New Funerary Architecture Creating Culturally Adaptive Ritual Spaces
by Jonathon Swanson University of Florida CityLab Orlando
New Funerary Architecture Creating Culturally Adaptive Ritual Spaces by Jonathon Swanson
A Masterâ€™s research project presented to the University of Florida School of Architecture in partial fulfillment of a Masterâ€™s degree in Architecture. 2017
Supervisory Committee Chair: Vandana Baweja, PhD Co-Chair: Frank Bosworth, AIA, PhD
Â© Copyright 2017 Jonathon Swanson
Abstract New Funerary Architecture: Creating Culturally Adaptive Ritual Spaces Since cremation is becoming more popular and causing funerary culture to change, this project is proposing a complex of â€œnewâ€? funerary architecture, located at Lake Howell in Orlando, Florida, which addresses these changes in funerary culture. The ritual spaces associated with funerary culture in the United States emerged from the ritual of burial established by the European settlers. The United States is a melting pot of different cultures, and the established funerary culture makes it difficult for someone from other cultures to practice their funerary rituals. Cremation is becoming more popular than burial, and the current funerary ritual spaces are not designed for this change.
Jonathon Swanson Supervisory Committee Chair: Vandana Baweja, PhD Co-Chair: Frank Bosworth, AIA, PhD
Table of Contents Chapter 1 - Research .......................................................... 10
Intorduction .................................................................... 12
Background of the Problem .......................................... 12-13
Problem Statement ..................................................... 14-15
Literature & Precedent Review ......................................... 16
Introduction ............................................................... 16-17
Death Globally ............................................................ 18-19
Connection, Death and Architecture ............................... 20-25
Death in the United States ........................................... 26-27
Disposal of the Body ................................................... 28-29
Cremation ................................................................. 30-33
Precedent Review ....................................................... 34
Baumschlenweg Crematorium .............................. 34-39
Diamond Hill Crematorium ................................... 40-47
Ashwinikumar Crematorium ................................. 48-53
Conclusion ................................................................. 54-55
Methodology .................................................................... 56
Introduction ............................................................... 56
Program .................................................................... 56-59
Site Selection ............................................................. 59
Chapter 2 - Analysis ..........................................................
Conditions as a Lens ........................................................ 62
Introduction ............................................................... 62-63
Portal ........................................................................ 64-65
Edge ......................................................................... 66-67
Scene ........................................................................ 68-69
Filter ......................................................................... 70-71
Monument ................................................................. 72-73
Materiality ................................................................. 74
Conclusion ................................................................. 75
Precedent Review ............................................................ 76
Introduction ............................................................... 76-77
Brion Vega Cemetery ................................................... 78-89
Spring Grove Cemetery ............................................... 90-95
Evergreen Cemetery ................................................... 96-103
Conclusion ................................................................. 104-105
Site Analysis .................................................................... 106
Large Scale ................................................................ 106-107
Medium Scale ............................................................. 108-109
Site Scale .................................................................. 110-111
Table of Contents
Existing Photos ........................................................... 112-121
Conclusion ................................................................. 122-123
Chapter 3 - Design ............................................................... 124
Design Charrette ........................................................ 126-135
Process ..................................................................... 136-141
Site Proposal .............................................................. 142-145
Entry Level - Foyer & Ritual .......................................... 146-147
Second Level - Funeral Home ....................................... 148-149
Third Level - Body Preparation ...................................... 150-151
Fourth Level - Ritual .................................................... 152-153
Procession Sections ..................................................... 154-155
Longitudinal Sections .................................................. 156-157
Perspectives - Procession ............................................. 158-167
Chapter 4 - Conclusion ........................................................ 168
Conclusion ................................................................. 170-171
List of Figures ............................................................ 172-181
Bibliography ............................................................... 182-185
Title Chapter 1 - Research Do not stand at my grave and weep I am not there. I do not sleep. I am a thousand winds that blow. I am the diamond glints on snow...
- Mary Elizabeth Frye
Introduction Background of the Problem Funerary rituals and their material, spatial, and architectural manifestation relate closely to cultural notions of death. The treatment of the body after death ranges from excarnation by animals and funerary cannibalism, to cremation and burial practiced by a large majority of the world. One unique example is the ritual of hanging coffins high up along mountainsides done by the people of Sagada in the Philippines. This ritual occurs in the Sagada culture because the people believe that the closer a coffin is to the sky, the closer the deceased is to heaven (In the Philippines, a Grave Road Trip: [FINAL Edition] 2005). Cultural rituals performed after a death can occur in many different types of spaces. The people of Sagada use the natural environment as the space for their ritual to occur. Other cultures create sacred spaces to perform rituals related to death. For example, the Parsis Towers of Silence in Iran and India are for those of the Zoroastrian faith to place the dead so that buzzards and birds can devour them (Habenstein and Lamers 1974). This deliberately created environment is an example of a funerary ritual space.
FIG. 01 | Hanging Coffins Ritual
The early European settlers that established the United States were mostly from Christian backgrounds and brought their funerary practices into Colonial America (Habenstein and Lamers 1974). The most prevalent practice for the disposal of a body was the ritual of burial, so that became the adopted practice in the funerary culture (Prothero 2001). As such, architecture associated with death in the United States centered on the ritual of burial. Cremation is a popular method for disposing of the body in many cultures. It is the primary funerary ritual in cultures associated with Buddhism, Hinduism, and various other religions (Taylor 2000). It was not until 1963 that the Catholic Church lifted restrictions on cremation, but it was still not the preferred choice for disposal of a body, which
FIG. 02 | Standard Chapel for the Ritual of Burial
FIG. 03 | Typical Cremation Oven Space in the U.S.
is burial (Kahn 2015). Globally in 2015 cremation surpassed burial in popularity due to factors such as cost, environmental concerns, and the changes in spiritual views (NFDA 2016). In the United States cremation has gained popularity as well, becoming more popular than burial and gaining more popularity every year (Kahn 2015). Cremation has also caused people to focus on creating meaningful rituals around death with the idea that the true self is spiritual rather than material (Prothero 2001). This trend suggests that the funerary culture of the United States is changing.
als around death in the same space. With cremation becoming more popular in the United States, current funerary ritual spaces are losing value because of the changes in funerary culture (Laderman 2003). For example, some cultural rituals have the family perform the cremation of their loved ones (Habenstein and Lamers 1974). The spaces these cremation ovens are in within the United States are generally a space for the act of cremation as a functional need and not so much a ceremonial space. This may cause someone to skip the ceremony due to the inadequacy of the space and the current lack of flexibility towards different cultures and customs.
The United States is a country composed of many different cultures and customs from around the world. Since funerary ritual spaces in the United States were designed around burial, it can be challenging for many other cultures to practice their ritu-
Introduction Problem Statement The purpose of this Masters Research Project is to design a funerary ritual space that addresses the demographic changes and the consequent changes in funerary culture. These demographic groups with their different cultures and customs who make the United States home should be able to perform rituals in a multi-cultural funerary complex that accommodates diverse cultural norms. The main objective of this project is to design an inclusive project that can accommodate the cultural needs and spiritual aspirations for different cultures and customs, while still focusing on the primary rituals of cremation and burial for bodily disposition. Like weddings, funerals and funerary rituals bind, define, and glue communities together. This project will be a place that allows people to express their diverse identities, yet one that is inclusive enough that makes them feel part of a larger community.
FIG. 04 | Conceptual Collage
Literature & Precedent Review Introduction This review will provide literature and precedents that pertain to the problems related with funerary ritual spaces in the United States. First, death will be presented globally and briefly in regards to different cultures, customs, religions, and rituals. Second, a brief history will establish the fundamental origin of funerary architecture in the United States. Third, a brief history as well as information regarding views on death in the United States will establish the current funerary culture. Fourth, cremation and burial as a means of disposing of a human body in the United States will reveal the current methods and issues associated with these rituals. Lastly, information and statistics on cremation presented will show the changes in popularity, ideas about death, and how it is changing the funerary culture of the United States. There will also be three precedents presented to provide an analysis on current built architecture from three different areas in the world. These precedents will provide insight towards the current thoughts and design methods used with funerary architecture. Each precedent is unique and will have its own method of analysis associated with it. A conclusion showing the similarities and differences between the precedents will show relationships between funerary rituals and architecture.
FIG. 05 | Conceptual Collage
Literature Review Death Globally Globally, death has attitudes and ideas specific to different cultures of societies that continuously evolve and change. In Eastern cultures death is a process of transforming the corpse and its energy back to the natural cycle (Taylor 2000). In Hindu and Buddhist culture, death is part of a natural process where the spirit reincarnates and is able to live again (Taylor 2000). Outdoor cremation is the typical method of disposal in these South Asian cultures through the process of using funeral pyres (Habenstein and Lamers 1974). In Tibet and Taiwan the funerary culture mainly centers on Buddhism (Taylor 2000). These areas lack wood for creating funeral pyres and for cremation, so these cultures have adjusted their funerary ritual to sky burials (Taylor 2000). This is where bodies are placed on a mountaintop to naturally decompose and to undergo excarnation by animals such as birds (Fig. 06). This is part of the natural cycle since creatures that are part of nature are consuming the deceased and bringing the deceased full circle in the natural cycle. The Tibetan culture encour-
FIG. 06 | Location of a Tibetan Sky Burial
ages that the mourners witness the ritual in order for them to deal with and confront death (Taylor 2000). This process also occurs in Iran and India for those of the Zoroastrian faith through the use of Towers of Silence (Habenstein and Lamers 1974). These towers are structures that the dead are placed in order for the bodies to be consumed by birds (Fig. 07). Even though these unique rituals occur, they are mainly adaptations and changes towards the original customs of using funeral pyres as a means of cremating the body (Taylor 2000). In Mexico they celebrate the Day of the Dead where the death of loved ones is celebrated (Taylor 2000). This event holds a festival and brings the community together to celebrate (Taylor 2000). This is a unique tradition observed every year by the Mexican culture to help their
FIG. 07 | An Indian Parsi Tower of Silence
FIG. 08 | Day of the Dead Celebration
loved ones make their spiritual journey (Fig. 08). This shows a culture that is more acceptant and observant of death, compared to the United States. With these unique examples of funerary rituals, burial and cremation are still the two most commonly performed rituals globally (Habenstein and Lamers 1974). There are religions such as Christianity which forbid any other ritual outside of burial or cremation (Taylor 2000). Islam is a religion that strictly uses the ritual of burial for their deceased (Habenstein and Lamers 1974). Buddhism and Hinduism are strongly cremation oriented, but have some variations in ritual (Taylor 2000). While these different cultures, religions, and societies practice and celebrate death differently, there are commonalities throughout cultures in ways of addressing death. Using
fire as a means of disposal creates a spiritual meaning associated with the burning of the deceased that does not get portrayed through burial (Prothero 2001). While burial specifically pertains to certain cultures, this is because they believe that one day the soul of the dead will reunite with the body (Taylor 2000). Thus, the most popular funerary rituals globally center on the rituals of burial and cremation (Habenstein and Lamers 1974).
