Page 1

AIRBORN: THE HEROIC TALE OF THE TUSKEGEE AIRMEN

FEB. 26 – APRIL 26

NO W B OOK IN G !

ANNE FRANK: MY SECRET LIFE

Bring history to life at your school with Backstory, a live, interactive, and creative history lesson for upper elementary through high school students.


Robert M. Hupp Artistic Director Syracuse Stage

Study Guide Contents 3.) Introduction 4.) Letter from the Director 5.) Airborn Production Information 6.) About the Play 7.)

The Tuskegee Airmen

9.) Notable African-Americans in Military History 10.) Anne Frank Production Information 11.) Timeline 12.) The Holocaust 13.) Anne’s Story 15.) Elements of Design 17.) Sources and Resources

2 |

SYRACUSE STAGE EDUCATION

820 E Genesee Street Syracuse, NY 13210 www.SyracuseStage.org

Interim Director of Education Kate Laissle (315) 442-7755

Group Sales & Student Matinees Tracey White (315) 443-9844

Box Office (315) 443-3275


welcome!

A few reminders...

audience etiquette BE PROMPT Give your students plenty of time to arrive, find their seats, and get situated. Have them visit the restrooms before the show begins! RESPECT OTHERS Please remind your students that their behavior and responses affect the quality of the performance and the enjoyment of the production for the entire audience. Live theatre means the actors and the audience are in the same room, and just as the audience can see and hear the performers, the performers can see and hear the audience. Please ask your students to avoid disturbing those around them. Please no talking or unnecessary or disruptive movement during the performance. Also, please remind students that cellphones should be switched completely off. No texting or tweeting, please. When students give their full attention to the action on the stage, they will be rewarded with the best performance possible.

As you take your students on the exciting journey into the world of live theatre we hope that you’ll take a moment to help prepare them to make the most of their experience. Unlike movies or television, live theatre offers the thrill of unpredictability.

GOOD NOISE, BAD NOISE Instead of instructing students to remain totally silent, please discuss the difference between appropriate responses (laughter, applause, participation when requested) and inappropriate noise (talking, cell phones, etc).

With the actors present on stage, the audience response becomes an integral part of the performance and the overall experience: the more involved and attentive the audience, the better the show. Please remind your students that they play an important part in the success of the performance!

STAY WITH US Please do not leave or allow students to leave during the performance except in absolute emergencies. Again, reminding them to use the restrooms before the performance will help eliminate unnecessary disruption.

SYRACUSE STAGE EDUCATION

| 3


Dear Educator, Live theatre is a place for people to gather and experience the joys, triumphs, and sorrows life has to offer. The Syracuse Stage education department is committed to providing the tools to make learning in and through the arts possible to address varied learning styles and to make connections to curricula and life itself. It is our goal in the education department to maximize the theatre experience for our education partners with experiential learning and indepth arts programming. Thank you for your interest and support. Sincerely,

Kate Laissle Interim Director of Education

2017/2018 EDUCATIONAL OUTREACH SPONSORS Syracuse Stage is committed to providing students with rich theatre experiences that explore and examine what it is to be human. Research shows that children who participate in or are exposed to the arts show higher academic achievement, stronger self-esteem, and improved ability to plan and work toward a future goal. Many students in our community have their first taste of live theatre through Syracuse Stage’s outreach programs. Last season more than 15,500 students from across New York State attended or participated in the Bank of America Children’s Tour, artsEmerging, the Young Playwrights Festival, Word to the World, Backstory, Young Adult Council, and our Student Matinee Program. We gratefully acknowledge the corporations and foundations who support our commitment to in-depth arts education for our comunity.

