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English-Spanish Helpful Handouts – For English Speakers Who Want To Learn Spanish

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Today’s Spanish-English Cognate - abandonar Spanish and English have many similar words known as cognates. These words come from Latin, Greek, or another language. You can expand your Spanish vocabulary quickly by using cognates. By studying cognates, you can use your knowledge of English to help you learn Spanish. Today we will focus on this Spanish-English cognate: abandonar – to abandon These words share a common history. They come from the French language. Take a look at the sample sentences below. Abandonar can be used to say several different things in English. Please don’t be overwhelmed by the complexity of the Spanish sentences. The English translation is provided. Focus on the different ways to use abandonar. Ella tuvo que abandonar la idea de convertirse en actriz. (She had to abandon the idea of becoming an actress.) Ella tuvo que abandonar la idea de convertirse en actriz.

Los residentes de la ciudad abandonan sus casas cuando se acerca un huracán. (The residents of the city abandon their houses when a hurricane approaches.) Mi padre me hizo un gesto que abandonara el cuarto. (My father gestured to me to leave the room.) Lo convencí para que abandonara la idea. (I convinced him to give up the idea.) No me abandones. (Don’t forsake me.) Es difícil abandonar el hábito de fumar. (It’s difficult to shake the smoking habit.) Abandonó el coche en un callejón y se fue corriendo. (He ditched the car in an alley and took off running. Nos abandonó cuando lo necesitábamos. (He bailed on us when we needed him.) Abandonó a su familia y se fue al extranjero. (He deserted his family and went abroad.) Tarde o temprano la suerte lo abandonará. (Sooner or later he will run out of luck.) Habían abandonado el proyecto pero lo empezaron de nuevo. (They had quit the project, but they restarted it.) As you can see, abandonar can be used in many ways. You can practice using the above sentences on page 2. Free Handout – http://sites.google.com/site/englishspanishhelpfulhandouts Photo: www.flickr.com (Creative Commons License) BiggerPictureImages.com, angeladini2, lanier67, HORIZON, http://ookaboo.com (Creative Commons License) Anim Alu


English-Spanish Helpful Handouts – For English Speakers Who Want To Learn Spanish

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Practice Write the sentences that contain the different English meanings for abandonar. Example: Write the sentence that uses a form of abandonar to mean leave. Mi padre me hizo un gesto que abandonara el cuarto. 1. Write the sentence that uses a form of abandonar to mean bailed. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Write the sentence that uses a form of abandonar to mean had quit. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Write the sentence that uses a form of abandonar to mean will run out of. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Write the sentence that uses a form of abandonar to mean to give up. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. Write the sentence that uses abandonar to mean to shake. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 6. Write the sentence that uses a form of abandonar to mean ditched. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Write the sentence that uses a form of abandonar to mean deserted. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Write the sentence that uses a form of abandonar to mean forsake. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Abandonar is a verb, and verbs must be conjugated into tenses and moods. Go to page 3 to examine the ways in which the verbs in the example sentences are conjugated.

Tarde o temprano la suerte lo abandonarå. Free Handout – http://sites.google.com/site/englishspanishhelpfulhandouts Photo: www.flickr.com (Creative Commons License) BiggerPictureImages.com, angeladini2, lanier67, HORIZON, http://ookaboo.com (Creative Commons License) Anim Alu


English-Spanish Helpful Handouts – For English Speakers Who Want To Learn Spanish

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Conjugation of the Verbs Here is some information about the conjugation of the verbs in the example sentences. If you are new to Spanish, you might want to review just the points about the infinitive and the present indicative tense. Please don’t stress yourself out by reading more. Perhaps you will come back to this handout later in your study of Spanish to review the other tenses. For those of you who want to review all of the tenses explained here, you will find a practice exercise on page 5. 1. Ella tuvo que abandonar la idea de convertirse en actriz. (She had to abandon the idea of becoming an actress.) Es difícil abandonar el hábito de fumar. (It’s difficult to shake the smoking habit.) These sentences use the infinitive form of the verb which is abandonar. The infinitive is the simple or basic form of the verb. In Spanish, infinitives have three different types of endings which are -ar, -er, -ir. Abandonar is an -ar verb. 2. Los residentes de la ciudad abandonan sus casas cuando se acerca un huracán. (The residents of the city abandon their houses when a hurricane approaches.) This sentence is in the present indicative tense (el presente de indicativo). In this case, it indicates habitual action. yo abandono tú abandonas usted/él/ella abandona

nosotros abandonamos vosotros abandonáis ustedes/ellos/ellas abandonan

Los residentes de la ciudad abandonan sus casas cuando se acerca un huracán.

