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Common Fund for Commodities | Annual Report 2018

 Annual Report 2018

Mission & Vision Statement Mission “To contribute to poverty alleviation by strengthening the income-generating capacity of commodity producers and mitigating vulnerability to their economic well being” Vision “To strengthen and diversify the commodity sector in developing countries and transform it to be a major contributor to poverty alleviation and sustained economic growth and development.”


© 2019 - Common Fund for Commodities The contents of this report may not be reproduced, stored in a data ­retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission of the Common Fund for Commodities, except that reasonable extracts may be made for the purpose of ­comment or review provided that Common Fund for Commodities is acknowledged as the source. Visiting Address Rietlandpark 301 1019 DW Amsterdam The Netherlands Postal Address P.O. Box 74656, 1070 BR Amsterdam The Netherlands t +31 (0)20 575 4949 f +31 (0)20 676 0231 e managing.director@common-fund.org i www.common-fund.org Editor KIT Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam Graphic Design Anita Simons, symsign, Amersfoort Printing VdR druk & print, Nijkerk

Cover photos: Above: Gawaye Grape Farm Project, Dodoma, Tanzania. Photo: ©FAO/IFAD/WFP/Eliza Deacon Below: Nepal-Food market stalls in Sandhikharka town, Nepal. Photo: ©Chris Steele-Perkins/Magnum Photos for FAO


Photo: ©FAO/

 Annual Report 2018 Common Fund for Commodities

Copyright © Common Fund for Commodities 2018 The contents of this report may not be reproduced, stored in a data retrieval system or t­ ransmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission of the Common Fund for Commodities, except that reasonable extracts may be made for the purpose of comment or review provided the Common Fund for Commodities is acknowledged as the source.


Photo: Adobe Stock


Contents Annual Report 2018

Foreword

5

I CFC at a glance

65

7

The Governing Council

7

Chairperson and Vice-Chairpersons of

Main Activities

7

the Governing Council for the Year 2019

Key Themes

8

Financing Instruments

8

Partner Institutions

8

Balance Sheet - First Account 

67

The CFC Partnership Network

9

Balance Sheet - Second Account 

68

Income Statement - First Account

69

Income Statement - Second Account

70

The Goals of the CFC

IV 30th Meeting of the Governing Council

II Feature Articles

10

Gender lens impact investing: a catalyst for change in commodity value chains

11

The impact of voluntary sustainability standards on small-scale farmers in global commodity chains

19

65 66

V Financial Reports 

67

Directly Contributed Capital 

71

Voluntary Contributions 

73

2018 Administrative Budget, Summary

73

Auditor’s Report 

74

The Fourth Industrial Revolution: benefits and threats for commodity-dependent developing countries

III  Report on progress of projects under ­implementation

27

35

Annex I Governors and Alternate  Governors 2018

77

Annex I I Member States, Institutional Members and Votes

81

Commitments, financing and disbursements

35

Institutional Members of the Common Fund

CFC-supported Regular Projects by Type 

36

for Commodities

Operational & completed Projects upto and including 2018

83

Designated International Commodity Bodies (ICBs) 83 37

Institutions with memoranda of understanding

84

Abbreviations

85

Operational Projects as of 2018 under the old rule 39 Projects Completed in 2018

41

Active Projects in 2018

43

Contents | 3


Photo: ©Sebastian Liste/NOOR for FAO


Photo: ©Sebastian Liste/NOOR for FAO

Foreword It is my honour to present the Annual Report of the Common

nesses along the value chains affecting the smallholder produc-

Fund for Commodities (CFC) for the year 2018. This Report

ers, which enables us to achieve visible results with maximum

highlights the work done during the year and contains a

efficiency. This also helps us to prioritize innovative commodity

­summary of major initiatives undertaken by the Fund.

development projects with high development impact and replicability as well as financial sustainability.

Since its inception in 1989 the CFC has been constantly ­engaged in adjusting its structures and operations to respond

We at the Common Fund are happy that the Member Countries

to the changes occurring worldwide. It has evolved and

have reemphasized their commitment to the Fund to enable

­progressed from an organization dealing mainly with issues

CFC to fulfil its Mission prevailing in the emerging international

relating to commodity production and trade, to social, eco-

development paradigm. We are glad that more sustained efforts

nomic, environmental and governance issues emerging in com-

have been made to expand the activities of the Fund. These

modity value chains, focusing in particular on innovation and

initiatives would not have been possible without the unstinting

impact. All this has been feasible with the continuous support of

support of Member Countries and the OPEC Fund for

Member Countries, International Commodity Bodies, and other

International Development (OFID).

international organizations. Implementation of projects remains the core function of the The year 2018 full of new initiatives and discussions in a range

CFC. The CFC continues to develop a portfolio approach to its

of subjects covering commodities and their impact on pro-

operations, prioritizing the projects which improve the overall

ducing and consuming countries, while assessing proposals

impact of CFC activities in the context of the mission and vision

received under the Open Call for proposals. The focus has

of the CFC, supplemented with sustainable development of the

been on new activities which are aligned with the CFC’s vision

commodities. The CFC’s new commitments to projects in 2018

of the role of commodities as the foundation of the economic

stood at about USD 3.2 million, while the overall portfolio size

development for the poor. We continue to target critical weak-

of the CFC has reached USD 43.9 million.

Foreword | 5


Photo: CFC

Parvindar Singh, Managing Director

During the year 2018 the CFC continued its strategic approach

(i) Gender lens investing,

to promote involvement of the private sector in its projects,

(ii) The Fourth technological revolution and its impact on

particularly focussing on the organisations and institutions seeking to invest in Environmental, Social and Governance

­commodities, and (iii) The impact of certification on smallholder farmers.

(ESG) goals in the Developing Countries alongwith financial ­returns, broadly known as Impact Investors, or Triple Bottom

The CFC remains committed to making a concrete and identifi-

Line Investors. This new and rapidly expanding area of invest-

able contribution to sustainable development goals. As the

ment continues to present opportunities in financing projects

global community in development is expanding and growing,

in commodity development, and it calls for continued innova-

the CFC continues to play its leading role in focussing its

tion and development of new instruments of partnership.

attention and resources on the needs of the most vulnerable people in commodity-dependent developing countries to meet

Further, on broader policy advocacy matters, in 2018 the CFC

their rising expectations.

participated in several high-level events, in line with the Fund’s mandate to articulate the need for an open and flexible strategy

I hope that this report will serve as an invitation to a dynamic

as a pillar of sustainable growth and development cooperation.

dialogue on issues of shared concern.

Responding to the interests of the Members of the CFC, this report includes feature articles on emerging topics of ­strategic importance: Parvindar Singh

6 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018


Photo: ©Pep Bonet/NOOR for FAO

I CFC at a glance The Goals of the CFC

Main Activities

The CFC is founded on the principles of equitable distribution

The Fund supports and expands its financial interventions in

of economic, social and environmental benefits from commo­

commodity value chains in partnership with the public and

dity production, processing and trade, serving the long-term

private sector, development institutions, and civil society. In

interests of both Developed and Developing countries.

particular, the CFC invests in realizing the potential of commodity production, processing, manufacturing, and trade for

In particular the CFC aspires that production, processing and

the benefit of the poor. The CFC supports implementation of

trade of commodities benefits producers and consumers alike

activities that:

so that commodity sectors contribute to the development of society as a whole. The CFC acts to promote the develop-

(i) are innovative and target new opportunities in commodity

ment of the commodity sector and to contribute to sustainable

markets leading to commodity based growth, employment

development in its three dimensions i.e. social, economic and

generation, increase in household incomes, reduction in

environmental; acknowledging the diversity of ways towards

poverty, and enhancement of food security,

sustainable development and in this regard recall that each

(ii) are scalable, replicable and financially sustainable,

country has the primary responsibility for its own development

(iii) have a potential measurable positive socio-economic and

and the right to determine its own development paths and ­appropriate strategies.

environmental impact on the stakeholders in commodity value chains as compared to the prevailing baseline situation, (iv) develop stronger connections with existing markets or create

Towards this goal, the Fund provides financial support for ­innovative projects with high impact promoting the interests of the small holder farmers and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) engaged in commodity production, processing and ­trading in Developing Countries.

new markets along the value chain, (v) increase financial or other services to commodity producers and commodity based businesses, (vi) enhance knowledge generation and information ­dissemination, and (vii) build effective and cost efficient collaboration between ­producers, industry, governments, civil society organisations and other stakeholders for commodity based development.

I CFC at a glance | 7


Key Themes

Box 1 - The Organization of the Common Fund for Commodities

The CFC provides technical and financial support to all aspects of the value chain from production to consumption i.e. from

Establishment and Membership

‘field to the fork’. The CFC support can extend across local, na-

The Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) is an autonomous

tional, regional and international markets. Examples of specific

intergovernmental financial institution established within the

target areas include:

framework of the United Nations. The Agreement Establishing

•  Production, productivity and quality improvements,

the Common Fund for Commodities was negotiated in the

•  Processing and value addition,

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

•  Product differentiation,

(UNCTAD) from 1976 to 1980 and came into effect in 1989.

•  Diversification,

Financing for the first development project was approved in 1991.

•  Marketing, •  Technology transfer and upgradation, •  Introduction of measures to minimise the physical marketing and trading risks, •  Facilitation of trade finance, and •  Risk Management, including price risk, weather risk etc.

The Common Fund for Commodities forms a partnership of 101 Member States plus nine institutional members. Membership of the Fund is open to all States which are Members of the United Nations or any of its specialised agencies, or of the International Atomic Energy Agency, and intergovernmental organisations of regional economic integration which exercise competence in the fields of activity of the Fund.

Financing Instruments The CFC finance is mainly in form of loans. Support in form of equity, quasi equity, lines of credit and guarantees is con­ sidered on an exceptional basis. Limited amount of grants may be provided, e.g. to support specific new activities or support the loan based projects through activities such as capacity building, technical assistance etc. The activities of the CFC are financed from its resources. These resources consist of voluntary contributions and capital subscriptions by Member Countries transferred to the CFC’s

Governing Bodies The governing bodies of the Fund are its Governing Council and the Executive Board. The Managing Director is the Chief Executive Officer of the Fund. The Executive Board is advised by a Consultative Committee, composed of nine independent experts, on technical and economic aspects of projects submitted to the Fund. The Governing Council meets once a year, and the Executive Board and Consultative Committee biannually. Headquarters The Headquarters of the Common Fund are located in Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Second Account and interest earned from its investments.

Partner Institutions The CFC works in partnership with public and private institutions, bilateral and multi-lateral development institutions, cooperatives, producer organisations, small and medium enterprises, processing and trading companies, and local financial institutions that: •  operate in commodity value chains or provide financial and other forms of services to small business operators, SMEs, cooperatives, producer organisations, • have a proven track record in commodity development, •  have the ability to invest in the value chain to reduce ­transaction costs or increase revenues of producers / ­processors / storage / marketing, •  have a clear plan focusing on developing and/or diversifying their production / services,

8 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018

•  have a clear plan to expand their markets at local, national, regional and international level, •  have the technical, managerial and financial capacity to ­effectively and efficiently implement its activities, •  include social-, economic- and environmental aspects in their interventions, •  share CFCs values, including internationally recognized ­principles concerning human rights, labour standards, ­environment and anti-corruption, and •  collaborate with CFC to extend their core activities in ways that create additional opportunities for commodities and the stakeholders in the commodity value chains.


The CFC Partnership Network

National Governments

Agricultural Development Research

International Commodity Bodies

Institutions (CGIAR)/NARS

(ICBs) Charity Foundations/Non-profit

Consultants/Technical experts

organisations

Producer organisations/NGO’s

UN Systems

Impact Investing Funds

Private Sector

Box 2 - Agreement Establishing the Common Fund for Commodities: Collective Action to Unlock the Development Potential of Commodities The CFC main objective is to ‘Promote the development of the

The CFC provides a range of financial instruments for the

commodity sector and to contribute to sustainable develop-

support of activities in the field of commodity development,

ment in its three dimensions i.e. social, economic and environ-

including agriculture, minerals and metals in Developing

mental; acknowledging the diversity of ways towards sustain-

Countries that, besides giving a sound financial return, also

able development and in this regard recall that each country has

provide for a measurable social and environmental return.

the primary responsibility for its own development and the right to determine its own development paths and appropriate

The CFC supported activities promote the development of

strategies.’

the commodity sector in CFC member countries and contribute to sustainable development in the following aspects:

To further its objectives, the Fund exercises, inter alia, the (i) Social: Create employment (particularly for youth and

following functions:

women), provide sustained increase in household incomes, (i) To mobilize resources and to finance measures and actions

reduce poverty, and enhance food security.

in the field of commodities as hereinafter provided; (ii) Economic: Enhance production and productivity, achieve (ii) To establish partnerships to encourage synergies through

higher local value addition; improve competitiveness of

co-operation and implementation of commodity develop-

producers, producer organisations and small and medium

ment activities;

sized industries, support the financial sector development. (iii) Environmental: Enhance production taking into account

(iii) To operate as a service provider; and

the environment and its long term possibilities for the same, (iv) To disseminate knowledge and to provide information on new and innovative approaches in the field of commodities.

or increased use of productive resources while maintaining or reducing the impact on the environment.

I CFC at a glance | 9


Photo: M. Yousuf Tushar

II Feature Articles


Photo: Ray Witlin / World Bank

Gender lens impact investing: a catalyst for change in commodity value chains Introduction to gender lens investing

applied to different asset classes, such as debt instruments (i.e. bonds), private and public equity (i.e. stocks, venture capital)

Gender lens investing has gained great momentum during the

but also cash, foreign currencies, real estate, infrastructure and

last few years. As a result, there are multiple gender lens impact

commodities. Gender lens investing is not an asset class in itself,

investing initiatives, funds and tools available for different stake-

but rather cuts across asset classes (Krainer, Heaney & Jones,

holders in the (impact) investment world. While the many initia-

2018) and can be used to address risks and look for higher

tives show the importance of using a gender lens in investment

financial returns. Gender lens investing ranges from investing

decisions, so far, a relatively low amount of money has been

in microfinance (i.e. prioritising female borrowers) in impact

invested gender-sensitively. According to a report of the 2018

investing (i.e. looking at the gendered impact of the companies

Gender Smart Investing Summit (Drakeman & Biegel, 2018),

in which they invest) and in public investments (i.e. require-

globally USD 1.61 trillion is invested ‘with gender consideration’.

ments tied to governments’ priorities around women and girls).

This ranges from the USD 4.6 billion that has an intentional gender lens mandate to funds that look at gender ‘as part of

This article shows how the field of gender lens investing is

their analysis.’ In comparison, the total investment marketplace

emerging and how that is relevant for the work of the Common

is worth USD 60 trillion (Drakeman & Biegel, 2018).

Fund for Commodities (CFC). The article explores how different types of financial instruments, especially in agricultural value

Gender lens investing is the intentional integration of gender

chains, have been looked through a gender lens. It also provides

analysis into financial analysis to make better investment

recommendations to improve impact from a gender lens and

decisions and to achieve gender-equitable social change that

how finance and investments can be used to contribute to

benefits women and girls (USAID, 2015). A gender lens can be

greater gender equality.

11


Gender lens investing: What is it?

What is the gender lens?

The Global Impact Investing Network (GIIN)1 uses the term

The term gender in relation to social change is used “to

‘gender lens investing’ and defines this as: “Investment strate-

emphasize that making change means looking at the socially

gies applied to an allocation or to the entirety of an investment

constructed roles, relationships, and expectations of women

portfolio, which seek to examine gender dynamics to better

and men and the ways that these are reinforced by educa-

inform investment decisions and/or intentionally and measur-

tional, political, economic, and cultural systems.” (Calvert

ably address gender disparities.” According to GIIN, gender lens

report, 2018).

investing comprises two broad categories: Socially constructed roles determine the relative influence and 1 Investing with a specific focus on women with the intent to address gender issues or promote gender equity; 2 Mainstreaming gender in investment decisions.

control people exercise over their own lives. The way resources are divided, the role men and women play and the influence they have is all very contextual and shaped by local norms and values. A gender lens departs from four interrelated areas as

The first category leads to investments in:

gender defines:

•  women-owned or women-led enterprises;

1 What women and men can do (roles);

•  enterprises that promote workplace equity,

2 What they have (resources, assets);

•  enterprises that offer products or services that substantially improve women’s lives (e.g. clean cookstoves) . 2

3 Their influence (decision-making); and 4 The social norms and values that influences these three former areas.

Examples of this are venture capital funds like First Round Capital, which invests in women-led companies. They have

The four main domains are intrinsically linked and provide

shown that women-led companies outperform their male

the frame for conducting a gender analysis. A gender analysis

counterparts by 63%. Or angel networks, like Golden Seeds,

framework encompasses a continuum from simply counting

which have invested over USD 100 million in start-up busi-

the percentage of women in a certain setting to valuing gender

nesses led by women.4

(USAID, 2015). Realising gender equity also requires transforma-

3

tion of the social structures (norms and values) that contribute The second category refers to a process that focuses on gender

to and reinforce some of the apparent inequalities. These same

from pre-investment activities (i.e. sourcing and due diligence)

social structures also shape how markets, financial markets and

to post investment monitoring and evaluation. A gender per-

investments work. Hence, addressing social structures will not

spective can highlight financial risks, financial opportunities and

only lead to gender equity, it will also lead to a change in how

financial levers for the company as a whole. It requires examin-

markets and investments work.

ing the following in an enterprise: •  Their vision or mission to address gender issues; •  Their organisational structure, culture, internal policies, and workplace environment; •  Their use of data and metrics for the gender-equitable

Addressing social structures will not only lead to gender equity, it will also lead to a change in how markets and investments work.

management of performance and to incentivise behavioral change and accountability; and, •  How their financial and human resources signify overall commitment to gender equality.

Gender inequity leads to specific vulnerabilities, especially among women. Women are often the ones overrepresented in unpaid care work, lack access to productive resources such

Gender lens investing5 refers to using a gender lens in

as land, and therefore lack income as high as men have for

­investment decisions, as well as how investments can reach

example. These vulnerabilities are a social construct, and can

gender equity. Gender lens investing is also referred to as

therefore be addressed through interventions. Gender equity

­gender smart investing.

has become part of CFC’s mission to ensure equitable value to all participants in commodity value chains.

https://thegiin.org/ For more information see https://www.cleancookingalliance.org/home/index.html https://firstround.com 4 https://goldenseeds.com/ 5 This article uses the term gender lens, as this term seems to be best described in the documents that have been reviewed, and can be used in multiple ways 1

2 3

12 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018


Photo: Interaction Institute for Social Change | Artist: Angus Maguire

Box 1: Gender equality versus equity

1 The business case still needs to be built in different types of markets (i.e. private markets)

Gender equality

Gender equity

Different behaviours, aspirations and needs of women and men are considered and valued equally

Fairness of treatment for women and men according to their respective needs

Most of the evidence about the link between gender and financial outperformance comes from public companies6 and does not resonate as strongly with private ones. According to the Calvert report (page 4): Gender considerations primarily remain in the social impact category, and are not seen as a critical

Acknowledging that women and men need different treatment in order to receive the same benefits and experience their rights

Rights, responsibilities and opportunities do not depend on whether people are born male or female

element of investment performance or business strategy, unless that strategy includes an explicit goal of targeting women. 2 Investors are confused about how to apply a gender lens and it is not seen as part of their core business Investors are often confused and easily overwhelmed by the number of tools that are available to use a gender perspective and to conduct a gender analysis, and fear that they do not have the expertise to apply them. Also, gender is not seen as being part of their core business, and is looked at as something additional to their daily business activities. They do not see ­addressing gender equality as an opportunity to both improve the performance of the company, as well as to contribute to gender equity objectives. Because gender lens investing is not yet mainstream, the risk is that gender lens investing becomes a box-ticking exercise for companies, and might be used as ‘pink-washing’ (Gender

Gender is not the only social identify that matters in gender

Smart Investing Summit report, 2018). Companies might not

analysis. Race, age, religion and other social markers also

want to make the effort to fully understand what gender lens

­determine what different impact an investment may have

investing entails. According to Sapna Shah, director of strategy

on different people (see Box 2).

at the Global Impact Investing Network7: “It’s easy nowadays to invest in a company that happens to have some female leadership, to then retroactively claim a gender lens motiva-

Box 2: Intersectionality

tion, without evaluating whether the investment had a positive

Gender is not the only social identity that influences the position of men and women in society. Other social markers such as ethnicity, race, caste, disability, sexual orientation, age, and location (urban/rural/etc.) also influence what men and women can do, have and influence. These social markers intersect and result in potential disadvantage and marginalisation of certain groups.

additional impact.” Gender lens investing as a box-ticking exercise is likely to result in a focus on ‘women’s outreach’. When outreach becomes an objective on its own, it is hard to know whether women in fact benefit and/or whether investments are contributing to empowerment. The majority of the business cases are currently built on the relationships between the number of women reached out to (i.e. the number of women in leader-

Current debates in gender lens investing

ship positions) and the improved financial returns for a company (i.e. women have a higher payback rate). Such a business

While gender lens investing is booming, it is still far from a

case is relatively easy to define, as the numbers are easily

mainstream practice or even a mainstream idea. Investors seem

available, especially for public companies (Calvert, 2018).

still not sure why they would invest from a gender lens, and

Defining objectives, strategies and indicators to measure pro-

consequently, how they should be doing this. According to the

gress towards benefits and empowerment is more difficult and

recent Calvert report (2018), there are two main reasons why

requires data that are not always readily available (see Figure 1

gender lens investing has not become more mainstream:

on the next page).

6

7

The main difference between a private vs public company is that the shares of a public company are traded on a stock exchange. Stocks, also known as equities, represent fractional ownership in a company, while a private company’s shares are not. https://publicmarketdevelopment.com/what-is-a-public-market-2/ https://thegiin.org/

Gender lens impact investing: a catalyst for change in commodity value chains | 13


Figure 1: Outreach, Benefit and Empowerment continuum; adapted from IFPRI8

Outreach

Benefit

Objective: Include women in program activities Strategy: Invite women as participants, reduce barriers to participate Indicators: # of women as representatives, number of women in training etc.

Empowerment

Objective: Increase women’s wellbeing (food security, income, health)

Objective: Strengthen ability of women to make strategic life choices and to put those choices into action

Strategy: Design projects considering gender needs, preferences and constraints, to ensure women benefit

Strategy: Enhancing women’s decision making power in households and communities, addressing key areas of disempowerment Indicators: Women’s decision making power over agricultural production, income or food consumption

Indicators: productivity, income, assets, nutrition, time use etc.

Without defining other types of business cases, based on

make the systems work for the advancement of gender equity

women’s benefit and empowerment, gender lens investing

and women’s empowerment as stand-alone goals. In order to

remains in the social impact investments category, and stays in

make the system work for these goals, a change is needed in

the periphery of the investment world (Calvert, 2018). Instead,

how financial markets operate, the information that is needed

mainstream finance can be a good way to create financial

to decide about investments, and the way impact is measured.

returns, as well as be a tool for social change.

This will result in different strategies for the programmes and businesses that investors aim to finance. The same authors argue that gender lens investing finds itself at the intersection

Moving ahead: Finance as a tool for social change

of two different developments: •  The first relates to the reform of the finance and investment sector itself, in which contributions to social and environ-

There is an increasing evidence base that demonstrates that finance and investments can be tools to advance positive

mental impact are desirable. •  The second refers to the women’s movements that are

changes beyond targeting women, such as addressing the gen-

reaching out to the financial world to start using finance as

der wage gap, labour conditions, equitable access to resources

a way to contribute to gender equity.

and power issues. Together, these developments are evolving into an approach in According to Anderson et al. (2015), gender lens investing

which finance is increasingly used as a tool for social change

represents an opportunity to change finance systems, and to

and in which structural (gender) inequities are dealt with at

Figure 2: Towards finance as a tool for social change, adapted from Figure 1

Current Business Case Outreach # of women in boards # of women in leadership # of female entre­ preneurs

New Business Case Benefit Increased financial performance of companies Equal payment for women Client level: Who benefits from investments and how?

Institutional/contextual level: Screening companies on the number of women in leadership, looking at equal pay, investments in women owned business etc.

8

Empowerment Shifting power relations Inclusive decision making in companies Changing business strategies (no business as usual) Client level: Equal access and control over resources Institutional/contextual level: Institutional change in how investment decisions are made, who are investing, behavioural change

http://www.ifpri.org/blog/reach-benefit-or-empower-clarifying-gender-strategies-development-projects

14 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018


the same time (Anderson & Bolis, 2018).9 For this to happen,

the investors (loans, bonds, equity etc.), the amount that is

it is necessary for all actors involved in gender lens invest-

available and the gender equity goals, the necessary strategies

ing to think beyond outreach and benefits for women, and to

can be defined to invest and to monitor progress.

make empowerment and gender equity an important goal of investments. In this way, strategies can be formulated that may

Overall, the key to a successful gender-lens investment strategy

change the current financing and investing systems and the

is learning and iteration. This means that good practices and

related financial instruments.

data should be used to continually refine goals and strategies (Anderson & Miles, 2015). There are multiple tools, checklists and reporting formats available that can help to invest from a

Finance for empowerment in practice

gender lens.

In order to make finance a tool for sustainable development and to contribute to social change and gender equality, the

CFC as a gender lens investor

following steps are required: CFC provides a range of financial and technical instruments 1 Analysis

to support projects proposed by enterprises, cooperatives and

Conduct a gender analysis, embedded in a baseline, to con-

institutions along the entire commodity value chain. While CFC

textualise the investment. This gender analysis should, at a

provides loans against an interest rate, CFC is also behind the

minimum, contain gender disaggregated data, but preferably

first impact bond (Belt, 2013).

it should also include data on division of labour, access and Finance for empowerment through loans

control over resources and local norms and values.

In Tanzania, CFC invested in the Small and Medium enter2 Setting your goals

prise (SME) Impact Fund (SIF). This fund invests in SMEs in

Based on the baseline contextualisation analysis, objectives

East Africa that operate in agriculture value chains. While

and impact goals should be formulated which, ideally, focus

the female-led companies that received a loan outperform

on outreach, benefit as well as empowerment.

men-led companies, the proportion of women in the overall SIF portfolio is still small. The fund intends to invest in more

3 Investment and implementation strategy

women-led companies, but is still looking for a strategy yet

Depending on the financial instruments that are available to

in place to do so.10

Case study 1: Empowering female entrepreneurs in Tanzania10 While women do a significant proportion of agricultural work in sub-Saharan Africa, there’s a huge imbalance when it comes to land ownership and access to resources. In Tanzania, three-quarters of all landholders are men; those women who do have land tend to have smaller plots. Women also own less livestock than men, and have limited access to new technology, training and financial services. Fortunately, some investors are trying to address this situation, including the SME Impact Fund (SIF) supported by the CFC. Created in 2013, SIF is a small fund with an initial value of €4 million, targeting investments in SMEs operating in commodity value chains in East Africa, mainly in Tanzania.

Mrs. Oliver Schwiyo, Founder and Director of Kipipa

9

10

SIF’s team finds and finances entrepreneurs with great potential who are not supported by the local banking system. One such example is Mrs Oliver Schwiyo, founder and director of Kipipa, a maize processing company: “The limited availability of capital is the main challenge,” she says. “SIF’s working capital loan allows me to buy raw materials when prices are favourable. It really boosted my business to the next level.” Among the more than 40 entrepreneurs currently in the fund’s portfolio, the female-led enterprises are some of the best performing. According to Mr Allert Mentink, SIF’s CEO, “Not is only the repayment rate higher among women, but they also tend to pay on time.” Given the numerous constraints to female entrepreneurship in the region, the proportion of women in the overall portfolio is still small. However, the fund intends to finance more female entrepreneurs, addressing gender issues and lowering the portfolio credit risk at the same time.