4 |

SYRACUSE STAGE EDUCATION


Airborn by

Evan Starling-Davis directed by

Rodney Hudson ace

Dexter McKinney

s ta g e m a n a g e r Costume

& Prop design

Sound Designer

Ruthie Stewart

Kevin O’Connor

Kate Laissle

Robert M. Hupp

Jill A. Anderson

Artistic Director

Managing Director

SYRACUSE STAGE EDUCATION

| 5


About the Play Mission after mission, the Tuskegee Airmen flew across the world to fight for a country that deemed them unsuited for aviation. Through compilated voices of WWII, our main character, ACE, finds himself recollecting the journey in becoming a pilot of the United States Army Air Corps in a time where Negro pilots weren’t accepted and our nation was still deeply rooted in segregation. Glory lasts as long as a day when one is fighting a war abroad and at home.

About the Playwright - Evan Starling-Davis New York-based Afro-futurist Evan Starling-Davis is a playwright/narrative designer maneuvering avenues that amalgamate his life experience, historical curiosity, and insomniac imagination into stylized storytelling. After graduating under the supervision of the dramatic writing conservatory at SUNY Purchase College, he spent the following years abroad to better inform his craft. Transitioning back into the states, Evan has worked on a number of projects which include film, theater, and episodic storytelling. His short film “BLISS” toured with the traveling Afrosurrealist visual arts program, Black Radical Imagination; and he’s recently ended a film festival circuit as co-creator of Afro-queer webseries, “Monogamish.” Currently, Evan is the inaugural WOLLAF Fellow (Writing Our Lives Literary Arts Fellow) within Syracuse University’s Reading and Language Arts Department and facilitates youth playwriting workshops at Syracuse Stage. 6 |

SYRACUSE STAGE EDUCATION


The Tuskegee Airmen During World War II, African-American enlistment in the military surged to 125 million, but the American armed services were still highly segregated, due to racism forcing black units to be relegated to support positions. Among the several factors that led to the eventual desegregation of the U.S. Armed forces is the heroic work of the group of black pilots known as the Tuskegee Airmen. In January 1941, during the run-up to the United States entering the WWII, the War Department authorized the formation of the 99th Pursuit Squadron of the U.S, Army Air Corps (to become U.S.Army Air Force) In the beginning, the “Tuskegee Experience” began as a government experiment as the Army Air force was not confident that blacks could be pilots. The Air Force chose Tuskegee Institute for the program because it could provide both instructors and engineers and the climate was conducive to year-round operations. The Tuskegee base opened July 19,1941, and the first class graduated the next March under the command of Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. By 1944, there were more squadrons added to form the 332nd Fighter Group. The job of the 332nd Fighter Group was to escort and protect bombers make sure enemy

aircraft didn’t destroy them. Flying the distinctive redtailed mustangs, the Tuskegee Airmen flew over 200 combat missions. The 332nd Fighter Group included 996 pilots, navigators and bombardiers, as well as 15,000 ground personnel for maintenance, support, and instruction. They flew 15,500 combat sorties and earned 150 Distinguished Flying Crosses. With the 2000 black soldiers that entered into the Battle of the Bulge as reinforcements, the primarily black 761st Tank Battalion, and the Red Ball Express transport unit (which was 75% black), the Tuskegee Airmen paved the way for the eventual integration of U.S. armed forces under Harry S. Truman in 1948.

On November 6,1998, President Bill Clinton established the Tuskegee Airmen National Historical Site at Moton Field with a museum and interpretive programs.

