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The solution for pollen beetle control Highly effective against all pollen beetles, including those resistant to pyrethroid insecticides.

Timing and thresholds for pollen beetle control

Thresholds for winter and spring oilseed rape crops The thresholds are based on the maximum number of buds each beetle can destroy and the number of excess flowers produced: • If there are less than 30 plants/m2, the threshold is 25 pollen beetles/plant • If there are 30-50 plants/m2, the threshold is 18 pollen beetles/plant • If there are 50-70 plants/m2, the threshold is 11 pollen beetles/plant • If there are more than 70 plants/m2, the threshold is 7 pollen beetles/plant These will be published in an update of HGCA’s pollen beetle Information Sheet. Visit for further information.

Do NOT spray after flowering starts: the pollen beetles migrate to open flowers away from the buds and become pollinators rather than pests.

Crops at risk are those at the green to yellow bud stage where the beetles destroy the flower buds to gain access to the pollen.

BBCH 59 - First petals visible, flower buds still closed (‘yellow bud’)

Delivering benefits to the market

Controlling pollen beetle Maximise your potential through bud conservation:

Core recommendations for Plenum: PLENUM:

Approved for use in winter and spring oilseed rape

Target pest:

Pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus)

Maximum individual dose:

0.15 kg/ha (delivers 75g/ha of pymetrozine)

Maximum number of applications:

1 per crop

Optimum timing:

Green to yellow bud stage, BBCH 51 to BBCH 59

Latest time of application:

Yellow bud before flowering, BBCH 59

A bud is a flower Every flower has the potential to become a pod A single pollen beetle is capable of destroying an average of nine buds*

Biology and life cycle of pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus)

A good crop of OSR can compensate for some bud loss but it will detract from the crops overall potential Adults overwinter in the soil and under leaf litter

*source: HGCA Project Report No. 495 - information was previously unknown and is pivotal in determining thresholds for the pest

Benefits from using PLENUM •Control

of all pollen beetles including those resistant to pyrethroid insecticides

 NIQUE mode of action based U on pymetrozine - not a neonicotinoid or pyrethroid compound  ighly effective - rapid knockdown of H pests and control for about 1 week after treatment

Powerful contact effect against target pests

 LENUM is physically compatible with P most major fungicides

Larvae fall to the soil and pupate. Adults emerge 2 to 3 weeks later. Usually 2 generations a year.

Critical time when populations can explode

Adults emerge in March and early April. Temperatures around 8-10°C

At temperatures above 15°C adult pollen beetle migrate to winter oilseed rape crops

Larvae feed on pollen, buds and developing pods for about 28 days

Buds damaged by feeding adults and larvae Females lay eggs in small holes at the base of the flower buds. 100-200 eggs per female

Initially headlands are colonised and within days the beetles move further into the crop KEY stage for monitoring crops

Effective control strategies - pollen beetle resistance

The chart below tracks the rapid development of resistance in Germany and Switzerland in particular. The UK situation also demonstrates increased resistance to pyrethroids and the 2012 surveys report a broad spread of resistant beetles across the UK

(%) Percent proportion of population 100 90 80 70

Highly Resistant Resistant Moderately Resistant Susceptible


Highly Susceptible

50 40 30 20 10 0

Rothamsted Research has conducted studies into resistance to pyrethroid insecticides. They found the situation across the UK to be changing significantly. Resistance was first identified in Kent in 2006.