Literature Review Connection, Death and Architecture Connections between death and architecture are evident in tombs and cemeteries left behind by older civilizations. There have been connections made between barrows, tumuli, tombs, pyramids, and other geometrical structures having similarities in architectural form to houses for the living (Fig. 09-12) (Curl 2002). This is evident in Ancient Egypt within the houses of the living, when the change from circular huts to rectangular houses followed similar changes in tomb plan (Curl 2002). The Ancient Egyptian pyramids were and are tombs for the pharaohs that ruled over their civilization, as well as for people of high status. These were grand and monumental tombs that held very important meanings in their culture and beliefs. The architecture within these tombs also contains traps for protecting the contents within; a unique characteristic to this culture compared to others (Curl 2002). The pyramids are not the only example, as the Egyptians also built sphinxes, obelisks, and even architectural details that have meaning towards death (Curl 2002). One example is the sphinxes that were to
FIG. 09 | Example of a barrow type tomb
be symbols of protection for tombs. Designers reference these architectural works in the future, particularly in Europe (Colvin 1991). Egyptians believed that the dwelling-house was a temporary lodging while the tomb is the house where one would dwell longest; therefore, the houses for the dead were and are more splendid than the houses for the living. The Egyptian tomb developed into a type of mastaba, or rectangular tomb (Fig. 12). Mastabas are flatroofed pyramidal structures with sloped sides. They are usually composed of an outer chamber for the performance of rituals, an inner secret chamber where statues of the family reside, and an underground tomb-chamber reached by a shaft (Curl 2002). The mastaba developed into the stepped pyramid, creating steps along the pyramidal shape instead
FIG. 10 | Example of a tumuli type tomb
FIG. 11 | Example of a tomb
of one long sloped face. No one has written or speculated about why this development from the mastaba to the stepped pyramid occurred. One could say that there is evidence of mastabas having additions and parts added onto them, thus the transformation of the mastaba into the stepped pyramid. This development most likely influenced the design of the stepped pyramid and caused it to become more prominent. There are also stepped pyramids that have the pyramidal exterior added on to it in order to make them into a true pyramid, which suggests that the true pyramid was more of a final or grander tomb in the process of development in Ancient Egyptian architecture (Fig. 12) (Curl 2002). These pyramids were subject to so much theft that the pharaohs began to seek more discreet forms of burial. At this point tombs were cut into stone faces to create tombs simi-
lar to tumuli (Curl 2002). This new tomb exploration was the end of the Ancient Egyptian development of its funerary architecture (Colvin 1991). The Greeks developed tombs built into the earth and cut into and out of rock. These tombs were called tholoi which are similar to tumuli (Fig. 11), and many people were usually buried within these tombs. The tholoi tomb usually had a long entry space into a round ritual space where the dead would be placed and rituals would be practiced (Colvin 1991). The Greek culture would either bury the body or cremated remains after they performed their rituals or ceremonies. Cremation was usual in burial customs by the tenth century BC, and burial of ashes was in an urn and the spot was marked by a small mound (Curl 2002). This was the beginnings of the modern gravestone; a method
FIG. 12 | Evolutions of tombs in Ancient Egyptian architecture
FIG. 13 | Example of a Greek burial-chamber
for marking the spot for the burial of the deceased.
The Roman tombs also had similarities with the houses for the living (Curl 2002). The Romans had tombs similar to the Greeks, but evolved them to being elaborate above ground burials (Colvin 1991). These tombs were essentially rectangular stone coffins placed above ground, instead of a large temple (Fig. 15). Large temples and tombs were still used, but the Romans evolved the tomb to these smaller above ground burials. These eventually created necropoleis, which were located outside of the city walls (Curl 2002). Necropoleis are cities of the dead where these tombs and burial sites culminated (Fig. 16). The tombs associated within these necropoleis were also rectangular and usually made of brick and stone. Cemeteries evolved from these necropleis, and developed around a great monument or tomb surrounded by walls (Curl 2002). Cremation
They also began to erect cenotaphs and elaborate tombs to honor those of greater social status, like the Egyptians did (Curl 2002). Burial-chambers began to emerge in Greek funerary architecture, with vaulted ceilings with decorations and layouts similar to aspects of domestic architecture (Fig. 13) (Colvin 1991). Structure was more prominent with the columns, arches, vaults, and domes expressed in the design. Mausoleums emerged from the Greeks, which began as more elaborate tombs for those of greater social status (Curl 2002). They began to move towards creating family tombs, and these grew in popularity and began to become the mausoleum we know of today (Fig. 14) (Curl 2002).
Connection, Death and Architecture
FIG. 14 | Example of a Greek mausoleum
FIG. 15 | Example of a Greek above ground tomb
was more popular in the Republican Rome, which brought about the making of the columbarium (Curl 2002). These were large structures, usually above ground similar to their tomb design, and carved into to have niches for urns or memorial objects (Fig. 17). Above ground tombs began to flourish during this time, and the ideas of monumentality began to emerge again (Colvin 1991).
levels of depth as the demand required. The galleries contain shelves that the dead are placed upon, and typically contained side spaces most likely for rituals and ceremonies to occur (Fig. 18) (Curl 2002).
The Romans also established the concept of the catacombs (Curl 2002). These were underground sepulchers, and typically used by Jews or Christians; even though others groups may use it (Curl 2002). These are essentially underground columbaria, but usually involve burial over cremation. They created catacombs by excavating and putting a stair into the ground that lead into what they call a gallery. From there, the Romans added additional galleries and
These catacombs became the basis for Christian catacombs, and Christians thought of these as underground cemeteries (Curl 2002). This adaptation led to the burial customs in Christianity of burial of the body under, beside, or in a church. Burial within and around the church began to bring about hygienic issues that forced the Church and the cemetery to separate over time (Etiln 1984). There were also issues with limited space within these cemeteries, and this caused multiple bodies to occupy the same grave (Etiln 1984). The hygienic problems created by burying multiple bodies in a single grave caused the church and
FIG. 16 | Example of a Roman necropolis
FIG. 17 | Example of a Roman columbarium
city to separate from the cemetery and some catacombs to close. This caused the cemetery to relocate to the outskirts of the city where the same burial customs occurred, but just further from the occupied portions of the city (Etiln 1984). Eventually the cemetery was brought back into the city because of the need for it, and this is what evolved into the cemeteries of European culture today (Etiln 1984).
FIG. 18 | Section through a Roman catacomb
These cemeteries provided the environment for the built architecture that was associated with death. Over time, these built pieces would be explored and develop into what funerary architecture is today within Europe. Since the earliest non-native settlers of the United States are of European origin, these ideas about funerary architecture, death, and rituals brought with them created the funerary culture of Colonial America (Habenstein and Lamers 1974).
FIG. 19 | Detailed Section through a Roman catacomb
Connection, Death and Architecture
FIG. 20 | Catacomb Plan of Paris
Literature Review Death in the United States The earliest non-native settlers being of European origins established the funerary culture of the United States (Habenstein and Lamers 1974). The customs and culture that these settlers brought over with them created the rituals that addressed death. Christianity was the main driving factor behind the reasons for burial (Laderman 2003). In Christianity when Christ comes back the soul and the body will reunite, and thus the body needs to be buried for when that happens. This established the foundation for the ritual of burial in the United States. Later, the de-Christianization of death caused professional businessmen to assume control over the body and the rituals surrounding its disposal (Laderman 2003). Funeral directors constructed an American funeral tradition in the first part of the twentieth century (Laderman 2003). Since burial was the primary ritual of the time, this became the ritual that funerary architecture accommodated. Cremation was still occurring, but it was not the majority choice for how to dispose of a body. It wasnâ€™t until about 1960 that Christianity began to al-
low cremation to occur, but it was not the desired method; which was still burial (Kahn 2015). This began to alleviate the holds of religion on burial rituals in the United States, and around the world. It wasnâ€™t until about the twenty-first century that flexibility regarding rituals began to occur (Prothero 2001). Since the lifting of religious prohibitions and the changing desires of individuals to do different rituals, the funeral industry had to respond to that. The major movement that is causing this is the popularity cremation is gaining globally (NFDA 2016). Only over the past 125 years has cremation occurred in the United States (Prothero 2001). It didnâ€™t become popular unit about 25 years ago (Prothero 2001). This is due to the current funerary culture created and established in America centered on the ritual of burial (Prothero 2001). With new ideas about the body and what it means, cremation is moving to the forefront of choices in regards to disposal of the body (Kahn 2015). Burial and cremation bring about a conflict between the old and the new. Burial is the old because it is the traditional method of
dealing with the body, but cremation is the new with new ideas associated with the body. The current built environment revolves around cemeteries as a place to revisit, which establishes connections to the past. With cremation, the movement is going towards moving forward and moving on from the event (Prothero 2001). This is causing the cemetery to lose value, so the cemetery needs reevaluation in order to understand what it will mean with these changes. Americanâ€™s tend to treat death as a taboo topic, but this is changing and evolving with these changes in funerary culture (Habenstein and Lamers 1974). Because of this movement towards cremation, people are focusing more on creating meaningful rituals around death instead of a place that they have to go to (Prothero 2001). The trend in popularity towards cremation has caused ideas about what the body and what a person means to arise. These thoughts focus on the true self as spiritual rather than as material (Prothero 2001). Now that the United States has grown and become more of a diverse country, this presents another challenge to the funerary
culture. This has caused the current challenge for the funeral culture in the United States to be in addressing and providing services to all the different cultures and customs that come from many different parts of the world. There are also health regulations and codes that are in place to prevent funerary rituals that could harm others. One example is letting birds or animals consume the deceased. This could be dangerous due to the risk of disease spreading and possible harm to the animals. The establishments for these funerary rituals also need licenses in order to operate their business (Legislature 2015). These licenses have strict rules and guidelines that prevent rituals other than cremation and burial from occurring outside and within the business (State 2010). This establishes why the funerary culture of the United States focuses mainly on the rituals of burial and cremation.
Literature Review Disposal of the Body Disposal of the body in the United States is primarily through the rituals of burial or cremation (Prothero 2001). This is due to hygienic reasons and because of the established funerary culture and traditions within the United States (Habenstein and Lamers 1974). In regards to burial, the process is as follows: embalm the body, ceremony or service, and the burial. The process of embalming is in order to preserve the body and make it presentable for a ceremony or service (Laderman 2003). Usually these ceremonies or services are associated with burial. The burial occurs and the parcel of land is marked with some sort of gravestone or marker that leaves a symbol of something being there. This in turn gives the family and associated people of the deceased a place to come back to for grieving and reflecting. Cremation has a simpler process with many options. The service can occur before the cremation, with the body present in a casket. This is optional and does not occur often because there is extra cost associated with it (NFDA 2016). Once the service is over, or if the service
was not included, the body is cremated. The family of the deceased would pick and place the ashes in an urn or a designated object. After that, the ceremony or service can occur if it has not already. This is, once again, optional. This can cause problems with the mourning and grieving process. Due to the nature of direct-cremation in the United States, this causes the ceremony to not occur because of the association with death being a taboo topic (Kahn 2015). People withdraw themselves from the subject and are apprehensive to deal with it, and this makes direct-cremation more likely to be the choice for disposing of the body, which can causes issues with grieving. Because of the act of putting the ashes in an urn, the act of cremation then leaves options for leaving a mark behind. This can be done through purchasing a niche in a mausoleum, columbarium, or even burying the urn. The first two options are the more popular choices, but there is even more popularity with choosing none of these options and bringing home the urn. The urn is kept within the house
FIG. 21 | Example of a funerary chapel
FIG. 22 | Example of a crematory oven space
and the grieving process occurs that way. This is occurring because of the fact that families are more dispersed now than they were in the past (Kahn 2015). This, in turn, can bring a heavier weight because of the fact that this person is immediately around and with you. But, not everyone deals with grief the same and this can also cause no issues with the process.
ing. With the current trends in cremation, these spaces become inadequate for different cultures and the new ideas about death. For example, the Hindu religion has the family cremate their loved ones and scatter their ashes in water (Habenstein and Lamers 1974).