SYRACUSE STAGE EDUCATION

| 7


Known as “The Gruesome Twosome,” Wendell O. Pruitt and Lee Archer, Jr. provided inspiration to the 332nd Fighter Group. Wendell O. Pruitt was born in St.Louis Missouri June 20, 1920. He attended historically black Stowe Teachers College and Lincoln University, where he received civil pilot training and earned a pilot’s license. As a Tuskegee unit second lieutenant in the 302nd Fighter Squadron 332nd Fighter Group, he flew 70 combat missions and permanently disabled a German destroyer. Promoted to captain, he was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross medal, the Air Medal and six oak leaf clusters. St. Louis declared December 12 ,1944, Captain Wendell O.Pruitt Day. Wendell Pruitt was killed in Tuskegee in a crash during a training flight with a student in April 1945, but his hometown has not forgotten him. In 1984, Pruitt Military Academy was dedicated in St. Louis. Several American Veterans Posts in Michigan and Missouri also bear his name. Born in Yonkers on September 6, 1919, and raised in Harlem, Lee A. Archer, Jr. was a student at New York University when he left school to join the army and become a flyer. Originally rejected, he joined the Tuskegee unit, graduating first in the class. As a member of the 302nd Fighter Squadron, 332nd Fighter Group, he flew 169 combat missions. On July 18, 1944, Archer shot down three Messerschmitts BFs, only one of four flyers to do so. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying medal and Legion of Merit. He completed his Bachelor’s degree at the University of California, Los Angeles, and received a Masters in Government from NYU. Lee Archer, Jr. died January 27, 2010. Wilmuth Sidat-Singh was a Tuskegee link to Syracuse University. A distinguished basketball and football player for SU, after graduation he spent a brief stint on a professional barnstorming basketball team in Syracuse, then joined the District of Columbia police force.When World War II broke out, he was accepted as a Tuskegee Airman. Wilmuth Sidat-Singh died in a training flight crash over Lake Huron in 1943. In 2005, Syracuse University retired his jersey number and hung his jersey from the rafters of the Carrier Dome. Benjamin O. Davis, Jr., the commander of the Tuskegee Airmen was the son of the first black general in the United States Army. As a student at West Point, Davis faced discrimination daily. No one would speak to him outside the line of duty, sit with him at meals or be his roommate. Eventually, however, he won the admiration of the other cadets, and in the West Point yearbook in 1936, he was cited for his “single-minded determination to continue in his chosen career.” Davis graduated 35th in a class of 278 and became one of two black combat officers in the army, the other being his father. Denied a commission in the Army Air Corps, he was assigned to the 24th Infantry Regiment, an all black division stationed at Fort Benning, Georgia. Like his father, he was eventually sent to Tuskegee, Alabama, where he taught a military tactics course at the Tuskegee Institute. Still, Davis yearned to fly. As the U.S. moved towards entering World War II, President Franklin Roosevelt ordered the War Department to institute a black flying unit. Davis underwent training at the Tuskegee Army Airfield and was one of five black men who completed the course. Making the first solo flight by a black officer in an Army Air Corp plane, he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel. In July 1942, Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. was assigned as commander of the 99th Pursuit Squadron, known as the Tuskegee Airmen. He retired from the military in 1970 at the rank of Lieutenant General, and in 1971, was appointed assistant secretary of transportation. In 1998, after a distinguished career in and out of uniform, Benjamin O. Davis Jr. was awarded a fourth general’s star, making him the first African-American to be so awarded in retirement. 8 |

SYRACUSE STAGE EDUCATION


Notable African-Americans in Military History Crispus Attucks, a former slave, was the first man to die in the Revolutionary War as the first casualty of the Boston Massacre on March 5 , 1770. Lemuel Haynes was a minuteman in the Battle of Lexington. An indentured servant, he enlisted after earning his freedom. Later, he became an ordered minister. During the War for Independence, George Washington lifted an earlier ban on black soldiers in the Continental Army, and all black units formed in Rhode Island and Massachusetts. About 9,000 free and enslaved blacks fought on the Patriot side; in the South, however, plantation owners feared arming slaves. Many, promised freedom by the British fought for the Loyalists and after the war, many black Loyalist soldiers setteled in Canada or Liberia. Major Martin Robison Delany was the first African-American Field officer in the army during the Civil War, leading the 52nd U.S. Colored Troops regiment. After the war, he entered Harvard Medical School, but was expelled upon complaints by white students. Cpl. Freddie Stowers, who fought in World War I, was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor on April 24, 1991, seventy-three years after his death by President George H.W. Bush. The medal, presented to his surviving sisters, was awarded for his heroism as squad leader of Company C, 371st Infantry Regiment, 93rd Division.