3. Abandonó a su familia y se fue al extranjero. (He deserted his family and went abroad.) Abandonó el coche en un callejón y se fue corriendo. (He ditched the car in an alley and took off running. Nos abandonó cuando lo necesitábamos. (He bailed on us when we needed him.) These sentences are in the preterit or past tense (el preterito). They express an action that was completed at some time in the past. yo abandoné tú abandonabaste usted/él/ella abandonó

nosotros abandonamos vosotros abandonasteis ustedes/ellos/ellas abandonaron

4. Tarde o temprano la suerte lo abandonará. (Sooner or later he will run out of luck.) This sentence is in the future tense (el futuro). It expresses an action that will take place sometime in the future. yo abandonaré tú abandonarás usted/él/ella abandonará

nosotros abandonaremos vosotros abandonaréis ustedes/ellos/ellas abandonarán

Free Handout – http://sites.google.com/site/englishspanishhelpfulhandouts Photo: www.flickr.com (Creative Commons License) BiggerPictureImages.com, angeladini2, lanier67, HORIZON, http://ookaboo.com (Creative Commons License) Anim Alu


English-Spanish Helpful Handouts – For English Speakers Who Want To Learn Spanish

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5. Habían abandonado el proyecto pero lo empezaron de nuevo. (They had quit the project, but they restarted it.) This sentence is in the past perfect indicative or pluperfect (el pluscuamperfecto de indicativo). This tense is used to express an action in the past that happened before another action. yo había abandonado tú habías abandonado usted/él/ella había abandonado

nosotros habíamos abandonado vosotros habíais abandonado ustedes/ellos/ellas habían abandonado

6. No me abandones. (Don’t forsake me.) This sentence is in the present subjunctive mood (el presente de subjuntivo). It expresses a plea. yo abandone tú abandones usted/él/ella abandone

nosotros abandonemos vosotros abandonéis ustedes/ellos/ellas abandonen No me abandones.

7. Mi padre me hizo un gesto que abandonara el cuarto. (My father gestured to me to leave the room.) Lo convencí para que abandonara la idea. (I convinced him to give up the idea.) These sentences are in the imperfect subjunctive mood (el imperfecto de subjuntivo). They express the idea that, in the past, one person wanted another person to do something. The imperfect subjunctive is used because the verb in the main clause is in the preterit tense. yo abandonara tú abandonaras usted/él/ella abandonara

nosotros abandonáramos vosotros abandonarais ustedes/ellos/ellas abandonaran or

yo abandonase tú abandonases usted/él/ella abandonase

nosotros abandonásemos vosotros abandonaseis ustedes/ellos/ellas abandonasen

Free Handout – http://sites.google.com/site/englishspanishhelpfulhandouts Photo: www.flickr.com (Creative Commons License) BiggerPictureImages.com, angeladini2, lanier67, HORIZON, http://ookaboo.com (Creative Commons License) Anim Alu


English-Spanish Helpful Handouts – For English Speakers Who Want To Learn Spanish

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Practice Write the sentence in Spanish. Answer the questions. Example: Don’t forsake me. __No me abandones.__ Which tense or mood is used in this sentence? _el presente de subjuntivo_ Why? __This sentence expresses a plea._

1. The residents of the city abandon their houses when a hurricane approaches. _______________________________________________________________________________________ Which tense or mood is used in this sentence? ____________________ Why? _____________________________ 2. Sooner or later he will run out of luck. _______________________________________________________________________________________ Which tense or mood is used in this sentence? ____________________ Why? _____________________________ 3. My father gestured to me to leave the room. _______________________________________________________________________________________ Which tense or mood is used in this sentence? ____________________ Why? _____________________________ 4. They had quit the project, but they restarted it. _______________________________________________________________________________________ Which tense or mood is used in this sentence? ____________________ Why? _____________________________ 5. He ditched the car in an alley and took off running. _______________________________________________________________________________________ Which tense or mood is used in this sentence? ____________________ Why? _____________________________ 6. He abandoned his family and went abroad. _______________________________________________________________________________________ Which tense or mood is used in this sentence? ____________________ Why? _____________________________ 7. He bailed on us when we needed him. _______________________________________________________________________________________ Which tense or mood is used in this sentence? ____________________ Why? _____________________________ 8. I convinced him to give up the idea. _______________________________________________________________________________________ Which tense or mood is used in this sentence? ____________________ Why? _____________________________ 9. She had to give up the idea of becoming an actress. _______________________________________________________________________________________ Which tense or mood is used in this sentence? ____________________ Why? _____________________________

Es difícil abandonar el hábito de fumar. Free Handout – http://sites.google.com/site/englishspanishhelpfulhandouts Photo: www.flickr.com (Creative Commons License) BiggerPictureImages.com, angeladini2, lanier67, HORIZON, http://ookaboo.com (Creative Commons License) Anim Alu


Today's Spanish-English Cognate-abandonar