Other existing documents on this issue of finance for social change include the Criterion toolkit: Finance as a Tool for Social Change. Also, in 2015, the Criterion Institute ­collaborated with USAID to create a webinar series about finance as a tool for social change designed specifically to invite gender experts into the conversation. http://www.common-fund.org/doc-centre/documents/pdf/70.pdf

Gender lens impact investing: a catalyst for change in commodity value chains | 15


One of the main constraints for female entrepreneurs is the lack

•  The majority of investment decisions are made by men;

of access to finance. However, this is also the case for men. So

­including women in influential positions in financial institu-

what are the specific constraints that women face in addition

tions is important to rethink financial instruments, their

to the constraints faced by men? A gender analysis will help to answer that question (Farmer Income Lab, 2018). Due to women’s

criteria and scope. •  Conduct research in the area to find out what challenges

role in the house and the household chores they are responsible

female and male entrepreneurs face, how these are inter-

for, they may spend less time on their business than men are

related and also how these differ.11

able to do. Due to their lack of access to resources such as land,

•  Invite women to express their challenges, and define how

housing or other types of collateral, they do not have access to

these can be addressed under the conditions of the loan and

formal financial services. Due to their lack of time and collateral,

the repayment period.12

the options for women are limited. As a result, their businesses are

•  Make social criteria a requirement of the loan, such as

often smaller, they hesitate to take a loan and, even when they get

common land-titles in the household, collective planning

one, they may not have any control over it. Many female entre-

between husband and wife, so as to strengthen collaboration,

preneurs remain in the periphery of doing business and operate in the informal sphere. This is also one of the main reasons that the

instead of divisions by targeting women and men separately. •  Make equal access and control over natural resource man-

proportion of the women in the SIF portfolio is still small. It seems

agement an explicit impact area that the loan should con-

that the majority of female entrepreneurs do not fit the require-

tribute to, and define activities to achieve this (see Gender

ments of SIF, which means that different strategies are needed to

Action Learning System methods).13

reach out, to make women benefit and to empower them.

•  Create ownership by asking female entrepreneurs to nominate their peers to receive a loan.

Recommendations for finance for empowerment through loans

The above strategy requires a shift in thinking about invest-

There are generally two main strategies being used to reach

ments, how to report, in what detail and how impact is meas-

out to more women. The first is to build the capacity of female

ured. It shows that the investment strategies matter, and that

entrepreneurs by organising them in groups, and to help them

the process of investing can be empowering in and of itself for

with their business plans so that they can grow. The aim is to

women in these programmes.

make these women investment ready or bankable. Another strategy is to adjust the criteria of a fund, such as SIF in

CFC recently invested in Kenya-based Shalem Investments,14

the example above. But also to rethink the investment model as a

which is a for-profit business led by a woman called Ruth Kinoti.

whole, so that more women are eligible. This requires rethinking

Besides the fact that the owner is a woman, and that the

of the purpose of such a fund, the way financial returns are made

­majority of the management team are female, the company

and the way risks are defined. The way this could be done is:

also explicitly reaches out to female smallholders. 15

Case study 2: CFC case on Kenya based Shalem Investments15 CFC has recently invested in the Kenya-based Shalem Investments, which is a for-profit business led by a woman named Ruth Kinoti. The company aggregates, transports and markets grains, cereals and legumes from a network of over 30,000 smallholder farmers. The company works closely with the smallholders to provide ongoing support and a stable demand for their crops. Financial support from CFC will enable Shalem to construct a new factory, enabling it to expand its operations and increase its impact across the region. Shalem also supports smallholders by offering technical assistance and conducting training programmes.

Shalem founder and CEO Ruth Kinoti (left)

Shalem also promote several initiatives for women, who represent about 70% of the network of smallholder farmers. For example, they encourage the creation of women’s groups, which makes it easier for Shalem to collect the crops and, at the same time, provides a social network for the women. Furthermore, they help them access financial services through local banks. This gives the women new opportunities to develop their own businesses, and have more control over their financial decisions.

http://www.doingbusiness.org/content/dam/doingBusiness/media/Special-Reports/Womens-Entrepreneurship.pdf https://www.care.org/sites/default/files/documents/ECON-EDU-MH-2009-SigProg_Overview_v1.pdf 13 http://www.galsatscale.net/_documents/GALSatScale0overviewCoffee.pdf 14 http://www.common-fund.org/project-view/reducing-vulnerability-to-price-volatility-kenya/ 15 CFC briefing note on Shalem Investments and CFCs role 11

12

16 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018

Image: Shalem Investments

Finance for empowerment through investing in business


The above example is an illustration of the strategies that were

Case study 3: Sustainable cocoa production in Peru16

used to reach out to women, and to make women benefit. It also Image: Mike Goldwater

shows that female smallholders need different strategies than men in order to access, as well as benefit from, a loan. However, this example does not show how the results will be sustained. Recommendations for finance for empowerment through business While this case is about a women-led enterprise, and while women are well represented in the management team (three out of four), this does not mean that a company is gender equal in how it works and how they do their operations. A case like this would require more data on how the smallholder women benefit (in terms of income and prices, as well as in terms of regular ­market access). Questions from CFC for the company could be: •  What is the impact for women in the social networks when it comes to access and control over resources? •  How has women’s decision-making evolved, and how does that affect their financial position? •  What does it mean that women control their financial decisions? •  How can this be replicated? The answers to these questions allows goals and strategies to be defined. 16

The Asháninka people of the Ene River live in remote forest villages in one of the most biologically diverse areas on the planet – the Peruvian Amazon. They rely on the forest for food but are impoverished due to extremely limited infrastructure and poor quality health and education services. Moreover, diseases affecting the cocoa trees attacked nearly 70% of the cocoa production areas, which affected more than 50% of national production. CFC, RFUK and the SFF entered into a partnership to invest in the quality of cocoa produced by the Asháninka people.

Secondly, it requires more data on how the company deals with issues such as equal pay, career development for women, safety issues and participation of women and men in decision-making. Finance for empowerment through development impact bonds Development impact bonds (DIB) seem an appropriate, innovative financial mechanism to use private funding to support public goals (Gustafsson-Wright et al., 2015). One of the first initiatives to work on a DIB was a partnership between CFC, the Rainforest Foundation UK (RFUK) and the Schmidt Family Foundation (SFF) in order to support sustainable cocoa production by the indigenous Asháninka people of Peru.

Box 3: Development Impact Bond (DIB) DIBs bring together private investors, service providers and governments or donors to deliver results that society values. DIBs are result-based contracts where private investors pay in advance for interventions with predefined results, and work with service providers to ensure that these results are achieved. Donors and/or governments make payments to investors if the interventions succeed, with returns linked to progress achieved, which is verified by an independent party. DIBs are designed not just to be a new way to attract funding for development, but also to provide a new business model for development programmes encouraging innovation and flexibility for better results (Belt et al., 2017). 16

The aim of the partnership was to provide better infrastructure for the post-harvest process and to restore approximately 20 hectares of cocoa plots used by around 40 producers. SFF wanted to invest in this programme, RFUK implemented the programme, CFC was the sponsor (paying the investor back based on results achieved), and KIT was the independent verifier of the results achieved by the project. The DIB amounted to US$110,000 and was payable upon achievement (even partial achievement) of four key performance indicators, contractually agreed by the parties, which covered the following targets: 1 60% of Kemito Ene cooperative members increase their supply to the cooperative by at least 20% thereby improving income received from Kemito Ene; 2 At least 60% of Kemito Ene members improve their cocoa yield to 600 kg/ha or more; 3 At least 35 tons of cocoa bought and sold by Kemito Ene in the last year of the project; 4 At end of the project, 40 producers have 0.5 ha of newly established coffee plots with leaf rust resistant varieties. Based on these main performance indicators, a schedule was made with all parties to define the exact payment for the achievements made for each of the four results. In the end, most of the results were achieved, but not all. This has meant that CFC did not pay the full amount, as stated in the DIB contract, to SFF, the investor. While this was the case, the project was seen as a success. The farmers benefitted from their increased production and the investor was happy with the financial returns.

http://www.common-fund.org/project-view/sustainable-cocoa-and-coffee-production/

Gender lens impact investing: a catalyst for change in commodity value chains | 17


Conclusions

While the DIB has the potential to change the way these types of programmes are implemented and managed, the lack of

Building on the current momentum of gender lens investing

focus on the process makes it hard to integrate a gender lens.

and the funds available for social impact, it is essential to start

The above example does not show the number of men and

documenting how a gender lens can be integrated, as well as

women in the Kemito Ene cooperative. It is therefore difficult

what changes will be needed in the financial systems, financial

to say how the project reached out to men and women. In ad-

instruments, and how they are applied. Documenting lessons

dition, the assumption is that increased supply of cocoa results

learnt will allow different actors to learn how the financial sec-

in higher sales and thus higher income. However, a higher

tor can change, what will be needed to achieve this, and who

income does not necessarily result in sustainable impact, such

is willing to play a leading role. Important questions for current

as food security. By only looking at measurable impact goals,

investors would be: Who is investing and who influences invest-

such as increased productivity and therefore higher income, it

ment decisions? What is needed to make finance more accessi-

is not clear who really benefits from a higher income. What if

ble for the purpose of establishing social change, without losing

the income is used for drugs and alcohol? What if that results in

the financial perspective? What structures in the finance system

higher numbers of domestic violence? Higher income can also

are contributing to social inequalities without having the inten-

have a negative impact on women’s lives.

tion to do so? CFC, which is already taking the lead in new ways of financing for development, is in the perfect position to take a

In order to create sustainable impact, it matters who has access

leading role in promoting gender lens investing.

to the increased income, who makes the decision about how

the income is used and whether that contributes to liveli-

References

hoods improvements, such as food security, education etc.

Anderson, J. and Bolis, M. (2018) A blueprint for international nongovernmental organizations on using finance as a tool for social change, Criterion Institute in collaboration with Oxfam America. https://criterioninstitute.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/Criterion_Blueprint-forINGOs.pdf

An empowerment perspective allows for the monitoring of the process towards empowerment, which will give more insights into the real impact of an investment. Recommendations for finance for empowerment through impact development bonds In order to know more about the gendered impact of the above example of a DIB, the following could be included in the next DIB contract: •  Disaggregate the performance indicators by gender; •  Define in a baseline what different challenges male and female cocoa farmers are facing (and think of intersectionality, as there may be other social identities that influence what challenges men and women face); •  Define new/additional performance indicators based on these insights, such as do men and women discuss what they do with their income and/or share the higher income (see Figure 3); •  Define ways to report on process as well as outcome areas. For example, the types of capacity building activities that are successful for both the productive and financial goals, and how that goes together with women’s empowerment goals; •  Also, impact indicators in relation to gender equality will help to contribute to gender equality, as well as to reach sustainable goals.17

Anderson, J. and Miles, K. (2015) The state of the field of gender lens investing a review and a road map, Criterion Institute Belt, J., Kuleshov, A. and Minneboo, M. (2017) Development impact bonds: learning from the Asháninka cocoa and coffee case in Peru, Enterprise Development and Microfinance Vol. 28 Nos. 1–2 Belt, J. (2013) Autonomous and sustainable cocoa and coffee production by indigenous Asháninka people of Peru Field mission for the verification of impact indicators of the Development Impact Bond agreement CFC/2013/03/139FT Calvert Impact Capital (2018) Just Good Investing: Why gender matters to your portfolio and what you can do about it https://shellfoundation.org/ news/new-calvert-report-on-gender-inclusive-investment-strategies/ Drakeman, C.L. and Biegel, S. (2018) Report on the activities and outcomes of the inaugural Gender-Smart Investing Summit; November 1-2 London https://www.gendersmartinvesting.com/ Eerdewijk, A. and Danielsen, K. (2015) Gender matters in farm power – gender dynamics in small-scale mechanization, KIT Amsterdam 2015. Farmer Income Lab (2018) What works to increase smallholder farmers income? A landscape review Working draft for discussion Gustafsson-Wright, E., Gardiner, S. and Putcha, V. (2015) The Potential and Limitations of Impact Bonds, Lessons from the first five years of experience worldwide. Krainer, D., Heaney, N. and Jones, L. (2018) The Case for Gender Lens Investing: Alitheia IDF Fund Study Commissioned on behalf of: Dutch Good Growth Fund (DGGF) Investment funds local SME USAID (2015) Gender lens investing in Asia

Author: Noortje Verhart, KIT Royal Tropical Institute

17

http://www.ifpri.org/blog/reach-benefit-or-empower-clarifying-gender-strategies-development-projects

18 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018


Photo: S. Mojumder/Drik/CIMMYT

The impact of voluntary sustainability standards on small-scale farmers in global commodity chains The rise of voluntary sustainability standards

The continuous rise of certification as a form of sustainability governance is grounded in various factors. These include the inability or unwillingness to pass and enforce robust legisla-

The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

tion on sustainable production at the national level, high levels

explicitly highlight the importance of sustainable production

of poverty among small-scale producers and poor working

and consumption patterns (Goal 12). Initiatives which cer-

conditions, pervasive challenges of environmental degradation

tify products against set social and environmental standards

and biodiversity loss, and increasing public pressure from non-

play a central role in this regard. Since their emergence in the

governmental organisations (NGOs) and consumers to combat

mid-1990s, voluntary sustainability standards (VSS) have been

social injustices and protect the environment.

propelled from specialty niches into mainstream markets due to rising demand among consumers, buyers and producers

VSS range from efforts by single firms or NGOs, to industry

to address socio-economic, environmental and food safety

­associations and social movement organisations, business-

concerns. More than 400 VSS are being used worldwide, cover-

NGO collaborations, multi-stakeholder initiatives, and, less

ing a large number of products, including forestry, agricultural

commonly, public agencies. Although content and scope vary

crops and fisheries. For instance, about 23% of the world’s

from one standard to another, they all aim to offer guidelines

cocoa and 26% of the coffee areas are now certified by different

for producing, selling and purchasing products which are

sustainability standards (Lernoud et al., 2018). The popularity of

identified as “sustainable”. At the same time, the proliferation

VSS is such that certified products, which demonstrate compli-

of an ­increasing number of standards that address the same

ance with sustainability standards, are growing at a pace that

commodity or product in similar, yet slightly different, ways

exceeds markets for conventional products.

has led to competition between sustainability standards and

19


a fragmented market for certified products. Consumers are

The specific target group of certification also varies: who gets

faced with a myriad of products carrying logos of certification

certified? Many standards aim to deliver social and environ-

schemes, with varying levels of credibility and transparency,

mental outcomes at producer level, often seeking to improve

which has fuelled an intense debate on the lessons learned on

livelihoods of smallholder farmers or working conditions for

VSS so far, their impact and expected future developments.

labourers on farms, plantations or in factories. Individual producers, producer groups, factories or exporting companies can get

This article offers a brief review of the current state of the

certified against VSS. The availability of group certification can be

­debate, by presenting existing evidence on the impact of certi-

the deciding factor for smallholder farmers of whether they can

fication on smallholder farmers and discussing emerging efforts

have access to services and support to obtain certification at all.

to move ‘beyond certification’. VSS are a means to an end and often illustrate their desired impact in a Theory of Change. In agricultural commodity chains,

The Theory of Change of standards and certification

certification relies heavily on the assumption that training of farmers in good agricultural practices (intervention) leads to higher yields and better quality products (outputs), which results

Certification schemes in global supply chains are usually a com-

in increased productivity and profitability (outcomes), ultimately

bination of set requirements (standards) on three main themes:

improving incomes and livelihoods for certified farmers (impact).

environmental sustainability, social sustainability, and safety and quality. These themes are the result of public and NGO pres-

A second route of envisaged impact of VSS regards focuses on

sure and consumer concerns, mostly in European and North

the relation between certification and market transformation

American markets.

(Glasbergen, 2018). Information about the social and environmental conditions of production is provided to consumers,

Whereas similarities between certification schemes exist,

usually in the form of a label, to influence their purchasing

they can differ on a great number of characteristics, such as

behaviour. This creates a market for certified products which

commodity focus, standard criteria, audit methodologies and

producers in the Global South can supply. In some cases, con-

consumer markets. An important distinction lies in the question

sumers are asked to pay a higher price for certified products,

of ‘who sets the standard?’. This refers to whether standards are

which will then trickle down to producers and thus incentivise

developed by single organisations, particularly by businesses to

producers to seek or maintain certification.

mitigate risks in their supply chains, or emerge through multistakeholder processes for sector-wide outcomes. The latter are often considered the most legitimate type of standards due

Measurement and reporting challenges

to their inclusion of a broad range of stakeholders in standard development and governance (Bennett, 2017) (see Box 1).

In view of the rapid growth rates of certification schemes, high quality information on their impact is necessary to guide policymaking and improve practice. However, it remains dif-

Box 1: Key elements for credible standard and certification systems 1 Multi-stakeholder participation. Standard requirements should be developed and governed through a multistakeholder process, involving businesses, civil society, producers and local communities, governments and research, with balanced decision-making. 2 Transparency. Details of the standard, how it is applied and how decisions are made, including certification assessments, should be clear and publicly available. 3 Independent verification. Compliance with the standard should be verified by an accredited, independent third party auditor or certification body. 4 Continuous improvement. The standard and certification system should be regularly reviewed to incorporate the latest information and lessons learned and ensure it delivers its goals. Source: WWF & ISEAL, 2017

20 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018

ficult to report on the impact of certification. Complexity is high as certification stretches across a wide variety of actors, locations, commodities, methods, goals and monitoring and evaluation methodologies (Oya et al., 2018). Some sectors and standards, such as coffee and Fairtrade, have received much attention when it comes to impact measurement, whereas others have remained largely understudied. There are also methodological challenges, such as lack of counterfactuals, attribution difficulties, lack of baseline data and data over time, lack of consistency in outcome variables, and selection biases (Elliott, 2018). The challenge of impact evaluation is further compounded by the fact that many producers are certified under more than one scheme, but there is little information on the share of multiple certifications (Lernoud et al., 2018). Certification schemes also constantly evolve and change through periodic reviews, which makes it difficult to generalise results across time (van der Ven & Cashore, 2018). Finally, the


epistemology of many impact studies can be questioned, as

production is limited by the extent to which markets absorb the

there is a strong tendency to put the certifications at centre

total volume of certified products. This is a critical factor: only

stage and neglect the sustainability challenges that triggered

one-third to one-half of standard-compliant production is actu-

the rise of certification in the first place – such as smallholder

ally sold as compliant due to a consistent situation of oversupply

poverty or biodiversity loss (Glasbergen, 2018).

of certified agricultural commodities (Elliott, 2018). Box 2 offers an overview of the detected impact of certification

Impact on smallholder farmers in the spotlight

in coffee, cocoa and palm oil, as the most advanced crops in terms of certification coverage.

Various reports have attempted to investigate the impact of VSSs

Many of the VSS studies emphasise that impact is highly

on smallholder farmers, but the findings are relatively ambigu-

context dependent, shaped by how production is embedded

ous. Some studies find positive social-economic and environ-

within local landscapes, supply chains and social systems (Bray

mental impacts, while others conclude that effects are insignifi-

& Neilson, 2018). What seems like an obvious observation,

cant, highly variable, or even negative. Overall, results seem to

­actually points to the importance of studying the relative con-

be more positive than negative, but they also indicate that VSSs

tribution of certification to promoting sustainable livelihoods

are not a sufficient condition to improving social outcomes and

of producers. This would involve supporting livelihood options

incomes for smallholder farmers (DeFries et al., 2017).

beyond certified coffee, cocoa or palm oil production. Yet, this is where a mismatch between the Theories of Change of VSS and agricultural livelihoods has been identified (Glasbergen,

countries found evidence that certification leads to higher prod-

2018). If VSS encourage increased specialisation of agricultural

uct prices (Oya et al., 2018). Yet, the study found inconclusive

production without considering producers’ livelihood decisions,

evidence for household incomes and no evidence for improved

including engagement in off-farm activities, they restrict their

wages for farm workers. Among others, income from certified

potential for poverty alleviation (Bray & Neilson, 2018).

Photo: Neil Palmer (CIAT)

A recent systematic review of agricultural VSSs in developing

The impact of voluntary sustainability standards on small-scale farmers in global commodity chains | 21


Box 2: Certification in coffee, cocoa and palm oil Coffee The coffee sector has the highest presence of sustainability standards among agricultural commodities and, in 2016/2017, about 55% of global coffee production (in terms of volume) conformed to a certification standard (Hivos, 2018). The largest certification schemes in coffee are 4C, organic, Fairtrade, Rainforest Alliance and Utz (which merged in 2017), Starbucks’ C.A.F.E Practices and Nespresso’s AAA programme. Available evidence suggests that coffee certification can have modest, positive effects and researchers find relatively few negative effects (Elliott, 2018). In several cases, the adoption of sustainability standards is found to increase selling prices of coffee, which is also the primary incentive for farmers to enrol in certification (Oya et al., 2018; Elliott, 2018). However, higher prices do not necessarily translate into higher incomes, con­ sidering the cost of certification and compliance, and many studies only find marginal improvements (Oya et al., 2018; Giuliani et al., 2017). Environmental impacts seem to be stronger, with studies reporting some positive environmental effects of organic and Rainforest Alliance certification and improved use of agrochemicals and water resources (Elliott, 2018; DeFries et al., 2017; Ibanez & Blackman, 2016). Studies on social conduct are few and find little or no effects, e.g. on worker protection and salaries (Oya et al., 2018; Elliott, 2018; Giuliani et al., 2017). Cocoa The cocoa sector features four main VSS, namely Utz – as the biggest scheme in cocoa – Fairtrade, Rainforest Alliance and organic. In 2016, more than 3.1 million tonnes of cocoa were certified against one of these standards (Ingram et al., 2017).

productivity and income for certified farmers receiving a full package of services (especially input provision and training). However, service delivery has often decreased over time, as a result of which productivity and income increases are levelling off, and non-certified farmers receiving similar services are catching up (Ingram et al., 2018). Thus, positive impacts of certification are at risk of not being sustained in the longer run if farmers are not continuously supported in their efforts to meet the certification standard (Fenger et al., 2017). Palm oil Three standards – the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), organic and Rainforest Alliance – certify oil palm production, mostly concentrated in Indonesia and Malaysia as the biggest producing countries worldwide. In 2018, about 20% of global production of palm oil was certified as sustainable (Raghu, 2019). Most of this falls under the RSPO standard, which is also the most frequently one debated in literature. While many studies focus on assessing the RSPO’s governance structure as a multi-stakeholder initiative and on its enforcement capacity, few investigations have been undertaken to evaluate the RSPO’s effectiveness in achieving its sustainability aims on the ground. Two high-profile studies were published in 2018, with partially contradictory findings. A first study in Indonesia (Morgans et al., 2018) found no significant differences between certified and non-certified plantations for any of the environmental, social and economic sustainability metrics investigated: no protection for orang-utans (their populations declined in both certified and non-certified concessions between 2009 and 2014), no reduction in fire outbreaks and no evidence of improving wealth levels for surrounding communities. The only area where RSPO certification was found to make a positive impact was in higher yields and prices for certified companies.

Photo: Kennemer Foods International

The second study, however, discovered that RSPO certification reduced deforestation in Indonesian oil palm plantations by 33 percent from the business-as-usual scenario between 2001 and 2015 (Carlson et al., 2018). At the same time, this study also conceded that reduced deforestation mostly happened in older plantations, where much of the forest had already been cleared prior to certification, leaving little to deforest. As a result, by 2015, certified areas held less than 1% of forests remaining within Indonesian oil palm plantations. Moreover, certification had no causal impact on forest loss in peatlands or active fire detection rates. Studies assessing the effects of cocoa certification on smallscale farmers are fewer, compared to coffee, and positive effects are reported, especially on income, productivity and market access, and natural capital, but also some negative effects, such as increased costs of labour (Ingram et al., 2018; Fenger et al., 2017). The amount of (external) support for farmers seems to play a pivotal role in determining the significance and duration of positive effects. For instance, when looking at Utz certified cocoa farmers in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire, a recent study finds significant increases in cocoa

22 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018

With regard to the impact of RSPO certification on smallholder farmers, slightly higher prices than for uncertified farmers have been observed, mostly attributed to better organisation of farmer groups and the training they get in Good Agricultural Practices (Hidayat et al., 2016). Studies also emphasise the high costs of certification for smallholder farmers, which offset the price premiums received if certification costs are not covered by NGOs or the miller companies the smallholders collaborate with (Hidayat et al., 2016).


Photo: COOPAC Holding Ltd

Seeking certification is also not a viable strategy for all seg-

therefore lead to the replacement of food crop production,

ments of smallholder producers. Studies suggest that success-

which not only undermines food security, but also results in a

ful engagement with certification is more likely for farmers

lower share of the income controlled by women. A comparison

with larger land sizes and more farming experience, who can

of certified (Fairtrade, organic and Utz) to non-certified coffee

afford the costs of certification, including costs of increased

farmers in Uganda, however, revealed that certified house-

labour and audits (Oya et al., 2018). Smallholders who are

holds tend to be more food secure and have a higher energy

very poor (in terms of finances, land, labour, skills and other

and micro­nutrient intake (Chiputwa & Qaim, 2018). The study

resources), on the other hand, have trouble getting certified

suggested that this was because certification had given women

without external assistance and support. Even Fairtrade, with

greater control of coffee production and income from coffee.

its focus on smallholders, does not appear to attract the poorest or most marginalised producers (Elliott, 2018).

Overall, however, the effects of certification on women’s ­empowerment are far from clear-cut. Certification may increase

Studies also reveal another point of uncertainty. As the poorest

women’s workloads while social factors may keep women farm-

segment of the farming community are, in any case, not small-

ers from entering certified producer organisations, limit their

holders, but (migrant) labourers who do not have the resources

access to financial support, and restrict their decision-making

to own land, the extent to which they benefit from VSS remains

power (Oya et al., 2018; Elliott, 2018). It also seems that even

unclear. To implement the standards’ requirements, farmers are

in cases where there are positive gender effects, male farmers

likely to face higher labour costs (Ingram et al., 2018). Poorer

tend to reap higher benefits from certification than women

producers, in particular, may cope with this by resorting to

­(Meemken & Qaim, 2018). There are also important gaps on

cheaper labour sources, such as household members (which

gender equality in VSS, specifically the issue of women’s unequal

can even lead to more reliance on child labour) (Oya et al., 2018).

ownership of land and access to other productive resources, which most VSS leave largely u ­ naddressed (Sexsmith, 2019).

Furthermore, concerns have been voiced that VSS tend to encourage farmers to specialise in cash crop production,

The aspects of food security and women’s empowerment

potentially at the expense of food production and with nega-

illustrate how the debate on the impact of VSS is both deepen-

tive gender effects (Vellema et al., 2015). Cash crops are often

ing and broadening, as an increasing number of studies are

the domain of men, while women are responsible for crops

investigating both the intended and unintended effects of VSS

that contribute to household food security. Certification can

on smallholder farmers.

The impact of voluntary sustainability standards on small-scale farmers in global commodity chains | 23


Photo: Adobe Stock

Certification and beyond?

Côte d’Ivoire based on data from the monitoring of the impact of their standard, which showed that the Fairtrade minimum price

Debates on standards and certification show no signs of

was insufficient for a living income (Fairtrade, 2017). The new liv-

reducing in intensity but, in addition to a pronounced focus

ing income benchmark has been formulated in consultation with

on impact on the ground, the phrase ‘beyond certification’

other supply chain actors, highlighting the role of Fairtrade as a

finds increasing resonance in the conversation. This does not

facilitator of sustainability debates. The living income benchmark

necessarily echo in calls to abandon certification, but refers to

can be used by other stakeholders in the cocoa supply chain to

a growing consensus that certification alone is not enough to

calculate and properly address the issue of living income.

address the various sustainability challenges at production level. Below we discuss the main trends of ‘certification and beyond’. There is a growing consensus that certification Broadening the debate beyond individual standards’

alone is not enough to address the various

requirements

­sustainability challenges at production level.