First Lieutenant Vernon J. Baker received a Medal of Honor for his heroism during World War II. A second lieutenant at the time, he destroyed enemy installations, personnel and equipment near Viareggio, Italy. He did not receive his medal until 50 years later. Benjamin O. Davis Jr. was commander of the Tuskegee Airmen and first black general of the U. S. Air Force. Daniel “Chappie” James Jr. was also a Tuskegee Airman. He was the first African American to become a general in the Army. As a four star general, he became commander of the North American Air Defense Command in 1975. Harriet M. Waddy was one of two highestranking black officers in the women’s Army Corps in World War II. In April 1943, she made a radio appeal to black women to join the armed forces. In that broadcast, she acknowledged segregation and racism, averring that, “accepting a situation that does not represent an ideal of democracy” did not represent “a retreat from our fight”, but “our contribution to its realization.” General Roscoe Robinson, Jr., the first African American four-star general in the Army, was recognized by West Point as a distinguished graduate in 1993.

Pfc. Milton Olive III received a posthumous Medal of Honor for saving lives of four other soldiers in Vietnam. Private Olive used his body to cover a grenade. General Colin L. Powell, was born in Harlem, and was the son of Jamaican immigrants. He spent 35 years in the Army as a four-star general and he was chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff from 1989 to 1993. Powell served as National Security Advisor to Ronald Reagan. He was Secretary of State under George W. Bush in 2001. Colin Powell was awarded two Presidential Medals of Freedom, the Defense Distinguished Service Medal (three Oak Clusters), and Purple Heart Col. Adele E Hodges, the first black female field commander, was the first woman to command Camp Lejeune in North Carolina. Lillian E. Fishburne was appointed by President Clinton as the first African-American woman to achieve the rank of Rear Admiral. Now retired, she was the highest ranking African American woman in the navy. Guion S. Bluford, Jr., who flew combat missions in Vietnam as an Air Force Pilot, became one of the first black astronauts.

SYRACUSE STAGE EDUCATION

| 9


Anne Frank: My Secret Life by

Patricia Buckley directed by

Lydia Kubiniec Anne Frank

Victoria Madden

t OUR m a n a g e r Costume

& Prop design

Sound Designer

Mckenna Vargas

Kevin O’Connor

Kate Laissle

10 |

SYRACUSE STAGE EDUCATION

Robert M. Hupp

Jill A. Anderson

Artistic Director

Managing Director


Timeline

German & World History

1929

June 12. Anne Frank is born in Frankfurt, Germany.

Adolph Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany and enacts Anti-Semitic laws. The first concentration camp is built in the town of Dachau.

1933

The family moves to the Netherlands to escape growing violence against Jews in Germany.

Nov. 9-10. ‘Kristallnacht.’ Jewish businesses and synagogues in Austria and Germany are looted and destroyed.

1938

Nazis implement the T-4 Program, which authorized the killing of mentally & physically handicapped persons, and the institutionalized.

1939

Germany invades the Netherlands.

1940

Dec. 11. Germany declares war on the U.S.

1941

1942

“I can remember that as early as 1932, groups of Storm T ‘When Jewish blood splatters from the knife.’” - Otto Fra

“How wonderful it is that no-

D

uring World War II, Nazi Germany and its collaborators Holocaust is the name used to refer to this state-sponsor cially discriminatory laws in Germany, the Nazi campaign expan

body need wait a single moment Otto Frank’s business moves to new offices on the Prinsengracht Canal. The family, along with all other Dutch Jews, are forced to wear yellow stars at all times. June 12. Anne receives a diary for her birthday.

The ‘Final Solution’ is adopted by Nazi party leaders. Auschwitz, Belzec, and Sobibor become fully operational death camps.

The Holo

Frank Family History

During the era of the Holocaust, the Nazis also targeted other riority”: gypsies, people with disabilities, and some Slavic peo were persecuted on political and behavioral grounds, among the and homosexuals.

before starting to improve the

The Nazis came to power in Germany in 1933. According to Naz The Jews, and others deemed “inferior” were considered “unw tion camps to imprison Jews and other “inferior” people. Eins mass murder operations. More than a million Jewish men, wome usually in mass shootings. Between 1942 and 1944, Nazi Germa territories to extermination camps, where they were murd ing poison gas. At the largest killing center, Auschwitz-Birke from across Europe.

world.”

