 1

1 1

1 3 1

3 1 1 3

5

1 2

1 1

1

1

2 2

3

1

1 4 1

2

5 1

1

1

4

1 4 2

7

1

2 1

1 2

1

1

1

1 1

1

1

3 1

1

1

1

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1 1 2

1

2 1 2 1

5

1

2

1

1 1 4 2

1 1

4 1

1

1

2 1

4 1 1

1

2

1

Local landmarks and  community assets  are indicated and  explained

Vacant lots and marginal  spaces are made explicit  with attention-grabbing  elements, inviting residents  to occupy such spaces and  inhabit them for temporary  purposes

141

1

1

1

1

1


142


143


144


145


Community Gardens 146

1

Community members are encouraged and supported in  the creation of communal vegetable gardens. These  shared gardens provide not only an economical and  healthy food source, but also have the potential to  enhance community development.

1

1

2 1

1 1 1

3 3

1

3

1 1

1

collaborative decision-making based  on shared purpose and vision 

2

1

1 1

1

1 1

1 1 1

1

1

1 1

1

1

1 1

1

1 1

2

1 1 1

1 1

1

1

1

1

potential for selling within the  community and to external markets

1

1

1

2

1

1

1 2

2

2 3

1

1

3 1

1 1

1

2

1

1

1 2

1

1

1

1

1 1

1

1

1

1 1

1

2 1

1

4

1

increased understanding of  agricultural principles and methods

1 1

1

1

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 1

1 1 1

1 1 2

1 1

2

1

1 1

1

1

1

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

responsibility, shared labor and  interdependency

Individual households  are encouraged to plant  gardens 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 2

1

1 1

2

1

1

1

1

1 1

1

2

1

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

participation from elderly farmers  and rural migrants

1

1

1

2 1

1

2

1

1

1

3

1

1

2

2

1

1 1

1

1

1


1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

147 3

1

1

1

1

1

4

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

3

1

2

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

3

1

4

1

2

1

4

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

1

1

1

3

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

3

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

3

1

1

1

1

r

1

4

2

2

1

2

2

1

1

1

1

1

4

1

2

2

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Community exchanges  provide residents with  tools and resources for  their own gardens. 

1

2

1

2

1

1

Communal spaces facilitate collective agricultural  production.  

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

2

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1


148


149


1 1

1

Mobile Library 150 1

1

1

1

1

1 1

1

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

1

1

1

1 2

1 1

1

1 1

1

1

1

1

Services from outside the community are invited to temporarily occupy disused spaces such as vacant lots and  roadsides.  The mobile library offers a selection of books  for residents to borrow.  On susequent visits, borrowed  material can be returned or exchanged.

1

1

1

1 4

1

1

1

1 4

1 1 1

1 1

3 1

2

1 2

1

1

3

1

3

1

Path of resid they walk to  the mobile li

2

1

2

2

1 1

1 2

1

1 1

1

2

1

1

interaction, meeting, congregating 1

1

2

1

1 1

1

1

1

1 1

1 1

1

1 1 1

1

1

1

1 1

1

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 3

transmission of educational material 1

2

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1 1

1

2

1

1

2

1

2 1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

1 1

1

1 1

1

2

1

2

2 1

1

1

shared recreational activity 1

1

1

1

1

1

3

1

2

1

1

1

1

2

1 1 1

1

1

1

1 1

1

1 1

1

1

1

1

1 1 1 1 1 1

stimulation of informal economy

2

1

1 1 2 1 1

1

1

1

1 1 1 1 1

1

2

opportunity for upgrades

1 2

1 1

1

1

1

1


1

1

1

1

1 1

1

2

3

1

1

1

1

2

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

1 1

1

1

1

1

1 1

1

1 2 1

1 1

1

1

2

1

1 1

1 2

1

1

1

1

1 1 1

1

1

1

1

1

2 2

1

2

1

1

4

1

1 1

1

1 2

1

1 1

1

1 1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1 1 1

1 2

1

2 2

1

1

1

1 1

1

1

1 1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

3

1

1

1

1 1

1

1

2

1 1 1

2

3

1 1 3

2 1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 1

1 1

2

1

1

1

2

1 1

1

1

1 1

1

1 1

1

1

1

1

2 1

1

1 1

2

1

1

1

1

1 1

Points of interaction  along route 1

1

1 1 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

dents as   or from  ibrary

1

1 1

1

1

1 1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1 1

1

1

Informal economic  activity:  food stalls,  services, and local  commerce

2

2

1

1

2

3

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 1

1

2 1 1

1

2

1

151

1

1

1

1 1 1


152


153


2

1

1

1

1

Youth Exchanges 154 1

2

1

4

1

1

1

1

3

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 3

Is Un tanb ive ul  rs Tec ity h n 1

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 G ar

5

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exposure to a diversity of people and places