The role of certification is already changing and, partly, this has been driven by the certification schemes themselves. VSS increasingly take on roles as facilitators of discussions

A similar example is provided by the Rainforest Alliance, which

between companies, NGOs and governments, and as col-

has presented a strategy to effectively address deforestation.

laborators to become partners in rural development efforts

This responds to the growing debate on zero-deforestation (or

(Fransen, 2018). Key in this is their ability to be recognised as

deforestation free) value chains. Many VSS are a key strategy

innovators on sustainability and contribute to cross-scheme

for companies to eliminate deforestation from their supply

learning and adoption of best practices.

chains, yet not all VSS are equally relevant and effective to zero ­deforestation. Calls for improving traceability systems of existing

One of the most prominent discussions revolves around the

standards and strategies for ascertaining zero deforestation at

issue of living income (or living wages) and how to ensure that

landscape level have therefore gained momentum and several

farmers and workers achieve a decent standard of living. While

VSS have utilised this to reposition themselves vis-à-vis other

many VSS have broached this topic in their standards, they have

value chain actors, including companies and governments, and

now embarked on driving innovation on living income through

to initiate new sustainability programmes.

targeted research and joint development projects. Addressing sustainability through a landscape approach For instance, in 2018, Fairtrade published a Living Income

Certification demands fundamentally reflect the concerns and

­Reference Price (or benchmark) for cocoa from Ghana and

preferences of consumers, but not the values and interests of

24 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018


those undergoing certification: the producers themselves. This

– who are already struggling with severe power asymmetries

also shows in certification impact assessments, which investi-

in the relationship with buyers – become even more depend-

gate whether standards meet their objectives, but not whether

ent on large branded companies. Such dependence increases

they meet producers’ needs (Glasbergen, 2018). Continued

the vulnerability of smallholder farmers, and has the potential

high levels of poverty and environmental degradation, despite

to undermine, or even reverse any development gains. Indeed,

certification, testify to the limits of fragmented farm-level and

the rise of company sustainability programmes may diminish the

commodity-focused approaches.

inclusiveness of standard setting and undermine the decisionmaking power of other actors in sustainability governance,

Landscape approaches, originating in international conserva-

mainly that of producers (Fransen, 2018; Thorlakson, 2018).

tion programming, have therefore enjoyed growing popularity to achieve landscape-wide change and recognise the need to

Emergence of Southern standards

engage with a wider set of stakeholders at local level, including

Much of the trend of VSS has been driven by actors from

poorer smallholders, governments and businesses (Nelson &

‘Northern’ consumer markets, which has raised questions

Philips, 2018). The aim of these approaches is to realise benefits

of inclusiveness and resulted in legitimacy and effectiveness

for farmers, the community and the environment and certifica-

challenges of VSS. Recently, however, an emergent counter-

tion is no longer seen as the beginning of a process of change,

trend can be observed, which manifests in the development of

but a possible culmination of that process (Glasbergen, 2018).

standards by actors from Southern producer countries in issue

Certification thus gets embedded in a comprehensive rural

areas where Northern-driven VSS have tended to dominate

development approach. So far, however, rhetoric on landscape

(Schouten & Bitzer, 2015). This is also connected to the growing

approaches has not yet translated into demonstrable impact

importance of South-South trade, which creates new market

given the operational challenges and the unclear business case

opportunities for producers of agricultural commodities that

of these approaches (Nelson & Philips, 2018).

are not subject to the sustainability demands from European or American buyers (Schleifer & Sun, 2018).

Replacement of sector-wide standards with company Particularly in the coffee and cocoa sectors, companies in-

Examples of Southern standards include the public standards

creasingly question the effectiveness of VSS and have started

for sustainable palm created by the Indonesian and Malaysian

developing their own sustainability programmes, whilst lowering

governments rivalling the RSPO; China’s efforts to promote

their commitments to VSS. Rather than convergence, a further

its own domestically-driven forest certification scheme rather

multiplicity of competing efforts can thus be observed. This is

than endorse the global Forest Stewardship Council; the

grounded in strong competition between industry actors and

Sustainability Initiative of South Africa, an ethical programme

fierce struggles to control the distribution of value along supply

of the South African fruit industry; and the Brazilian Soja Plus

chains by shaping the definition and implementation of sustain-

initiative to rival the Roundtable on Responsible Soy. These

ability (Grabs, 2018). At the same time, company-own supply

cases testify to the attempt of producer countries to reposition

chain programmes represent an opportunity for businesses to

themselves in global value chains, and could represent a new

respond to evolving stakeholder pressures and show commit-

trend in sustainability governance affecting global value chains

ment to impact in the face of increasing concerns over VSS’ abil-

(Schouten & Bitzer, 2015).

ity to drive substantial change on the ground (Thorlakson, 2018). For instance, global food giant Mondelez replaced Fairtrade

Conclusion

for its cocoa products with its own company verification programme called Cocoa Life. The Mondelez programme is illustra-

Standards and certification are continuously evolving amidst

tive for a new role of VSS: While Fairtrade is still an implementing

persistent struggles for legitimacy and demonstrable impact

partner of Cocoa Life, it is no longer the standard setter or certi-

on the ground. Multiple developments progressing in parallel

fier. Fairtrade has abandoned its regulatory role (standard setting)

can be discerned: growing research dedicated to investigating

and moved into a supporting and consulting role.

the effects of VSS; enhanced attention on the different areas where certification can have positive or negative, intended or

The implications of the move towards company-own sustain-

unintended ‘side effects’; and an increasingly widespread de-

ability programmes still remain to be seen. A possible conse-

bate on ‘certification and beyond’. What these developments

quence is that, in the future, consumers will learn of a products’

perhaps best express is a recognition of the complexity of

sustainability through brand association rather than a Fairtrade or

sustainability challenges at production level, highlighting the

Rainforest Alliance logo (Fransen, 2018). There are also concerns

limits of current approaches and driving a continued search

about transparency and reliability of reporting, or that farmers

for new, improved responses.

The impact of voluntary sustainability standards on small-scale farmers in global commodity chains | 25


References Bennett, E.A. (2017). Who Governs Socially-Oriented Voluntary Sustainability Standards? Not the Producers of Certified Products. World Development, 91, 53–69. Bray, J. & Neilson, J. (2018). Examining the interface of sustainability programmes and livelihoods in the Semendo highlands of Indonesia. Asia Pacific Viewpoint, 59(3), 368–383.

Nelson, V. & Philips, D. (2018). Sector, Landscape or Rural Transformations? Exploring the Limits and Potential of Agricultural Sustainability Initiatives through a Cocoa Case Study. Business Strategy and the ­Environment, 27, 252–262. Oya, C., Schaefer, F., & Skalidou, D. (2018). The effectiveness of agri­ cultural certification in developing countries: A systematic review. World Development, 112, 282–312.

Carlson, K.M., Heilmayr, R., Gibbs, H.K., Noojipady, P., Burns, D.N., Morton, D.C., Walker, N.F., Paoli, G.D., & Kremen, C. (2018). Effect of oil palm sustainability certification on deforestation and fire in Indonesia. PNAS, 115(1), 121–126.

Raghu, A. (2019). The World Has Loads of Sustainable Palm Oil... But No One Wants It. https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-01-13/ world-has-loads-of-sustainable-palm-oil-just-no-one-wants-it

Chiputwa, B., & Qaim, M. (2016). Sustainability Standards, Gender, and Nutrition among Smallholder Farmers in Uganda. The Journal of Development Studies, 52(9), 1241–1257.

Schleifer, P., & Sun, X. (2018). Emerging markets and private governance: the political economy of sustainable palm oil in China and India. Review of International Political Economy, 25(2), 190–214.

DeFries, R.S., Fanzo, J., Mondal, J., Remans, R., & Wood, S.A. (2017). Is voluntary certification of tropical agricultural commodities achieving sustainability goals for small-scale producers? A review of the evidence. Environmental Research Letters, 12, 033001.

Schouten, G., & Bitzer, V. (2015). The emergence of Southern standards in agricultural value chains: A new trend in sustainability governance? Ecological Economics, 120, 175–184.

Elliott, K.A. (2018). What Are We Getting from Voluntary Sustainability Standards for Coffee? CGD Policy Paper. Washington, DC: Center for Global Development.

Sexsmith, K. (2019). Leveraging Voluntary Sustainability Standards for Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture: A guide for development organizations based on the Sustainable Development Goals. International Institute for Sustainable Development, Canada

Fairtrade (2017) Fairtrade Living Income Strategy 2017. https://cifalflanders.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/Fairtrade-Belgium_FairtradeLiving-Income-Strategy_NED_2017.pdf

Thorlakson, T. (2018). A move beyond sustainability certification: The evolution of the chocolate industry’s sustainable sourcing practices. Business Strategy and the Environment, 27, 1653–1665.

Fenger, N.A., Bosselmann, A.S., Asare, R., & de Neergaard, A. (2017). The impact of certification on the natural and financial capitals of Ghanaian cocoa farmers. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 41(2), 143–166.

van der Ven, H., & Cashore, B. (2018). Forest certification: the challenge of measuring impacts. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 32, 104–111.

Fransen, L. (2018). Beyond Regulatory Governance? On the Evolutionary Trajectory of Transnational Private Sustainability Governance. Ecological Economics, 146, 772–777. Giuliani, E., Ciravegna, L., Vezzulli, A., & Kilian, B. (2017). Decoupling Standards from Practice: The Impact of In-House Certifications on Coffee Farms’ Environmental and Social Conduct. World Development, 96, 294–314; Glasbergen, P. (2018). Smallholders do not Eat Certificates. Ecological Economics, 147, 243–252. Grabs, J. (2018). Assessing the institutionalization of private sustainability governance in a changing coffee sector. Regulation & Governance, early view, doi: 10.1111/rego.12212. Hidayat, N.K., Offermans, A., & Glasbergen, P. (2016). On the profitability of sustainability certification: an analysis among Indonesian palm oil smallholders. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 7(18), 45–62; Hivos (2018) The Coffee Barometer 2018. https://www.hivos.org/assets/ 2018/06/Coffee-Barometer-2018.pdf Ibanez, M., & Blackman, A. (2016). Is Eco-Certification a Win–Win for Developing Country Agriculture? Organic Coffee Certification in Colombia. World Development, 82, 14–27. Ingram, V., Van Rijn, F., Waarts, Y., & Gilhuis, H. (2018). The Impacts of ­Cocoa Sustainability Initiatives in West Africa. Sustainability, 10(11), 4249. Lernoud, J., Potts, J., Sampson, G., Schlatter, B., Huppe, G., Voora, V., Willer, H., Wozniak, J., & Dang, D. (2018). The State of Sustainable Markets – Statistics and Emerging Trends 2018. ITC, Geneva. Meemken, E.-M., & Qaim, M. (2018). Can private food standards promote gender equality in the small farm sector? Journal of Rural Studies, 58, 39–51. Morgans, C.L., Meijaard, E., Santika, T., Law, E., Budiharta, S., Ancrenaz, M., & Wilson, K.A. (2018). Evaluating the effectiveness of palm oil certification in delivering multiple sustainability objectives. Environmental Research Letters, 13, 064032.

26 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018

Vellema, W., Casanova, A.B., Gonzalez, C., & D’Haese, M. (2015). The effect of specialty coffee certification on household livelihood strategies and specialisation. Food Policy, 57, 13–25. WWF and ISEAL (2017). SDGs mean business: how credible standards can help companies deliver the 2030 Agenda. https://www.standardsimpacts. org/sites/default/files/WWF_ISEAL_SDG_2017.pdf

Authors: Verena Bitzer and Cedric Steijn, KIT Royal Tropical Institute


Photo: Mitr Phol

The Fourth Industrial Revolution: benefits and threats for commoditydependent developing countries Introduction

space has the potential to make agricultural production and

With the development of new technologies such as artificial

commodity chains more efficient, sustainable and transparent.

intelligence, advanced robotics, and genetic editing, humankind

For example, satellite and drone imagery is being used to detect

is considered to have entered the fourth industrial revolution1

problems (e.g. pests, disease, nutrient and water deficiency,

(Figure 1). This provides the world with opportunities to tackle

etc.) in crops to allow farmers to act fast to mitigate the ­issue.

challenges such as climate change, dwindling natural resources,

The i­nternet of things creates a possibility of setting up a

a growing population (projected at 9.8 billion people by 2050

­decentralized grid of smart soil sensors reporting in real time on

(FAO, 2017), and an increase in the demand for food of 50%

the status of the soil, the weather conditions, and other relevant

(FAO & OECD, 2018). However, the disruptive impact of wide-

parameters, supplying all this information to a central “cyber

spread technological change combined with the vulnerabilities

agronomist” computer which will analyze and predict crop con-

of commodity dependent developing countries (CDDCs) may

dition and advise the farmer on the best use of water, fertilizer

also result in the emergence of a new technological divide

and other inputs. S ­ imilarly, trackers worn by cattle can record

which could further constrain the competitiveness and affect

the exact location and health of the animals from birth. Block-

the rising aspirations of CDDCs to sustainable development.

chain, another disruptive and much hyped technology, is already revolutionizing logistics, enabling, inter alia, simple and effective

The emergence of integrated cyberphysical systems combining

tracking of food from farm to plate to allow consumers to make

existing elements of commodity value chains with numerous

more conscious decisions about food and driving the whole

new technological breakthroughs in Information Technology (IT)

food chain to adopt more sustainable and ethical practices.

1

 he Fourth Industrial Revolution is a term coined at the World Economic Forum in Davos by Klaus Schwab, Founder and Executive Chairman of the World Economic Forum. T This Fourth Industrial Revolution “is characterized by a fusion of technologies that is blurring the lines between the physical, digital, and biological spheres”. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/01/the-fourth-industrial-revolution-what-it-means-and-how-to-respond/

27


Photo: Adobe Stock

Figure 1: The four industrial revolutions

Despite their overall positive economic and development

satellites have the advantage of instantaneous measurement for

­impact, every new technological breakthrough has always

large areas but the resolution is lower (e.g. 0.5 – 2.5 m). UAVs

­created both winners and losers. Unemployment, loss of

can also be equipped with motion video cameras for close-up

sources of income, economic migration and other major social

visual inspections, or with a LiDAR (Light Detection and Rang-

changes have been routinely witnessed in every industrial

ing) sensor to detect the height of trees or crop canopy. LiDAR

revolution. The fourth industrial revolution will likely not be an

can also be used to create a 3D model of the farm or forest,

exception. Indeed, there are concerns that this new industrial

which can be very useful for environmental projects and better

revolution can increase inequality, as the majority of the world

farm planning. Satellites and UAVs equipped with multispectral

is still not connected to the internet2 or do not have access

sensors are able to cover entire farms and at high resolution. In

to new technologies. In the absence of suitable mitigation

addition to providing views of the farm, these images provide

strategies, CDDCs may face significant social challenges in

remote-sensing data and can be used to map crop health.

the ­coming years resulting from the global expansion of new technological models, undermining the competitiveness and

Satellite and UAV imagery can also be used to detect changes

sources of income of the most vulnerable people in CDDCs.

over time by processing imagery acquired on multiple dates

This article explores the potential of the fourth industrial revolu-

over a particular period. This allows farmers to determine

tion for CDDCs and its potential threats.

­variability in crop health and make timely management decisions to increase the efficiency of input use, crop yield, quality, and farm profitability.

Technologies and their potential ­benefits for agriculture

Satellite and UAV imagery, can also be used for index-based insurance. This is starting to become an important mechanism for

A large number of new technologies are already being used in

farmers to manage the risks of circumstances outside of their

agriculture, including CDDCs. A selection of technologies is

control such as weather, pests, and diseases. For example, sen-

presented below.

sors can be used to determine the amount of rainfall in a certain region over a whole season. If the amount of rainfall is less than

Satellite and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery

a certain threshold then the farmer gets paid by the insurance

UAVs are a specialized tool in precision farming as they capture

company. This will allows farmers to reduce their exposure to

very high resolution imagery (e.g. 5-10 cm). High resolution

risk and feel more comfortable making investments into their

2

https://www.voices360.com/technology/the-fourth-industrial-revolution-threatens-more-global-inequalities-17438938

28 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018


farms. Satellite data can also be used to determine vegetation

location and provide fast action. Generally, electric drones are

levels and to use it as an index.3

capable of reaching places around half an hour from the base station. UAV charging stations could enable drones to reach

Global navigation satellite systems (GNSS)

longer distances in the future. Drone-driven logistics is already

Global navigation satellite systems are satellite constellations

being used in Rwanda (“Zip-line”) and aims to transport high

that provide world-wide positioning, navigation, and ­timing

value products, such as blood or medication, within half hour

information. GNSS can be used for increased accuracy in

to any location within over 100 km from the base station. The

farm management and agricultural planning, leading to added

use of AI eliminates the need to piloting the drones, which drop

­efficiency in land use. For example, due to the precise naviga-

supplies by parachute within 3 meters from the GPS target

tion capabilities, these systems are being used in machinery to

spot in any reasonable weather conditions. The technology is

precisely measure the distance in planting crops more efficiently.

economically efficient because it eliminates the need to main-

Farmers and crop consultants can also use GNSS-based applica-

tain local hospital stocks of medicine, with all the costs, losses

tions to do crop scouting and to determine the exact location

and poor storage conditions. The experience of the operation

where pesticide, fertiliser or irrigation needs to be applied for

demonstrates that a technology based solution is entirely viable

improving resource utilisation, maximise output and land use.4

in a developing country.5

Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) transportation

Internet of things (IoT)

(drone-driven logistics)

The internet of things consists of devices connected to the

UAVs can also be utilised to transport small goods to places

internet and there are many new technologies being used in

that are not easily reachable. In case of an emergency, a drone

agriculture. For example, sensors can be placed across fields to

can be used to transport emergency equipment to a remote

measure soil moisture, air pressure, temperature, wind, among

Photo: Neil Palmer (CIAT)

Colombian fruit farmer using his hand-held GPS device for planting decisions

3 4 5

https://ccafs.cgiar.org/es/themes/index-based-insurance https://www.gps.gov/applications/agriculture/ https://flyzipline.com (accessed December 2018)

The Fourth Industrial Revolution: benefits and threats for commodity-dependent developing countries | 29


Photo: Mitr Phol

Sugarcane production in Thailand supported by AI and Internet of Things (IoT) to assess crop health, soil moisture, and pest and disease infestation risk

other things to maximise analytical data opportunities. Livestock

there is a problem in the irrigation system, like having a micro-

can also use wearable technology, such as collars, that transmit

sprinkler clot, so that fast remedial action can be taken.

information about the exact position and health of the animals starting from the day they were born. In addition, tablets and

Gene editing

smartphones enable data to be gathered. A farmer or crop

The traditional way of breeding crops may take many years

consultant can do crop scouting with a hand-held device and

and a crop may be generated that is improved in one trait but

upload pictures of the field, and write notes about field condi-

worse in another. New gene editing techniques using Artificial

tions. All the information transmitted by the sensors can then be

Intelligence for the analysis of genetic traits has the potential

correlated and translated into actionable information that the

of ­accelerated, more precise breeding programmes producing

farmer can use to improve production.

plants specifically adapted to climate, soils, or nutrient composition. This amounts to significant productivity improvements.

Weather modelling Being able to predict the weather is essential for farmers’ plan-

Blockchain and traceability

ning. Through the use of weather satellites that transmit weather

Tracking and tracing the history of food products allows con­

data, there are weather modelling systems that correlate this

sumers to make more informed decisions about the products

information with weather stations and sensors on the ground

they buy. Active traceability, via blockchain technologies,

to predict weather patterns and warn farmers about conditions

provides open information and transparency to the whole food

such as hail. Weather models are tools that can also be used to

supply chain, which helps improve food safety and decreases

foresee how the next season will be and use that information to

the chances of illegal activities, such as deforestation due to

plan for the amount of irrigation that will be needed.

land appropriation for agriculture.

Irrigation systems

Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning

Water usage must be strategically utilised to maximise

Satellite and UAV data, field data gathered by sensors, and

­appropriate coverage. New irrigation systems can be automati-

weather modelling may all be correlated to generate actionable

cally and remotely controlled to ensure uniform water delivery

information. Machine learning and AI are then being used to de-

throughout the crop field. The irrigation system can also be set

termine specific problems in the field and suggest recommenda-

to irrigate in the right amount and in the right places, prevent-

tions on how to solve it. These technologies can also be used to

ing water wastage. Satellite and UAV imagery can help detect if

predict crop yield and even estimate prices based on global data.

30 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018


Box 1: The case of Santos Lab in Brazil There are many small companies in CDDCs that focus on agriculture technology (AgTech). For example, Santos Lab, a Brazilian company which was established in 2006 by a young entrepreneur who was passionate about UAVs and their use to benefit the Brazilian economy. Santos Lab started as a research and development company for the Brazilian armed forces, developing mainly unmanned aerial systems and integrating intelligence software. In 2014, with the airspace opening for civilian drones and with Brazil’s huge demand for technology in the agricultural sector, the company decided to focus their expertise and technology to address issues in the agricultural sector. Since then, the company has been creating, developing and integrating diverse technologies in order to provide better solutions for farmers and their activities.

Santos Lab is an example of social entrepreneurship, since the company is a business and generates a positive impact at the same time. The new technologies of the fourth industrial revolution bring great opportunity for startups and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to solve pressing problems in agricultural production and commodity chains. These companies thereby also generate employment in the region and boost the economy.

Photo: Santos Lab

Gabriel Klabin, founder and CEO of Santos Lab says that “one of the many issues farmers face, and the one Santos Lab is trying to address, is lack of precise information about what is happening with their crops so that they can better manage and avoid the many issues that happen during the crop season and

soil preparation”. The company uses UAV and satellite imagery, together with soil and leaf-sampling to determine crop health, pest infestation, yield forecasting, and multispectral maps, among other things. After analysing all the data, they provide the farmer with recommendations on water, fertiliser and other input applications, thus reducing resource consumption and increasing productivity and profitability. They also monitor pasture quality in cattle grazing. If the soil is not degraded, it can sequestrate the greenhouse gas emissions produced by the cattle. Besides, the animal’s manure also helps to fertilise the soil.

Gabriel Klabin, founder and CEO of Santos Lab next to one of his UAVs

The Fourth Industrial Revolution: benefits and threats for commodity-dependent developing countries | 31


Challenges to widespread adoption of new technologies

Access to finance Another issue that may exacerbate inequality as a result of the fourth revolution is unevenness in access to finance to afford

These new technologies promise to make agriculture more

these new technologies. A lack of access to credit and financ-

efficient, improve food security, mitigate climate change and

ing has long been a major impediment for smallholders to

reduce poverty, but, at the same time, numerous challenges of

invest and innovate, as they are more likely to be unable to

practical implementation exist which may result with the fourth

fulfil lenders’ requirements (e.g. minimum incomes, collateral),

industrial revolution leading to more inequality.

or are unable to pay the often high interest rates. There are major differences between countries in the ability of people

Internet connectivity

to borrow money for farming or business innovation (Figure

While many of the new technologies are based on real-time

2). The agricultural sector is considered high-risk by financial

data and broadband internet, the ability to adopt these tech-

institutions, as farm production and incomes are variable. Digital

nologies differs a lot across the globe. Data on internet use

technology (i.e. mobile phones and digital financial services)

show that there is a major difference in the use of the internet,

has the potential to improve people’s access to finance, and a

between lower and higher income countries, and between

potential virtuous circle may exist with technology improving

regions (Figure 1). Access to broadband internet in particular,

access to finance, which, in turn, will further improve access to

has even larger variations between countries; for example

technology. However, such virtuous circle will also likely amplify

only 0.1% of the population in Myanmar and Afghanistan had a

inequalities and vulnerabilities because the unbanked may have

fixed-broadband subscription in 2016, while in Japan and New

greater difficulties in making the first few steps as they are also

­Zealand more than 30% did6. Where internet cannot be used

relatively less likely to have both a mobile phone and access to

due to a lack of connectivity, the adoption and development of

the internet (Demirgüç-Kunt et al., 2018). In addition, there are

the key cyberphysical technologies, such as AI, will be uneven.

gender gaps as women are less likely to have a mobile phone.

Figure 2: Individuals using the Internet (% of population, 2017) By income level High income countries Upper middle income countries Lower middle income countries Low income countries 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

% of population using the internet

By region South Asia East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Sub-Saharan Africa Middle East & North Africa North America Latin America & Caribbean 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

% of population using the internet

Source: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/it.net.user.zs

Figure 3: Borrowed to start, operate, or expand a farm or business (% age 15+) By region

By income level High income countries Upper middle income countries Lower middle income countries Low income countries 0

5

10

15

20

Source: https://globalfindex.worldbank.org/

6

https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/06Chapter4.pdf

32 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018

25

30

35

South Asia East Asia & Pacific Europe & Central Asia Sub-Saharan Africa Middle East & North Africa North America Latin America & Caribbean 0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35


Chapter | 33

Photo: USDA by Lance Cheung


Technological capabilities

to information and finance, and have provided farmers access

A major factor in the adoption of new technologies are access

to online platforms to sell their products. However, these

to knowledge, skills and technological capabilities. This in itself

technologies also carry the potential threat of creating more

is a huge source of inequality because the CDDCs face impedi-

inequality, leaving CDDCs behind. As this article has highlighted,

ments to knowledge access which are most acute in areas

there are a number of factors that create or exacerbate these

constituting the key innovations of the cyberphysical revolution.

inequalities, such as a lack of access to fast and reliable internet,

This includes limited skills available for technology adoption,

and finance, as well as limited technological capabilities.

brain drain from commodity dependent economies, weak linkages from commodity based industries to academia, as well as

Therefore, policymakers in CDDCs need to work with farmers

limited availability of vocational education and training. Techno-

and the private sector in creating an enabling environment so

logical capabilities in a country can also be hampered by a lack

that technologies can be adopted. This needs to consist of a

of investment in national technology development, and national

number of key elements (ESCAP, 2018):

capacity to innovate. CDDCs are likely to have limited resources available to invest in Research and Development, and regulatory frameworks for AI are also more likely to be weak (ESCAP, 2018).

•  Ensuring the availability of ICT infrastructure, by investing in broadband internet. •  Development of appropriate skills to identify and use technologies by updating existing curricula and developing new

The technological divide and inequality

vocational education programs, and making sure that both men and women find their way into these programs.

The inequality in the adoption of the technologies of the fourth industrial revolution as a result of a different starting point with regard to access to the internet, access to finance and technological capabilities, could result in further unevenness in

•  Develop a better understanding of potential impacts on employment and wages of new technologies and develop policies to mitigate these impacts. •  Develop policies that create a conducive environment for

economic growth. These technologies impact productivity and

the development and adoption of new technologies, and

are therefore strongly linked to long-term economic growth,

ensure that wealth generated by new technologies is not

although the growth can also be a result of non-technological innovations. Furthermore, financial globalization, digitization

accumulated by only some. •  Invest in and promote the development of technologies that

and monopolies on intellectual property rights, may mean that

address the needs of low-income and vulnerable groups,

the profits of certain technologies may be captured by a few

including women, and promote adoption and dissemination

large companies (ESCAP, 2018).

of such technologies.

Inequality can also be created by the effect of new technolo-

References

gies on the composition and nature of jobs and the wages being

Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli, Leora Klapper, Dorothe Singer, Saniya Ansar, and Jake Hess. 2018. The Global Findex Database 2017: Measuring Financial Inclusion and the Fintech Revolution. Washington, DC: World Bank. doi:10.1596/978-1-4648-1259-0.

paid. This effect was also apparent during earlier industrial revolutions. Technology has the potential to increase labour productivity, but it can also substitute jobs for workers altogether. New technologies will also create new employment, although these are likely to be jobs that require different kinds of skills. With past industrial revolutions unemployment effects have however usually been most apparent in the short term (ESCAP, 2018).

The way forward

ESCAP. 2018. Inequality in the Asia Pacific region in the era of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Chapter 4. Technology and inequality. United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/publications/ ThemeStudyOnInequality.pdf FAO. 2017. The future of food and agriculture – Trends and challenges. Rome. http://www.fao.org/3/a-i6583e.pdf FAO and OECD. 2018. Food Security and Nutrition: Challenges for agriculture and the hidden potential of soil - A report to the G20 agriculture deputies. http://www.fao.org/3/CA0917EN/ca0917en.pdf

The technologies of the so-called fourth industrial revolution such as AI, have a major potential to increase efficiency and transparency in agricultural production and commodity chains.

Authors: Florencia Alonsoperez and Victoria Alonsoperez,

With an enabling policy environment, such technologies can

Chipsafer, Uruguay, and Froukje Kruijssen, KIT Royal

reduce inequality in opportunities. For example, solar panels

Tropical Institute. With support from Marcelo Tyszler (KIT)

have provided access to electricity for many who are not con-

and Stephanie Wan (Chipsafer)

nected to the grid. Digital technologies have increased access

34 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018


Photo: ©FAO/Desmond Kwande

III  Report on progress of projects under ­implementation This chapter focuses on progress of projects and highlights

(i) increasing earnings to sustain real incomes;

trends, patterns and constraints emerging during project

(ii) enhancing sustainability in commodity value chain activities;

­approval, supportive agreements and implementation

(iii) promoting value addition and enhance the competitive

­procedures in 2018. The overview brings out salient features,

­position of marginalized participants in the value chain; (iv) contributing to enhancing food security; and

patterns and/or trends with respect to:

(v) promoting production, productivity, trade, quality, transfer and • commitments, financing and disbursements;

use of technology and diversification in the commodity sector.