Since the funerary ritual spaces of the United States are for the ritual of burial, the rise in cremation is causing the need for ritual spaces to adapt to this changing culture. The current funerary ritual spaces associated with burial are in either a funerary chapel, or a graveside service in a cemetery (Fig. 21). Since these ritual spaces have been the center point of design for funerary ritual spaces in the United States, they tend to be experientially pleas-
Some cemeteries may not have access to water for that ritual to occur, but even more importantly the spaces where the crematory ovens are in most funeral homes of the United States are not conducive for ceremonies. The spaces these ovens are in are typically spaces for the function of cremation and are not designed with an experiential quality (Fig. 22). This can cause difficulty for people of the Hindu culture to practice their funerary rituals in the United States, as well as anyone exploring different funerary ritual ideas.
Literature Review Cremation Cremation is becoming more popular, both globally and within the United States. Globally in 2015 the rate of cremation surpassed burial (Fig. 17) (NFDA 2016). A half century ago in the United States 96% of people chose burial as the primary funerary ritual (Fig. 18) (Kahn 2015). In 2013 the United States was at a 45% cremation rate, and it is still rising every year (Kahn 2015). The reason for cremation becoming more popular is due to cost, environmental reasons, fewer religious prohibitions, and preferences are changing (NFDA 2016). The cost difference between cremation and burial is substantial, and seems to be one of the primary reasons people are choosing cremation. Environmental concerns are associated with burial creating and releasing harmful substances and toxins into the earth from the decaying human body (Kahn 2015). Cremations popularity also deals with the amount of space for a burial and how eventually there will not be enough space (NFDA 2016). It was not until about the 1960â€™s that Christianity began to allow cremation (Kahn 2015). Once this happened, more movement towards cremation occurred. Preferences are also
changing in regards to the body and rituals associated with it (Prothero 2001). As Prothero (2001) points out, many people see the body as a more spiritual and less material existence in regards to death. By choosing burial, the buried person is in the ground in a casket with a place for someone to always come back to for remembrance. With cremation, the idea is that by burning the body the sprit is leaving and departing. This then leaves this unexplainable and spiritual remnant of the person behind. Each person can then have their own ideas and connections to that person and what it means to them. This creates a more meaningful connection that the rituals and ceremonies create with the deceased and the living. Cremations trend is causing people to focus on these ideas (Prothero 2001). Family dispersion is also causing cremation to be more popular (Kahn 2015). This is due to the fact that now the United States transportation and communication infrastructure allows it to be easier for families to spread across the country. Before communication and transportation
FIG. 23 | Global Cremation to Burial Comparison
Literature Review evolved, families were closer together and usually didnâ€™t move out of a couple of days travel time from each other. Now, one can fly from one side of the county to the other within a fraction of a day. Cremation is also highest in places with newcomers and retirees, such as California, Florida, and Nevada (Kahn 2015). This can be attributed to the fact that when death occurs in a family of newcomers to a state or retirees, that they do not have a connection to the place. Since there is a disconnection with place, burial does not seem to be a good choice. The issues with cremation is that globally more than 47% of people are associating cremation with a memorial service, and only about 7.4% do not have a service (NFDA 2016). In the United States there has been a large increase in direct-cremation, which has no service (Kahn 2015). This, once again, can cause issues with the grieving and mourning process. This could attribute to the inadequacy of current funerary ritual spaces in the United States. This also effects the notion that death in the United States is considered a taboo topic; one which
is something that people do not wish to think about, address, or deal with (Habenstein and Lamers 1974).
FIG. 24 | Cremation trends in the United States
Precedent Review Baumschlenweg Crematorium The Baumschlenweg Crematorium is located in Berlin, Germany (Fig. 19). The architects are Axel Schultes and Charlotte Frank. This project completed construction in 1998 and is a non-denominational crematorium. It has an area of around 9,300 square meters, 3-stories, its entry is from the northeast, and it is located in a cemetery (Fig. 20). Looking at the project in plan (Fig. 21-22) the design is centered around a large vestibule referred to as an urban square (Stegers 2008). This urban square is composed of 29 circular columns within a 2-story volume with a fountain in the middle, and is a public open space. There are two smaller chapels for 50 people each at the front, and one 250 person chapel in the rear (Stegers 2008). The top portion of the plan contains three smoke stacks on the exterior that connect to the crematory ovens at the bottom most level. The bottom portion of the plan contains offices for the business, with the lowest floor containing the cremation ovens and storage.
FIG. 25 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium, Berlin, Germany
FIG. 26 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium â€“ Exterior
FIG. 27 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium â€“ Site Plan
FIG. 28 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – First Floor Plan
FIG. 29 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Ground Floor Plan
FIG. 30 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium â€“ Northwest-southeast section in front of the rear wall
Examining the design through section (Fig. 30), the lowest level shows the continuation of the smoke stacks through the building on the left. The urban square is located in the middle, with office space to the right of it. This section shows the more functional and private spaces towards the bottom of the building, while the more public spaces are towards the main and upper levels.
Analyzing the design concepts at the entry, the design creates a linear projection that guides a person forward (Fig. 31). There is also some transparency through the use of glazing into the urban square (Fig. 33). This creates a moment for the idea of portal to help remove someone from their environment into this space. The volume of the space and the materiality help add a sense of massiveness that makes a person feel the gravity of the meaning of the space. There is also an entry that runs through the middle of the front building face that provides a direct view and connection to the urban square (Fig. 32).
FIG. 31 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Entry reference plan
FIG. 33 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Side entry
FIG. 32 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Front entry
FIG. 34 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Urban square reference plan
The urban square concept creates a unique and flexible public space (Fig. 34). The connection between the roof and the columns allow natural light into the space to help create a unique experience (Fig. 36). The columns are dense towards the center of the space, and less towards the outer edges (Stegers 2008). These columns structure the space and at the same time create the perception of the space as a whole. The unique arrangement of the columns creates spaces for people to congregate and gather either before, during, or after a ceremony (Fig. 35). The materiality is concrete with little pattern changes, creating a focus on the natural light and the ceremonial chapels.
FIG. 35 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Urban square
FIG. 36 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Urban square
FIG. 37 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Chapel reference plan
The chapels for this project are designed the same, but change size for the two different sizes of chapels (Fig. 37). The spaces are single story volumes with glazing at the back of the space with a linear cut through the roof running through the middle of the space (Fig. 38). The surrounding walls are composed of concrete panels that help direct focus towards the glazing in the room. The linearity of the void and the glazing creates a focal point for the ceremony or rituals for the space (Fig. 39).
FIG. 38 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Chapel
FIG. 39 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Chapel
FIG. 40 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Chapel
Precedent Review Diamond Hill Crematorium The Diamond Hill Crematorium is located in Hong Kong, China (Fig. 41). The architect is the Architectural Services Department, and the project completed construction in 2009. This crematorium is also non-denominational with an area of about 7,100 square meters. The entry is from the north side of the site (Fig. 43). The building is composed of three stories with the lowest level containing the crematory ovens with exhausting air filtration systems (Fig. 44). The client wanted this to be a very green project, and thus put lots of emphasis into creating a safe burning crematorium. The ground floor has the drive up for vehicles, with offices to the left and a continuation of the lower floors chimney to the right (Fig. 45). There is also a circular form that brings people from the ground floor to the podium level above.
FIG. 41 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Building View
FIG. 42 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Exterior Circulation
FIG. 43 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Site Plan
FIG. 45 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Ground plan
FIG. 44 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Lower ground plan
FIG. 46 | Diamond Hill Crematorium â€“ Podium floor plan
The podium floor centers around the exterior gardens and the central circular circulation space to the floor below (Fig. 46). The circle in the Chinese culture represents heaven, while the square represents the Earth. With these two forms resting within one another in the architecture, this creates a symbolic meaning of a connection between heaven and earth. There are four lily ponds that create the square, and
this is another connection to the concept of earth. There are four service halls, each located to the outside of each lily pond. This square creates an open space accessible to the public. To the left of the plan are offices and more circulation space, while the right has some exterior space with the chimney from the crematory space below becoming an architectural element.
Diamond Hill Crematorium
FIG. 47 | Diamond Hill Crematorium â€“ Building section
The design through section shows the public space in the center at the top with the lily ponds, with the circular space in the middle cutting between the two levels (Fig. 47). This section adds emphasis to the symbolism of connecting heaven and earth in the Chinese culture through architectural form. The square volumes to either side of the public spaces are the service halls. The middle floor is for the drop off
and offices, while the lowest floor is the more functional space for the cremation ovens. To the right is the chimney from the cremation ovens at the bottom most level, which becomes an architectural element.
FIG. 48 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Entry reference plan
The design of the entry expresses access by foot or vehicle and puts someone into the circular space representative of heaven (Fig. 48). A person then climbs a stair that wraps around the inside of the square to the podium level above (Fig. 52). This design is reflective of the ritual of the journey to visit and pay respects to the graves of loved ones in Chinese culture. The square at the top has a cross shape of circulation going through it to bring someone to the service halls, which are located on the outsides of the lily ponds (Fig. 51). This building has a large connection with nature, and thus the entry space really expresses this through the materiality of concrete. By using concrete, the natural material of plants contrasts the concrete and creates more focus on the greenery. This square at the podium level creates a public space that can be used before and after ceremonies or rituals.
FIG. 49 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Entry Looking Up
FIG. 50 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Entry Looking Down
FIG. 51 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Square entry space
Diamond Hill Crematorium
FIG. 52 | Diamond Hill Crematorium â€“ Circular entry space
FIG. 53 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Service halls reference plan
FIG. 54 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Service hall
The four service halls (Fig. 53) have lots of openings for natural light, with a specific opening in the ceiling near the focal point of the space (Fig. 55). The space is square in design to allow flexibility for the space. In the rear is a casket conveying system that brings and takes caskets away during ceremonies, if so desired (Fig. 54). This system creates a new and different idea towards the ritual of cremation, adding a notion of the dead departing. The materiality of the space is concrete with little variation in order to create emphasis on the focal point of the space.
FIG. 55 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Service halls natural lighting
Diamond Hill Crematorium
FIG. 56 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Smoke exhaust chimney reference plan
FIG. 57 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Overall building view
The smoke exhaust chimney located to one side of the project (Fig. 56) becomes a tower-like architectural element for the building (Fig. 58). Since the client wanted the building to be very environmentally friendly, the smoke stack became a large architectural element to create a demarcation for the building. This element even shows the connection to nature for the project, with the greenery growing up it and along the retaining wall below it (Fig. 57).
FIG. 58 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Chimney
Precedent Review Ashwinikumar Crematorium The Ashwinikumar Crematorium is located in Surat, India (Fig. 59). The architect for the project is Matharoo Associates and was completed in 1999. The denomination for this crematorium is Hindu and cremation focused. The area of the building is about 10,000 square meters, with its entry at the north and located along the River Tapi (Fig. 61). The design of this project through plan shows the building containing 5 cremation ovens in large spaces with semi-circular walls to create separate spaces for the ritual of cremation (Fig. 62). The plan shows that the building is designed around the Hindu ritual for cremation. The procession enters from the top of the plan and moves down the corridor to a body washing platform. From there the choice is presented for either a wood fired cremation or a gas cremation. There are lots of meditation and reflecting spaces surrounding the ritual spaces for before, during, and after the ritual. The final stop after cremation is the river in order to scatter the ashes of the deceased.
FIG. 59 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Overall building view from the street
FIG. 60 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Overall building view from the river
FIG. 61 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Site plan
FIG. 62 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium â€“ Building plan
FIG. 63 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium â€“ Building sections
The design through section of the building indicates this procession from the entry towards the river (Fig. 63). It shows some intermediate spaces along the way for rest and reflection. There are also some pavilion spaces shown that create more connections with the exterior environment, as this project is an open air project. The tall element is the smoke stack for the facility, and that also becomes a slight architectural feature placed along the river edge.