1

2

1

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1 2

1

1

Is Un tanb ive ul  rs Tec ity h  1. n 5k m 1

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x C o d

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Kabataş High Sc

1

1

1 1

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1

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4

3

4

1

1

1

1

1

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1

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1

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Local schools organise various opportunities for children  and young adults to interact with their peers from other  communities.  Such exchanges include athletic  invitationals as well as field trips to nearby educational  and recreational destinations.  Benefits are transferred to  parents, teachers, and others who nurture and develop  their community. 1

1

1

1 1

1

1

1

1 1

2

1

2

1

1 3

1

1

2

2 1

1

2

1

1

1

Enka Lisesi

2

1 1

1

4

2

1

1

1

1

3 1

1

1 1

5

1

1

1

4

1

1 1

1

1

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1

1

1

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1

1

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1

1

2

1 1

2

2

1 2 2

1 1

1

1

1 1 1

1 1

1

1

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1

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1

positive interactions with outsiders

1

1

1

5 1

1

1

4

3

2

4

2

6 1

7

6

1

increased understanding of  local/global relationships

7

6

7

11

6

7

6

5

11 7

6

6

6

1

1

1

1

5 1

1

transmission of skills and  opportunities for leadership 1

1

1

1

1

1

3

4

1

1 1 7

1

4

1

1 2

3

2 7

7

1

4

8 3


1

1

1

4

1

1

2

1

1

1

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1

1

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1

1

1

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r A

er

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ica

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ca

de

1

m y 1

1

2

3 1

2

2

2

1

1

2

1

1

1 1

1

1

1

Hagia Sophia 11km

3

1

r

2 1

1 2

2

1

1

4

1

1

3

2

1 3

1 1

1

1

2 1

1

1

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1 1

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1 5

5

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1

1

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1 2

1

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1 4

2

3

1

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3

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1

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1

6

1

1

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1 1 4 1

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1

1 1

1 1

1

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1 1

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1

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1

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1

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1 1

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1 1

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1

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1 1

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1

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3

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1

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1

1

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1

2

1

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5

1

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6 1

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Bosphorus 1km

1

1

1

1

1 1

2

2

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

2

4

2

2

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

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1

4

2

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1

3

1

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1

1 1

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1

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1

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1

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1

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1 1

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1

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1

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1

1

1

1

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1 1

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1

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1 1

1

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1 1

1

1

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1

1

1

2

2

1

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5

1

1

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1 1

3

1

1

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2

t 2

1 2

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1

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km

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1 1

1 1

1

2

hn i km cal

3

1

1

1

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m

Black Sea 16km

ol Kabataş High Scho

da

1 1

3

1

2

1

1 1

1

1

1

3 1

3

1

2 1

1

1

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1

1

ku

1

1

2

2

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1

1

1

1

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1 2

2

3

1

1

1

1

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1

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1

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Us

1

2

1

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1 1

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1

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1

1

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1

2

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156


157


1

1

3

1

Rebranding & Promotion 158

1

3

1

1

1

2 1

2 4

1

Given it’s contentious past with the municipality, the  community has become associated with violence and  opposition.  In order to promote a more positive selfimage, a rebranding campaign is initiated.  New signs  around the area will welcome visitors to the community,  in addition to other physical improvements.  In recognition of the name Küçük Armutlu, which means “little  pear,” imagery of that fruit will be a unifying feature. 1

1

1

1

3

1

2

5

2

1

1

2

1

3

1

3

3

1

1 2

1

1 2

1

4

1

2

1

3

2

1 3

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

2

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

6

2

1

2

1

1

1

2

1

la

1

1

1 2

1

1

2

2

1 2

1

1

2

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 4

1

2 1

6

1

2

3

3

4

1 3

1

5

2

assertion of  local identity 1

4

2 1

1 1

1

1

3

1 1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

1

recognition of place-specific features

1

1

1

2 1

2

1

1

1

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

1

2

1

1

1 3

1

1 1

1

1

2 1

1

1

1

1 1 1

1 1

2

1

1 1

3

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

2

1

3

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development of a local society 2

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enhancement of local environment

networks of non-hierarchical fair trading

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160


161


1

Driving School for Bulldozers 162

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Since many residents work in the construction industry,  it is common to find heavy machinery such as front end  loaders and bulldozers parked on the street.  The driving  school instructs anybody interested in borrowing the  equipment for personal projects or larger-scale  community efforts.  The machinery is used to improve  construction quality, stabilize dangerous slopes, or insert  subterranean infrastructure.

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