• commodity coverage, project types and beneficiaries; and • project start-up, execution, monitoring and supervision. The Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) implements

Commitments, financing and disbursements

­projects in partnership with governments, international organizations and other development partners from private and public

The operational guidelines of the Common Fund were originally

sectors, which support commodity development measures and

adopted under the Agreement Establishing the Common Fund

actions that promote and accelerate development, expansion

for Commodities and entered into force in 1989. They remained

and modernization of commodity sectors and contribute to

in force till 31st December 2012. Under these operational

sustainable development in its three dimensions i.e. social, eco-

guidelines, the Fund had approved financing for 198 Regular

nomic and environmental.

projects plus a further 150 Fast Track projects, together 348 projects, with an overall cost of USD 602.9 million, of which the

The CFC supports innovative commodity development financial

Fund financed USD 304.1 million (about 50%). The balance of

interventions aimed at improving the structural conditions in

project costs was co-financed by other institutions (USD 130.4

markets and at enhancing the long-term competitiveness and

million or 22%) and by counterpart contributions in cash and/or

prospects of particular commodities inter alia including:

in kind (USD 168.4 million or about 28%), provided either by the

III Report on progress of projects under implementation | 35


CFC-supported Regular Projects by Type

Project Executing Agencies, collaborating institutions, governments or International Commodity Bodies (ICBs). The Common Fund financing of projects under the original

Project types were reclassified as a result of the current opera-

operational guidelines comprises USD 275.1 million in grants

tional guidelines involving more public and private sector partici-

(90%) and USD 29.0 million (10%) in loans.

pation. The focus is on commodity value chain and to monitor its involvements into different related activities, the CFC classifies

Recognizing the new challenges and opportunities facing the

its funded projects according to the following categories. The

CFC Member Countries, led to adoption of the reform package

table below shows the classification of 35 Regular projects in

of the CFC, including updated operational guidelines which

various stages of implementation or at a start-up stage:

became effective on 1 January 2013. Under the new operational guidelines, the Fund currently has 35 Regular projects plus a further 22 Fast Track projects, (a total of 57 projects) at various

Distribution of Regular Projects by Value Chain

stages of start-up and implementation, with an overall cost

2.9

of USD 136.3 million. In addition, the Fund is participating in 8 Investment Funds with Equity and partnership financing, which together have the total assets under management of USD 523.0 million. Of the total project cost of USD 136.3 million, the Fund

20

financed USD 43.9 million, (about 32.2%) as financial interven-

11.4 11.4

tions. The balance account was paid as co-financing and/or counterpart contribution by the proponents under the new

31.4

22.9

operational guidelines. The Fund financing comprise of USD 40.7 million in loans/equity etc. (92.7%) and USD 3.2 million in grants (7.3%). According to the Fund’s audited statements, the direct project related disbursements in 2018 stood at USD 0.27 million

Type

as grant and USD 5.03 million as loan/equity etc. (comprising

Finance

USD 4.67 million as loan and USD 0.36 million as equity etc.). Special efforts are in place to streamline the components of the

• Providing finance to smallholders for purchase of inputs • Operating microfinance schemes in rural areas

Agreements between the Fund and the Recipient of resources

Market Access/Extension

to reduce the delays between the approval of project and ­commencement of actual implementation on the ground and

• Buying and selling inputs to farmers • Aggregating and selling produce from farmers

more of these efforts will be in place in 2019.

Partnership

Number of Projects

%

4

11.4

4

11.4

8

22.9

11

31.4

7

20.0

1

2.9

35

100.0

• In partnership with investment funds or investees

The CFC has funded projects in over 40 different types of

Processing

commodities and in partnership with Investment Funds or Equity financing etc. The commodities funded include abaca,

• Schemes that convert produce into semi-finished or finished goods

arachis, bamboo & rattan, bananas, cashew, cassava, castor

Production

seeds, citrus, cocoa, coconut, coffee, coir, copper, cotton, fish, fonio, groundnuts, gum arabic, hides & skins, jute, lead, maize,

• Various  operations in agriculture, aquaculture, floriculture, horticulture, and silviculture mainly for smallholders

meat and livestock, medicinal herbs and plants, olive, palm oil,

Others

paprika, potatoes, rice, natural rubber, shea nut, sisal, sorghum & millet, soybean, cane sugar, tea, timber, tropical fruits,

• Other funding activities not classified in the above categories

spices and zinc, most of which are produced almost entirely

Grand Total

in ­Developing Countries and in partnership with investment Funds among which are: Africa Agriculture & Trade Investment Fund (AATIF), Africa Agriculture SME Fund, Eco Enterprise Funds, ­Moringa Agro-forestry Fund and agRIF Coopertief U.A.

36 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018


As at 31 December 2018, a total of 190 regular projects had

countries, relevant private companies are required to docu-

been financially closed. The financial resources recovered from

ment, report and communicate the same, including opera-

completed CFC grants/loans projects are returned to the pool

tional and financial performance as well as impacts achieved.

of Second Account resources or the First Account Net Earning

More than 150 private firms have, in the past, shared the results

Initiative once the project account is closed, and are available to

of the CFC projects at dissemination workshops, while several

finance new projects.

other operating companies are directly participating in recording, establishing and maintaining consistent and systematic

Participation of Private Sector: Private companies contrib-

reporting of impact in projects or interventions receiving CFC

ute social, technical, commercial and financial inputs to CFC

financial support. The interest of the private sector in techni-

funded projects and lead to larger innovation. Moreover, in

cal cooperation with CFC projects increases by the day. Offers

order to promote and assess developmental impact, replica-

from the private sector to seek finance for specific commodity

bility and sustainability of project results, within and across

development activities are increasing.

Operational & completed Projects upto and including 2018 Active

1

EB Meeting

Project Title

Year 2013

Country(ies)/Area Involved

EB55

Commercial Farm Development in Central and Northern Ethiopia

Page No.

Ethiopia

43

Tanzania

44

Lao People's Democratic Republic

44

Africa

45

Ethiopia

45

Nigeria

46

Africa

46

Latin America

47

Africa; Latin America

47

- CFC/2012/01/0030 2

EB55

SME Agribusiness Development in East Africa CFC/2012/01/0076FA

3

EB55

Identifying Growth Opportunities & Supporting Measures to Facilitate Investment in Value Chains in Landlocked Developing Countries - CFC/2012/01/ILZSG/0267

4

EB55

Partnership with the Africa Agriculture and Trade Investment Fund (AATIF) - CFC/2012/01/0268FA

5

EB56

Commercial Farm Development in Central and Northern ­Ethiopia: Solagrow PLC - CFC/2013/01/0030FT

6

EB56

Commercial Meat Processing/Marketing in Lagos CFC/2013/02/0042FT

7

EB56

Partnership with the Africa Agriculture SME Fund CFC/2013/02/0084FA

8

EB56

Partnership with the EcoEnterprise II Fund CFC/2013/02/0085FA

9

EB56

Partnership with the Moringa Agro-forestry Fund CFC/2013/02/0086FA

10

Year 2014

EB57

Rural Injini (Engine) Inclusive Maize Trading and Processing -

Uganda

48

Sri Lanka

48

Cameroon

49

CFC/2013/03/0120 11

EB58

Preparation of a Technical Dossier for Geographical Indication (GI) for Ceylon Cinnamon in the EU - CFC/2014/04/0006FT

12

EB58

Commodity Value Chain Tropical Timber from Commodity ­Forests - CFC/2014/04/0047FT

13

EB58

Optimizing the Smallholder Maize Value Chain in Western Kenya - Kenya

49

CFC/2014/04/0094 14

EB58

Moringa Agroforestry Technical Assistance Fund -

Latin America; Africa

50

Kenya

50

CFC/2014/04/0103FT 15

EB58

Modern Processing & Value Chain Development for Prosopis Charcoal and Nutritious Animal Feeds, Kenya CFC/2014/04/0107FT

III Report on progress of projects under implementation | 37


16

EB Meeting

Project Title

Year 2015

Country(ies)/Area Involved

EB59

Scaling Smallholder based Premium Coffee Production in Congo

Page No.

Congo, Democratic Republic of

51

Scaling Smallholder based Premium Coffee Production in Congo

Congo, Democratic Republic of;

51

and Rwanda - CFC/2014/05/0079FT

Rwanda

Tolaro Global Cashew Factory Expansion, Benin -

Benin

and Rwanda - CFC/2014/05/0079 17 18

EB59 EB60

52

CFC/2015/06/0032

19

Year 2016

EB61

Intensified Livelihoods Improvement and Environmental Con-

Myanmar

52

servation through Social Business Activities (Natural Fertilizer, Myanmar) - CFC/2015/07/0020FT 20

EB61

Coffee Value Chain - Uganda - CFC/2015/07/0022FT

Uganda

53

21

EB61

Accelerating Lending to Food & Agri sector in East Africa Supply

East Africa

53

Senegal

54

Chain Financing - CFC/2015/07/0028 22

EB61

Irrigated Perfumed Rice and Normal Rice Production in Thiagar, Senegal - CFC/2015/07/0030

23

Year 2016

EB61

Upscaling the Integrated Production and Processing of Selected

Nigeria

54

Estranged Oilseeds, Nigeria - CFC/2015/07/0032 24

EB61

Kupanua Project – Asili Farms Ltd., Uganda - CFC/2015/07/0078

Uganda

55

25

EB62

Manufacture of Moringa Oleifera from Smallholder Farmers,

Kenya

55

Philippines

56

Colombia

56

Kenya - CFC/2016/08/0052FT 26

EB62

Start-up of Innovative Agriculture Finance Company for Cocoa, Philippines - CFC/2016/08/0064

27

EB62

Upscaling Coffee Flour Production Plant of Sanam, Colombia CFC/2016/08/0077FT

28

Year 2017

EB63

Empowering Smallholder Farmers Affected by Conflict -

Sri Lanka

57

Sri Lanka - CFC/2016/09/0069FT 29

EB63

agRIF Cooperatief U.A.,Netherlands - CFC/2016/09/0089

Netherlands

57

30

EB63

Reducing Vulnerability to Price Volatility - Kenya -

Kenya

58

Peru

59

CFC/2016/09/0097 31

EB63

Acquisition of a processing plant for the aquaculture sector Peru - CFC/2016/09/0122

32

EB63

Africa Food Security Fund - Ghana - CFC/2016/09/0124

Ghana

59

33

EB63

Babban Gona 40,000 Farmer Scale up Project - Nigeria -

Nigeria

60

Burkina Faso

60

CFC/2016/09/0125 34

EB63

Good seeds for all farmers project - Burkina Faso CFC/2016/09/0138

35

EB64

EcoEnterprises Fund III - CFC/2017/10/0066

Latin America

61

36

EB64

Testing of Fertilizer bio-formulations, India - CFC/2017/10/0069

India

61

37

EB64

Scaling Up Acess to Finance for Smallholder Potato Farmers,

Malawi

62

Peru

62

Côte d'Ivoire

63

Rwanda

63

Malawi - CFC/2017/10/0091 38

EB64

The conservation of the forest of Ashaninka communities, Peru - CFC/2017/10/0109

39

EB64

Formulation and fertilizer distribution for smallholder farmers, Côte d'Ivoire - CFC/2017/10/0111

40

EB64

Soybean Processing for Farmer and Market Impact, Rwanda CFC/2017/10/0123

41

Year 2018

EB65

Integrated Lime Production In Bahia - Brazil - CFC/2017/11/0005

38 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018

Brazil

64


Completed

1

EB Meeting

Project Title

Year 2013

Country(ies)/Area Involved

EB55

Commodity Branding/ (Winward/Shell Foundation) -

Mozambique; Ghana; India

Page No.

41

CFC/2012/01/0044

2

Year 2015

EB58

Revival of the Robusta Coffee Chain in Madagascar -

Madagascar

42

Peru, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua,

42

CFC/2014/04/0064 3

EB58

The SME Impact Investment Opportunities - CFC/2013/03/0107FT

Costa Rica, Kenya and Tanzania

Operational Projects as of 2018 under the old rule1 CC/EB Meeting

Project Title

Country(ies)/Area Involved

1

EB44

Income Generation Potentials from Oil Palm - CFC/FIGOOF/28

Cameroon, Nigeria

2

EB46

Small-holder Kenaf Production System - CFC/IJSG/25

Bangladesh, China, Malaysia

3

EB49

Pilot Coffee Rehabilitation - CFC/ICO/11

Nicaragua, Honduras

4

EB50

Diversification of Livestock Sector in the Caribbean -

Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago

CFC/FIGMDP/20 5

EB53

Integrated Management of Cocoa Pests & Pathogens -

Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria, Togo

CFC/ICCO/43 6 1

EB53

Olive Genetic Resources Creation, Phase II - CFC/IOOC/09

Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Syria, Egypt

Details available on CFC website & can be made available on request.

III Report on progress of projects under implementation | 39


Photo: Adobe Stock 40 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018


Projects Completed Photo: ©FAO/Giulio Napolitano

in 2018

1 Commodity Branding - CFC/2012/01/0044

Submitting Institution Windward Strategic ltd. Location Malawi, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, India, and other ACP countries Commodity Pineapple etc. Total Cost USD 1,600,000 CFC Financing USD 475,000 (Grant of which USD 230,000 is financed by OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID)) USD 562,500 (Shell Foundation) Co-financing USD 562,500 (Windward Strategic ltd.) Project Description The project seeks to establish a portfolio of sustainable consumer brands across two commodity sectors for the benefit of commodity producers. For that, the CFC provides funds to Windward Strategic Ltd. who will create value-adding consumer brands for the commodities i.e. sugar, pineapple, coffee and chillies which will then be commercially marketed under approved licensing agreements. The CFC support is also directed towards sugar and chillie value chain. Windward will invest in intellectual property that adds value to primary commodities (‘brands’) and provide licenses to commercial partners with existing supply chains and product expertise. A share of the added value from branding sugar and chillies will be channelled to small farmers and other involved labourers.

The project is financially and technically supported by the Shell Foundation as part of their mission to establish sustainable enterprise-based solutions to development problems. Current Status A branded chillie sauce (‘Chillie Power’) was introduced in the domestic Zimbabwe market in 2015 and is now available in more than 250 stores and supermarkets. A sugar brand (‘Four Elements’) was ready to be released in 2018, but its distribution postponed due uncertainties related to the ‘Brexit’ process. It is now planned to release the brand and stock around 350 stores in the United Kingdom later in 2019. The chillie brand will be commercially used by the Zimbabwean company WISTCO to be further expanded in Southern African countries, while the rights

for the Sugar brand will be used by a large commodity trader for its European markets. The CFC engagement successfully de-risked and facilitated the development, and licensing and launch of the two brands. Plans for further market development by the private sector stakeholders will enable, after five years, around 12,000 farmers to benefit from raw material supply for these brands with an average additional household income of USD 600 p.a. The CFC was informed that funding is no longer required for the further development and expansion of the brand. It has, therefore, been mutually agreed to terminate CFC’s project engagement, which was orderly closed in May 2018.

III Projects Completed in 2018 | 41


2 Revival of the Robusta Coffee Chain, Madagascar - CFC/2014/04/0064

Submitting Institution Sangany Café Location Madagascar (LDC) Commodity Coffee Total Cost USD 2,336,000 CFC Financing USD 1,078,000 (Loan of which USD 115,000 financed by OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID) and USD 115,000 by the Dutch Trust Fund) Project Description Sangany Café aimed to improve Robusta coffee production and quality in Madagascar, targeting European and domestic markets for high-quality green, roasted and wetprocessed coffee. The main activities include improving production, processing and marke­ting of Robusta coffee (inter)nationally, benefitting 10,000 farmers. Main shareholders of Sangany Café are Fair and Sustainable Participations BV, the Netherlands, and HERi Africa GmbH, Germany. Projections of the project are based on a detailed analysis conducted in the field regarding coffee production and commercialization, level of access by farmers to fair credit and improved technologies and product and market diversification. Coffee quality needs to be improved to enable access to export markets. The finalization and formal registration of all relevant documents for the CFC financed in

tervention took considerable time. The first disbursement of the CFC loan, an amount of USD 230,000, was made in July 2016. Current Status In the course of 2016, Sangany succeeded in attracting a new shareholder, ZITAL S.A. an industrial carpentry firm based in Madagascar. Furthermore, Sangany Café merged with Sangany Spices to make more efficient use of resources to increase production and improve quality of the traditional export crops in south-eastern Madagascar, targeting the same farmers who grow both coffee and spices. A partnership has been developed with the Caisses d’Epargne et de Crédit Agricole Mutuels (MFI CECAM), which offers credit to smallholders. These credits are guaranteed by delivery contracts to Sangany. A partnership with providers of mobile payment systems has been established for quick, reliable, fast and safe payment after delivery, linking the pay-

ment system to Sangany’s financial planning and monitoring system allowing efficient control and supervision of collection points and field staff. Sangany set-up fully equipped collection points in the main production areas with warehouse, balances, humidity meters, and computerized management system. A strong decrease in production of coffee was witnessed directly related to the plants increasingly getting older and with lack of rains affecting coffee cultivated. In 2017, the shareholders of Sangany Café S.A. decided to dissolve the Company due to disappointing financial results linked to the prolonged drought period that had a negative effect on local coffee prices and doubts about the company future prospects linked to the non-competitive coffee prices in Madagascar. As consequence the CFC loan – principal and interest – was fully repaid.

3 The SME Impact Investment Opportunities - CFC/2013/03/0107FT

Submitting Institution Financial Alliance for Sustainable Trade Location Peru, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Kenya and Tanzania Commodity Fruits, vegetables, coffee, cocoa Total Cost USD 2,284,307 CFC Financing USD 120,000 (Grant) Project Description The project, proposed by the Financial Alliance for Sustainable Trade (FAST), aimed at creating a service enabling Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Africa and Latin America to take advantage of Impact Investment financing. Impact investment combines financial returns with achieving clearly defined social, economic and environmental indicators of sustainability. Sustainable SME present, in principle, the core target group for the rapidly growing number of impact investment. However, bridging the information gap between SMEs and impact investors remains an unresolved challenge which severely constrains their cooperation. The project, supported by the CFC, aimed to bridge this gap by developing a SME Impact Investment Platform, making financing op-

portunities more transparent to Financial Service Providers (FSPs). FAST is a member-driven organization representing a global community of financial institutions and SMEs dedicated to bring sustainable products and sustainable finance to market. FAST develops resources and activities aimed at increasing the number of producers in developing nations that successfully access quality finance. Current Status The SME Impact Investment Platform, AXIIS (www.axiis.ca), was launched in December 2016, with a total initial financial request of USD 32 million from agriculture and forestry SMEs. Additionally, on the supply side there was USD 2.3 billion worth of FSPs assets under management. Based

42 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018

on the initial SMEs registered on the platform, the overall findings demonstrate that around 66% were located in Latin America, 27% in Africa and 7% in the Caribbean. Also, there was a balanced distribution of the commodities produced where 30% of the SMEs produces fruits and vegetable, followed by coffee 23% and grains and cereals 20%. By early 2018, the platform had more than USD 6.7 billion declared available by the FSPs to invest in SMEs. At the same time, the needs of the SMEs in the platform summed USD 44 million. Currently, the platform is active and operating, helping to connect the funds available from the FSPs to the needs of the SMEs in the agriculture sector. The CFC involvement in support of the platform has ended in December 2018.


Active Projects Photo: ©FAO/Saul Palma

in 2018

1 Commercial Farm Development in Central and Northern Ethiopia - CFC/2012/01/0030

Submitting Institution Solagrow plc. Location Ethiopia (LDC) Commodity Vegetables Total Cost USD 6,255,000 CFC Financing USD 1,100,000 (loan, of which USD 750,000 (financed by the Dutch Trust Fund), and USD 55,000 (as a grant to cover administrative and legal costs)) Counterpart Contribution USD 5,155,000 Project Description Solagrow provides seed potatoes supple­ mented by seeds from other crops and mechanization services to organized out growers and other small farmers. In addition, the company produces quality food crops for local and for export markets on its own nucleus farms and offers ‘for out growers’ collective marketing of produce is offered on a voluntary basis. The company works closely together with the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR) for release of new Ethiopian potato varieties and introduction of new multiplication technologies. Through CFC funding, it is anticipated that some 1,600 new jobs will be created and

that the establishment of surrounding out grower schemes will eventually involve some 2,500 new farmers as out growers on around 3,000 ha of land, who will benefit from quality input provision, mechanization services and access to markets. In addition, indirectly, Solagrow is expected to offer its services around each of its farms and reach another 25,000 farmers. Current Status After disbursement of CFC resources, Solagrow was able to procure additional machinery and equipment for expansion of its farming operations. During the implementation of the project, Solagrow encountered unforeseen operational expenses due to loss of inputs (such as seeds, fertilizer),

and damages incurred on farm equipment which deprived it from planting of potatoes in 2016. This placed Solagrow in a very precarious liquidity position which ultimately led it to restructure its operations. Several corrective measures have been taken in the course of 2017 and 2018 which enabled Solagrow to continue its operations, albeit on a substantially reduced scale to 175 ha (compared to the originally managed 650 ha). By end 2018, Solagrow had reproduced sufficient seed material to plant the first batch of potatoes for commercial harvest since 2016. Based on the achieved harvest results, a restructuring plan is expected to be finalized soon that will resume loan service payments to the CFC.

III Active Projects in 2018 | 43


2 SME Agribusiness Development in East Africa - CFC/2012/01/0076FA

Submitting Institution MatchMaker Fund Management (MMFM) Location Burundi, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Zambia Commodity Miscellaneous Total Cost Euro 10,000,000 CFC Financing USD 520,000 (Loan - First Account Net Earnings Initiative (FANEI)), USD 26,000 (as a grant to cover administrative and legal costs) Co-financing Balance to be sourced from other consortium partners Project Description The SME Impact Fund (SIF) provides mesolevel financing to SMEs in agribusiness in East Africa. SIF provides financing as loans, from USD 65,000 to USD 650,000, with an average loan size of USD 200,000. Four main types of loans are available: (i) input ­finance; (ii) crop finance; (iii) farm investment; and (iv) company investment. SIF provides financing for SME’s in local currency, at competitive rates ranging between 18-20% per annum, for a period up to 60 months. The focus is on companies which: (i) have 2-99 employees; (ii) currently operate in agricultural value chains; (iii) are registered in East Africa; and (iv) have financial need within the SIF target product range. Collateral, while desirable, is well below the level of 125%140% generally required by banks. The SIF successfully opened its lending operations upon reaching its initial size of Euro

4 million. The target size of Euro 10 million is expected to be reached within 3 years. The SIF expects to close 15-20 loans per year, with average size of Euro 200,000. The average lifespan of a loan is 24 months and repayments are recycled for new loans. Project partners are currently Dutch NGO’s like Hivos and Cordaid, and private investors including MatchMaker Associates (MMA). The local banking partner is National Microfinance Bank (NMB) Bank of Tanzania, which gives SIF strong outreach to cover rural districts in Tanzania. Technical partners include Financial Alliance for Sustainable Trade (FAST), MatchMaker Associates (MMA), and Tanzania Horticultural Association (TAHA) with Business Development Services (BDS) project. Current Status In 2018 SIF investments with a total of 98 loans reaching the loan portfolio size of over USD 7.7 million created 1,961 jobs, with

­ utreach of almost 14,000 smallholder farmo ers. SIF closed its second round of ­fundraising reaching a fund size of Euro 5 million. It is estimated that the investments of the SME Impact Fund will reach over 66,000 of people, including the members of smallholders farmers’ households. The year 2018 was challenging for most agribusiness lenders in Tanzania due to poor harvests in 2017 and general business uncertainty. Several borrowers reported cash flow problems and some of them were not able to repay the loans. These challenges led to net losses at SIF for the year ending December 31, 2018. SIF is making efforts to get back to profitability in 2019 by increasing its pipeline of new clients. SIF plans to add new value chain borrowers to its portfolio and also increase collaboration with other organizations through cross-referrals. More details about SIF can be seen on http://www.smeimpactfund. com/our-portfolio/meet-our-smes.aspx

3 Identifying Growth Opportunities & Supporting Measures to Facilitate Investment in Value Chains in Landlocked Developing Countries - CFC/2012/01/ILZSG/0267

Submitting Institution UN Office of the High Commissioner for LLDC’s Location Global Commodity Various Total Cost USD 418,000 CFC Financing USD 335,000 (Grant) Co-financing USD 83,000 Project Description The project brings the matter of commodity sector contribution in the international support programmes for sustained structural transformation of Land Locked Developing Countries (LLDCs). The high-level dialogue on commodities started in the Second United Nations Conference on Landlocked Developing Countries held in Vienna, Austria in 2014. Stemming from this dialogue, the project developed a working paper on ‘Turning Commodity Dependence into Sustainable and Inclusive Growth’ to focus the attention on the policies and strategies necessary to enhance the role of commodities in the development of LLDC’s. Current Status The project enabled the CFC and its partners to contribute to the debate on the priority areas for commodity sector investments

in landlocked developing countries. The project highlighted that LLDCs rely on limited products for their exports earnings, and struggle to achieve in-country value addition due to structural weaknesses. Furthermore, due to long supply chains, LLDCs are especially vulnerable to commodity price volatility. The project in its analysis concluded, among its recommendations, that structural adjustment of commodity dependent LLDCs needs to give priority to policies encouraging the circular financial flows of domestically re-invested funds originating from the commodity sector. Such internally generated investment will promote diversification and value addition in-country, and minimize the relative impact of transport costs and market access. Investing in SMEs in these target sectors, encouraging them to expand their

44 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018

business vertically along the value chain, and enter into new local market segments empowers primary producers, giving them the tools and resources to transform their livelihoods and reduce their vulnerability. In the preparation for the review of the Vienna Programme of Action (VPoA), the recommendations have been taken into consideration and the outcomes of the work supported by the CFC are being regularly reported in the Inter-Agency Working Group (IAG) preparing the review. The project serves to foster CFC collaboration and coordination with other international agencies financing economic development in commodity dependent LLDCs, including UN-OHRLLS, UNCTAD, UNDP, UNECA, and the World Bank. Following the satisfactory results, the project is expected to be concluded in 2019.


4 Partnership with the Africa Agriculture and Trade Investment Fund (AATIF) CFC/2012/01/0268FA

Submitting Institution Africa Agriculture and Trade Investment Fund (AATIF) Location Africa Commodity Miscellaneous Total Cost USD 205,000,000 (Current fund size) CFC Financing USD 2,000,000 (Equity – First Account Net Earnings Initiative (FANEI)) Co-financing Main other current investors are KfW and Deutsche Bank. The associated grant based  Technical Assistance (TA) Facility is being financed by the German Ministry for Development Cooperation and Economic Development (BMZ). Project Description AATIF, as an Impact Investing Fund, seeks to realise the potential of Africa’s agricultural production, manufacturing, service provision and trade for the benefit of the poor. The Fund aims to provide additional employment and income to farmers, entrepreneurs and laborers alike. Increasing productivity, production, and local value addition by investing in efficient value chains and providing knowledge transfer are paramount. In this context, a dedicated effort will especially be made to support out-grower schemes. AATIF is complemented through a (TA) Facility that provides grant funding for projects to strengthen the developmental aspects of individual investments. This TA Facility is managed under a service agreement by the CFC. Through its independ

ent Social and Environmental Compliance Advisor from International Labour Organisation (ILO), AATIF is committed to closely monitor the social and environmental impact of each investment. Current Status AATIF’s growing range of products and expanding loan portfolio currently consists of eight companies ranging from two primary farming operations, agri-processing companies and financial institutions who seek to increase their agricultural sector loan portfolio and expand their services towards lending to small and medium size agricultural enterprises By end 2018 several impact assessments of AATIF investment have been conducted. In 2018 the Austrian Development Bank and the European Commission became a new

partners of AATIF, which increase the capital base for investments above USD 200 million. Under management of the CFC, as the AATIF TA Facility Manager, AATIF diligently assesses the impact of funding on each individual investment. A recently conducted baseline study on the AATIF impact on a cocoa outgrower scheme in Ghana suggests that participating farmers apply better agricultural practises, which results in significantly higher yields and an overall higher family income. The impact assessment on this particular investment has been selected by AATIF to be conducted with an elaborate scientifically robust methodology and includes a midterm and end line study which will be conducted in 2020 and 2022, respectively. The details of action taken by AATIF can be made available upon request.