The entry for this project is designed for the procession of the Hindu ritual of cremation. The angled walls of the space create a funnel to direct people from a more open space into a more compressed space (Fig. 64). This is a way to transition someone into the ritual space. The materiality of the space is of concrete with different textures (Fig. 65). The textures range from flat and smooth to wave like textures to create focal walls with natural light emphasizing them. The existing trees for the project were preserved, and created the entry space into a reflective space as well (Fig. 66).
FIG. 64 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Entry reference plan
FIG. 66 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Entry view
FIG. 65 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Entry view
FIG. 67 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Entry reference plan
The furnace chambers design contains semi-circular walls that create separate spaces for families to perform the ritual of cremation (Fig. 67). The space is open air and allows some natural light, and also has connections to pavilions on either side (Fig. 69). These pavilions allow for someone to be able to get away during the ritual of cremation to a space of reflectance (Fig. 70). The circulation to the pavilions also allows for the procession to move to the river for scattering of the ashes as part of the ritual (Fig. 71). This creates a connection between the water and the people, as well as the ritual (Fig. 73).
FIG. 68 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Cremation Ritual
FIG. 70 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Furnace chamber to pavilions
FIG. 71 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Entry reference plan
FIG. 69 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Furnace chamber
FIG. 72 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Meditation Space
FIG. 73 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Furnace chamber to pavilions
Literature/Precedent Review Conclusion Funerary rituals relate to how cultures view and treat death. Examples of these rituals are burial, cremation, excarnation, and festivals such as the Day of the Dead. These different cultures are what make up the diverse melting pot of the United States. There are similarities and differences between these different cultures and their funerary rituals. Cremation and burial are the two most common funerary rituals globally. Looking at history, the funerary architecture and culture derives from the Europeans that settled in Colonial America. These settlers were of mostly Christian backgrounds, and created the funerary culture of the United States focused around the ritual of burial. This culture influenced the design of funerary ritual spaces to address the ritual of burial. Now that cremation is becoming more popular globally, the spiritual views about the body are changing. Cremation is becoming more popular within the United States as well, making the current funerary ritual spaces designed for burial inadequate for this change in funer-
ary culture. One example would be the ritual of Hindu families cremating their loved ones. The space for cremation ovens in the United States is typically a space for the function of cremation and not so much a ceremonial or ritual space. This may cause a person of the Hindu culture difficulty in performing their funerary rituals. The precedents presented show three different approaches to creating ritual spaces. The Baumschlenweg Crematorium leaves the crematory ovens in a more functional space, but addresses its design focus on creating a public urban square space and experiential funerary chapels. The Diamond Hill Crematorium shows a connection between architectural form and cultural symbolism between the circle and the square. It also displays a large connection to nature through greenery and creating a large public space. Lastly, the Ashwinikumar Crematorium is an example of a Hindu focused crematorium. This crematorium is an example of how the family is involved in the cremation process, and how the cremation ovens are part of a ritual space that is not just
for the function of cremation. With the changing funerary culture of the United States, the funerary ritual spaces need to respond to this change. Focusing on the two primary rituals of burial and cremation, an architectural solution through a funerary ritual space can address the changes in funerary culture.
Methodology Introduction This methodology will establish the program for the architectural solution of a funerary ritual space, as well as the methodology for the project site. The program will consist of similar programmatic elements from the three precedent studies examined in the previous chapter.
a columbarium associated with it as well. This is an example of clustering the programmatic elements for the building. The Ashwinikumar Crematorium is a single large facility designed around the culture of Hinduism and this culture does not practice burial.
Since this project focused on the two funerary rituals of burial and cremation the ritual spaces and their associated spaces are included. The ritual of burial requires space for preserving the bodies, for embalming and preparing the body for a service or ceremony, and the service or ceremonial space itself. The space for preserving bodies is a private functional space. This is associated with the embalming space, where the body is prepared for the service, ceremony, or burial.
The program focused on the design of funerary ritual spaces that address the changing funerary culture of the United States. This project examined two different ways to handle programming the project: One was through grouping the program together to create one large facility, or to have pieces of the program clustered together to create a complex of multiple buildings. The Baumschlenweg Crematorium is an example of creating one large facility with all the spaces within it, but it is still located in a cemetery. The Diamond Hill Crematorium is a multi-building complex that has
The space for the ceremony or service for the ritual of burial are close to these functional spaces associated with burial. The two primary spaces for the ritual of burial in regards to ceremony are through a funerary chapel and the cemetery. A funerary chapel is a ceremonial space for celebrating and remem-
bering the life someone lived. There are many different services associated with a funerary chapel, as well as opportunity for change due to the changing funerary culture. One example is having a funerary chapel for the purpose of a visitation. This is a service had for friends and family that are not necessarily going to be at the actual burial service. A funerary chapel can also be used for the main ceremony or service before or leading to the graveside service. The cemetery is an outdoor space for the ritual of burial, and is an environment that is designed to suit this need both functionally and experientially. The ritual of cremation has similar needs to burial in regards to the functional space requirements. Cremation needs a space for preserving the body before the ritual of cremation, as well as the embalming and preparation space in the event that a ceremony with the body present is to occur. These spaces are amongst the two different rituals, and create functional and private spaces for the project. Cremation and burial both have cultural rituals of washing the body of the deceased.
Cultures that practice this are Judaism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and others (Habenstein and Lamers 1974). This body washing ritual requires a space for both the rituals of cremation and burial. This project proposed two different spaces for the ritual of cremation. One is a ritual space with cremation ovens for the family of the deceased to use to participate in the ritual. This is similar to how the Ashwinikumar Crematorium has the cremation ovens implemented into the ritual space. The other space is a more functional and private space for cremation in the event that the family does not want to participate in the ritual. This is in both the Baumschlenweg Crematorium and Diamond Hill Crematorium projects. This space for the ritual of cremation is a ceremonial and celebratory space, as well as serving the functional needs of cremation. Food is an important aspect to many cultures funerary rituals. This is seen in the Hindu culture where the family comes together to cook a large meal that creates a healing environment. This is also seen in
Methodology Catholic services as a before or after ceremony social event. A space for the preparation and consumption of food is necessary to the program. These spaces are in the Ashwinikumar Crematorium where they provide food preparation spaces for the families. The Baumschlenweg Crematorium also can have this space in its urban square public space, which occurs similarly in this project. Another space used in this project is a space for meditation or reflection. This space is in this project in the form of a chapel, pavilions, and exterior circulation space to create a journey. As seen in all of the precedents, public space is a commonality amongst them for the act of meditation, gathering, and reflecting. This space for meditation or reflection is a public space similar to the precedents, and has a connection with the cemetery. Lastly, the business side of the program is composed of functional spaces. These spaces are offices for planning, consulting, storage, display, sales, and record keeping. These spaces are in all the precedents examined, and are usually
only connected to the embalming or preservation spaces. Overall, there are two primary methods to organizing the program for this project. One is to create one large facility, and the other is to cluster the program into multiple buildings. Through this analysis, combining the program into one large facility was chosen. The program remains in clusters and the building form is used to divide the program through the building. The four programmatic clusters are a foyer or entry for transitioning into the building, a funeral home cluster with business and associated spaces, a body preparation cluster, and the final ritual cluster.
Site Selection The site for this project was chosen because the site is currently being assessed for the viability for a cemetery. The development and expansion of the site will be explained in the next chapter.
Chapter 2 - Analysis ...I am the sunlight on ripened grain. â€‹ I am the gentle autumn rain. When you awaken in the morningâ€™s hush I am the swift uplifting rush Of quiet birds in circled flight...
- Mary Elizabeth Frye
Conditions as a Lens Introduction This site analysis began with looking at cemetery precedents in order to design a cemetery as a site to place the final project into. This is done in an independent study, but included in this book. This precedent review will look at three different cemeteries through a lens of conditions in order to expand concepts of current cemetery design. These conditions appear through common elements within cemeteries. These conditions are portal, edge, scene, filter, monument, and materiality. While each of these conditions exists as a single idea, each condition can overlap and hybridize into all the other conditions. This makes each condition unique, but also able to blend to create a cohesive experience within the narrative of these conditions.
FIG. 74 | Conceptual Collage
Conditions as a Lens Portal Portal is a term that means to remove one from their surroundings into a new place. Portal occurs through two main instances: the entrance and the environment. Through the entrance of the cemetery, one could create a built or landscape condition that defines this as the entrance, but also creates a depth that makes one feel as if they have entered somewhere else (Fig. 75). Portal through the entrance occurs in numerous ways, and can be a condition that also mixes with edge. Through the environment, portal occurs within the density of the trees and the vastness of the landscape. Portal also exists through the spatial characteristics of compression and expansion, light and dark, and form and void. The environmental form of portal overlaps with the condition of scene. Portal also applies to a space that allows for meditation and reflection. This is important in a cemetery due the nature of the place and the gravity that is associated with it. By manipulating the landscape and the density of the trees, portal exists in a sense of surrounding and depth. In a surrounding sense, when one pauses
they will realize that they are somewhere else due to the nature of the place. But, once one begins to look beyond this one moment of pause, the depth within the surroundings becomes another portal that can add a truly deeper condition of portal.
FIG. 75 | Conceptual Collage â€“ Portal
Conditions as a Lens Edge Edge exists within cemeteries in two forms: at the exterior of the site, and within the site. At the exterior of the site edge becomes a condition that intertwines with portal, but also establishes a relationship between the cemetery and the public. For example, if the exterior of the site has a wall around it, that may cause someone to be apprehensive to go into the cemetery since there is a barrier. If the cemetery were to have no wall and allow open space up to the edge, this would have no physical barrier and create more of a connection with the public. There are edges that exist within the site as well, and these exist within the landscape and from built conditions. A natural condition of edge is the edge of a tree line that creates a separation between the forest and another space. Built conditions could be landscape features or wall features built into the site that create similar dividers within the cemetery. The use of edge creates a balance amongst privacy, creating the condition of portal, internal division, and public access (Fig. 76). The existing surroundings of a site largely influence the choices
for treating the condition of edge. For example, if there is a large residential neighborhood on one side of the cemetery, a wall might be a good decision in order to create privacy between the cemetery and the neighborhood. If there is a park or public space, then the edge may be transparent in order to be more welcoming and inviting to the community.
FIG. 76 | Conceptual Collage â€“ Edge
Conditions as a Lens Scene Scene is a condition of views that are intertwined with the built and natural environment, or independently, that create moments for reflection or meditation. This condition exists around pavilions, monuments, graves, and how they interact and blend with the natural environment or landscape (Fig. 77). There are also scenes where just the landscape creates these views through the trees, earth, and the lakes. Light also plays an important role in creating scenes, as the light filters through the trees or allows for shadows to be cast in particular ways. Scene is a condition that can be used to create a narrative within the cemetery. This condition of scene exists within the natural landscape, and also through the built environment. The ideas of both creating a landscape that is open and natural to create oneâ€™s own narrative is important, but there should also be a narrative that is created amongst the built condition that is part of the site. This narrative also is alive and changing, as the different seasons change the scene to create multiple narratives. FIG. 77 | Conceptual Collage â€“ Scene
Conditions as a Lens Filter Filter appears in two ways: through the way light breaks through the canopy of the trees in order to create an ethereal experience, and through the way the landscape creates depth through the trees and light (Fig. 78). With the first instance, the light breaks through the tree canopy and the density of the tree canopy creates emphasis on the light. This light then adds to the quality of the space and influences the experience. Filter also exists from the contrast between the built environment, nature, and the surrounding monuments within the landscape. In the second instance, the effect of filter does not only apply to just the way light comes through the canopy of trees to create an experience; it also exists within the layers and depth of the landscape and built environment. This idea of depth within the condition of filter exists in the way that light interacts in depth and not just in a single moment that one is experiencing. Filter overlaps primarily with the ideas of portal and scene. The light affecting the space can help remove someone from their environment and cause them
to reflect on the gravity of the place that they are in. This helps create a connection with the narrative of the place and creating moments for reflection and meditation.