July 5. Anne’s sister Margot is summoned to a labor camp. The family goes into hiding the next day. July 13. The Van Pels family joins the Franks. Nov. 16. Fritz Pfeffer joins the group. Aug. 4. The annex is discovered. Occupants are arrested and sent to Westerbork Transit Camp.

June 6. ‘D-Day.’ Allies invade the German stronghold on the beaches of Normandy, France.

1944

Dec. 20. Fritz Pfeffer dies at Neuengame.

April 30. Adolph Hitler commits suicide.

Jan. 6. Edith Frank dies at Auschwitz.

1945

May 7. Germany surrenders the war. The Nuremberg War Crimes Trials. Of the 22 defendants, 11 were sentenced to death, 8 were imprisoned, and only 3 were acquitted.

1946 1947

-- Anne Frank

Sept. 3. The family is relocated to Auschwitz, where the men and women are separated. Hermann van Pels is gassed three days later. Oct. 28. Anne & Margot are sent to Bergen-Belsen.

Jan. 27. Allies liberate Auschwitz. Otto Frank is among the survivors.

In the final months of the war, as Allied forces moved across Eu tration camp prisoners. By war’s end, close to 2 out of every 3 Germany and its collaborators in the massive crime we now cal

March. Anne & Margot die of typhus. June. Otoo Frank returns to Amsterdam, unaware of his daughters’ fates. Oct. 24. Otto learns in a letter of his daughters’ deaths. He is given Anne’s diary. Anne’s diary is published in Amsterdam. It would be published in the USA in 1952.

Photos: At left, cannisters of a poison gas called Zyklon B.

At right, a sign at the Bergen-Belsen camp warns of a typhus outbreak. Anne and Margot died of typhus at Bergen-Belsen only weeks before the camp’s liberation.

[www.annefrankguide.ne

33 SYRACUSE STAGE EDUCATION

| 11


The Holocaust

“I can remember that as early as 1932, groups of Storm Troopers came marching by singing: ‘When Jewish blood splatters from the knife.’” - Otto Frank

During World War II, Nazi Germany and its collaborators murdered approximately six million Jews. The Holocaust is the name used to refer to this state-sponsored persecution and murder. Beginning with racially discriminatory laws in Germany, the Nazi campaign expanded to the mass murder of all European Jews. During the era of the Holocaust, the Nazis also targeted other groups because of their perceived “racial inferiority”: gypsies, people with disabilities, and some Slavic people (Polish, Russian, and others). Other groups

were persecuted on political and behavioral grounds, among them Communists, Socialists, Jehovah’s Witnesses, and homosexuals. The Nazis came to power in Germany in 1933. According to Nazi leadership, Germans were “racially superior.” The Jews, and others deemed “inferior” were considered “unworthy of life.” They established concentration camps to imprison Jews and other “inferior” people. Einsatzgruppen (mobile killing units) carried out mass murder operations. More than a million Jewish men, women, and children were murdered by these units, usually in mass shootings. Between 1942 and 1944, Nazi Germany deported millions more Jews from occupied territories to extermination camps, where they were murdered in specially developed killing facilities using poison gas. At the largest killing center, Auschwitz-Birkenau, transports of Jews arrived almost daily from across Europe. In the final months of the war, as Allied forces moved across

12 |

SYRACUSE STAGE EDUCATION

Photos: Above, cannisters of a poison gas called Zyklon B. At left, a sign at the BergenBelsen camp warns of a typhus outbreak. Anne and Margot died of typhus at Bergen-Belsen only weeks before the camp’s liberation.

Europe, they began to find and liberate concentration camp prisoners. By war’s end, close to 2 out of every 3 Jews in Europe had been murdered by Nazi Germany and its collaborators in the massive genocide we now call the Holocaust.