5 Commercial Farm Development in Central and Northern Ethiopia: Solagrow PLC CFC/2013/01/0030FT

Submitting Institution Solagrow PLC Location Ethiopia (LDC) Commodity Potato and others Total Cost USD 120,000 CFC Financing USD 120,000 Project Description Solagrow is a farming and agribusiness enterprise with a focus on the production of potatoes and other high value crops for the Ethiopian local market, whereby the integration of Ethiopian smallholder farmers through provision of inputs, cropping technology and market access is a core concept of their business model. All additional income earned by Solagrow is invested in identified area in Ethiopia to further support the development of the agro-economy. During the implementation of the project ‘Commercial Farm Development

in Central and Northern Ethiopia’ (CFC/2012/01/0030), the borrower i.e. Solagrow encountered unforeseen operational expenses due to loss of inputs, such as seeds, fertiliser, and damages incurred on farm equipment’s. Seeing the prevailing situation, in 2016, CFC requested Solagrow to provide an assessment of the company operational and financial status and to identify and specify steps required to adjust its farming operations. To overcome the difficult situation a short term cash inflow of USD 120,000 was requested as working capital to maintain and recommence farming operations on Solagrow’s land.

Current Status The working capital loan to Solagrow was disbursed in accordance with Solagrow’s immediate need for enhancing working capital requirements in the course of 2017. The availability of these funds contributed to Solagrow’s ability to continue operations and to consolidate its business to an extend where a restructuring process seems viable. By the end of 2018, Solagrow had reproduced sufficient seed material to plant the first batch of potatoes for commercial harvest since 2016. Based on the achieved harvest results, a restructuring plan will be finalized that with the goal to resume loan service payments to the CFC.

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6 Commercial Meat Processing/Marketing in Lagos - CFC/2013/02/0042FT

Submitting Institution ESOSA Investments Ltd Location Nigeria Commodity Livestock Total Cost USD 250,000 CFC Financing USD 120,000 (Zero interest loan) Project Description This fast track project supports Esosa Investments Ltd, a small scale meat processor operating in Lagos, Nigeria, in restructuring and up-scaling its meat processing factory with the setting up of a pastry line for snacks and cakes and the value-adding expansion of the product range to include sausage based snacks. The CFC support will enable Esosa (i) to acquire additional equipment, optimizing via up scaling its market growth, (ii) increase its profit and diversification potentials associated with its main-line of business. In addition the Company would strengthen its local supply chains assisting 100 pig farmers in enhancing their farm yields with the introduction of improved breeds, the setting up of pig growing schemes and training in improved

animal husbandry. The Fulani nomadic cattle herdsmen are also expected to benefit from the advantages of an enhanced commercial beef production. Through the upscaling of its meat processing activities, ESOSA is expected to develop a partnership with 100 farmers with 3 piglets each (Landrace & Duroc) for multiplication in the first year (2014). Thus, each participating farmer is expected to increase monthly income from USD 1,500 to USD 2,200 per month at the end of 2014. This intervention will enable participating farmers to hire additional 5 persons thus creating 500 employment posts for farmhands. Farmers will be trained in improved animal husbandry practices.

The loan agreement was signed in July 2015 and fully disbursed in 3 tranches. Current Status The implementation of the project experienced some delays mainly due to market instability, fluctuation of the local currency and delays in receiving the certifications to start the production to be approved and released by the Nigerian Regulatory Body (NAFDAC). Consequently the repayment of the loan has been postponed, with a second deferral still not granted as of the date of this report as consent from the Federal Ministry of Industry, Trade and Investment of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, who is guarantor of the loan for an amount of USD 64,000 is awaited.

7 Partnership with the Africa Agriculture SME Fund (AAF-SME) - CFC/2013/02/0084FA

Submitting Institution Africa Agriculture SME Fund (AAF-SME) Location Africa Commodity Miscellaneous Total Cost USD 36,000,000 (Fund size) CFC Financing USD 2,000,000 (Equity), and USD 100,000 (as a grant to cover administrative and legal costs) Co-financing  Other main investors: Agence Française de Dévéloppement (AFD), PROPARCO, Spanish Government (AECID), and African Development Bank (AfDB) Project Description The AAF-SME fund supports private sector companies that implement strategies to enhance and diversify food production and distribution in Africa by providing financial resources and strengthening their management. AAF-SME Fund is Africa’s first Impact Investing Fund with a focus solely on food producing and processing Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SME) throughout the continent. SME’s active in the African agricultural sector offer significant growth opportunities and have an important impact on economic development and job creation, and are therefore widely regarded as the key for the economic development of Africa.

AAF-SME investments seek to demonstrate that investments in the African agricultural SME sector is a commercially viable proposition with associated manageable risks. AAF-SME is being complemented through a Technical Assistance Facility (TAF) that provides grant funding for complementary projects to strengthen the developmental aspects of individual investments with an emphasis on the establishment of out grower schemes. Current Status The fund is fully invested in eight different agricultural SME’s across Sub-Saharan Africa

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(SSA) that focus on different value chain segments from mixed farming operations to organic fertilizer production. Fund Managers are assisting the companies to follow individually developed business growth plans. Since AAF-SME Fund is scheduled to close in 2022, a number of investments are already preparing for sale. Through its investments, the AAF-SME fund created and maintained more than 660 jobs of which 133 are occupied by female employees and to the connection of 7,200 smallholders with AAFSME funded companies, who supply with raw materials for processing. The details of action taken by AAF-SME can be made available upon request.


8 Partnership with the EcoEnterprises II Fund (EcoE II) - CFC/2013/02/0085FA

Submitting Institution EcoEnterprises Partners II L.P. (EcoE II) Location Latin America Commodity Miscellaneous Total Cost USD 35,250, 000 (Fund size) CFC Financing USD 500,000 (Equity), USD 25,000 (as a grant to cover administrative and legal costs) Co-financing  Main other investors : Dutch Development Financial Institution (FMO), Interamerican Development Bank (IADB), and European Investment Bank (EIB) Project Description EcoE II invests in small companies with a proven business model at expansion stage which are active in the sustainable agriculture and forestry (products) sector in Latin America. The targeted investee companies supply into a continuously growing market for organic food products and certified wood predominantly in the US (through main stream retail channels such as Walmart/ Home Depot and similar dominant food retailers and home improvement stores). The vast and globally appreciated natural resource base of Latin America can be seen as a comparative advantage that presents a widely untapped opportunity for sustainable food and timber products out of the region.

EcoE II investments seek to demonstrate that the sustainable use of natural resources can be commercially viable and indeed can prove to be a competitive advantage. Success could lead to widespread recog­ nition and replication by commercial funds and to a more receptive regional banking sector. Current Status The fund has made a total investment in 11 companies. These companies are engaged in eco/organic niche products such as tea, juices, baby food and dried fruit which source raw materials from smallholder producers. Since EcoE II is scheduled to close in 2021 and is at its wind-down phase, invest-

ments from 5 companies are either in the process of refunding or funds have already been returned. Overall funding from EcoE II has led to the creation of 3,700 jobs and the connection of nearly 13,000 raw material suppliers (i.e. collectors, smallholder farmers, etc.) with investee companies, who increase their income through delivering to a reliable identified off-taker. In addition more than 4 million hectares of land are either being managed in a sustainable manner or are conserved. The details of action taken by EcoE II can be seen on website https://ecoenterprisesfund.com or can be made available upon request.

9 Partnership with the Moringa Agroforestry Fund - CFC/2013/02/0086FA

Submitting Institution Moringa Agroforestry Fund S.C.R. Location Latin America/Africa Commodity Miscellaneous Total Cost Euro 63,000,000 (Fund size) CFC Financing USD 1,349613 (Equity), and USD 75,000 (as a grant to cover administrative and legal costs) Co-financing  Main other current investors : FMO, PROPARCO, Spanish Government (AECID), and Latin American Development Bank (CAF) Project Description The CFC provides funds to the Moringa Agroforestry Fund (to be called ‘Moringa’) which seeks to invest agroforestry projects in Africa and Latin America that are able to commercially compete with deforestation drivers (like cattle ranching, crop farming and timber harvesting). At the same time Moringa investments are required to have a demonstrable positive impact on the environment and the livelihoods of local populations. while generating a clear positive impact on local populations and the environment. Moringa invests in agroforestry projects which usually have an industrial nucleus (being the investee company of

Moringa) and a wider circle of integrated smallholder farms/value chain partners in its vicinity. Through its investments, Moringa targets a total of 8,000 new jobs created with an income effect on 35,000 dependants. In addition, about 60,000 outgrowers are expected to be associated to commercial investments of Moringa, with a development impact on 340,000 dependants. Moringa investments are complemented through a Technical Assistance (TA) Facility that provides grant funding for projects to strengthen the developmental aspects of individual investments. This TA Facility is managed by the CFC.

Current Status By end 2018, which marked the end of Moringa’s investment period, the fund has made investments in 8 companies, of which three are in Latin America and five in Africa. Already around 6,500 smallholder farmers benefit as suppliers or work as out-growers to the Moringa investees through improved access to markets and receipt of better prices. In addition 1,500 jobs have been created so far and 7,500 ha of land have been rehabilitated and converted into sustainable agro-forestry farming systems. The details of action taken by Moringa can be seen on website https://www.moringapartnerships. com or made available upon request.

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10 Rural Injini (Engine) Inclusive Maize Trading & Processing - CFC/2013/03/0120

Submitting Institution Joseph Initiative Ltd. (JI) Location Uganda (LDC) Commodity Maize Total Cost USD 1,929,000 CFC Financing USD 500,000 (Financed by the Dutch Trust Fund) Project Description The project aims to support Ugandan smallholder farmers to efficiently bulk and process maize to sell to regional wholesalers. Joseph Initiative Ltd. (JI) takes an integrated approach to trading, combining rural collection centres with village buying agents to collect maize in small quantities from remote farmers and making payments to them on the spot. This trading model provides a predictable market that incentivizes smallholders to improve quality and intensify production. Joseph Initiative’s business model concentrates on ‘bottom of the pyramid’ farmers

producing 1 metric ton or less per year, as they are below the aggregation thresholds for commercial traders. A reliable market and access to inputs and finance will increase farmers’ incomes. Inclusion of a large number of producers, increasing productivity and potentially reducing the current 40% post-harvest losses could lead to substantial improvement in Uganda’s food security. Current Status JI expanded its processing facilities and used its ability to enhance procurement of maize from small producers. It also attracted partners to provide additional

resources to expand its procurement and distribution. In September 2017, JI formally became part of the East African agribusiness company Agilis Partner who also controls Asili Farms (also a borrower of a CFC loan). This is to achieve maximum synergies between JI as a maize trader and processor and suppliers from the larger scale arable maize farm Asili. As a result of the acquisition and the new role of JI in the Agilis Partner company structure, it was agreed during 2018 that the CFC would receive an early repayment of its funds invested into JI. Details of the repayment are under discussion.

11 Preparation of a Technical Dossier for Geographical Indication (GI) for Ceylon ­Cinnamon in the EU - CFC/2014/04/006FT

Submitting Institution Sri Lanka Export Development Board (‘EDB’) Location Sri Lanka Commodity Cinnamon Total Cost USD 100,000 CFC Financing USD 60,000 (Grant) Project Description The project supports the preparation of a technical dossier to obtain Geographical Indication (GI) registration for Ceylon Cinnamon in the European Union (EU).

The grant agreement was signed in July 2015. Current Status A total of about USD 33,000 has been disbursed as of 31.12.2018. The project

implementation is progressing well as expected. Upon establishment of a traceability system, the application was submitted to the European Commission (EC). The authorities of EC examined the content and forwarded their 3rd observations on May 2018. Sri Lanka Export Development Board has received technical assistance to streamline the domestic control mechanism such as the establishment of GI Law and traceability system. Following the request from EDB and as given above, the CFC extended the project implementation period of one year up to June 2019. Photo: Adobe Stock

Ceylon Cinnamon is only grown in Sri Lanka. GI registration has the purpose to differentiate Ceylon Cinnamon in the EU market from other cinnamons of lower quality. A GI will act as a source of competitive advantage which will help increasing market differentiation, product turnover and allow for a premium price from the consumer. An

enhanced competitive position of Ceylon Cinnamon in the EU market will have a positive impact in terms of an increase in exports for Sri Lanka, higher income and employment generation across the cinnamon value chain, benefiting about 30,000 stakeholders involved in cinnamon production and processing.

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12 Commodity Value Chain Tropical Timber from Community Forest - CFC/2014/04/0047FT

Submitting Institution Community Forest Group BV (CFGBV) Location Cameroon Commodity Tropical Timber Total Cost USD 280,000 CFC Financing USD 120,000 (Funded from the Dutch Trust Fund) Co-financing USD 160,000 (Provided by FTT BV from the IDH grant) Project Description The project focuses on implementing a community forest management scheme under the national community forest legislation to provide a source of income for poor and remote communities in Cameroon. The proponent, Community Forest Group BV (CFG BV) has developed a model, supported by Sustainable Trade Initiative (IDH), for marketing of community-sourced tropical timber from Cameroon to developed markets. The model involves (i) training of forest communities in sustainable forest management practices, (ii) licensing and certification of their timber under relevant certification schemes (e.g. the FSC), and (iii) setting up a physical logistics chain to export certified timber. The operational model is being developed as a social business and includes impact assessment as a separate activity. CFGBV surveyed 25 community forests and selected 4 as prime candidates to provide

sufficient base for the operations of the proposed project. Subsequently, project operations were fully developed in 2 community forests, Mirebe and Afcobaba, both in Eastern Cameroon. The expectation is to achieve a fully self-financing operation at this level. Current Status The deliveries of timber for sale in Europe, in 2017, started slow due to congestion in the port of Douala which blocked shipments for some time. The production of timber had also to be temporarily stopped, but it resumed towards the end of 2017 as the issues relating to shipments through the port were resolved. Despite continuing challenges faced due to difficulties in use of local infrastructure, extended travel times and other conditions, especially in rainy season, over the past three years useful experience was gained, and the operation continued to expand. The CFC/CFGBV resources continue to be used ‘at work’ and target level

of production of around 80-100m3 per year of community forest tropical timber from 2 communities is being achieved. Over the course of the project in 2014-2017 seven loads of timber have been shipped for sale in the EU, with the total volume of over 200m3, with 35 new permanent jobs, and additional sustainable income for forest communities at the level of USD 66,000. In the course of 2018, CFG BV received the approval of the Nederlandse Voedsel en Waren Autoriteit (NVWA) to certify the compliance of its community forest sourcing system under the EU Timber Regulation (EUTR). The company is further exploring certification of sustainability from FAO, Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade (FLEGT), and Tropenbos. The company managed to to scale up the operations in 2018 by some 25%, and is fundraising to enable more communities to join the scheme with additional staff for further development in the coming years.

13 Optimizing the Smallholder Maize Value Chain in Western Kenya - CFC/2014/04/0094

Submitting Institution Stichting ICS, The Netherlands Location Kenya Commodity Maize Total Cost USD 453,200 CFC Financing USD 226,000 (Loan) Project Description The Dutch development organisation, ICS, is active in the maize value chain in Western Kenya. Agrics Ltd, the Kenyan subsidiary of ICS, sells high quality agricultural inputs to smallholder maize farmers. With CFC’s financing, Agrics will upscale its agricultural input business by enlarging the supply of high quality seed to a network of smallholder maize farmers in Western Kenya. ICS and Agrics work with local communitybased organizations and farmer groups for the distribution of inputs. The project will have a direct impact on the productivity of smallholder farmers, increasing their food security and household income, by offering affordable input and improved agriculture

practices. Agrics also provides services to buy the inputs on credit. This is coupled with the use of mobile payment services by the farmers. The objective of the project is to involve up to 100,000 smallholder farmers in 2019, by increasing their production and productivity up to 250%. Current Status Early 2016 the CFC loan was disbursed to ICS in the Netherlands, which has been used to finance the growth of Agrics’ seed input business. Agrics sold agricultural inputs on credit to about 24,000 smallholder farmers in 2018, in line with previous years. The average maize yield of Agrics’ farmers in

Western Kenya increased from 570 kg/acre to 1,022 kg/acre, representing a 79% income growth. About 200 jobs have been created so far for local community based organizations and farmer groups, contracted by Agrics. In 2018 the company particularly continued to focus on the core maize package, bundling maize seeds, fertilizer and training, while piloting several more high-value crops such as certified soya, and beans. The core package was combined with the Geodatics fertiliser advice. All farmers make use of mobile payment services to repay the loans. Agrics is currently looking for new capital to further grow its activities and benefit from economies of scale.

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14 Moringa Agroforestry Technical Assistance Fund - CFC/2014/04/0103FT

Submitting Institution Moringa Agroforestry Fund Location Africa/Latin America Commodity Agroforestry Total Cost USD 4,100,000 CFC Financing USD 100,000 (Grant) Project Description The Moringa Agroforestry Technical Assistance Fund (ATAF) is a grant-based fund that supports the development impact of investments made by the Moringa Agroforestry Investment Fund. The funds finance programs for training, capacity building and land management.

ested members of the local population into agroforestry production systems, so as to improve their standard of living, their agricultural practices, and, thus, to protect the environment.

The associated ATAF has been established to mitigate risks and to increase the development impact of Moringa Fund investments. The overall objective of the ATAF is to strengthen the capacity of Moringa Investees to include and integrate inter

Current Status ATAF commenced operations in 2016, after a service agreement was signed with the CFC, to become the ATAF Manager. Apart from establishing organizational structures and processes for ATAF, by end 2010, the ATAF Manager has to date developed ten individual Technical Assistance projects of which seven are under implementation and

three have been completed. All projects are in context of Moringa fund investments. Most recently developed projects address inclusive buffer zone management for indigenous people adjacent to a sustainable palm heart agroforestry company in Brazil and the development of a forestry smallholder outgrower scheme for smallholders for the supply of a veneer processing factory in Kenya. The details of action taken by ATAF can be seen on website https:// www.moringapartnerships.com/agroforestry-technical-assistance-facility and can be made available upon request.

15 Modern Processing & Value Chain Development for Prosopis Charcoal and Nutritious Animal Feeds, Kenya - CFC/2014/04/0107FT

Submitting Institution Start!e Limited (Social Enterprise) Location Kenya Commodity Timber Total Cost USD 214,000 CFC Financing (Contribution) USD 100,000 (Zero interest loan, financed from the Dutch Trust Fund) Co-financing USD 15,000 Start!e Limited USD 99,000 Project Description The social enterprise Start!e Ltd will contribute to controlling the unwanted spread of the tree Prosopis Juliflora by setting up a value chain for development of sustainable charcoal as cooking fuel and a value chain for animal feed from the Prosopis fruit pods. A feasibility study financed by Start!e has proved the viability of this undertaking and has secured a partnership with the Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEPFRI). The Government of Kenya has endorsed this utilization approach to manage the spread of this tree, now occupying much of Kenya’s arid and semi-arid areas. Start!e working with existing Charcoal Producers’ Associations has established a network of Prosopis wood and seed pod collection. Start!e sells directly to existing charcoal wholesalers (large-sized bags) as well to distributors that serve retail outlets (various size of packaging). A modern

mobile carbonation unit is used to produce charcoal from Prosopis wood. The project aims to: (i) enhance the process of acquisition of chopped dried Prosopis feedstock; (ii) improve the carbonisation process by shortening the cycles of production; (iii) build customer relationships with a few, higher volume consumers and wholesalers; (iv) improve efficiency in transportation logistics and costs; and (v) increase fundraising. Current status The CFC financed the project and provided resources in a form of a non-interest bearing loan . disbursed in December 2014. The project is being implemented by Tinder EcoFuels, the company created by the social enterprise Start!e for this purpose, in collaboration with the Kenya Forestry Research Institute. During the first year of operation, some teething problems were encountered

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including some engineering issues with the locally assembled mobile carbonization unit which led to higher costs. Therefore, it was decided to stop working with the local carbonization machine and to import a ready-made carbonization machine from Europe. The desired equipment arrived at the field location in the last quarter of 2016. During installation, it was found out that the furnace has been partly damaged during the transport due to difficult terrain in Kenyan roads. The carbonization machine commenced production in June 2017. An initial 230 bags were produced (11.5 tons of charcoal). This was transported to Nairobi and sold to existing wholesale market. In February 2018 the government of Kenya introduced a logging ban in all public and community area in the Country. The ban had a negative impact on the operations of the Company. Therefore, CFC extended the requested 12 month postponement of the outstanding capital repayment.


16 Scaling Smallholder based Premium Coffee Production in Congo and Rwanda CFC/2014/05/0079

Submitting Institution COOPAC Holding Ltd. Location Congo DRC (LDC), Rwanda (LDC) Commodity Coffee Total Cost USD 3,931,880 CFC Financing USD 1,500,000 Loan (of which USD 750,000 financed by OPEC Fund for International ­Development (OFID) and USD 750,000 from the Dutch Trust Fund) Counterpart Contribution USD 2,194,660 - Root Capital; USD 87,220 - COOPAC Holding Ltd. Project Description COOPAC Holding is the only organic coffee supplier in Rwanda. COOPAC working since 2001, in Rwanda, started in 2013 to work with small holders in Congo DRC and intends to upscale its activities there. The CFC support in form of loan is expected to be used to construct 5 washing stations in Congo DRC and to provide working capital for sourcing coffee in Congo DRC and Rwanda and exporting produced coffee.

The upscaling of activities is expected to result in a doubling of permanent staff from 63 to 130 and seasonal staff from 1,000 to 2,090 in 2021. Current status The project commenced in May 2017. In the first year the, CFC’s funds were used to construct 2 washing stations in Congo and to provide working capital for the sourcing of coffee from farmers in Congo and Rwanda. The construction of the 3rd coffee washing station was completed in 2018. As part of Eastern Congo continues to be fragile and unstable, one of the Congolese coffee washing stations was not operational during the last harvest season.

The loan is also expected to be used for training of farmers in best organic agricultural practices and to certify them according to the standards of Fair Trade, Rainforest Alliance and Organic. With a goal to scale and impact up to 17,000 farmers by 2024, of which 3,400 farmers in Congo, COOPAC intends to create a path to improve smallholders’ yield and net income for up to 2.6 times.

Due to the fall of coffee prices in the international markets during 2018, COOPAC’s export volumes were lower as compared to the previous years. In 2018, the company sourced coffee beans from around 7,800

smallholder farmers, of which around 2,500 farmers were in Congo. Farmers continued to benefit from a higher income for Organic and Fairtrade practices, offering a pricing premium of USD 0.30 per kg for Organic beans, plus USD 0.20 per kg for Fairtrade, a total addition of around 42% on top of the minimum market price set for the season. COOPAC exported the majority of its certified coffee to high end buyers in the USA, Asia, Europe, and Africa. The project has created new 137 jobs so far with 127 seasonal and 10 permanent employees. About 62% of employees are female. The owners of COOPAC have established a company in Belgium selling roasted Rwandan and Congolese coffee to European buyers under the Virunga brand. The coffee is currently sold in 6 stores of a larger supermarket chain in Belgium and plans to expand to other distributors in the region. This has positive impact on production of coffee.

17 Scaling Smallholder based Premium Coffee Production in Congo and Rwanda CFC/2014/05/0079FT

Submitting Institution COOPAC Holding Ltd. Location Congo DRC (LDC), Rwanda (LDC) Commodity Coffee Total Cost USD 120,000 CFC Financing USD 120,000 Project Description The CFC support, as a returnable grant, is training of farmers in best organic agricultural practices and to certify them according to the standards of Fair Trade, Rainforest Alliance and Organic. It is expected that the number of participating farmers in Congo will increase from 200 in 2015 to around 3,400 farmers (of which 40% female farmers) in 2021.

The upscaling of activities is expected to result in a doubling of permanent staff from 63 to 130 and seasonal staff from 1,000 to 2,090 in 2021. Current Status The project commenced in May 2017 by providing shade tree seedlings and agroforestry trainings to the Congolese member farmers. The construction of

the 3rd coffee washing station in Congo was completed in 2018 and the farmers received trainings on organic plant nutrition, but also on more complex nutrient balance practices of the coffee fields. COOPAC also produces its own organic fertilizer from coffee pulp, lime, molasses and micro-organisms. Together with seedlings and natural pesticides, this fertilizer is given for free to its associated farmers.

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18 Tolaro Global Cashew Factory Expansion, Benin - CFC/2015/06/0032

Submitting Institution Tolaro Global Location Parakou, Benin (LDC) Commodity Cashew Total Cost USD 5,464,000 CFC Financing USD 1,500,000 Loan (of which USD 1,000,000 is financed by OPEC Fund for International ­Development (OFID)) Co-financing Tolaro Global USD 464,637, other financiers USD 3,500,000 Project Description Tolaro Global is the leading cashew processing company in Benin. Founded in 2010, the company processes and exports more than 3,500 metric tons (MT) of cashews to premium markets in Europe and the United States, with a value of almost USD 4 million. The company buys raw cashews from 7,000 smallholder farmers and employs more than 650 workers, thus creating significant economic impact in Benin.

Current Status In 2018, Tolaro processed 5,000 MT of cashew nuts compared to 4,000 MT in 2017. The company also launched its roasting, seasoning and packaging facility to produce the first ‘100 percent made in West Africa’ roasted cashew nuts. Tolaro is currently in the final phase of testing to obtain the British Retail Consortium (BRC) certification. This is the highest standard of food safety, quality and operational

excellence within a food manufacturing organisation. Tolaro is creating a sustainable and competitive ecosystem for cashew harvesting, processing and export in Benin. A socioeconomic study undertaken by Business Call to Action (initiative launched by the UNDP) has shown some important achievements. Amongst Tolaro partner farmers, 80% received training from Tolaro. Amongst these, 38% reported increased production and 54% increased quality. 74% of the partner farmers are now members of cooperatives – strengthening farmers’ position in the value chain and allowing them to gain fair trade certification and obtain better prices. Photo: Adobe Stock

The CFC is financing the company’s expansion plans. The project entails the acquisition of equipment to increase the processing capacity of Tolaro from 3,500 MT to 20,000 MT by 2023. The number

of farmers delivering raw cashew nuts to Tolaro is expected to increase from 7,000 to 15,000 by 2023. The number of factory jobs is expected to increase from 650 to 1,500 over the same period.

19 Intensified Livelihoods Improvement and Environmental Conservation through Social Business Activities (Natural Fertilizer, Myanmar) - CFC/2015/07/0020FT

Submitting Institution Swanyee Group of Company Location Myanmar (LDC) Commodity Fertilizer Total Cost USD 236,171 CFC Financing USD 117,600 (Loan) Counterpart Contribution USD 118,571 Project Description There are many distributors of chemical fertilizers in Myanmar but only a few of them are engaged in the supply of natural and bio-fertilizers. The Swanyee Group is active in selling organic agricultural inputs mainly to small holder farmers in Myanmar. It has a research department that has been experimenting with the production of natural fertilizers, in the form of vermiculture. The core of the project is to expand the current levels of vermiculture-based

liquid and compost fertilizer. The project aims to demonstrate that organic fertilizers can be offered at lower costs than chemical fertilizers with effective social, economic and environmental impact. Current Status The company is ahead of schedule in the production and sale of organic fertilizer. The CFC loan has been fully disbursed in the fourth quarter of 2016. The development impact of the project is the reduction in

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fertilizer costs for farmers from USD 60/acre to below USD 50/acre. For 2018, the company sold 144 metric tons (MT) of organic fertilizer compared to 88 MT in the previous year. Revenues increased from USD 43,000 to USD 65,000. Operating income increased from USD 12,500 to USD 17,500. The company is expected to maintain supplies to reduce cost of fertilizers to farmers during the coming year.


Photo: Adobe Stock

20 Coffee Value Chain - Uganda - CFC/2015/07/0022FT

Submitting Institution Heritage Coffee Company Location Uganda (LDC) Commodity Coffee Total Cost USD 720,000 CFC Financing USD 120,000 Counterpart Contribution USD 600,000 (Own funds) Project Description The project aims to establish a marketing chain connecting smallholder coffee producers to high value consumers in Uganda, namely to coffee shops, hotels and lodges. To ensure supply of good quality coffee to the consumers, the project would train farmers and coffee processors, and assist with planting and re-planting of coffee trees. The company is expected to roast coffee in its own coffee roasting facilities to complete the supply chain without intermediaries.