Further information can be found at





(n. 63 ) UK 08 ( 20 n.46 UK 09 ( ) 20 n.58 10 ) Ge (n. rm 27 an ) y Ge rm 200 an 7 (n y Ge rm 200 .169 an 8 ) ( y Ge n rm 200 .325 an 9 ) (n y2 01 .318 0 (n. ) Sw 26 itz 5) Sw erlan d itz 20 e Sw rlan 07 d itz (n 2 Sw erlan 008 .8) d itz ( n. 2 er lan 00 10) 9 d 20 (n.4 10 7 (n. ) 12 Fr 0) an ce 20 Fr an 07 ce (n. Fr 16 an 200 ) 8 ce ( n. 20 Fr an 09 26) ce ( 20 n.10 10 1 (n. ) 12 3)

Source: IRAC website

Entomologist Dr Kevin Gorman, reports: •

Resistance to pyrethroids is no longer restricted to specific areas in the UK; resistant

populations have been found as far north as Scotland •

 any populations are mixed, containing both pyrethroid-susceptible and resistant M individuals

 he mechanism is believed to be metabolic resistance (P450 enzyme production). T This type of metabolic resistance renders pyrethroid insecticides ineffective.

In the UK no individuals have yet been found to carry the target-site resistance (kdr mutation) found in some other European countries

Proof of Performance European summary

PLENUM WG Insecticide efficacy against pollen beetles – 2 trials 2012

Lambda-cyhalothrin 0.075 l/ha Thiacloprid 0.3 l/ha PLENUM 0.15 kg/ha

80 70 60


1 DAS 3-4 DAS


7-8 DAS

50 40






rb ac a

rb ca



g 57

rid ox a

The majority of these trials were conducted using pyrethroid-resistant populations.



PLENUM, produced a robust performance, both in knockdown and persistence when compared with both lambda-cyhalothrin and thiacloprid.



The chart above compares pollen beetle control in winter oilseed rape from three insecticides from different chemical groups. The summary is from 21 trials across seven European countries.



7-9 DAA


3-6 DAA Number of days after application

Rapid knockdown & persistent control


1-3 DAA



Source: Syngenta approval document (30th April 2010)










Beetles per stem

Percent control of beetles (%)


Core recommendations: Product


Usage rate/ha

Additional information

Pollen beetle

0.15 kg/ha

Apply at threshold levels at the green to yellow bud stage only

Pollen beetle

75 ml/ha

Apply at threshold levels when targeting susceptible beetles. Do not use if resistance has been confirmed or suspected

Key tips: • Do

not apply PLENUM to flowering oilseed rape or where bees are actively foraging in the crop. Best time to spray is during the early morning or evening

• Take

care when crops are uneven, patches may be in flower before the rest of the field. Do not use PLENUM in these situations

• If

a follow-up insecticide is required, e.g. after HALLMARK ZEON, growers are advised to switch to a product with an alternative mode of action.

• If

resistance has been confirmed or suspected use PLENUM

• Treat

crops when pests reach threshold levels, avoid routine applications of insecticides; this will help reduce the selection pressure


is physically compatible with most major fungicides, add PLENUM to the spray tank first

200 180





160 140


• Angled

nozzles producing MEDIUM droplets are best whether alone or in mix with a fungicide.

• Alternate

the nozzles backwards and forwards along the boom

60 40

• The DEFY nozzle is ideal for water volumes of 100 l/ha

20 0

Application – plays a crucial role in product performance


BUD BOT Defy Nozzle Best on Buds

• The

Syngenta Potato nozzles are best suited for higher water volumes, 150 to 200 l/ha

Syngenta UK Ltd CPC4, Capital Park, Fulbourn, Cambridge CB21 5XE Tel: 01223 883400 Fax: 01223 882195 Technical Enquiries Tel: 0800 169 6058 E-mail: Website: HALLMARK® and PLENUM® are Registered Trademarks of a Syngenta Group Company. HALLMARK with Zeon Technology (MAPP 12629) contains lambda-cyhalothrin and PLENUM WG (MAPP10652) contains pymetrozine. PLENUM WG is Dangerous to Bees refer to product label for details. Crop safety and product efficacy in mixtures have not been tested and remain at the user’s own risk. Use plant protection products safely. Always read the label and product information before use. For further product information including warning phrases and symbols refer to – technical literature – product label. ©Syngenta AG February 2011. OSR. GQ 01482

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