Anne’s Story Anne’s father, Otto, works at his family’s bank. Her mother, Edith, takes care of everything at home. It is a carefree period for Margot and Anne. However, their parents are worried. Adolf Hitler and his Nazi party have made Jews the scapegoat for all of Germany’s social and economic problems. Anne’s parents no longer feel safe, and Otto’s bank is also in financial trouble because of the worldwide economic crisis. Otto and Edith decide to leave Germany. Otto goes to the Netherlands to start a company in Amsterdam, where his family would join him a year later. They feel free and safe until the German army invades the Netherlands on May 10, 1940.

Like thousands of other Jews, Margot receives orders to report to a German work camp on July 5, 1942. Her parents have expected such a call-up: the secret hiding place is almost ready. Not only for their own family, but also for the Van Pels family: Otto’s co-worker Hermann, his wife Auguste, and their son Peter. The next day, the Frank family immediately takes to hiding. They are helped by four of Otto’s employees: Miep Gies, Johannes Kleiman,Victor Kugler, and Bep Voskuijl. They arrange the food supplies, clothing, books, and all sorts of other necessities.

Discrimination against the Jews began there as well: Jews could not own their own businesses, Jewish children had to go to separate schools, all Jews had to wear a yellow star, and countless other restrictions. On her thirteenth birthday in 1942, Anne receives a diary as a present. It is her favorite gift. She begins writing in it immediately:

“I hope I will be able to confide everything to you, and I hope you will be a great source of comfort and support.” Margot, Otto, Anne, and Edith Frank (1940)

Peter van Pels

Miep Gies

In November, 1942 an eighth person joins: Fritz Pfeffer, an acquaintance of both families. The people in hiding pass their time by reading and studying. There is a lot of tension, probably due to the oppressive nature of the hiding place and their constant fear of being discovered. They often quarrel among themselves.

Fritz Pfeffer

SYRACUSE STAGE EDUCATION

| 13


Anne’s Story - Continued When the people in hiding have spent almost two years in the Secret Annex, there is fantastic news: a massive landing of the Allies on the beaches of Normandy. Europe could soon be liberated. Anne hopes to return to school in the fall.

Auschwitz.

had to publish a book about the time she spent in the Annex and decides to fulfill his daughter’s wish.

At the end of October 1944 Anne and Margot are moved to Bergen-Belsen. Their mother remains behind, but soon falls ill and dies of ex- Following the war, Otto devotes himself to huhaustion.Anne and Margot succumb to typhus in man rights, and answers thousands of letters March 1945, only a few weeks before the camp from across the world. He says, But on August 4, 1944, an SS Officer and three is liberated by the British army. “Young people especially always want Dutch policemen arrive and demand to be taken to know how these terrible things to the Secret Annex. The people in hiding have Otto Frank is liberated from Auschwitz in Jancould ever have happened. I answer been betrayed.They are arrested, as are some of uary 1945. He does everything he can to find them as well as I can. And then their helpers, but Miep and Bep are left behind, out the fate of his daughters: placing an ad in at the end, I often finish by saywhere they find and rescue Anne’s diary. the newspaper and talking to survivors, until ing, ‘I hope Anne’s book will have he meets witnesses of their deaths. When Miep an effect on the rest of your life The occupants of the Annex spend a month at Gies hears the news, she gives Otto Anne’s diary so that insofar as it is possible a transit facility before being taken by train to and notebooks. Otto reads about the plan Anne in your own circumstances, you will work for unity and peace,’” The Annex measured only 500 square feet. By November, these tight quarters were shared by eight people. The Frank family lived in two rooms on the first floor, the Van Pels family in the other two rooms on the second floor. Through Peter Van Pel’s tiny bedroom was an entrance to the attic. The hiding place was a storage space for the business, and consisted of no more than a few windows, stacks of boxes, and a loft space. There was also, fortunately, a toilet and a sink. The Franks’ first order of business was to make curtains for the windows for security reasons. When this was finished, they made every effort to turn the bare storage space into a home, but just beyond the fake bookcase that hid the secret entrance were functioning offices. During business hours they were forced to maintain an insufferable silence. 14 |

SYRACUSE STAGE EDUCATION

Inside the

annex The entrance to the annex was cleverly hidden by a bookcase, shown here ajar. The exterior of Otto’s Amsterdam offices (highlighted in blue), with the canal in the foreground.