The company competitors include Javas café, Ndiro coffee, Café cessille, Good African coffee, Lapati cellie and other small restaurants. Currently the company does not have competing suppliers. The competition strategy of the company is based on quality and brand recognition by direct sales through its own outlets. Current Status Keeping the potential significant of development impact of the project, it was agreed to consider financing it in the form of a

Development Impact Bond (DIB) in the amount of USD120,000, taking into consideration the lessons learnt in the previous CFC project financed via DIB. The CFC is in discussion with the International Coffee Organization regarding the feasibility of finding a counterparty in the impact bond transaction. The CFC will consider entering into either side of the DIB transaction i.e. as a sponsor or as an investor, depending on the specific priorities of the counterparty. The positive outcome of discussions with different parties is still awaited.

21 Accelerating Lending to Food & Agri sector in East Africa Supply Chain Financing CFC/2015/07/0028

Submitting Institution Financial Access Commerce and Trade Services (FACTS) Location Kenya, Uganda (LDC) Commodity Miscellaneous Commodities through Supply Chain Total Cost USD 7,000,0001 CFC Financing USD 1,200,000 Loan (including USD 1,000,000 financed by OPEC Fund for International ­Development (OFID) and USD 200,000 from the Dutch Trust Fund) Counterpart Contribution USD 10,300,000 Project Description Factoring, as a form of supply chain finance, is only marginally developed in Eastern Africa, while in more developed and developing economies it plays a critical role in injecting much needed short term liquidity in value chains. The project aims at supporting the expansion of the factoring business in Kenya and Uganda, The project promoter and CFC Borrower is FACTS East Africa BV. 1

The CFC loan amounts to USD 1,200,000 and will be disbursed in tranches. The tenor of the loan is of 9 months, revolving for 3 years, depending on the declared factoring portfolio. The project will benefit small enterprises and small holder farmers, the expected change in income of the smallholder farmers is: i) maximum increased net income of USD 1.14 million for supplying farmers, or

USD 30 per farmer per year, and ii) increased turn-over in the amount of USD 2.9 million, or USD 78 per farmer per year. Current Status The loan agreement was signed in August 2018, and loan is partially expected to be disbursed in 2019, with the first tranche of USD 400,000 disbursed in March 2019. The outcome of impact is awaited.

 otal Project cost is the outstanding factoring portfolio of the Company. In particular, since the CFC entered into a 9 month facility, the total project cost is considered for the T outstanding factoring portfolio for the year 2019 only. The factoring portfolio for the year 2019 is estimated to be around Euro 6,800,000.

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22 Irrigated Perfumed Rice and Normal Rice Production in Thiagar, Senegal CFC/2015/07/0030

Submitting Institution Coumba Nor Thiam (CNT) Location Senegal (LDC) Commodity Rice Total Cost USD 3,150,000 CFC Financing USD 1,459,800 Loan (including USD 1,000,000 financed by OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID)) Counterpart Contribution USD 1,690,200 Project Description Coumba Nor Thiam (CNT) is the third largest rice processing company in Senegal with 30 years’ experience in the production and processing of normal and perfumed rice. Since 1987, CNT has been growing into a more successful rice company with improving sales volumes. It currently employs 2,500 outgrowers on 3,000 hectare (ha) of land and runs a 500 ha of land in its own plantation in the Northern River Valley region. With a milling capacity of 120 ton/

day , CNT is currently processing 15,000 ton/year of paddy rice. The CFC loan will be used to buy agricultural and irrigation equipment to increase rice production for CNT and for the outgrowers in the supply chain. Current Status In 2018, CNT processed 15,000 tons of rice from 2,500 outgrowers and from their own fields. With the investment in new farming

and irrigation equipment, the company expects to process 20,000 tons of rice in 2021 and to reach the maximum processing capacity of 40,000 tons in 2025. The company will add 500 new farmers to the outgrower network bringing the total to 3,000 farmers. 16 new jobs are expected to be created in the processing facility bringing the total to 123. Signature of the loan agreement and disbursement of the first tranche of the loan is expected to be completed in the first half of 2019.

23 Upscaling the Integrated Production and Processing of Selected Estranged Oilseeds, Nigeria - CFC/2015/07/0032

Submitting Institution EFUGO Farms Nigeria Ltd. Location Nigeria Commodity Oilseeds Total Cost USD 3,893,500 CFC Financing USD 1,500,000 (Loan) Counterpart Contribution USD 2,393,000 Project Description EFUGO Farms Limited (EFL), established in 1987 and based in Abuja region of Nigeria, is producing various crop and livestock products. The project focuses on the production of edible oils (from groundnuts, soybeans, sesame) and non-edible oils (from castor beans, shea butter and neem seeds). There is a large demand for the products due to huge market for these oils and derived products in Nigeria. EFL has already installed a new processing plant but needs resources to acquire additional components such as bleaching machines, weighing machines and tankers. Current supply of oil seeds is insufficient to run all aspects of the oil processing facility.

EFL seeks to engage more than 20,000 farmers to supply oil seeds for the mill. The CFC funds will be used to purchase these additional components and for working capital needed to source seeds from the farmers. Current Status The CFC loan of USD 1,500,000 guaranteed by the Federal Republic of Nigeria was signed in the second quarter of 2017. The loan was fully disbursed in the first quarter of 2018. In 2018, EFL launched an outgrower program managed by a company called Farmore to drive the engagement of smallholder farmers to grow castor in 9 states. The outgrower program successfully

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recruited 4,000 farmers with 6,000 hectares of land for the 2018/2019 agriculture season. In parallel, EFL recruited an experienced agronomist from India to coordinate the sourcing of seeds suitable for local conditions and with high oil content and yield ratio. The processing of castor in the factory is undergoing. The impact of the same and use of castor oil is under review. EFL has since been able to access a loan facility for inputs to 2,000 farmers under the Anchor Borrowers Program (ABP) of the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN). EFL is in the process of accessing another facility for 2,000 additional farmers under the Agri-Business Small and Medium Enterprises Investment Scheme (AGSMEIS) program.


24 Kupanua Project – Asili Farms Ltd., Uganda - CFC/2015/07/0078

Submitting Institution Asili Farms Masindi Ltd. Location Uganda (LDC) Commodity Maize Total Cost USD 3,361,229 CFC Financing USD 1,200,000 Loan (including USD 1,000,000 financed by OPEC Fund for International ­Development (OFID)) Counterpart Contribution USD 2,161,299 Project Description Asili Farms is a fully-mechanized farming company that manages dual-season production of high quality maize and soybeans for supply to regional food processors. Asili became operational in January 2014 and is farming under a conservation agriculture and precision farming approach to maximize yields efficiently and sustainably. The ultimate strategic goal of Asili is to have commercial farming operations on around 6,500 ha. As part of the Agilis Partners Ltd. Holding, Asili Farms (AF) benefits from the guaranteed demand from the sister-company Joseph Initiative Limited (JI), which is marketing Ugandan grains and pulses with extensive regional market access. CFC resources are used to further expand commercial farm operations as well as to scale out Asili’s engagement in training small-scale farmers in commercial maize and soya production as the main source of maize and soya supply for JI. Through

value chain integration and volume increase both, AF and JI, reciprocally mitigate risk and increase their viability. Training of smallholder farmers and their subsequent integration into the supply network of the Joseph Initiative will have a substantial development impact on the ‘bottom of the pyramid’. Asili’s role as the ‘technology transfer centre’ of the Agilis Group will provide training and knowledge transfer for an estimated 50,000 smallholders, that will enable them to duplicate Asili’s conservation agriculture approach onto their small farms. It is estimated that maize yields will increase from currently 1.5 MT/ ha/harvest up to 5 tonnes /ha/harvest, and soya yields from 0.75 MT/ha up to 2.2 MT/ ha. Targeted farmers will also be incentivized to scale out their production which will further increase their net income by a projected total of USD 1,400 per year. In addition 270 jobs will be created directly through Asili’s core farming operations.

Current Status The loan contract was signed in February 2017 and a first tranche of resources was disbursed in May 2017. Asili continues to grow and by end 2018, the farm owns 6,000 ha of land of which 4,000 ha were converted into farmland and are being cultivated, up from 2,700 ha by end 2017. Main crops grown are maize and soya. Due to low maize prices, Asili farms had a difficult year in 2018. Nevertheless Asili sold 22,000 MT of maize and 760 MT of soya in 2018. For increasing food supply for the region, Asili regularly provides training on best practice maize farming neighboring smallholder farmers (250 farmers in 2018) who supply their produce to Asili’s sister company Joseph Initiative Ltd. (also a borrower of a CFC loan). Increasing scale of Asili’s farm operations have led to the creation of 22 permanent and 500 seasonal jobs.

25 Manufacture of Moringa Oleifera from Smallholder Farmers, Kenya CFC/2016/08/0052FT

Submitting Institution EDOM Nutritional Solutions Ltd. Location Kenya Commodity Moringa oleifera Total Cost USD 240,000 CFC Financing USD 120,000 (Loan) Counterpart Contribution USD 120,000 Project Description Edom Nutritional Solutions (ENS) is a company that produces and sells fortified porridge/maize meal and other staple flours. By locally sourcing the key inputs, ENS has a significant competitive advantage in pricing due to local/regional sourcing of micronutrients as compared to competitors’ rather costly imported micronutrients. Wholly organically fortified products are preferred to synthetic/conventionally fortified products. The Government of Kenya in collaboration with the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) passed a requirement for mandatory fortification of staple flours which is driving demand for fortified flours.

The total investment of USD 240,000 was indicated to be used for upscaling of the activities, i.e. the purchase of farm Inputs, solar dehydrators (shared) & storage cocoons for 1,000 farmers with 2 acres each. Counterpart contribution to the project is USD 60,000 with an additional grant of USD 60,000 by the Great Impact Foundation. The project was expected to lead to: • 1,000 farmers earning USD 384/month from sales of moringa leaves, which is well above the above the minimum National Monetary poverty line at USD 170/month, and • increased availability of affordable health

products for low and medium income consumers. The loan agreement was signed in September 2016 and fully disbursed. Current Status The project Sponsor and Borrower - Edom Nutritional Solutions - has not yet provided any update on the information regarding the implementation of the financed project and difficulties, if any, faced in execution of the project. They have also not yet met their repayment obligations. The appropriate authorities in Kenya have been contacted to obtain the current status of the project.

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26 Startup of Innovative Agriculture Finance Company for Cocoa, Philippines CFC/2016/08/0064

Submitting Institution Kennemer Foods International Inc Location Philippines Commodity Cocoa Total Cost USD 11,600,000 CFC Financing USD 1,400,000 (Loan) Counterpart Contribution USD 10,200,000 Project Description Kennemer Foods International Inc., established in 2010, is an agribusiness company specializing in the growing, sourcing and trading of cacao beans sourced from smallholder farmers. Kennemer has a long-standing commercial and strategic relationship with Mars, Inc. Mars is Kennemer’s biggest customer. Mars and Kennemer began a partnership in mid-2012, which involves the sharing of planting research and technology, as well as best practices for cacao growing, harvesting, fermentation, and drying. This is the first such expansion of new cacao production in the Philippines.

Corporation (AFC), to finance tailor made cocoa loans directly to small cocoa farmers. The company secured start-up capital through an equity investment by IncluVest (a Netherlands-based Impact Investment Fund) and through debt funding by FMO (the Dutch Development Bank) and IDH (The Sustainable Trade Institute). The CFC loan is expected to be used for working capital to Kennemer to support the lending activities of AFC.

In 2015, Kennemer launched a new finance company, called Agronomika Finance

Current Status The loan agreement between the CFC and Kennemer was signed in the fourth quarter of 2017. The loan was fully disbursed in the first quarter of 2018.

In 2018, Kennemer reported a drop in sales of 15% compared to the previous year. The reason was the drop in world cocoa prices. Kennemer has taken appropriate initiatives to overcome the prevailing situation. Kennemer continues to organise access to crop-appropriate financing through AFC as well as other lenders allowing farmers to make the necessary investments for planting cocoa. Smallholder farmers that follow the basic grower protocol can experience a 4 fold increase in yield from 0.5MT/ ha to 2MT/ha and a 6 fold increase in the average income from USD 625 to USD 3,750. Kennemer has so far planted 15,000 hectares of new cocoa trees through its Cocoa Contract Growing Program and plans to scale this to 50,000 hectares.

27 Upscaling Coffee Flour Production Plant of Sanam, Colombia - CFC/2016/08/0077FT

Submitting Institution ICCO Cooperation (for SANAM Company) Location Colombia Commodity Coffee Total Cost USD 312,000 CFC Financing USD 120,000 (Loan) Counterpart Contribution USD 192,000 Project description SANAM is a coffee flour production company, based in Colombia and dedicated to the use of waste (husk and pulp) that are usually discarded in the process of coffee processing. These wastes are transformed into Miel de Café (coffee honey liquid) and Harina de Café (flour) which are used as raw materials and supplements for cosmetic, food, pharmaceutical and feed products. The pulp and husk contain elevated levels of antioxidants, proteins and minerals, which are used as raw materials and supplements for cosmetic, food, pharmaceutical and feed products. SANAM has already tested the process and currently produces 3 tons of coffee flour per day. The current project focuses on the upscaling of the SANAM processing plant to increase production of coffee flour. More than 60% of the requested funds will be invested in assets like machinery, equipment and buildings.

The project will have socio-economic and environmental benefits: (a) Employment Generation: the project will create at least 65 jobs, primarily in the rural areas. (b) Income increase of 5-10% for 3,500 farmers. In addition, once the waste is used by SANAM, coffee farmers would not need to pay fines for waste management which will save them money. About 85% of coffee farmers are smallholders (with land up to one hectare) who usually do not have resources for waste management, and (c) Positive environmental impact as coffee waste will no longer pollute the environment by preventing debris such as mucilage and coffee pulp to be poured into streams and rivers without any treatment as the waste will be processed. Current Status CFC is supporting the project through a

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loan extended via Truvalu Group, supporting small and growing agri-food businesses (former ICCO Cooperation). The funds were disbursed in October 2016 and have been used to invest in the machinery and equipment of the beverage and coffee flour line. SANAM was certified and accredited as the only company in Colombia authorized to produce coffee honey, also known as concentrated mucilage, and coffee husk meal. About 230 tons of coffee waste has been processed into coffee concentrate in 2018, 10 times the production of 2017. SANAM is currently receiving the coffee waste from 15 coffee growers, acting as centralized hub on behalf of around 2,500 smallholder farmers in the region. SANAM has mainly expanded its customer base by shipments of its product to the Asian market.


28 Empowering Smallholder Farmers Affected by Conflict - Sri Lanka CFC/2016/09/0069FT

Submitting Institution Vegiland Exporters (Pvt) Ltd Location Sri Lanka Commodity Vegetable Total Cost USD 240,000 CFC Financing USD 120,000 Co-financing USD 76,000 Counterpart Contribution USD 44,000 Project Description The project will be implemented in Sri Lanka Northern and Eastern provinces which were affected by the civil conflict and where the agricultural sector is still hindered by low productivity, limited market access and high post-harvest losses. Poor post-harvest practices account for approximately 20% of the income loss. In addition, farmers lose significant amount of their earnings, estimated to be 15-20%, to the middlemen in the supply chain. The percentage of population living under the poverty line is higher in these agricultural regions than the national average of 6.7%.

The project aims at upscaling the vertically integrated business model of Vegiland Exporters Ltd (‘Vegiland’) . The latter bases its competitive advantage on its full control over the supply chain from field to shop, cutting out the middle man and allowing higher income to the farmers. This model has proven to be successful generating positive net incomes for the past eight years. Vegiland owns a 70 acre farmland which contributes 20% of its total supplies and it sources the remaining 80% from about 200 small holder farmers. The vegetables, collected at the village level, are packed in reusable plastic crates and transported directly to the Vegiland central pack house in Colombo

using refrigerated vehicles. With the aim to increase its market share in the export of Sri Lankan Fruits and vegetable from 7% to 10% and double its annual sales from USD 1.33 million in 2016 to USD 2.70 million in 2021. Current Status The CFC attempts to reach an agreement on the security package to quickly start the project have not been very successful. The potential Borrower of the CFC loan has not been able to offer a collateral to the loan agreement. The project, therefore, is put on hold till an alternative approach to overcome the difficulties are identified and adopted to speed up the project.

29 agRIF Cooperatief U.A. - Netherlands - CFC/2016/09/0089

Submitting Institution agRIF Cooperatief U.A. Location Netherlands Commodity Partnership Total Cost USD 200 million CFC Financing USD 1,000,000 (is Financed by the OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID)) Project Description agRIF is an Impact Investing Fund that focusses on debt and equity investments into financial intermediaries who are active in, and have a clear commitment towards financing the agricultural sector. In addition, agRIF will allocate up to 10% of its funds for the direct provision of debt financing to producer organizations and SMEs working in the agricultural value chain. agRIF invests globally in countries classified as eligible by the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the OECD. agRIF will invest with a maximum exposure of 40% on each of the following regions: a) Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle-East and Northern Africa; b) Latin America and Caribbean region; c) Central-Eastern Europe; d) South Asia; and e) East Asia. The

individual country limit is set at 15% of the funds’ total investments. Target loan size of agRIF for each portfolio investment is between USD 0.5 and 5 million. Equity investments will have a target size between USD 5-7 million. agRIF funds will be used by the borrowing financial institution to retail small and microcredits down to subsistence farmer level with individual loan size even below USD 1,000. While microfinance institutions are likely to be the major group of clients, agRIF will also invest in small banks, agricultural leasing companies as well as any other financial intermediary who is in a position to provide services to the agricultural sector. This broad target market is chosen

in recognition that microfinance institutions may not always be the best channel through which to approach clients active in the agricultural value chain. Current Status CFC joined agRIF in June 2017. agRIF has since raised over USD 150 million of funds to finance rural financial intermediaries and producer organization in developing countries. agRIF has supported 39 investees under the committed portfolio of USD 114 million (December 2018), of which 93% rural financial intermediaries and 7% agricultural SME’s. The financial intermediaries have reached around 4.1 million borrowers. The investees employ 22,500 full-time employees, of which 48% female. India and Ecuador are the countries with the largest exposure in the fund to date.

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30 Reducing Vulnerability to Price Volatility - Kenya - CFC/2016/09/0097

Submitting Institution SHALEM Investment Ltd. Location Kenya Commodity Grains Total Cost USD 2,100,000 CFC Financing USD 610,000 Loan (of which USD 500,000 is financed by Dutch Trust Fund (DTF)) Co-financing Rabobank Foundation: USD 500,000 Foodtrade (FTESA) grant: USD 325,000 Shalem: USD 660,000 Project Description Shalem investment Ltd (‘Shalem’), is an established social for-profit business aggregating, transporting, and marketing grains, cereals and legumes for use by agri food processors, such as East African Breweries, Unga Ltd, and Bidco. Created by the female CEO and founder to help smallholder farmers in successfully marketing their sorghum crops, Shalem works with thousands of farmers today, and is set to expand their activities. Shalem will start processing facilities based on variety of grains to access the Bottom-of-Pyramid (BoP) market with more innovative nutritious blended food. CFC’s funds will be used to invest in a storage facility where all grains and related farm produce from farmers will be stored, and a value addition facility where maize will be cleaned and blended with sorghum, millet and beans. By creating a product that incorporates drought-tolerant sorghum and millet in addition to maize, plus providing reliable storage facilities, the project aims to reduce the financial risks local farmers are facing due to volatile maize prices.

They plan to expand their supply network to include up to 50,000 farmers from the Upper Eastern region of Kenya over the next 5 years. Shalem is providing a variety of incentives to help the smallholder farmers in their network achieve high-quality production, aggregation and marketing, such as training programs, soil testing, linking farmers to certified seeds and other farm inputs, and assisting them in adopting new technologies and providing access to micro loans. These improvements are expected to lead to productivity reaching 2,000 kg/ hectare, tripling farmers’ incomes to USD 215 per harvest. In addition, Shalem expects to create 17 new permanent jobs. Current Status The CFC loan was disbursed in tranches from May 2018 onwards, and construction activities of the modern processing

plant commenced in mid-2018. The plant is expected to start operations by June 2019, equipping a fine cleaner and sorter, mobile dryer, mixer, extruder, packaging line, and other equipment financed by the CFC. The roadworks have been supported by Meru’s county government, connecting the new plant to the main road. The plant will enable Shalem to upscale its nutritional product range by processing maize, beans, sorghum, millet, soybeans and green grams. Shalem has introduced its first new nutritional products to the BoP-market under the brand name Asili Plus. For this fortified flour, Shalem developed a new formula which permits a different mix of grains, depending on the availability of each season. These value added activities create a more stable and secure demand for the smallholder farmers and a nutritious and accessible product for people living in poor conditions. The Asili Plus Porridge and Ugali are currently supplied to 11 schools, and are available in over 50 retail shops in Meru and surrounding counties. Shalem has expanded its network of smallholder farmers from 20,000 to over 22,200 during 2018. About 70% of the farmers are women, and Shalem’s management team is currently represented by 4 women and 3 men. Photo: ©FAO/Samuel Creppy

To launch this project, Shalem is receiving support from FoodTrade East and Southern

Africa (FTESA) to improve the quantity and quality of the farmers’ crops. The 2SCALE project team of the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC), sponsored by the Dutch government, is also providing support to help Shalem develop its business model to create a fully integrated commodities supply chain.

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31 Acquisition of a processing plant for the aquaculture sector - Peru - CFC/2016/09/0122

Submitting Institution Acuacultura Tecnica Integrada del Peru S.A. (ATISA) Location Peru Commodity Shrimp Total Cost USD 4,000,000 CFC Financing USD 1,500,000 (Loan) Co-financing Acuacultura Tecnica Integrada del Peru S.A. (ATISA): USD 200,000 Owner: USD 1,850,000 Project Description ATISA, is a shrimp aquaculture company located in Tumbes area, North Peru. ATISA is specialized in breeding, production, and distribution of shrimps. About 65% of sales is exported to Europe and Asia, the remainder is sold domestically. ATISA is recognized through its own brand called ‘COOL!’. They are number 21 in the Peruvian shrimp production market, a relatively fragmented market consisting of 85 production companies. The shrimp processing market, however, is very concentrated and fully controlled by 2 players: Nautilus (25% market share) and Inysa/Camposol (75% market share). Due to the duopolistic market, processing prices are currently 3.5x higher in Peru than Ecuador. ATISA intends to enter into processing activities as a 3rd player in the country.

is the sole Global GAP certified aquaculture player in Peru.

ATISA is a family owned company founded in 1991, employing 90 persons, of which 43 are full-time. ATISA is recognized by quality and good production practices, and

The CFC and ATISA have reached an agreement on the final terms and conditions of the loan, which will be made available in two tranches The first USD 500,000 tranche

This project will invest in shrimp processing activities by acquisition of a plant, license, land, and new shrimp peeling machinery. The aquaculture plant to be acquired is aimed at fishery, which will be transformed into a shrimp processing plant. Current Status ATISA has entered into a lease agreement to temporarily rent the processing plant and has an option to purchase the plant after completion of the financing agreement. The new plant commenced operations in 2017 and part of the machinery such as the shrimp peeling machine and freezer has already been installed.

will be used to invest into new equipment and machinery to improve productivity of the shrimp farm. The remaining USD 1.5 million financing will be used to acquire the processing plant, subject to co-financing by other local financing institutions. To upscale production volumes on its existing farmland, ATISA is planning to install prebreeding systems, an intensive aquaculture system, and automatic feeders. Under these new systems ATISA can have up to 4 harvests per year and quadruple the yield. CFC’s first tranche will be used for this purpose and part of these investments have already been made by ATISA’s own resources. ATISA is still the only shrimp aquaculture farm certified by Global GAP in Peru, and the ASC certification is in process. About 7 smaller Peruvian shrimp farmers are benefiting from ATISA’s processing services. ATISA is currently employing over 107 employees, of which 70% with a permanent contract.

32 Africa Food Security Fund - Ghana - CFC/2016/09/0124

Submitting Institution Databank Investment Partners Location Ghana Commodity Partnership Total Cost USD 100,000,000 CFC Financing USD 1,000,000 (to be financed by OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID)) Project Description The Africa Food Security Fund (AFSF) is an impact investing fund that seeks to invest in small and medium size businesses (SME) active along the agricultural value chains across Africa with a focus on sub-Saharan Africa. All investments in the fund will be made as equity or quasi-equity in growing companies active in primary production, agricultural input and service providers, as well as agro- and food- processing. The experienced AFSF managers will take an

active role in strategic development, and will get involved in operational matters to compensate eventual weaknesses of the investee companies. While the fund aims to be commercially successful, it has also equally important social impact goals After closure of AFSF, in ten years it is expected that a minimum of 2,000 jobs will have been created and 14,000 smallholder farmers/Bottom of the Pyramid (BOP) Entrepreneurs will be sup-

ported through linkages with AFSF portfolio companies. 50% of all beneficiaries are sought to be women. Current Status The CFC has examined all the terms and conditions applicable to join Partnerships of the AFSF. Subject to the successful assessment and negotiations of AFSF’s final terms and conditions, the CFC will join AFSF at its second closure. This is envisaged to be completed in the second quarter of 2019.

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33 Babban Gona 40,000 Farmer Scale up Project - Nigeria - CFC/2016/09/0125

Submitting Institution Babban Gona Farmer Services Limited Location Nigeria Commodity Grains Total Cost USD 20,000,000 CFC Financing USD 1,500,000 (Loan) Co-financing Entrepreneurial Development Bank (FMO): USD 4,000,000 Nigeria Sovereign Investment Authority (NSIA): USD 9,500,000 Project Description Babban Gona is a social enterprise founded in 2012, targeting small holder crop producers organized in farmer cooperatives (trust groups), in the Northern region of Nigeria. Project activities focuses on supporting smallholder farmers in the cultivation of maize (accounting about 85% of total hectare served), rice and soybeans, the key crops grown in the region. Poultry, which uses maize and soybean as feed, is one of the fastest growing food markets. Babban Gona provides smallholder farmers with an integrated package of training on best agricultural practices, a cost-effective supply of farm inputs on credit (seeds, fertilizer etc.), marketing of produce and storage services with the aim to enhance farmers’ productivity, market access and household income. Babban Gona expects to expand into 3 new states a total market potential of 10 million active smallholder

farmers, organized in 430,700 trust member groups. Babban-Gona’s system is running on farmers Trust-Groups comprising an average of 4 members, typically farming 0.7 ha each. The Trust-Group receives and passes on to its members agricultural inputs (seeds, chemicals, fertilizers) that are cheaper than the market price. This is possible because Babban Gona will pass on its price advantage, achieved by bulk purchase, to the Trust Groups. Under a warehouse receipts program, farmers will be able to delay sale of produce and have the potential to sell at 25 -50% higher prices than selling directly at harvest stage. The additional net income can be used by farmers to invest into household and/or business improving assets triggering a virtuous livelihood development circle. Babban Gona’s involvement in both production and storage is an assurance

and guarantee of quality, consistency and steady supply for its buyers with whom they reached 100% quality rating score. Current Status Since 2017, Babban Gona has been the largest maize producing entity in Nigeria. The company is currently working with 16,080 member farmers across 4,230 TrustGroups. The net income of the farmers have increased to 2.8 – 3.5 times above the national average over the past years. This increase is accomplished by delivering the integrated package of farm inputs, marketing services and training on credit. Babban Gona employs 97 permanent staff, of which 26% female. The due diligence was conducted mid-2018. The indicative terms and conditions of the loan are currently at the negotiation stage and are expected to be finalized soon.

34 Good seeds for all farmers project - Burkina Faso CFC/2016/09/0138

Submitting Institution National Union of Seed Producers of Burkina (UNPSB) Location Burkina Faso (LDC) Commodity Seeds Total Cost USD 2,974,000 CFC Financing USD 1,487,000 Loan of which (USD 1,000,000 is financed by OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID)) Co-financing USD 1,487,000 Project Description The Union of Seed Producers is the umbrella organization bringing together 13 regional producers of high quality seeds that are adapted to the weather and ecology of the country. The Union protects the interests of its 4,000 producer members and ensures the seamless coordination with the national research institute for sourcing seeds and marketing the output on behalf of its members. The competitive advantage of the Union comes from its status as the only cooperative of certified seed producers in the country. This puts the Union in the position

of being the primary link between the research community and the larger farming community. The link is typically made through the government or other NGOs. The Government purchases over 50% of the seed volume produced by the Union. The project is expected to enhance its financial resources, expand storage capacity and strengthen transport, which will enable the Union to dominate the national and international market for the supply of improved seeds. The CFC loan will be used for new storage capacity, processing and packaging equipment for the 13 regional centers.