FIG. 78 | Conceptual Collage â€“ Filter
Conditions as a Lens Monument Monument is a condition of how the built environment interacts and contrasts with the natural environment (Fig. 79). Monument creates a way of representing that someoneâ€™s memory is there, and also aids to the meaning of the place. Monument can exist in the form of graves, crypts, or a representation for a person who has passed away. The condition of monument can also exist within the buildings that are within the cemetery, such as a mausoleum or columbarium. The way that monument uniquely creates many different experiences that intertwine with the landscape is important to the condition of scene. The condition of monument is important because it creates a human connection in a cemetery compared to just using nature. The built environment creates a connection to humans since it is built and not natural, while the natural environment creates a connection due to the fact that humans exist within it. Monument intertwines with the condition of materiality, but these conditions still exist independently. FIG. 79 | Conceptual Collage â€“ Monument
Conditions as a Lens Materiality Materiality is a condition that further contrasts the built and natural environment. Like with monument, the built environment creates a connection to humans since monuments are manmade while the natural environment creates a connection due to nature being where humans reside. With materiality, it creates a connection to humans and the concept of time. The materials used typically have connections with time, whether the material lasts for hundreds of years or if it changes over time. Stone is a common material that is representative of lasting over time, and it is a material that changes due to the way nature interacts with it. Copper is another material that creates this connection due to the way copper patinas with its exposure to nature. The way these materials change and interact with the environment creates a sense of time within the place. One example would be if a new monument existed within the natural landscape. The materiality would be pristine and untouched, but as time goes by the material will change. Stone will change color, certain metals will rust or patina, and
nature will begin to intertwine itself with the materials through greenery. This sense of time through materiality can add to the ideas about death and returning to nature. With the materiality being pristine and fresh it represents the beginning, and once time passes and the materiality begins to change it begins to show how it is returning to nature. Eventually the materiality will intertwine with nature as nature places vines, moss, and other greenery amongst it. This idea of time can create a deeper connection to the ideas about the cemetery and sense of place. It creates a connection to the ideas about death and ones return to nature, just as the monument and materiality of the place does.
Conclusion The conditions of portal, edge, scene, filter, monument, and materiality create a lens to analyze the following cemetery precedents. Portal creates a sense of removing one from their surroundings and allows for one to be able to reflect. Edge influences the connection with the public and the park-like ideas of a cemetery, as well as divisions within the cemetery. Scene creates the moments that allow for reflection and meditation and also creates a narrative for the cemetery. Filter influences the experience and gravity felt amongst scenes. Monument creates a contrast between the built and natural environments, and establishes connections to humans through manmade pieces and existing within nature. Materiality creates a connection to time and allows for further depth into the condition of monument to create experiences. Each of these conditions stands alone, but all of these conditions can also hybridize with the other conditions to create a cohesive narrative amongst a cemetery.
Precedent Review Introduction The precedents analyzed are the Brion Vega Cemetery in Italy, the Spring Grove Cemetery in Cincinnati, Ohio, and the Evergreen Cemetery in Jacksonville, Florida. The precedents are analyzed for their differences in location, design levels, and ideas. The Brion Vega Cemetery, located in Italy, was designed by a famous architect and is a highly detailed, structured, and designed space which includes architecture. Spring Grove Cemetery, located in the United States, is a park-like cemetery that uses the landscape to create experiences. Evergreen Cemetery, located in the United States, is a denser cemetery that creates a connection with the public and nature. The analysis of these precedents using the previous conditions as a lens contributes to a program for a design solution.
Precedent Review Brion Vega Cemetery The Brion Vega Cemetery, by the architect Carlo Scarpa, completed construction between 1970 and 1978 (Fig. 80). This is an addition to an existing municipal cemetery in San Vito d’Altivole near Treviso, Italy. The cemetery creates a place to honor the memory of Giuseppe Brion, the founder of an iconic Italian electronics company. The cemetery is approximately 21,500 square feet and in the shape of an L, with the Brion family buried in it. This cemetery uses formal design strategies through architecture to create the conditions of the cemetery. There are two entrances: one is through the existing cemetery into the northern portion of the L-shape into a corridor, and the other from the street adjacent to the chapel. Looking at the project in plan, the top portion of the L-shape is composed of a compressed entryway that brings someone to a choice (Fig. 82). To the right is a large water pool with a pavilion residing within it. This pavilion is focusing on the burial and memorial piece for the Brion family. There is a connection from the water pool to the memorial piece by a small path of water. Turning down
FIG. 80 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Exterior Chapel
FIG. 81 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Exterior Circulation
the other side of the L-shape, there is a chapel for the parents, a large chapel, more water pools, and a cypress garden. Surrounding the north and west portion of the cemetery is a large concrete wall.
FIG. 82 | Brion Vega Cemetery â€“ Floor Plan
FIG. 83 | Brion Vega Cemetery â€“ Floor Plan with Sections and Elevations
Looking at the project in section, the first section (Fig. 83) shows the first entry choice of going towards the pavilion on the water or towards the memorial piece. It shows a one story volume for the corridor that leads one to open exterior space on either side. Looking at the other section (Fig. 83), the path from the memorial piece leads one
towards the chapel. The space for circulation is similar to the entry corridor, but increases in volume at the chapel. The chapel then creates a space for reflection on the other side in the form of a cypress garden. This projects conditions focus on the four main built components: the entry, the pavilion, the memorial
Brion Vega Cemetery
FIG. 84 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Main Entry Portal
piece, and the chapel. While these four main components are important, the exterior components of the cemetery are still important and play a large role in making up the composition of the cemetery. This cemetery creates a connection with nature while maintaining a garden-like atmosphere that remains removed from its surroundings. The materiality of the built and un-built environment also influences the conditions in this project, creating a contrast and relationship between the materials. Time is also an element within the materials, as they contain characteristics that change as time passes, emphasizing the condition of materiality within the cemetery.
FIG. 85 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Pavilion
FIG. 86 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Memorial
FIG. 87 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Chapel Entry
Precedent Review Analyzing the design at the entry portal, the design brings one from the exterior open environment into a compressed concrete enclosure that focuses ones attention to the end of the corridor. The varying textures of concrete create an earthen connection, but also contrast the greenery growing on it to further that connection with nature (Fig. 88). The end of the corridor contains two overlapping circles that are open and allow view into the top portion of the L-shaped cemetery (Fig. 89). This portion of the procession into the cemetery is the condition of portal. These overlapping or intersecting circles represent an idea similar to yin-yang. To the right of these circles is the corridor to the pavilion, a space for the living to meditate and reflect. To the left of the circles is the corridor to the memorial piece, representative of death and the inevitable end. The middle ground between the two built pieces is an open green space, which has a small channel of water that connects the pool from the side representative of life leading to the memorial piece representative of death. This open space represents a plane between life and death; one that allows for more meditation and
reflection, but also an intermediate space between the two structures that allows views from one side to the other. The pavilion, which is located to the top right of the entry portal, is a built structure within a pool of water (Fig. 91). This is a condition of monument that creates a scene with a filter. It is designed as a large composition of timber on light structural elements with a copper screen around the bottom of the timber. This copper screen is notched to allow a person to walk through it, but controls the view of one while they are in it. This creates a focus on the pavilion and adds to the notion of this space being for reflection and meditation (Fig. 92). There is also a cut in the copper screen that is small, but creates a focus towards the memorial piece on the site, which further establishes the viewpoint towards the idea of death (Fig. 93). The pavilions materiality is composed of a unique arrangement of timber and columns, all aging as time and the environment naturally does. The pool of water has elements built into it to add to the experience, and also greenery in the
Brion Vega Cemetery
FIG. 88 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Main Entry Portal
FIG. 91 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Pavilion
FIG. 89 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Intersecting Circles
FIG. 92 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Pavilion Sketch
FIG. 90 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Intersecting Circles
FIG. 93 | Brion Vega Cemetery – View Through Pavilion
FIG. 94 | Brion Vega Cemetery â€“ Memorial Sketch
FIG. 95 | Brion Vega Cemetery â€“ Memorial
form of lily pads to further create the emphasis on the idea of life.
The chapel is located at the bottom most portion of the L-shape of the cemetery. Water surrounds three sides of it and it is composed of articulated concrete. This chapel was designed as a private chapel and has correlations to ideas of a Japanese tea house (Fig. 96). The volume inside the space is one and a half stories, and extends further at the focal point of the space (Fig. 97). At the focal point is a podium element and a void in the ceiling that extends further up. There is also glazing around the exterior in long thin pieces, and small square pieces to allow natural light. The extended void in the ceiling also allows natural light into the space (Fig. 98). This exhibits the condition of monument as the chapel, and filter with the light affecting the space. There is also a circular cut out of the concrete as a threshold into the space, a symbol of transitioning one
Looking at the other side of the entry, there is the large memorial piece that has similarities to the idea of a bridge (Fig. 94). Underneath this memorial are the tombs of the family for the cemetery addition. The memorial is composed of curved concrete, like a bridge, that is very low to the ground (Fig. 95). The memorial seems to be focusing on the idea that the client represents a bridge in society for his achievements, and is entombed next to his wife at an equal level. The angled memorial allows for views towards the pavilion on the water and the chapel down the other portion of the L-shape of the cemetery. This is a condition of monument as well that creates a scene.
Brion Vega Cemetery
FIG. 96 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Chapel Sketch
FIG. 97 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Chapel
into a space to focus on meditation and reflection (Fig. 99). This circular threshold exhibits the condition of portal. After the chapel, the bottom portion of the L-shape becomes a cypress garden as a place for reflection.
FIG. 98 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Chapel Void
FIG. 99 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Chapel Portal
FIG. 101 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Filter
FIG. 102 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Scene
In conclusion, the Brion Cemetery has many architectural elements within it that are strong conditions. The entry is a space that compresses one and creates a choice for the occupant, and allows a glimpse into the cemetery with the intersecting circles as a form of symbolism. This condition is a portal within the cemetery. The pavilion creates a space for meditation and reflection, and is representative of the ideas of life and the living. The view from the pavilion allows for direct sight towards the memorial, which is the idea of death. This positioning, contrasting, use of materiality, and connections between the two pieces creates a further connection towards the piece for entry. These two pieces create the condition of monument and intertwine with scene. The chapel creates a completely built space that allows for someone to focus on meditation and reflection. The condition of
edge in the cemetery is a designed concrete wall that aids to the condition of portal. All of these spaces string together to create a path that guides someone through the cemetery and creates a further connection between life and death. This is a narrative created by the condition of scene hybridized with all the other conditions.
FIG. 100 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Portal
Brion Vega Cemetery
FIG. 103 | Brion Vega Cemetery â€“ Monument
Brion Vega Cemetery
FIG. 104 | Brion Vega Cemetery â€“ Edge
Precedent Review Spring Grove Cemetery The Spring Grove Cemetery, located in Cincinnati, Ohio, is the second largest cemetery in the United States at around 733 acres. It was originally the Cemetery of Spring Grove, and founded in 1845 by the Cincinnati Horticultural Society as a non-profit cemetery (Fig. 105). It was originally a smaller site, and grew over time by combining with other sites to create what it is today. The intent was to create a place with a natural setting that would be a contemplative atmosphere conducive to consolation, commemoration, and education. The site program is composed of a cemetery, park, outdoor museum, and arboretum. The sites more natural elements are composed of over 44 miles of roads, 15 lakes, and a 10 acre woodland preserve. This cemetery is very picturesque and informal with its design, and uses more of the natural environment to address its conditions. Looking at a map of the project (Fig. 106), there is less built environment and more landscape features. There are more landscape features and use of the graves, crypts, monuments, and memorials to blend with
FIG. 105 | Spring Grove Cemetery â€“ Historical Map
the landscape to create a park-like feel. According to the map, there are three chapels located on site, four mausoleums or columbaria, a historic office, an operations building, arboretum/volunteer center, and a funeral home. Throughout the cemetery are different trees, flowers, and gardens that are some of the main landscape features. There is also 300 acres of undeveloped property to the north which is part of the cemetery.