On the walls of the room in which she hid, Anne pasted pictures, one of the few things the Nazis did not strip when the Franks were arrested. The room is now refurnished to look as it might have when Anne was in hiding.


elements of drama PLOT

What is the story line? What happened before the play started? What does each character want? What do they do to achieve their goals? What do they stand to gain/lose? THEME

What ideas are wrestled with in the play? What questions does the play pose? Does it present an opinion? CHARACTER

Who are the people in the story? What are their relationships? Why do they do what they do? How does age/status/etc. affect them? LANGUAGE

What do the characters say? How do they say it? When do they say it? MUSIC

How do music and sound help to tell the story? SPECTACLE

How do the elements come together to create the whole performance?

Other Elements: Conflict/Resolution, Action, Improvisation, Non-verbal communication, Staging, Humor, Realism and other styles, Metaphor, Language, Tone, Pattern & Repetition, Emotion, Point-of-view.

Any piece of theatre comprises multiple art forms. As you explore this production with your students, examine the use of:

WRITING VISUAL ART/DESIGN MUSIC/SOUND DANCE/MOVEMENT

activity

At its core, drama is about characters working toward goals and overcoming obstacles. Ask students to use their bodies and voices to create characters who are: very old, very young, very strong, very weak, very tired, very energetic, very cold, very warm. Have their characters interact with others. Give them an objective to fulfill despite environmental obstacles. Later, recap by asking how these obstacles affected their characters and the pursuit of their objectives.

INQUIRY

How are each of these art forms used in this production? Why are they used? How do they help to tell the story?

SYRACUSE STAGE EDUCATION

| 15


elements of design LINE can have length, width, texture, direction and

curve. There are 5 basic varieties: vertical, horizontal, diagonal, zig-zag, and curved.

SHAPE is two-dimensional and encloses space.

It can be geometric (e.g. squares and circles), man-made, or free-form.

FORM is three-dimensional. It encloses space

and fills space. It can be geometric (e.g. cubes and cylinders), man-made, or free-form.

COLOR has three basic properties:

HUE is the name of the color (e.g. red, blue, green), INTENSITY is the strength of the color (bright or dull), VALUE is the range of lightness to darkness.

16 |

SYRACUSE STAGE EDUCATION

TEXTURE refers to the “feel” of an

object’s surface. It can be smooth, rough, soft, etc. Textures may be ACTUAL (able to be felt) or IMPLIED (suggested visually through the artist’s technique).

SPACE is defined and determined

by shapes and forms. Positive space is enclosed by shapes and forms, while negative space exists around them.


Sources and Resources: “Military History of Black Americans,” Wikipedia. Last edited 17 December, 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_history_of_African_Americans “Military Resources: Blacks in the Military,” Archives Library Information Center, Last reviewed 15 August, 2016. https://www.archives.gov/research/alic/reference/military/blacks-in-military.html Holloway, Lynette, “15 Black Military Heroes Through the Years,” The Root, 31 January, 2012. https://www.theroot.com/15-black-military-heroes-through-the-years-1790868148 “Pictures of African Americans During World War II,” National Archives. Last reviewed 18 August, 2016. https://www.archives.gov/research/african-americans/ww2-pictures Chamberlain, Gaius, “Benjamin O.Davis, Jr.” Great Black Heroes, 25 January, 2012. http://www.greatblackheroes.com/government/benjamin-o-davis-jr/ “Lee Archer,” Wikipedia, last edited 17 December, 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lee_Archer_(pilot) “Archer, Lee 1919-2010,” blackpast.org. Accessed 21 December, 2017 http://www.blackpast.org/aah/archer-lee-1919-2010 “Wendell O. Pruitt,” Wikipedia, last edited 21 October 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wendell_O._Pruitt “Pruitt, Wendell Oliver 1920-1945,” blackpast.org. Accessed 21 December, 2017 http://www.blackpast.org/aah/pruitt-wendell-oliver-1920-1945 http://tuskegeeairmen.org A resource for history, conventions, and images. history.com staff, “Tuskegee Airmen,” history.com. A&E Networks. Accessed December 6, 2017. http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/tuskegee-airmen Kirst, Sean, “Groundbreaker: In Syracuse the legend of Wilmuth Sidat-Singh,” Syracuse Post-Standard, September 27, 1994. http://www.syracuse.com/kirst/index.ssf/1994/12/groundbreaker_the_su_hoops_leg.html “Wilmuth Sidat-Singh,” Wikipedia, last edited 20 December, 2017. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilmeth_Sidat-Singh SYRACUSE STAGE EDUCATION