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Current Status The Union has acquired land in all 13 regions and is negotiating with equipment suppliers and construction contractors to enhance its capacity. They are also working to obtain more co-financing from local financial institutions. The term sheet of the CFC loan was signed in October 2017 and an onsite due diligence visit was completed in March 2018. Finalization of the loan agreement is pending confirmation of Government of Burkina Faso support to UNPSB for the project.


35 EcoEnterprises Fund III - CFC/2017/10/0066

Submitting Institution EcoEnterprises Fund Location Latin America Commodity Partnership Total Cost USD 100,000,000 CFC Financing USD 1,000,000 (USD 1,000,000 is financed by OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID)) Project Description EcoEnterprises III (EcoE III) is an Impact Investing fund that seeks to make investments in Latin American SME’s who source raw material from collectors or smallholder farmers for value added processing.. The target sectors are sustainable agriculture, agro-forestry, aquaculture, and wildharvested forest products. EcoE III seeks to invest in growing companies that cater for the continuing steep increase in demand for organic food products and certified wood in regional markets and foremost the US. In practice, EcoE companies source raw material from these sectors to add value to their

‘Fast Moving Consumer Good’ products (health drinks, ‘healthy’ candy bars, baby food, dried fruit, etc.). EcoE III is expected to make 18 long-term capital investments, size between USD 2 – 6 million, within an average duration of 6 – 8 years. EcoE III fund managers will actively engage in investee company governance, company strategy and growth planning, and will provide technical advisory support, wherever needed. Next to the goal of being commercially successful, EcoE III aims at the creation of at least 5,000 jobs and to connect 25,000 small-scale producers to

secure and rewarding markets through their investee companies. Current Status After the successful assessment and negotiations of the funds final terms and conditions, the CFC has become a shareholder of EcoE III at its first closure in late 2018. CFC has been assigned a seat in the Funds’ Advisory committee for which a first meeting took place in Washington D.C. in December 2018. First investments are scheduled to be made in early 2019.

36 Testing of Fertilizer bio-formulations, India - CFC/2017/10/0069

Submitting Institution Tea Board of India Location India Commodity Tea Total Cost USD 2,435,760 CFC Financing USD 1,217,880 (Loan) Co-financing Tea Board of India: USD 608,940 Tea Research Association: USD 304,470 United Planters Association of Southern India – Tea Research Foundation: USD 304, 470 Project Description Tea Board of India (‘TBI’) is a statutory body operating under the Ministry of Commerce and Industry and established in 1954 to promote the cultivation, processing, and domestic trade as well as export of tea. India is one of the largest tea producers of black tea, 65% of its produce comes from large producers and 35% comes from small holder farmers. Compliance to safety norms is of outmost importance, hence the importance of offering testing laboratories to tea small holder producers, the target customers of the project.

tion before field application, which includes survey selection laboratory and field evaluation including environmental safety. Environmental factors like PH, temperature, RH and length of storage and contaminations affects the quality of microbial products. Microbial biocides and biofertilizers are now available in the market which are extensively used by farmers. A well-defined quality control mechanism is not available to check the quality of said microbial products primarily due to the lack of proper testing facilities. Therefore the TBI intends to upgrade two laboratories in the South and North of India.

Microbial biocides and microbial based biofertilizers requires extensive investiga-

The CFC funds will be used to finance the upgrade of two testing laboratories for

bio-formulations for the tea industry. One in North East India and one in South India. The project will be executed by two research institutes: the Tea Research Association (‘TRA’) and the United Planters Association of Southern India – Tea Research Foundation (‘UPASI-TRF’). Current Status The CFC and the Tea Board of India have negotiated and signed a non-binding term sheet in November 2017. The terms and conditions of the loan are under active consideration of Government of India and positive outcome is expected in 2019 which will lead to the execution of the project.

III Active Projects in 2018 | 61


37 Scaling Up Acess to Finance for Smallholder Potato Farmers, Malawi CFC/2017/10/0091

Submitting Institution Malawi Enterprise Development Fund Limited Location Malawi (LDC) Commodity Potato Total Cost USD 6,200,000 CFC Financing USD 1,500,000 (Loan) Co-financing Malawi Enterprise Development Fund: USD 3,200,000 To be identified: USD 1,500,000 Project Description The Malawi Enterprise Development Fund (MEDF) seeks funding to finance the growing Malawi potato sector. MEDF plans to assist commercial nucleus potato farmers to enter into contracts with smallholder potato producers and at the same time with reliable commercial off-takers. Potato processors in Malawi frequently encounter difficulties in sourcing sufficient potatoes for their French fries production facilities. MEDF’s key concept is to use potato contracts with commercial food processors, distributors, and commodity traders as

collateral for individual loans extended by MEDF to smallholder farmers who supply the potatoes for processing. MEDF plans to extend loans to larger ‘nucleus farmers’ who are expected to manage potato cultivation of around 100 smallholders in their neighbourhood. With this value chain organization, MEDF seeks to provide loans to a total of 250,000 participating farm households, who are assumed to be able to increase their income by 25% through the integration of potatoes into their cropping system. MEDF is a microfinance institution and the successor of the government

founded Malawi Rural Development Fund (MARDEF). The Government of Malawi will be the borrower of the CFC Loan on behalf of MEDF. Current Status MEDF has partnered with the NGO EUCORD to develop an operational business plan and a financial model for the envisaged potato out grower scheme in Malawi. The completion of this planning phase is taking longer than anticipated and is now expected to be completed in 2019, after which the implementation of the project will commence.

38 The conservation of the forest of Ashaninka communities, Peru - CFC/2017/10/0109

Submitting Institution The Rainforest Foundation UK Location Peru Commodity Cocoa Total Cost USD 3,200,000 CFC Financing USD 1,500,000 Co-financing Potential investor (to be identified): USD 1,700,000 Project Description The project is expected to be implemented in the Peruvian Amazonian, along the river Ene in the Satipo province where the Asháninkas live in 55 communities. The project will target 22 Asháninkas communities with a total of about 500 small holder farmers as final beneficiaries. The project enables direct sale of fine flavour chocolate to premium buyers. Contribution to development of the Asháninka communities by direct sales to cocoa and coffee markets is attractive to Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) conscious investors. The production will be marketed in Europe, North America and Japan. Currently the main client is an Australian company: Loving Earths ltd.

The project aims to: (i) support the Asháninka cocoa farmers in enhancing the quality and yield per hectare of their produce; (ii) include in the value chain additional 140 smallholder farmers; (iii) support the producer association Kemito Ene in post-harvest, marketing and selling activities; (iv) decrease the deforestation process and keep track of this in a defined area of about 100,000 hectares; and (v) transform the Association Kemito Ene into a cooperative.

The project will be financed with a Development Impact Bond, where the RFUK is the Service Provider, CFC and Schmidt Family Foundation (‘SFF’) the Investors, and Inter-American Development Bank (‘IADB’) and other grants donors are the Commissioners. After approval of the project, the SFF, with a deep heart, withdrew its commitment as project investor, causing significant delays in the project implementation and need for identifying new proponents.

The Project will be implemented by the Rainforest UK – the Service Provider – a charity organization based in London, in cooperation with the local farmers asso­ ciation Kemito Ene and Central Asháninka del Rio Ene.

Current Status The project implementation has registered some delays mainly due to the difficulties of the project implementing agency to attract the needed additional investor/s and grant donor/s to join this exciting endeavor.

62 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018


39 Formulation and fertilizer distribution for smallholder farmers, Côte d’Ivoire CFC/2017/10/0111

Submitting Institution AGRITEC S.A. Location Côte d’Ivoire Commodity Fertilizer Total Cost Euro 2,003,000 CFC Financing USD 1,100,000 Loan (of which USD 350,000 is financed by OPEC Fund for International ­Development (OFID)) Co-financing Coris Bank: EUR 530,000 Counterpart contribution EUR 530,000 Project Description AGRITEC S.A proposes to build a dry bulk fertilizer blending and packaging station in Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire. AGRITEC S.A. is a distributor of agriculture inputs (insecticides, herbicides and fungicides) and equipment (irrigation and spraying) systems based in Abidjan. Since its establishment, AGRITEC has introduced new products that helped farmers to increase their productivity. The company’s key competitive advantage is its advanced and highly diversified distribution model which allows it to service small and remote customers. AGRITEC has a network of 60 sales outlets across the

country reaching up to 300,000 farmers across the country.

are expected in conformity with the project plan and the developments achieved.

The CFC funds are expected to be used for the capital expenditures associated with building the fertilizer blending factory, establishing processing facilities and purchase of logistics equipment.

Upon completion of the blending facility, project expects to create 120 new jobs, in the next 7 years. In addition, AGRITEC will reach new customers, providing proper inputs to smallholders who currently do not have access to them. It is expected that the productivity of the smallholders working with AGRITEC’s inputs will increase by 38%, resulting in an increase in their incomes. Additionally, the company will introduce and promote the adoption of organic fertilizers and provide technical assistance for its customers.

Current Status The loan agreement between CFC and AGRITEC has been signed and all conditions for disbursement have been met. The first tranche of the loan was disbursed in the first quarter of 2018. Subsequent disbursements

40 Soybean Processing for Farmer and Market Impact, Rwanda - CFC/2017/10/0123

Submitting Institution ProDev Rwanda Ltd. Location Rwandan (LDC) Commodity Soybeans Total Cost USD 3,340,000 CFC Financing USD 1,000,000 Loan (financed by OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID)) Co-financing USD 990,000 Counterpart Contribution USD 1,350,000 (ProDev Rwanda Ltd) Project Description ProDev Rwanda Ltd (‘Prodev’) is a subsidiary of ProDev Group Holding Company Ltd. The group is the leading buyer, processor and trader of maize in Rwanda processing over 45,000 metric tonnes of maize per annum. In 2016, Prodev started an animal feed plant to meet the demand of its existing poultry customers. The project aims to invest in a new soya processing plant in the Eastern Province of Rwanda (Rwamagana) to produce and sell soya cake for animal feed and soya oil for human consumption. The project is seeking to innovate Rwanda’s soya value chain by creating a vertically integrated ‘farm-to-market’ solution. The new soya processing plant aims

to produce: (i) 12,520 MT of soya cake per annum (80% of production), of which about 50% to be supplied to its own animal feed plant and the remainder to its existing base of poultry customers. (ii) 3,130 MT soya oil (20% of production) to be sold to supermarkets in Rwanda and the neighbouring countries. Prodev and its subsidiaries have developed into the largest maize producer, trader and processor in Rwanda. Prodev is a sister company of Minimex, owning the largest maize mill in the country and running a joint venture with Heineken’s subsidiary in Rwanda. Since its inception in 2006, the group has been running out grower schemes with over 22,000 farmers.

Current Status The CFC conducted a site visit in February 2018. The assessment and appraisal of the project is currently ongoing and subject to a satisfactory agreement on the final terms and conditions. Prodev has received an indicative commitment from a strategic equity investor for cofinancing the project. CFC is also in contact with the Africa Guarantee Fund to discuss the possibility for a 50% guarantee on the loan. The project is mainly dependent on a successful outcome of the negotiations with the strategic equity investor, confirmation of the same is expected soon.

III Active Projects in 2018 | 63


41 Integrated Lime Production In Bahia - Brazil - CFC/2017/11/0005

Submitting Institution Jan Stap BV Location Brazil Commodity Citrus Fruit Total Cost USD 3,600,000 CFC Financing USD 1,200,000 (Loan) Counterpart Contribution USD 2,400,000 The Group intends to enter the production business with the goal of vertically integrating and controlling its supply chain. The limes are produced in Brazil with the goal to collect, store, transport and distribute the same in Europe and world- wide by Jan Stap BV. The control over the whole value chain will enable the Company to apply and obtain the Fair Trade and Global Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) Certification. Total area is 300 hectares, of which 52 hectares cultivated in 2018. The first harvest is estimated for the year 2020.

ic inclusion and stable employment for 50 farmers in one of the poorest municipality of Brazil. This will contribute to poverty alleviation and creation of sustainable livelihoods. Moreover, the project will create additional jobs along the value chain in the processing and logistic activities. Current Status The loan agreement between the CFC and Jan Stap BV was signed in December 2018 and the first tranche of EUR 500,000 was disbursed after the signature of the loan agreement.

The development impact of the project would be achieved mainly through economPhoto: R. Grisolia

Project Description The Project aims at establishing an agricultural production base of limes in the municipality of Pojuca, in Bahia State, Brazil. The sponsor of the Project and potential CFC Borrower, Jan Stap BV (‘the Company’), is a well-established import and export company based in The Netherlands and is commercializing fruits and vegetables imported from Brazil to Europe. Jan Stap BV is the largest company within the Torres Group (‘The Group’), owned by the entrepreneur. The Group operates through two companies in Brazil and one in The Netherlands. The existing logistic and commercialization activities of the Group includes six collection, processing and packaging centres in Brazil.

64 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018


Photo: CFC

IV 30th Meeting of the Governing Council The Common Fund for Commodities (CFC) held its 30th

national statements, including a statement on behalf of the OECD

Annual Meeting of the Governing Council (GC) in The Hague,

group, delivered by the representative of Germany. F ­ urther, the

the Netherlands, from 6 to 7 December 2018. Mr. Denis S. Ulin,

International Bamboo and Rattan Organization (INBAR) delivered

Governor of Common Fund for Commodities for The Russian

its statement to the Governing Council as Observer.

Federation, opened the Meeting in his capacity as Chairperson of the Governing Council. He welcomed all Members of

The Governing Council was informed that the inaugural meet-

the Council as well as the representatives of international

ing of the Common Fund for Commodities was held in July

­organizations. Mr. Parvindar Singh, Managing Director of the

1989 and CFC became operational in September 1989. In 2019

CFC, delivered a statement on the activities of the Common

the CFC will have completed 30 years of its operational exist-

Fund during 2018.

ence. Previously, on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the CFC, a one-day event was organized to review the achieve-

The Governing Council welcomed Mr. Erdenetsogt Odbayar,

ments and looked into future challenges where the CFC could

the Executive Director of the International Think Tank for

be expected to act effectively in the interest of its Member

Landlocked Developing Countries. In his statement,

countries. A similar event will be organized back-to-back with

Mr. Odbayar pointed out the importance of opportunities

the next meeting of the Governing Council, in December 2019.

created by commodity value chains in supporting the development of Landlocked developing countries.

The occasion of the 30th Anniversary of the CFC will be a great opportunity for the key stakeholder groups of the CFC to discuss what strategies and instruments the Fund needs to develop

The Governing Council

for its future work and to maintain its central role in supporting activities which promote the contribution of the commodity

The Agenda of the meeting was adopted. As is the custom

sector to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

for the Annual Meeting, twelve national delegations delivered

in its member countries.

IV 30th Meeting of the Governing Council | 65


Photo: CFC

The Governing Council considered the “Extension of the date

The Chairperson and Vice-Chairpersons of the Governing

of Entry into Force of the Amendments to the Agreement

Council for the year 2019 are as follows:

Establishing the Common Fund for Commodities” and decided to extend the date of entry into force of the amendments to

Chairperson for 2019

the Agreement to 10 January 2020 with the possibility of a

Mr. Denis S. Ulin (Russian Federation)

further extension to be granted by the Council at its Thirty-First Annual Meeting, as recommended by the Executive Board. The

Vice-Chairpersons for 2019

Governing Council also decided to extend the date of entry

African Region Group: Mr. Nagi Iskander Awad Masoud (Sudan)

into force of a number of new documents, and amendments to

Asian and Pacific Region Group: H.E. Mr. Lok Bahadur Thapa

existing documents, of the “Second Level” to the same date, 10

(Nepal)

January 2020.

China: Mr. Guosheng Zhang Latin American and Caribbean Region Group:

The Governing Council took note of the report on the Fund’s

Mr. Alejandro Mitri (Argentina)

activities under the First Account Net Earnings Programme and

OECD Group: Ms. Eva Oskam (The Netherlands)

under the Second Account during the year 2018. The Governing

Russian Federation: Ms. Irina Medvedeva

Council approved the Administrative Budget for 2019 and the 2017 Audited Financial Statements.

Chairperson and Vice-Chairpersons of the Governing Council for the Year 2019 The Governing Council, by consensus, re-elected Mr. Denis S. Ulin of The Russian Federation as Chairperson for the period up to and including the Thirty-First Annual Meeting of the Governing Council.

66 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018

Photo: CFC


V  Financial Reports Balance Sheet - First Account, as of 31 December 2018 (expressed in USD & SDR) after profit distribution 2018 2017 20182017 USD USD SDRSDR ASSETS Cash and Cash equivalents Cash in Bank

10,640,400

15,434,600

7,650,600 

Time Deposits

1,762,900

1,866,900

1,267,600 

10,837,900 1,310,900

12,403,300

17,301,500

8,918,200 

12,148,800 46,217,700

Investments Debt Securities

66,910,600

65,820,000

48,109,800 

Participations in Investment Funds

5,145,300

5,771,500

3,699,600 

4,052,600

72,055,900

71,591,500

51,809,400 

50,270,300

Promissory Notes 34,390,900

36,058,200

24,727,600 

25,319,500

Amounts Receivable From Members Amounts Receivable From Members

11,932,200

12,444,100

8,579,400 

8,738,000

Provision For Overdue Members Capital Subscription

-11,046,700

-11,516,900

-7,942,800 

-8,087,000

885,500

927,200

636,600 

651,000

Prepayments

156,800

136,200

112,700

95,600

Other Receivables Accrued Income on Investments

624,200

606,000

448,800 

425,500

Recoverable Taxes on Goods & Services

101,000

32,400

72,600 

22,800

Other receivables

2,031,200

64,800

1,460,500 

45,500

2,756,400

703,200

1,981,900 

493,800

122,648,800

126,717,800

88,186,400 

88,979,000

Accrued Liabilities

934,800

817,300

672,100 

573,700

Payable to EU/EC

0

1,700

0

1,200

Turkey settlement

156,600

156,600

112,600 

110,000

Luxembourg settlement

647,400

647,400

465,500 

454,600

1,738,800

1,623,000

1,250,200 

1,139,500

Total Assets LIABILITIES AND EQUITY Liabilities

Capital Subscriptions & Accumulated Surplus Paid-in-Shares of Directly Contributed Capital

103,583,000

105,292,000

74,477,800 

73,934,300

Net Earnings Programme

16,685,000

17,516,700

11,996,800 

12,299,900

Accumulated Surplus

642,000

2,286,100

461,600 

1,605,300

120,910,000

125,094,800

86,936,200 

87,839,500

Total Equity and Liabilities

126,717,800

88,186,400 

88,979,000

122,648,800

V Financial Reports | 67


Balance Sheet - Second Account, as of 31 December 2018 (expressed in USD & SDR) after profit distribution 2018 2017 20182017 USD USD SDRSDR ASSETS Cash and Cash equivalents Cash in bank

11,572,400

7,853,400

8,320,700 

5,514,500

Time Deposits

3,627,500

6,402,000

2,608,200 

4,495,400

15,199,900

14,255,400

10,928,900 

10,009,900

Debt Securities

61,425,100

65,699,000

44,165,600 

46,132,700

Participation in Investment Funds

595,000

314,000

427,800 

220,500

62,020,100

66,013,000

44,593,400 

46,353,200

5,802,100

3,984,300 

4,074,100

Investments

Promissory Notes

5,541,300

Amounts Receivable From Members Amounts Receivable From Members

354,500

371,200

254,900 

260,700

Provision For Overdue Members Capital Subscription

-354,500

-371,200

-254,900 

-260,700

0

0

0

0

4,053,100

Loans Loan Receivable

10,033,700

5,772,100

7,214,400 

Provision for Overdue Loan

-1,834,500

-1,309,500

-1,319,000 

-919,500

8,199,200

4,462,600

5,895,400 

3,133,600

Other Receivables Accrued Income on Investments

1,053,400

846,500

757,400 

594,400

Receivable from Dutch Trust Fund

0

230,000

0

161,500

Other Receivables

400

20,300

300 

14,300

1,053,800

1,096,800

757,700 

770,200

92,014,300

91,629,900

66,159,700 

64,341,000

Turkey Settlement

234,900

234,900

168,900 

164,900

Belgium Settlement

360,900

377,900

259,500 

265,400

Total Assets LIABILITIES AND EQUITY Liabilities

Luxembourg Settlement

76,700

77,700

55,100 

54,600

Payable to Dutch Ministry

867,600

1,482,900

623,800 

1,041,300

Payable to EU/EC

0

469,900

0

330,000

Other Payables

1,459,100

64,800

1,049,100 

45,500

2,999,200

2,708,100

2,156,400 

1,901,700

Capital Subscriptions and Accumulated Surplus Paid-in-Shares of Directly Contributed Capital

24,935,800

25,195,500

17,929,200 

17,691,900

Accumulated Surplus

64,079,300

63,726,300

46,074,100 

44,747,400

89,015,100

88,921,800

64,003,300 

62,439,300

91,629,900

66,159,700 

64,341,000

Total Equity and Liabilities

68 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018

92,014,300


Income Statement for the period 1 January to 31 December 2018 – First Account (expressed in USD & SDR) 2018 2017 20182017 USD USD SDRSDR Income Net Income from Investments

1,823,400

2,085,800

1,287,700 

Other Income

1,680,800

253,200

1,186,900 

1,507,100 182,900

Unrealized (loss)/gain on participations in investment funds

-643,900

-784,600

-454,700 

-566,900

Realized Exchange (loss)/gain on Operations

-10,100

0

-7,100 

0

Unrealized Exchange (loss)/gain on translation of Balance Sheet items

-2,055,300

4,239,300

-1,451,400 

3,063,000

Total Income 794,900

5,793,700

561,400 

4,186,100

Expenses Staff Salaries & Benefits

2,341,400

2,286,700

1,653,500 

1,652,200

Operational Expenses

341,900

315,900

241,400 

228,200

Meeting Costs

176,000

188,100

124,300 

135,900

Premises Costs

208,900

242,800

147,500 

175,400

Legal and Due Diligence Facility

14,700

0

10,400 

0

Total Expenses

3,082,900

3,033,500

2,177,100 

2,191,700

NETT (LOSS)/PROFIT

-2,288,000

2,760,200

-1,615,700 

1,994,400

Statement of Comprehensive Income (Loss)/Profit for the year

-2,288,000

2,760,200

-1,615,700 

1,994,400

Items that will not be reclassified to profit and loss

-1,708,300

4,380,200

-1,206,400 

3,164,800

Items that will be reclassified to profit and loss

-61,600

-10,100

-43,500 

-7,300

Total comprehensive income for the year -4,057,900

7,130,300

-2,865,600 

5,151,900

V Financial Reports | 69


Income Statement for the period 1 January to 31 December 2018 - Second Account (expressed in USD & SDR) 2018 2017 20182017 USD USD SDRSDR Income Net Income from Investments

2,005,000

1,968,900

1,415,900 

1,422,600

Income from Loans

491,500

242,900

347,100 

175,500

Voluntary Contribution in cash

126,900

0

89,600 

0

Contribution DTF I

385,000

750,000

271,900 

541,900

Realized Exchange (loss)/gain on Operations

6,800

3,700

4,800 

2,700

Unrealized (loss)/gain on Investment Funds

-19,400

-13,000

-13,700 

-9,400

Unrealized Exchange (loss)/gain on translation of Balance Sheet items

-456,100

904,100

-322,100 

653,200

2,539,700

3,856,600

1,793,500 

2,786,500

Project Payments

212,800

1,410,300

150,300 

1,019,000

Administration Fee on Investment Portfolio

1,448,900

0

1,023,200 

0

Provision for overdue loans

525,000

132,300

370,700 

95,600

Total Expenses

2,186,700

1,542,600

1,544,200 

1,114,600

NETT (LOSS)/PROFIT

353,000

2,314,000

249,300 

1,671,900

(Loss)/Profit for the year

353,000

2,314,000

249,300 

1,671,900

Items that will not be reclassified to profit and loss

-259,700

699,700

-183,400 

505,600

Items that will be reclassified to profit and loss

0

0

0

0

Total comprehensive income for the year 93,300

3,013,700

65,900 

2,177,500

Total Income

Expenses

Statement of Comprehensive Income

70 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018


Directly Contributed Capital, as at 31 December 2018 (USD) First Account Second Account Outstanding Payments Constibutions

Outstanding

Cash Promissory Constributions

Payments CashPromissory

Notes

Notes

Afghanistan

0

399,412

375,974

0

0

Algeria

0

862,744

0

0

0

0

Angola

0

61,786

0

0

339,823 

418,942

Argentina

0

0 386,687

Bangladesh 145,376 95,062

0

0

0 635,460 45,182 0 308,154358,070

Benin 5,013 344,491 358,070 0 00 Bhutan

0

3,424

3,581

0

338,969

354,489

Botswana

5,013

344,491

358,070

0

0

0

Brazil

0

1,692,815

0

0

701,208 

0

Bulgaria

761,993

284,202

0

0

0

0

Burkina Faso

5,013

344,491

358,070

0

0

0

Burundi

0

34,239

35,807

0

308,154 

322,263

Cameroon

0

990,853

0

0

0

0

Cape Verde

0

342,393

358,070

0

0

0

Central African Republic

10,025

346,588

358,070

0

0

0

Chad

15,039

364,254

358,070

0

0

0

China

0

3,807,113

3,978,156

0

0

0

Colombia

0

1,060,568

0

0

0

0

Comoros

0

342,393

358,070

0

0

0

Congo

1,083,907

0

0

0

0

0

Dem. Republic of Congo (Zaire)

0

1,213,098

0

0

0

0

Costa Rica

0

833,938

0

0

0

0

Côte d’Ivoire

46

1,273,830

0

0

0

0

Cuba

0

291,399

304,402

0

393,960 

302,620

Denmark

0

599,933

409,632

0

718,430 

0

Djibouti

0

388,206

358,070

0

0

0

Ecuador

0

126,968

0

0

699,028 

0

Egypt

0

616,445

526,363

0

0

0

Equatorial Guinea

0

734,443

0

0

0

0

Eswatini (former Swaziland)

0

94,101

372,391

0

262,885 

0

Ethiopia

40,104

187,975

179,035

0

171,197 

179,035

Finland

0

586,004

612,299

0

154,611 

26,472

Gabon

312,624

455,118

0

0

0

0

Gambia

10,026

346,588

358,070

0

0

0

Germany

0

5,954,753

6,158,801

0

657,485 

99,845

Ghana

0

1,085,935

0

0

0

0

Greece

0

347,901

358,070

0

0

0

Guatemala

0

423,346

0

0

408,621 

0

Guinea

25,065

13,911

3,581

0

338,969 

354,489

Guinea-Bissau

0

342,393

358,070

0

0

0

Haiti

15,039

348,685

358,070

0

0

0

Honduras

39,388

37,758

0

354,489

339,823 

0

India

0

370,828

383,135

0

560,088 

92,943

Indonesia

0

449,328

118,163

0

579,573 

137,777

Iraq

1

878,501

0

0

0

0

Ireland

0

3,455

3,581

0

615,094 

106,716

Italy

0

2,558,455

2,671,201

0

612,520 

117,606

Jamaica

0

48,056

50,130

0

612,816 

128,697

Kenya

0

906,469

0

0

0

0

Dem. People’s Republic of Korea

744,785

0

0

0

0

0

Republic of Korea

0

517,919

540,685

0

0

0

Kuwait

0

941,579

0

0

0

0

Lao People’s Dem. Republic

0

387,130

361,651

0

0

0

Lesotho

0

342,393

358,070

0

0

0

V Financial Reports | 71


Directly Contributed Capital, as at 31 December 2018 (USD) First Account Second Account Outstanding Payments Constibutions1

Cash

Outstanding

Promissory Constributions1

Payments CashPromissory

Notes Madagascar 0

48,209

0

Notes 0

703,374 

0

Malawi

15,039 348,685 0 0 0  358,070

Malaysia

0 832,788 888,013 0 0  0

Maldives 0 34,239 0 0 308,154  358,070 Mali

15,039

40,531

35,807

0

308,154 

322,263

Mauritania

40,104

395,774

358,070

0

0 

0

Mexico 0 170,697 0 0 770,650  154,443 Morocco

0

471,279

3,581

0

375,021 

132,195

Mozambique 0 439,549 337,696 0 0  0 Myanmar

20,052

342,665

360,934

0

0 

0

Nepal

5,013

310,251

322,263

0

34,239 

35,807

Netherlands

0

752,209

1,539,700

0

730,118 

0

Nicaragua 0 98,166 0 0 653,459  0 Niger 5,013 344,491 0 0 0  358,070 Nigeria

0

124,171

125,324

0

624,220 

96,641

Norway

0

347,901

368,812

0

608,489 

101,422

Pakistan 0 871,363 0 0 0  0 Papua New Guinea

0 120,151 0 0 699,703  0

Peru

0 1,074,903 0 0 0  0

Philippines 0 614,978 0 0 785,857  0 Portugal 0 171,346 0 0 447,097  105,506 Russian Federation

6,678,002 6,368,048 0 0 0  0

Rwanda

15,039

348,685

358,070

0

0 

0

Samoa 0 342,393 358,070 0 0  0 Sao Tome and Principe

0 734,443 0 0 0  0

Saudi Arabia

0 360,373 375,973 0 0  0

Senegal 0 959,157 0 0 0  0 Sierra Leone Singapore

15,039

348,685

358,070

0

0 

0

0

227,143

239,907

0

411,896 

63,390

Somalia 363,083 344,491 0 0 0  0 Spain 0 2,547,890 0 0 619,883  0 Sri Lanka

0

422,309

444,007

0

0 

0

120,311

290,011

250,649

0

102,718 

107,421

Sweden

0

874,180

945,304

0

640,618 

102,324

Syrian Arab Republic

0 916,910 0 0 0  0

Sudan

United Republic of Tanzania

Thailand

0 485,578 490,556 0 0  0

65,169

198,462

179,035

0

171,197 

179,035

Togo 0 763,530 0 0 0  0 Trinidad & Tobago

0 680,870 0 0 0  0

Tunisia 0 959,840 0 0 0  0 Uganda

United Arab Emirates United Kingdom Venezuela

90,234

380,145

358,070

0

0 

0

1,062,861 0 0 0 0  0 0

3,166,031

2,846,677

0

664,193 

0

0 878,775 0 0 0  0

Yemen 10,026 688,981 716,140 0 00 Zambia 193,745 912,100 0 0 0  0 Zimbabwe

0 725,106 0 0 00

TOTAL 1

11,932,226

68,306,642

34,390,888

354,489

19,415,954 

5,519,804

As stated in Schedule B of the Agreement Establishing the Common Fund for Commodities, Members in the category of least developed countries as defined by the United Nations shall pay only 30% of the number of shares exceeding 100, over a period of three years. The remaining 70% (of shares exceeding 100) shall be paid as and when decided by the Executive Board. This remaining 70% is also included in the Outstanding Contributions.