FIG. 106 | Spring Grove Cemetery â€“ Cemetery Map
FIG. 107 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Dexter Memorial
By focusing on the landscape, the built environment blends due to the materiality presented and the aging of those materials (Fig. 107). The materiality of the monuments and graves are reflective of ideas about time and lasting, which contrasts to the changing environment around it. This relates to the condition of materiality and monument. There is also a focus on creating scenes with the landscape for one to view. These scenes create a view that provides a pause for reflection or meditation in more of a natural environment (Fig. 108). It is even more effective during the different seasons, as the greenery changes colors and the landscape transforms throughout the year (Fig. 109). For example, during the summer the flowers and trees are full of life and color, but during winter the trees become bare and the green disappears as a blanket of white snow covers everything (Fig. 110).
FIG. 108 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Landscape Scene
FIG. 109 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Autumn Scene
FIG. 110 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Winter Scene
Spring Grove Cemetery
FIG. 111 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Lake Scene
The use of water in the form of lakes within the cemetery also adds another level to the scenes and reflection. These lakes can also add another sense to the idea of the seasons creating moods since the lake will change (Fig. 111). The trees within the cemetery also play an important role in the scenes by creating framed views of the landscape, and even filtering the light into the scene in order to create ethereal experiences (Fig. 112). This sort of moment can provide one with the feeling of escaping their surroundings in order to reflect or think on the type of place they are in. This condition is similar to portal. The winding and meandering paths throughout the cemetery create an unseen order for the arrangement of the cemetery, but create a more natural and free flowing path through the cemetery (Fig. 113).
FIG. 112 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Filter Scene
FIG. 113 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Meandering Path
FIG. 114 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Woodland Preserve
FIG. 115 | Spring Grove Cemetery â€“ 5k Race
FIG. 116 | Spring Grove Cemetery â€“ Portal
This path creates the condition of edge within the cemetery. The vastness and size of the cemetery creates a very unique aspect to the experience due to the idea of removing one from their environment, and truly focusing them on this place. The woodland preserve is also a unique feature, creating a large forested area within the cemetery that allows one to view and meander in a more natural sense (Fig. 114). Spring Grove Cemetery truly creates a connection with the community and the public through the landscape and creates a park environment. The landscape relieves some of the gravity of the place in order to allow for this connection with the community to occur. The cemetery also hosts many events in order to allow the community to use the space provided (Fig. 115). The main gate and lower portion of
FIG. 117 | Spring Grove Cemetery â€“ Monument
the cemetery from the lakes down seems to be the main portion of the cemetery for these events and community spaces. The rest of the cemetery allows for public use, but from the lakes up the cemetery contains graves and memorials and thus implies the gravity of the place.
Spring Grove Cemetery
FIG. 118 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Filter
FIG. 119 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Scene
FIG. 120 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Edge
Precedent Review Evergreen Cemetery Evergreen Cemetery is located in Jacksonville, Florida, and opened in 1880 (Fig. 121). The cemetery is on the National Register of Historic Places as a significant cultural resource for the community. Evergreen is 167 acres in size with more than 80,000 burials within it. It contains many trees that are marked as historic trees that contribute to the park-like setting of the place. The cemetery also contains many grave markers, gravestones, two mausoleums, family crypts, an abandoned rail road, a chapel within a bell tower, and a funeral home. Evergreen is a very picturesque cemetery that uses both the natural and built environments to create the conditions within the cemetery. Looking at the cemetery in plan (Fig. 123), the main entrance is on the bottom left where the funeral home is located. The cemetery expands and there is the large bell tower and mausoleum above the funeral home. The middle portion of the plan has a strong vertical axis running through it, and the abandoned rail road that runs through the cemetery creates this. This creates the condition of edge within the cem-
FIG. 121 | Evergreen Cemetery â€“ Location Map
FIG. 122 | Evergreen Cemetery â€“ Funeral
etery. To the right of the rail road is more cemetery land and future development. The cemetery is broken up into sections according to different religions, groups, and associations. This is done using the condition of edge through paths.
FIG. 123 | Evergreen Cemetery â€“ Cemetery Plan
FIG. 124 | Evergreen Cemetery â€“ Main Entrance
FIG. 125 | Evergreen Cemetery â€“ Cemetery Edge
Looking at the entrance of the cemetery (Fig. 124), it is composed of a large gate that creates the condition of portal. This gate is, however, a built condition that creates a sense of privacy and also creates the condition of edge for the site. The wall that surrounds the cemetery further expresses the edge of the property (Fig. 125). The wall is low and allows views into the cemetery, but it creates a spatial wall that may deter someone from entering. This may be the goal, but this could affect how the cemetery connects with the public and the community.
The way that the light interacts with the trees also influences the experiential qualities of this place, creating the condition of filter (Fig. 128). Unfortunately the site is very flat, and does not contain changes in the topography that may add more interesting scenes to the landscape. There is also only one small pond within the site, and it is part of the future development portion of the cemetery.
The landscape aspect of the cemetery is unique because it is very dense with trees (Fig. 126). The trees help create the condition of portal to bring someone into this place. The density of trees also creates the condition of scenes that are similar to the previous precedent.
The monuments add to the landscape, and the materiality contrasts with the natural environment (Fig. 127). The trees help to frame and also create interesting lighting for these monuments, crypts, and markers. The density of the trees also creates edges to some of the different sections of the cemetery, and creates openness within other sections. This creates views and scenes that allow the monuments
FIG. 126 | Evergreen Cemetery – Tree Density
FIG. 128 | Evergreen Cemetery – Tree Filtering Light
FIG. 127 | Evergreen Cemetery – Family Crypt
FIG. 129 | Evergreen Cemetery – Filed of Monuments
FIG. 130 | Evergreen Cemetery – Annual Halloween Pumpkin Run
to be more apparent and viewed amongst others (Fig. 129). The bell tower and mausoleum adds a unique feature to the cemetery (Fig. 131). At the base of the bell tower is a chapel for services to be held, and surrounding it is a mausoleum. The mausoleum is large and creates a similar experience to how the trees create the condition of portal due to their density, but this exists from the massiveness of the mausoleum. The bell tower portion is very tall and large, and can help create a unique tone to the cemetery. Every hour the bell rings, and can be a way to further create a separation from place, or even a method of bringing someone back if they begin to lose track of time. The iconic idea of the bell tower also creates a point for way finding since it is so tall, and contrasts with the natural environment. This is a condition of monument.
FIG. 131 | Evergreen Cemetery – Bell Tower and Mausoleum
Evergreen Cemetery also creates connections with its local community and the public by having different community events. This is through 5k races, holiday themed runs, educational and historical tours, allowing access for the cemetery as a park, photography, and even painters to capture scenes (Fig. 130).
FIG. 132 | Evergreen Cemetery – Portal
FIG. 134 | Evergreen Cemetery – Filter
FIG. 133 | Evergreen Cemetery – Edge
FIG. 135 | Evergreen Cemetery â€“ Monument
FIG. 136 | Evergreen Cemetery â€“ Scene
Precedent Review Conclusion These three precedents provide different and similar conditions within cemeteries and their design. The Brion Vega Cemetery is a more architecturally designed cemetery that presents many unique conditions in a more formal way. It creates a processional path through it that truly creates an experience. It focuses on the conceptual manifestations of the conditions at the entry in the form of portal, it explores materiality with nature and manmade materials, it explores the contrast and similarities between the built and natural environment through the condition of monument, and uses the landscape to be part of conceptual representations of the different conditions. Spring Grove Cemetery shares many of the same ideas presented in the Brion Vega Cemetery, but it has a vast difference in size and the use of the landscape. Spring Grove is a picturesque cemetery that uses the natural environment to create most of its conditions. Spring Grove does look at and define the edge and entry a bit differently than Brion and Evergreen by providing some gated entries, but allowing there to be no true edge at all. This creates
more of a connection with the public and access for the community. Spring Grove also creates scenes using the landscape to help with the condition of portal to truly remove one from their environment so that they can focus on the gravity of the place. Spring Grove also has the unique quality of having an arboretum, which creates a large connection to the history of the place and the community. This precedent creates similar beauty to the Brion, but through using the landscape and nature to mix with the built environment through the way monuments and memorials create scenes. Evergreen Cemetery also shares many characteristics with Brion and Spring Grove, but is more of a picturesque cemetery that uses both the natural and built environment to create conditions. Evergreen uses the landscape to create scenes, is medium sized, and dense with trees. It is also dense with memorials and monuments, which creates somewhat of a difference with Brion and Spring Grove. Brion is designed for a single family, while Spring Grove is a large public cemetery. Spring Grove differs from
Evergreen in the density of memorials and monuments, as the cemetery is much larger and more spread out. This creates more of a connection with the conditions of scenes and contrasts with the built environment. Evergreen creates similar conditions in a denser fashion, and also uses the density of the monuments and memorials to further embrace the difference between the built and natural environments. Implementing conditions to create a park-like space within a cemetery is something that can be a challenge. The Brion achieves this by creating many moments for reflection and meditation, but also hinders it by creating large walls to bare connections to the outside. Spring Grove creates similar spaces but through the landscape instead of through formal built pieces, and also has no truly hard edge for the cemetery. Evergreen has a hard defined edge, but has some landscape ideas similar to Spring Grove. Through these three precedent studies the conceptual, spatial, and architectural conditions emerge through portal, edge, scene, filter,
monument, and materiality. These conditions as a lens for analysis show that these exist within existing cemeteries and play vital roles in the design of cemeteries. These conditions can create a program and design that creates a narrative for a cemetery.
Site Analysis Large Scale The site is located at the southeast edge of Lake Howell in Orlando, Florida. The site for this project is to be a future cemetery, so that is why this site is used. The future cemetery is on a smaller parcel not connected to the lake, but the parcel next to it is. This project uses the planned parcel and the parcel next to it to allow access to the water. This is desirable because water is an important element in many different funerary cultures and customs. At a large scale, the site is centrally located between two major cultural centers: downtown Orlando, and the University of Central Florida. Through an analysis (Fig. 137) there are not many cemeteries in the area that have vacancies or are of a large enough size. This creates a need for cemeteries in the area, but also a need for a larger cemetery. The existing funeral homes in the area are also limited. By incorporating a funeral home into the site, this adds value to the project. By looking at these two major cultural centers of Orlando as the main sources of users for this project, the location of this site creates a central point between the two.
Existing Funeral Homes
University of Central Florida
FIG. 137 | Large Scale Site Analysis
Site Analysis Medium Scale Looking at the site at a medium scale, or the scale of the site and its larger surroundings, there are three arteries that bring a person to the site. The major artery is a major artery of the city with three lanes going in each direction. The secondary artery is a smaller road with only two lanes going in each direction. The tertiary artery is like a neighborhood road, with only one lane going in each direction. The majority of people would come off of the major artery to go to the secondary artery to reach the site. This is where the main entrance to the site would be located, located at the south end of the site (Fig. 138). The secondary entrance would be along the tertiary artery in order to create a connection with the surrounding areas, and for people familiar with the place. The surrounding buildings of the site are composed of residential, commercial, and a church. The buildings surrounding the major artery are mostly commercial with some residential buildings. A commercial building for this project refers to buildings used for retail or business. Along the secondary artery and surrounding all the edges of the site are residential areas. To the east and west are neighborhoods, while the residential to the south is residential and commercial that is not as planned as a neighborhood development. There is also an existing church on the parcel at the northeast part of the site. This creates a further opportunity for connections to the site whether the church is for ceremonies or services, or the church makes use of the site.