| 17


Film Resources The Tuskegee Airmen, HBO Films, 1995 starring Lawrence Fishburne, Malcolm-Jamal Warner, Andre Braugher, Allen Payne, Directed by Robert Markowitz. Available on Amazon Prime Video In Their Own Words, the Tuskegee Airmen, 2011. A documentary featuring veterans of the fabled airmen. Bryton Entertainment, 44 minutes. Available on Amazon Prime. The Tuskegee Airmen, 2002. A documentary filmed at Moten Field, home of the Tuskegee Airmen. Narrated by Ossie Davis. Available on PBS Home Video. Red Tails, 2012, directed by Anthony Hemingway and produced by George Lucas, starring Cuba Gooding, Jr., David Oyelowo, and Terrence Howard.

18 |

SYRACUSE STAGE EDUCATION


THE THREE MUSKETEERS ADAPTED FROM THE NOVEL BY ALEXANDRE DUMAS | BY CATHERINE BUSH | DIRECTED BY ROBERT HUPP CO-PRODUCED WITH THE SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF DRAMA

NEXT TO NORMAL MUSIC BY TOM KITT | BOOK AND LYRICS BY BRIAN YORKEY | DIRECTED BY ROBERT HUPP | CHOREOGRAPHY BY ANTHONY SALATINO | MUSICAL DIRECTION BY BRIAN CIMMET

JANUARY 24 - FEBRUARY 11

SEPTEMBER 20 – OCTOBER 8

THE CURIOUS INCIDENT OF THE DOG IN THE NIGHT-TIME BY SIMON STEPHENS | ADAPTED FROM THE NOVEL BY MARK HADDON DIRECTED BY RISA BRAININ CO-PRODUCED WITH INDIANA REPERTORY THEATRE

OCTOBER 25 – NOVEMBER 12

THE WIZARD OF OZ BY L. FRANK BAUM | WITH MUSIC AND LYRICS FROM THE MGM MOTION PICTURE SCORE BY HAROLD ARLEN AND E. Y. HARBURG WITH BACKGROUND MUSIC BY HERBERT STOTHART | BOOK ADAPTATION BY JOHN KANE FROM THE MOTION PICTURE SCREENPLAY | DIRECTED BY DONNA DRAKE CHOREOGRAPHY BY 2 RING CIRCUS MUSICAL DIRECTION BY BRIAN CIMMET CO-PRODUCED WITH THE SYRACUSE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF DRAMA

A RAISIN IN THE SUN BY LORRAINE HANSBERRY | DIRECTED BY TIMOTHY DOUGLAS | CO-PRODUCED WITH INDIANA REPERTORY THEATRE

FEBRUARY 21 – MARCH 11

NEW FOR 17/18

COLD READ: A FESTIVAL OF HOT NEW PLAYS APRIL 5 - 8

THE MAGIC PLAY BY ANDREW HINDERAKER | DIRECTED BY HALENA KAYS | CO-PRODUCED WITH THE ACTORS THEATRE OF LOUISVILLE & PORTLAND CENTER STAGE

APRIL 25 – MAY 13

NOVEMBER 29 – JANUARY 7

315.443.3275 SYRACUSESTAGE.ORG EDUCATION

SEASON SPONSORS

| 19 STUDY GUIDE

SYRACUSE STAGE EDUCATION

Backstory Study Guide 1718  
Backstory Study Guide 1718