72 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018


Voluntary Contributions, as at 31 December 2018 (USD) Payments Cash up Payments Cash

Pledge (3rd 5YAP)

to 31 Dec. 2017

2018

Payments Total 31 Dec. 2018

Country

Currency

USD1

USD

USD

USD 

SDR

Austria3

USD

2,000,000

2,000,000

0

2,000,000 

1,438,032 2,326,406

Belgium3

EUR

3,000,000

3,235,542

0

3,235,542 

Cameroon

USD

0

7,994

0

7,994 

5,748

China

USD

2,000,000

2,000,000

0

2,000,000 

1,438,032

Denmark

DKR

2,270,154

794,987

0

794,987 

571,609

Ecuador

USD

0

45,311

0

45,311

32,580

Finland

USD

2,000,000

2,011,089

0

2,011,089 

1,446,005

France3

USD

15,000,000

2,385,648

0

2,385,648 

1,715,318

Germany

USD

22,549,790

22,549,790

0

22,549,790 

16,213,655

India

USD

5,000,000

5,000,000

0

5,000,000 

3,595,079

Indonesia

USD

1,000,000

1,000,201

0

1,000,201 

719,160

Ireland

USD

250,000

250,000

0

250,000 

179,754

Italy

USD

15,000,000

14,999,999

0

14,999,999 

10,785,236

Japan3

USD

27,000,000

32,231,940

0

32,231,940 

23,175,275

Luxembourg3

USD

150,000

149,989

0

149,989 

107,845

Madagascar

USD

8,643

8,616

0

8,616 

6,195

Malaysia

USD

1,000,000

999,922

0

999,922 

718,960

Netherlands

USD

17,000,000

19,560,207

0

19,560,207 

14,064,098

Nigeria

USD

150,000

150,000

0

150,000 

107,852

Norway

USD

22,490,000

22,446,462

0

22,446,462 

16,139,361

OPEC Fund (Second Account)

USD

45,400,000

28,250,000

126,867

28,376,867 

20,403,416

OPEC Fund (First Account)

USD

1,000,000

1,000,000

-126,867

873,133 

627,796

Papua New Guinea

USD

0

70,055

0

70,055 

50,371

Republic of Korea

USD

300,000

300,000

0

300,000 

215,705

Singapore

USD

250,000

250,000

0

250,000 

179,754

Sweden

USD

2,345,996

2,345,996

0

2,345,996 

1,686,808 2,157,047

Switzerland3

USD

6,000,000

3,000,000

0

3,000,000 

Thailand

USD

1,000,000

1,000,000

0

1,000,000 

719,016

United Kingdom2

STG

5,420,979

7,399,909

0

7,399,909 

5,320,652

199,585,562

175,443,658

0

175,443,658 

126,146,765

1

Amounts pledges have been converted to USD equivalent using the IMF rates of 31/12/18

2

Payment of MOU of GBP 4,270,000 received considered as contribution under Article 18.1.(e)

3

Not a member of CFC

2018 Administrative Budget, Summary Item 

Approved Administrative Budget 2018

USD  Staff Costs

EUR

2.436.400 

2.235.300

Operational Costs

604.300 

554.400

Meeting Costs

216.800 

198.800

Contingency

10.900

10.000

TOTAL

3.268.400 

2.998.500

V Financial Reports | 73


74 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018


V Financial Reports | 75


Photo: ŠFAO/Ishara Kodikara 76 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018


Annex I Governors and Alternate Governors as of 31 December 2018 Chairperson of the Governing Council during 2018: Mr. Denis S. Ulin (Russian Federation)

Vice-Chairpersons: Africa: Mr. Nagi Iskander Awad Masoud (Sudan) Asia and Pacific: H.E. Mr. Shujjat Ali Rathore (Pakistan) China: Mr. Guosheng Zhang Latin America and the Caribbean: Mr. Alejandro Mitri (Argentina) OECD: Ms. Anna Tofftén (Sweden) Russian Federation: Ms. Irina Medvedeva

Country

Governor

Alternate Governor

Afghanistan

c/o H.E. Ms. Suraya Dalil

-

Algeria

c/o Ambassador

Mr. Rafik Kessai

Angola

Mr. Sebastião de Sousa e Santos Júnior

-

Argentina

H.E. Mr. Héctor Horacio Salvador

Mr. Alejandro Mitri

Bangladesh

Mr. Shubhashish Bose

H.E. Mr. Sheikh Mohammed Belal

Benin

H.E. Mr. Zacharie Richard Akplogan

Mr. Stephane Beria

Bhutan

H.E. Mr. Kinga Singye

Mr. Sangay Phunthso

Botswana

H.E. Mr. Samuel Otsile Outlule

Mr. Boipolelo Khumomatlhare

Brazil

Mr. Petro Miguelda Costa e Silva

Mr. Leonardo Luis Gorgulho Nogueira Fernandes

Bulgaria

Mr. Petar Dimitrov

-

Burkina Faso

H.E. Ms. Jacqueline Marie Zaba-Nikiema

Mr. Christian Somda

Burundi

Mr. Jean-Marie Niyokindi

Ms. Gentille Gahinyuza

Cabo Verde

Minister for Foreign Affairs

-

Cameroon

Mr. Luc Magloire Mbarga Atangana

H.E. Ms. Odette Melono

Central African Republic

c/o Ministre Chargé du Développement du

Ms. Gertrude Zouta

Monde Rural Chad

c/o Ministre du Commerce; de l'Industrie

Mr. Daouda Tabanda

et de l'Artisanat China

Ms. Liang Hong

Mr. Guosheng Zhang

Colombia

Mr. Juan José Páez Pinzón

Ms. Jenny Sharine Bowie Wilches

Comoros

c/o Secrétaire Général du Ministère

-

Democratic Republic of the Congo

c/o H.E. Mr. Zénon Mukongo Ngay

-

Congo

Mr. François Bossolo

-

Costa Rica

H.E. Mr. Sergio Ugalde Godinez

Mr. Jorge Sauma Aguilar

Côte d'Ivoire

Mr. Mamadou Sangafowa Coulibaly

Mr. Aly Toure

Cuba

Mr. William Díaz Menéndez

Mr. Carlos Fidel Martín Rodríguez

Denmark

Ministry of Foreign Affairs

-

Djibouti

Ministry of Trade and Industry

-

Ecuador

H.E. Mr. Fernando Xavier Bucheli Vargas

-

Egypt

H.E. Mr. Amgad Abdel Ghaffar

Ms. Amany Fahmy

Equatorial Guinea

c/o H.E. Mr. Carmelo Nvonno Nca

c/o Director General de Comercio

Eswatini

Mr. Andreas M. Hlophe

-

Ethiopia

H.E. Mr. Abay Woldu Hagos

Mr. Zelalem Birhan Alemu

Finland

Mr. Mika Vehnämäki

-

Gabon

Mr. Fidèle Mengue M'engouang

Mr. Bertrand Rubens Matteya

Gambia

H.E. Ms. Teneng Mba Jaiteh

Mr. Assan Faal

Germany

Ms. Andrea Jünemann

Mr. Holger Rapior

Ghana

Hon. Dr. Ekwow Spio-Garbrah

H.E. Ms. Sofia Horner-Sam

Greece

Mr. Dimitrios Koutsis

Ms. Trisevgeni Lianou

Guatemala

H.E. Mr. Eduardo Sperisen Yurt

Ms. Debora Maria Cumes Mariscal

Annex I Governors and Alternate Governors as of 31 December 2018 | 77


Country

Governor

Alternate Governor

Guinea

Hadja Zénab Diallo

Mr. Mohamed Camara

Guinea-Bissau

c/o Embassy of Guinea-Bissau, Brussels

-

Haiti

Mr. Hervey Day

H.E. Mr. Pierre André Dunbar

Honduras

Mr. Jacobo Paz Bodden

Mr. José Adalberto Sorto

India

Mr. Santosh Kumar Sarangi

H.E. Mr. Venu Rajamony

Indonesia

Mr. Febrian A. Ruddyard

Mr. Parjiono

Iraq

Mr. Kadhim M. Jawad Al-Hasani

Mr. Munther Abdulameer Asad

Ireland

H.E. Mr. Kevin Kelly

-

Italy

Ms. Natalia Sanginiti

-

Jamaica

Honourable Audley Shaw

H.E. Ms. Cheryl Spencer

Kenya

H.E. Mr. Lawrence N. Lenayapa

Ms. Rose J. Sumbeiywo

Democratic People's Republic of Korea

c/o Mr. Kim Myong Hyok

Mr. Sok Jong Myong

Republic of Korea

Mr. Dongyeon Kim

Mr. Juyeol Lee

Kuwait

c/o H.E. Mr. Abdul Rahman Al-Otaibi,

-

Laos

Mr. Somphong Soulivanh

H.E. Mr. Khamkheuang Bounteum

Lesotho

Honourable Maphono Khaketla

-

Madagascar

H.E. Ms. Véronique Resaka

Mr. Eric Beantanana

Malawi

H.E. Mr. Tedson Aubrey Kalebe

Mr. Mike Jamu Mwanyula

Malaysia

Datuk Zurinah Pawanteh

Mr. Sutekno Ahmad Belon

Maldives

c/o Mr. Abdul Samad Abdulla

Mr. Abdulla Salih

Mali

Ambassador

c/o Ministre Conseiller

Mauritania

Mr. Mohamed Ould Hitt

Mr. Mohamed Moctar Alaoui

Mexico

Mr. José Antonio Gonzalez Anaya

Mr. Luis Videgaray Caso

Morocco

H.E. Mr. Abdelouahab Bellouki

Mr. Mohamed Abdennasser Achachi

Mozambique

Ms. Cerina Banú Mussá

Mr. Joao José Macaringue

Myanmar

Mr. Tin Naing Thein

Ms. Myo Nwe

Nepal

H.E. Mr. Lok Bahadur Thapa

Mr. Sudhir Bhattarai

Netherlands

Ms. Eva Oskam

Mr. Marc Mazairac

Nicaragua

Mr. Orlando Solórzano Delgadillo

H.E. Mr. Carlos J. Argüello Gómez

Niger

c/o Cadre de la Direction du Commerce Extérieur -

Nigeria

Mr. Edet Sunday Akpan

H.E. Mr. Oji N. Ngofa

Norway

Ms. Torun Dramdal

-

Pakistan

H.E. Mr. Shujjat Ali Rathore

Mr. Syed Mahmood Hassan

Papua New Guinea

Mr. William Dihm

c/o Mr. Peter Bagara

Peru

H.E. Mr. Carlos Herrera Rodríguez

Ms. Francis Natalie Chávez Aco

Philippines

H.E. Mr. Jaime Victor B. Ledda

Mr. José I.C. Laquian

Portugal

Mr. Mário Centeno

Mr. José Carlos Azevedo Pereira

Russian Federation

Mr. Denis S. Ulin

Ms. Irina Medvedeva

Rwanda

Mr. Michael M. Sebera

Ms. Peace Basemera

Samoa

c/o Deputy Prime Minister

-

Sao Tome and Principe

Minister for Foreign Affairs

-

Saudi Arabia

Mr. Ahmad S. Alteraifi

Mr. Saeid M. Alkahtani

Senegal

H.E. Mr. Momar Gueye

Mr. Joseph Bentaux

Sierra Leone

Ms. Isatu Haja Kabba

Mr. Charles Mereweather-Thompson

Singapore

H.E. Ms. Yee Woan Tan

-

Somalia

c/o H.E. Ms. Faduma Abdullahi Mohamud

-

Spain

Ms. Eulalia Ortíz Aguilar

Ms. Mara Pidal Ladrón de Guevara

Sri Lanka

Ms. Sonali Wijeratne

H.E. Mr. Adam M.J. Sadiq

Sudan

H.E. Mr. Kamal Bashir Ahmed

Mr. Nagi Iskander Awad Masoud

Sweden

Ms. Anna Tofftén

-

Syrian Arab Republic

Deputy Minister of Economy and Trade

-

Thailand

Ms. Doojduan Sasanavin

Mr. Vinaroj Supsongsuk

Togo

H.E. Mr. Kokou Nayo M’Béou

Mr. Kodjovi Védomé Afokpa

Trinidad & Tobago

Senator the Honourable Clarence Rambharat

Ms. Lydia Jacobs

Tunisia

H.E. Ms. Elyes Ghariani

Ms. Faten Bahri

Uganda

Ms. Elizabeth Tamale

H.E. Ms. Mirjam Blaak Sow

United Arab Emirates

c/o H.E. Mr. Saeed Ali Alnowais

-

United Kingdom of Great Britain and

Mr. Andrew McCoubrey

-

Northern Ireland

78 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018


Country

Governor

Alternate Governor

United Republic of Tanzania

Permanent Secretary

H.E. Ms. Irene F.M. Kasyanju

Venezuela

Mr. Félix Plasencia González

H.E. Ms. Haifa Aissami Madah

Yemen

H.E. Ms. Sahar Mohammed Abduljabbar Ghanem Mr. Abdahmed Saleh Mohammed Yaffai

Zambia

Ambassador

Mr. Musenge Mukuma

Zimbabwe

Ms. Abigail Shonhiwa

H.E. Mr. Tadeous Tafirenyika Chifamba

Andean Community

c/o Mr. Walker San Miguel Rodríguez

-

African Union (AU)

c/o Ms. Tarana Loumabeka

Director for Trade and Industry

Caribbean Community (CARICOM)

Amb. Irwin LaRocque

Ms. Desiree Field-Ridley

Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa

Mr. Sindiso Ndema Ngwenya

Mr. E.A. Mohammed

East African Community (EAC)

Amb. Richard Sezibera

Director for Trade

Economic Community of West African States

c/o Mr. James Victor Gbeho

-

European Union (EU)

Mr. Regis Meritan

Mr. Michel de Knoop

Southern African Development Community (SADC)

c/o Ms. Stergomena Lawrence Tax

-

West African Economic and Monetary Union

c/o Mr. Cheikhe Hadjibou Soumare

-

(COMESA)

(ECOWAS)

(WAEMU/UEMOA)

Annex I Governors and Alternate Governors as of 31 December 2018 | 79


Photo: ©FAO/Heba Khamis


Annex II Member States, Institutional Members and Votes as of 31 December 2018 Country

Region

No. of votes

LDC

Afghanistan

Asia

357

X

Algeria

Africa

395

Angola

Africa

391

Argentina

LAC

496

Bangladesh

Asia

426

X

Benin

Africa

347

X X

X

Bhutan

Asia

343

Botswana

Africa

347

Brazil

LAC

Bulgaria

Europe

417

Burkina Faso

Africa

347

X

Burundi

Africa

343

X

389

1,024

Cameroon

Africa

Cape Verde

Africa

343

Central African Republic

Africa

349

X

Chad

Africa

351

X

China

Asia

3,000

Colombia

LAC

490

Comoros

Africa

343

Congo

Africa

351 393

Costa Rica

LAC

Côte d'Ivoire

Africa

476

Cuba

LAC

584

Democratic Rep. of Congo

Africa

476

Denmark

Europe

643

Djibouti

Africa

343

Ecuador

LAC

391

Egypt

Africa

476

Equatorial Guinea

Africa

347

Eswatini

Africa

355

Ethiopia

Africa

366

Finland

Europe

535 368

Gabon

Africa

Gambia

Africa

Germany

Europe

349

X

X X

X

X

4,362

Ghana

Africa

426

Greece

Europe

309 401

Guatemala

LAC

Guinea

Africa

357

X

Guinea-Bissau

Africa

343

X

Haiti

LAC

353

X

Honduras

LAC

372

India

Asia

621

Indonesia

Asia

575

Iraq

Asia

376

Ireland

Europe

309 2,065

Italy

Europe

Jamaica

LAC

380

Kenya

Africa

387

Korea, Dem. People's Rep. of

Asia

355

Korea, Republic of

Asia

490

Kuwait

Asia

351

Lao People's Dem. Rep.

Asia

345

X

Lesotho

Africa

343

X

Madagascar

Africa

360

X

Annex II Member States, Institutional Members and Votes as of 31 December 2018 | 81


Country

Region

No. of votes

LDC

Malawi

Africa

351

X

Malaysia

Asia

768 343

Maldives

Asia

Mali

Africa

351

X

Mauritania

Africa

366

X

Mexico

LAC

469

Morocco

Africa

449

Mozambique

Africa

360

X

Myanmar

Asia

355

X

345

X

Nepal

Asia

Netherlands

Europe

1,086

Nicaragua

LAC

Niger

Africa

347

Nigeria

Africa

440 549

382

Norway

Europe

Pakistan

Asia

407

Papua New Guinea

Asia

389

Peru

LAC

445

Philippines

Asia

580

Portugal

Europe

309

Russian Federation

Europe

4,257

X

Rwanda

Africa

351

Samoa

Asia

343

Sao Tome and Principe

Africa

345

Saudi Arabia

Asia

357

Senegal

Africa

382

X

Sierra Leone

Africa

351

X

Singapore

Asia

441

Somalia

Africa

347

Spain

Europe

X X

X

1,126

Sri Lanka

Asia

413

Sudan

Africa

413

Sweden

Europe

929

Syria

Asia

382

Tanzania

Africa

380

Thailand

Asia

449

Togo

Africa

358

Trinidad & Tobago

LAC

353

Tunisia

Africa

380

Uganda

Africa

395

United Arab Emirates

Asia

347

X

X X

X

United Kingdom

Europe

Venezuela

LAC

401

Yemen

Asia

544

X

Zambia

Africa

505

X

343

2,550

Zimbabwe

Africa

EC

Europe

0

AU

Africa

0

COMESA

Africa

0

EAC

Africa

0

CAN

LAC

0

CARICOM

LAC

0

SADC

Africa

0

ECOWAS

Africa

0

WAEMU/UEMOA

Africa

TOTAL LDC: Least Developed Country LAC: Latin America and the Caribbean Countries

82 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018

0 57,364


Institutional Members of the Common Fund for Commodities Andean Community (CAN) - Lima, Peru African Union (AU) - Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Caribbean Community (CARICOM) - Greater Georgetown, Guyana Common Market for Eastern & Southern Africa (COMESA) - Lusaka, Zambia East African Community (EAC) - Arusha, Tanzania European Union (EU) - Brussels, Belgium Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) - Abuja, Nigeria South African Development Community (SADC) - Gaborone, Botswana West African Economic & Monetary Union (WAEMU/UEMOA) - Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

Designated International Commodity Bodies (ICBs) 1

International Cocoa Organization (ICCO)

2 International Coffee Organization (ICO) 3 International Copper Study Group (ICSG) 4 International Cotton Advisory Committee (ICAC) 5 International Grains Council (IGC) 6 International Lead and Zinc Study Group (ILZSG) 7 International Bamboo and Rattan Organisation (INBAR) 8 International Nickel Study Group (INSG) 9 International Olive Council (IOC) 10 International Rubber Study Group (IRSG) 11 International Sugar Organization (ISO) 12 International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) 13 FAO - Intergovernmental Sub-Group on Bananas 14 FAO - Intergovernmental Sub-Group on Tropical Fruits 15 FAO - Intergovernmental Group on Citrus Fruit 16 FAO - Intergovernmental Sub-Committee on Fish Trade 17 FAO - Intergovernmental Group on Grains 18 FAO - Intergovernmental Group on Hard Fibres 19 FAO - Intergovernmental Group on Meat and Dairy Products 20 FAO - Intergovernmental Sub-Group on Hides and Skins 21 FAO - Intergovernmental Group on Oils, Oilseeds and Fats 22 FAO - Intergovernmental Group on Rice 23 FAO - Intergovernmental Group on Tea

Annex II Member States, Institutional Members and Votes as of 31 December 2018 | 83


Institutions with memoranda of understanding The Common Fund for Commodities has concluded Memoranda of Understanding with the following institutions: 1 African Development Bank (AfDB)/African Development Fund 2 African Export-Import Bank (AFEXIM) 3 Arab Organization for Agricultural Development (AOAD) 4 Authority for Integrated Development of the Liptako-Gourma Region (ALG)/L’Autorité de Developpement Integré de la Region du Liptako-Gourma 5 Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) 6 Grupo de Paises Latino Americanos y del Caribe Export Adores de Azucar (GEPLACEA) 7 Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) 8 International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 9 Islamic Centre for Development of Trade (ICDT) 10 OXFAM 11 Sistema Economico Latino Americano (SELA) 12 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 13 United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) 14 United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) 15 United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) 16 United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) 17 United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) 18 United States Agency for International Development (USAID) 19 West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU)/Union Economique et Monétaire Ouest Africaine (UEMOA)

84 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018


Abbreviations AATIF

Africa Agriculture Trade and Investment Fund

ACE

Agricultural Commodity Exchange

ACP

African, Caribbean and Pacific

AECID

Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation

AF

Asili Farms

AFC

Agronomika Finance Corporation

AFD

Agence Française de Dévéloppement

AfDB

African Development Bank

AFSF

Africa Food Security Fund

ATAF

Moringa Agroforestry Technical Assistance Fund

AU

African Union

BDS

Business Development Services

BMZ

German Ministry for Development Cooperation and Economic Development

CAF

Latin American Development Bank

CARDI

Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute

CFC

Common Fund for Commodities

CFGBV

Community Forest Group BV

CNT

Coumba Nor Thiam

COMIFAC

Central African Forests Commission

CRIG

Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana

DIB

Development Impact Bond

DRC

Democratic Republic of Congo

DTF

Dutch Trust Fund

EAFCA

African Fine Coffee Association

EC

European Commission

ECCAS

Economic Community of Central African States

EcoE II

EcoEnterprises Partners II L.P.

ECOSOC

United Nations Economic and Social Council

ECOWAS

Economic Community of West African States

EDB

Sri Lanka Export Development Board

EFL

EFUGO Farms Limited

EFTA

Equity For Tanzania Ltd.

EIB

European Investment Bank

ENS

Edom Nutritional Solutions

ESG

Environmental, Social and Governance

EU

European Union

EUCORD

European Development Co-operative

FACTS

Financial Access Commerce and Trade Services

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

FAST

Financial Alliance for Sustainable Trade

FSC

Forest Stewardship Council

FDI

Foreign Direct Investment

FTESA

Food Trade East and Southern Africa

FSP

Financial Service Provider

GI

Geographical Indication

GIIN

Global Impact Investing Network

FMO

Nederlandse Financierings-Maatschappij voor Ontwikkelingslanden N.V.

GIZ

Deutsche Gesellschaft Für Internationale Zusammenarbeit

IADB

Interamerican Development Bank

ICAC

International Cotton Advisory Committee

ICBR

International Centre for Bamboo and Rattan

ICBs

International Commodity Bodies

ICCO

International Cocoa Organization

ICCO

Cooperation Interchurch Organization for Development Cooperation

ICO

International Coffee Organization

IFAD

International Fund for Agricultural Development

Abbreviations | 85


IFC

International Finance Corporation

IFDC

International Fertilizer Development Center

IJSG

International Jute Study Group

INBAR

International Bamboo and Rattan Organisation

INFOFISH

Centre for Marketing Information and Advisory Services for Fishery Products in Asia and Pacific

IOOC

International Olive Oil Council

ISO

International Sugar Organization

ITTO

International Tropical Timber Organization

IZA

International Zinc Association

JI

Joseph Initiative Ltd.

KIT

Royal Tropical Institute

LA

Loan Agreement

LDC

Least Developed Country

LLDC’s

Land Locked Developing Countries

MDG

Millennium Development Goal

MEDF

Malawi Enterprise Development Fund

MMA

MatchMaker Associates

NECSI

New England Complex Systems Institute

NGO

Non-Governmental Organization

OFID

OPEC Fund for International Development

PPP

Public Private Partnership

SDG

Sustainable Development Goal

SIF

SME Impact Fund

SMEs

Small and medium sized enterprises

SSA

Sub Saharan Africa

SSF

Schmidt Family Foundation

TA

Technical Assistance

T&T

Trinidad & Tobago

TAHA

Tanzania Horticultural Association

UNCTAD

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

UNDP

United Nations Development Programme

UNECA

UN Economic Commission for Africa

UNIDO

United Nations Industrial Development Organization

UN-OHRLLS

United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States

VECO

Vredeseilanden Country Office

VPoA

Vienna Programme of Action

WHO

World Health Organization

86 | Common Fund for Commodities Annual Report 2018


© 2019 - Common Fund for Commodities The contents of this report may not be reproduced, stored in a data ­retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission of the Common Fund for Commodities, except that reasonable extracts may be made for the purpose of ­comment or review provided that Common Fund for Commodities is acknowledged as the source. Visiting Address Rietlandpark 301 1019 DW Amsterdam The Netherlands Postal Address P.O. Box 74656, 1070 BR Amsterdam The Netherlands t +31 (0)20 575 4949 f +31 (0)20 676 0231 e managing.director@common-fund.org i www.common-fund.org Editor KIT Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam Graphic Design Anita Simons, symsign, Amersfoort Printing VdR druk & print, Nijkerk

Cover photos: Above: Gawaye Grape Farm Project, Dodoma, Tanzania. Photo: ©FAO/IFAD/WFP/Eliza Deacon Below: Nepal-Food market stalls in Sandhikharka town, Nepal. Photo: ©Chris Steele-Perkins/Magnum Photos for FAO


Common Fund for Commodities | Annual Report 2018

 Annual Report 2018

Mission & Vision Statement Mission “To contribute to poverty alleviation by strengthening the income-generating capacity of commodity producers and mitigating vulnerability to their economic well being” Vision “To strengthen and diversify the commodity sector in developing countries and transform it to be a major contributor to poverty alleviation and sustained economic growth and development.”

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Annual Report Common Fund for Commodities 2018  

Annual Report Common Fund for Commodities 2018  

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