Points of Access
FIG. 138 | Medium Scale Site Analysis
Site Analysis Site Scale Looking at the scale of just the site, it is about 170 acres in size and contains lots of wooded areas. The site is located at the southeast potion of the lake surrounded by residential neighborhoods. The southern edge is where the artery for the main entrance will be located. The eastern edge that sticks out further than the main body of the site creates the connection for the secondary entrance for the site. This secondary entrance edge is more transparent than the other edges, and would work for an edge to create a connection with the local public. The southern edge of the site is a thick wooded area that is very dense. The topography of the site slopes down towards the lake. It has a very gradual slope until it hits the lake, and then becomes steeper to create the lake. The topography starts at about an 80 feet high elevation at the southern edge of the site, and works its way to 75 feet midway through the large wooded area. After that, it goes down to 65 feet through the clearing and beginning to enter another wooded area. Once the topography begins to reach the water, it gets down to 55 feet and keeps going down to create the lake. The natural wooded and void areas create some of the conditions examined earlier in the cemetery precedent studies. The condition of edge is evident from the natural edge the wooded areas create. The condition of scene is also evident due to the large open spaces from the wooded areas.
FIG. 139 | Site Scale Site Analysis
Site Analysis Existing Photos The following section shows the existing conditions of the site through photographs. The journey of the photos begins from the portal at the southern edge of the site (Fig. 141). Next is the open scene at the edge of the large wooded area (Fig. 142-143). The next area shown is the extension from the main body of the site towards the east, which contains wetlands within it (Fig. 144). These wetlands create a scene within the site. The journey continues towards the center of the site where there is another wetland area that creates a scene (Fig. 145). After the central wetland scene, the journey proceeds to the extension at the west side of the site where there is a portal of trees to transition one through an edge into an open scene(Fig. 146-148). The journey ends by transitioning to the north through another natural portal to an open scene (Fig. 149-150).
FIG. 140 | Journey Plan
FIG. 141 | Existing Portal
Site Analysis (Below) FIG. 142 | Existing Scene
(Below) FIG. 143 | Existing Scene
Site Analysis (Below) FIG. 144 | Existing Wetlands Scene - East
(Below) FIG. 145 | Existing Wetlands Scene - Central
Site Analysis (Left) FIG. 146 | West Extension Portal
(Right) FIG. 147 | West Extension Scene
(Below) FIG. 148 | West Extension Scene
Site Analysis (Left) FIG. 149 | North Portion - Portal
(Below) FIG. 150 | North Portion - Scene
These photographs give a sense of place to the site that begins to connect with the ideas of a cemetery. The natural conditions within the site create the conditions of portal, edge, scene, filter, monument, and even materiality. The formations of the trees create portals to transition someone throughout the site. There are natural divisions within the site that can create the different programmatic elements for the cemetery, as well as intertwining the program with the natural conditions. The wetlands add a unique characteristic to the site that is particular to the Florida landscape, and they create beautiful natural scenes for spaces of reflection or meditation. Certain elements, such as unique trees in the open fields, create natural monuments amongst the landscape. Finally, the materiality of the landscape creates a contrast between the density and openness of the space, as well as further contrasting once there are built conditions within the site.
Site Analysis Conclusion The site for this project, located at Lake Howell in Orlando, Florida, is a suitable site for a cemetery. Looking at the site at a large scale, it is located between two cultural hubs of Orlando: downtown Orlando and the University of Central Florida. There are also not many cemeteries or funeral homes in the area. At the medium scale the site has three arteries for bringing people to the site. Two of these arteries will create access to the site. There are also residential neighborhoods surrounding the site, which creates an opportunity to connect with the public. The scale of just the site shows the topography of the site gradually sloping towards the lake. It also shows many wooded areas within the site that contrast with the open scenes. The photographs of the existing conditions of the site give a sense of place to the site. The photos show the conditions, earlier explained in the cemetery precedent review, within the site. These conditions of portal, edge, scene, filter, monument, and materiality all exist naturally and will further exist once built conditions insert into the landscape.
FIG. 151 | Existing Scene - Wetlands
Chapter 3 - Design ...I am the soft stars that shine at night. Do not stand at my grave and cry; I am not there. I did not die.
- Mary Elizabeth Frye
Design Design Charrette The design portion of this project begins with a design charrette that uses an intuitive approach for creating a concept for the design. Ideograms, drawings that are simple and meant to generate ideas, create the first initial ideas for the project. In conjunction with these ideograms, models generate a three-dimensional form for these ideograms. After these ideograms and models, conceptual collages display larger and more refined versions of the conceptual idea for the project. Through this design charrette, the conceptual idea of procession emerged. Procession is an important idea in many different funerary cultures and customs. There is always a process and method to how funerary rituals occur. This concept of procession applies to the rest of the design project.
FIG. 152 | Ideograms
(Left) FIG. 153 | Ideograms
(Above) FIG. 154 | Refined Ideograms
FIG. 155 | Refined Ideogram
FIG. 156 | Ideogram Models
(Above) FIG. 157 | Refined Ideogram Model
(Right) FIG. 158 | Conceptual Collage - Procession
FIG. 159 | Conceptual Collage â€“ Procession
Design Process From the design charrette, a form emerged for the building. The idea of returning to the Earth as part of the concept of procession created the building form. These pieces that create the roof of the building emerge from the landscape and fold and curve over the building to create the overhead condition. Each piece steps up in height in order to create an expanding volume through the building. The portion of the building underneath the roof pieces represents something man-made, while the roof pieces are more organic and are representative of nature. The gesture of these roof pieces folding and curving over the building display the idea that nature is consuming the building; another form of the idea of returning to the Earth. The roof pieces are also emerging from the landscape, creating another gesture tied to nature. The building is at the waterâ€™s edge and is in the water in order to have a connection to the lake. This placement is because of the many different funerary rituals and cultures that use water during their processions. The placement and form of the building along the waterâ€™s edge follows the edge and forms to allow views from the building around the lake. These views create moments for reflection and meditation within the building; as a way to create scenes. The materiality of the roof pieces is a material that changes due to being exposed to nature. The roof pieces emerge from the Earth, further expressing this connection with nature and the landscape. By having the materiality change due to nature, this creates a temporal aspect to the building. The portion of the building underneath the roof pieces is a material that does not take away from the roof pieces, and also creates a focus on the space.
FIG. 160 | Concept Sketches
Design The building connects with the concept of procession by being part of the procession through the site. The experience at the site begins with entering through a portal that is composed of a dense wooded area with a heavily defined edge (Fig. 161 - A). The portal is a journey through the dense wooded area that becomes a compressed volume that is darker due to the density of the trees. The journey is long, and emerging from the other side provides a scene with an expanded volume of space and exposure to light (Fig. 161 - B). This area is the portion of the cemetery that is public space. The intention of this space is to create connections with the public. There is a church to the northeast portion of this scene that creates further public connections (Fig. 161 - C). There is a scene to the east in the form of a wetlands area (Fig. 161 - D), and space for a public amphitheatre or pavilions (Fig. 161 - E). There is another wetlands area that creates a scene in the middle of the site that has trees surrounding it that extends out to create edges to the north and west of the site (Fig. 161 - F). These edges create natural divisions in the site for program. To the west is a portal through the edge and trees that brings one to the portion of the cemetery for burial (Fig. 161 - G). This area is for all forms of burial, and has access to another scene within it (Fig. 161 - H). Through the portal and edge to the north, there are more trees scattered but create a flow that leads towards the project building (Fig. 161 - I). Along these paths are pavilions and ritual spaces (Fig. 161 - J). These are for events such as family gatherings for meals to celebrate the life of a loved one. The journey ends at the north where the project building is located (Fig. 161 - K). From there, one experiences the journey through the building, and then proceeds back through the cemetery. The building creates a transformative experience that one can dwell on as they transition through the site to reflect on their journey, and then transition back out of the site. FIG. 161 | Site Plan Sketch
J C F 65
Design The building is a stepping fan form that divides the program along the procession (Fig. 164 - Top Left). The first roof piece becomes the section for entry, like a foyer, that transitions someone into this space. The next piece becomes the funeral home program, where the business portion of the building is located. Following the second piece, the third piece becomes the body preparation program which is the necessary functional program for the funeral home. The final piece is the ritual and ceremonial program (Fig. 164 - Middle Right). The journey through the structure has columns within it that create a forest and flow. These columns guide someone to the end of the building, where the final ritual space resides(Fig. 164 - Bottom Right). Each section becomes a platform, and each platform rises in height in order to elevate someone along this journey. At the final platform, one is elevated to the highest point to engage in rituals. From there, one goes back down to finish their ceremony or ritual. This creates a moment to engage with the water, and then transitions one back to the site.
Ritual of Burial
Body Washing Meditation Space Ritual Space Food Eating/Gathering (w/ cremation ovens) Food Preperation Crematory Body Storage Scattering Embalming Ritual Space Offices/Business
Burial Space Ritual Space (Exterior)
Ritual of Cremation
FIG. 162 | Program Diagram
FIG. 163 | Procession Diagram
FIG. 164 | Process Sketches
Design Site Proposal The site is accessible by vehicle throughout and walkable. The entry for the site has a sculptural element to demarcate the entry portal to the site (Fig. 165 - A). The sculptural element becomes a monument at the entrance. The portal through the wooded area brings someone to the public scene (Fig. 165 B). This area contains the secondary entrance with the more translucent edge (Fig. 165 - C). There is also a large amphitheatre available for use by the public (Fig. 165 - D). From there, one can transition through a portal to the west to the burial portion of the cemetery, or to the north towards the project building. The burial portion of the site further developed to allow burial along the majority of the space, and for larger crypts along the edges (Fig. 165 - E). A walkable path integrates with this area that brings one to the wetlands scene, and to allow access to all points of the burial area. This path also provides one with access to the wooded areas for natural burial. The portion of the area against the tree edge to the scene in the center of the site and the public space is space for mausoleums. To the north through the central scene tree edge, there are pavilions and ritual spaces (Fig. 165 - F). There are also open spaces to allow one to scatter ashes amongst the land, and to become cremation gardens. There is also space for columbaria depending on demand. Before the building is a plaza that transitions one to the building (Fig. 165 - G). The building contains parking to the south of it in the form of the roof pieces re-emerging from the landscape (Fig. 165 - H). The parking is located underneath these pieces. From there, one transitions into the building. There is also access by foot and access for funerary vehicles. Once the building is experienced, one can leave by foot or go to the garage to return to their vehicle. One then proceeds to the burial portion of the cemetery to continue their ceremony or ritual, or proceeds to leave the site.
FIG. 165 | Site Plan
D C E
Scale - 1”:700’
(Above) FIG. 166 | Entry Sculpture
(Right) FIG. 167 | Building in Site Plan
Design Floor Plan - Level 1 Elevation - 50â€™, Entry The entry level connects to the parking from the site and brings someone up to the first level (Fig. 168 - A). This first level is the entry space that acts as a portal to transition someone into the building (Fig. 168 - B). There are columns on this level that are smaller and grow in size as the procession continues. There is a ramp that brings one up to the next level. There is also a walk that brings one over to the final ritual platform (Fig. 168 - C). This is for those that wish to skip the journey climbing up, or are unable to make that journey. There is a garage underneath the third roof piece that is for funerary vehicles (Fig. 168 - D). This space allows for deliveries and storage. Underneath the final roof piece is the final ritual platform (Fig. 168 - E). This space has public restrooms, elevators to bring someone up or down from the level above, food preparation space for those who wish to incorporate that into their rituals, and retail space. The open space allows for gathering and eating for the food preparation space. The retail space sells items such as flowers and lanterns, but also provides food and beverage like a cafe. The void in the center of the platform creates a pool with stairs down to it that allows access for one during a ritual or ceremony. This last transition down allows for the scattering of ashes, the placement of flowers, lanterns, or any other similar rituals. There is also a large stair along the outer edge of the platform that gives access to the water and creates a similar space. One would then transition to the west most edge of the platform to go down a ramp to the parking garage from the final ritual space.
FIG. 168 | Entry Level Plan - Elevation 50â€™
Design Floor Plan - Level 2 Elevation - 55â€™, Funeral Home The second level contains the funeral home program (Fig. 169 - A). The columns get larger, and voids begin to appear in the roof and floor to bring in natural light, and to give evidence to the final space. There is a ramp that changes shape from the last level, and brings one up to the next level. The funeral home program contains waiting and reception, offices, restrooms, storage, a showroom, and a meeting room. The storage is intended for documents that are necessary for the business portion of the program. The showroom is a space for the display of caskets, urns, and other funerary items. The meeting room is a space for the business, but also to meet with families that wish to discuss what is to come. There is a corridor that contains a stair that brings one up to the next level, and is private in nature. The funeral home aspect of the project is placed near the beginning of the procession since most people go to a funeral home to plan and then depart. They then come back on the day they picked to have the ceremony or ritual for their loved ones. This allows for ease of access, and places itself correctly within the processional experience.
FIG. 169 | Second Level Plan - Elevation 55â€™
Design Floor Plan - Level 3 Elevation - 60â€™, Body Preparation The third level is the body preparation platform (Fig. 170 - A). There is a larger void in the roof and floor to hint at the final space. The columns also grow in size and become more dense. There is a ramp that changes in shape once again, and flows to bring one up to the final level. The body preparation program for this level contains access from the private portion of the previous level, an elevator to bring bodies to and from the garage, mechanical room, electrical room, a body cooler, an embalming room, a crematory, storage, offices, and a break room. The crematory is for when a family does not wish to partake in the ritual of cremation themselves. The offices are for an embalmer and a crematory operator. The storage contains caskets, urns, equipment, and other items needed for these spaces. There is also access to the final platform. There is a set of stairs in the corridor for access, as well as a lift to the side that can bring up bodies for the final ritual space.
FIG. 170 | Third Level Plan - Elevation 60â€™
Design Floor Plan - Level 4 Elevation - 65â€™, Ritual Space The fourth level is the ritual platform (Fig. 171 - A). The ramp from the level before it follows the curvature of the void cutting through the roof, floor, and floor below. One follows this curve to the entrance of the ceremonial and ritual space. This is a space that is a uniquely shaped shell that creates a unique experience while involved in ritual. There is a chapel space and a cremation space within the shell. The shell has voids cut into it to allow light to pass into the space and create an ethereal experience. At this point, one is at the highest point in the building. The chapel space seats one hundred people and has access from the level below to bring a body into it. There is a raised portion in the rear that allows for orchestras or choruses, or even a presentation. The cremation space contains two cremation ovens, and creates some semi-personal space around the ovens through the light coming through the shell. The idea for this space is to create space for families or loved ones to be involved in the ritual of cremation. This space has tables set aside for collecting the ashes, washing the body, or other similar rituals. There is also seating since the cremation process can take some time. There are multiple ovens for the idea of creating a space that brings people together and understanding they share this fate. While everyone has their differences in beliefs and ideologies, everyone dies in the end. And with that, this space creates a place for people to see and understand that they are not alone during this process. This space creates a sacred place, but also a connecting space to those around them. This idea extends beyond this space and throughout the whole building. After the ceremony or ritual of cremation takes place, one transitions down an elevator or stairs to the level below (Fig. 171 - B). This level contains a void that creates a pool for the scattering of ashes or other similar rituals. The void cuts all the way through the building, and represents a connection between the sky and the water. This building then becomes a place that exists between these two planes for these ceremonies and rituals. FIG. 171 | Fourth Level Plan - Elevation 65â€™
Design Procession Sections
FIG. 172 | Section through Entry Platform - Elevation 50’
FIG. 173 | Section through Funeral Home Platform - Elevation 55’
FIG. 174 | Section through Body Preparation Platform - Elevation 60’
FIG. 175 | Section through Ritual Platform - Elevation 65’
Design Longitudinal Sections
FIG. 176 | Section looking towards Site
FIG. 177 | Section looking towards Lake
Design Perspectives Procession FIG. 178 | Exterior Perspective
FIG. 179 | Entry Perspective looking at procession
FIG. 180 | Perspective at Funeral Home platform looking at procession
FIG. 181 | Perspective from Body Preparation platform looking into Ritual platform
FIG. 182 | Interior Perspective at cremation ritual space
FIG. 183 | Perspective from lower Ritual platform towards lake
FIG. 184 | Perspective towards outer platform stairs to lake
FIG. 185 | Perspective from lower Ritual platform towards interior
Chapter 4 - Conclusion And death shall have no dominion. Dead men naked they shall be one With the man in the wind and the west moon; When their bones are picked clean and the clean bones gone, They shall have stars at elbow and foot; Though they go mad they shall be sane, Though they sink through the sea they shall rise again; Though lovers be lost love shall not; And death shall have no dominion. And death shall have no dominion...
- Dylan Thomas
Conclusion This project is a design proposal that responds to the changing funerary culture of the United States. Since cremation is becoming more popular globally, and even more so in the United States, this is causing the funerary culture to change. The United States funerary culture is designed around the ritual of burial because the European settlers established the funerary culture. Since these spaces are designed around the ritual of burial, it might cause someone outside of the cultural majority to be apprehensive to participate in their funerary rituals. One example is the Hindu culture. They participate in the ritual of cremation as a family. In the United States, cremation ovens are typically in a space purely for the function of cremation and are not celebratory or ceremonial spaces experientially. This project presents a design that conceptually connects to the ideas of this changing funerary culture, and also addresses the popularity being gained with cremation. The spaces create a processional journey that one goes through that even connects with the site. This shows that the project is creating connections with traditional design methods, as well as proposing new ones. The ceremonial and ritual spaces are part of this processional journey through the building, and create culturally adaptive ritual spaces. I believe this project turned out successful with regard to the design intent. A building that creates a transformative experience along a processional journey was created around death. There was a connection with the landscape and the building, as well as deeper conceptual ideas tying the narrative together. The concept of using a void penetrating through the final ritual space creates a meaningful connection between the sky and the water. The building then exists on a plane that is between the sky and the water, which is where the occupants would reside. This brings the idea of returning to nature full cycle, and also creates a space that elevates those within it. This building also has flexibility and allows for adaptation for future changes in funerary culture. The continued development of this project will need to revisit the emphasis on procession and bring greater clarity to the individual ritual spaces. This is
particularly true of the cremation ritual space. The design of the cremation ritual space became secondary to the overall design in this project. This is in part due to the concept of procession being what guided the design, and the focus being on the journey. A shell was created with voids within it to create a unique lighting experience for the space, but the actual space layout needs to be examined to create an appropriate space. The next steps for this project would be to research into how different cultures design these cremation ritual spaces in order to find similarities and differences. Upon that, one may be able to propose a solution that would be able to accommodate different cultures and customs cremation rituals. Another exploration would be to look into the funerary chapel and what that means in the United States funerary culture currently. Since the funerary culture is changing, the funerary chapel space may need to change or adapt to meet the needs of this changing culture. I believe that a â€œnewâ€? funerary architecture was explored through this project that does create culturally adaptive ritual spaces.
List of Figures FIG. 01 | Hanging Coffins Ritual - https://www.everplans.com/sites/default/files/styles/750wide/public/hanging-coffinsphilippines-sagada-750.jpg?itok=LL00zPHR FIG. 02 | Standard Chapel for the Ritual of Burial - http://piperfuneralhome.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/ IMG_0829.jpg FIG. 03 | Typical Cremation Oven Space in the U.S. - http://media.nu.nl/m/m1mxqgxa2bge_wd1280.jpg/crematoriumpast-oven-dikke-duitsers.jpg FIG. 04 | Conceptual Collage FIG. 05 | Conceptual Collage FIG. 06 | Location of a Tibetan Sky Burial -http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2015/11/03/10/2E0F0A6F000005783301536-image-a-3_1446546888611.jpg FIG. 07 | An Indian Parsi Tower of Silence - http://expatsinindia.org/upload/ZLT-9941.jpg FIG. 08 | Day of the Dead Celebration - http://i.huffpost.com/gen/2239476/thumbs/o-MEXICO-900.jpg?1 FIG. 09 | Example of a barrow type tomb - http://digitaldigging.net/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/stoney-littleton-longbarrow-1880.jpg FIG. 10 | Example of a tumuli type tomb - http://socks-studio.com/img/blog/Etruscan-tumuli-02.jpg FIG. 11 | Example of a tomb - http://www.thehistoryhub.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Treasury-of-Atreus-Plan.jpg FIG. 12 | Evolutions of tombs in Ancient Egyptian architecture - https://classconnection.s3.amazonaws.com/587/flashcards/5877587/png/mastaba_to_pyramid-1487C2F0EF4628E1A7F.png FIG. 13 | Example of a Greek burial-chamber - https://latunicadeneso.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/anfipolis-lefantzi. jpg FIG. 14 | Example of a Greek mausoleum - http://www.bible-history.com/ibh/images/fullsized/mausoleum_halicarnassos.jpg FIG. 15 | Example of a Greek above ground tomb - http://www.forumromanum.org/life/johnston307.jpg FIG. 16 | Example of a Roman necropolis - https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6b/Necropoli_di_Tuvixeddu.jpg FIG. 17 | Example of a Roman columbarium - https://lh6.googleusercontent.com/-6Ldi6xFL7Qk/TW9cuiuYGXI/ AAAAAAAAK7o/WMRXLQ5VqVU/s1600/columbarium.jpg FIG. 18 | Section through a Roman catacomb - http://longstreet.typepad.com/.a/6a00d83542d51e69e2017c3697afa59 70b-pi FIG. 19 | Detailed Section through a Roman catacomb - http://static1.1.sqspcdn.com/static /p/1016684/10965489/1314123769157/sektionkatakomb.jpg?asGalleryImage=true&token=kiOM3WobOmlZSkxFU5ydw HC%2BuAg%3D FIG. 20 | Catacomb Plan of Paris - http://www.museumofthecity.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/1200px-Plan_cata_ paris_1857_jms.jpg
FIG. 21 | Example of a funerary chapel - https://static.dezeen.com/uploads/2011/04/dzn_Chapel-of-St.-Lawrence-byAvanto-Architect-top21.jpg FIG. 22 | Example of a crematory oven space - http://delvalcremation.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/about-300pximg02.jpg FIG. 23 | Global Cremation to Burial Comparison - http://www.nfda.org/news/media-center/nfda-news-releases/ id/1310/2016-nfda-cremation-and-burial-report-released-rate-of-cremation-surpasses-that-of-burial-in-2015 FIG. 24 | Cremation trends in the United States - http://www.slate.com/articles/business/moneybox/2015/05/cremation_rates_in_the_u_s_a_state_by_state_map.html FIG. 25 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium, Berlin, Germany - http://images.adsttc.com/media/images/50fe/e397/ b3fc/4b67/6900/0001/large_jpg/krematorium-berlin_01_photographer-mattias-hamren.jpg?1414592464 FIG. 26 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Exterior - http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-HUoF8t7CrQw/UZC0Sf_hTWI/ AAAAAAAAG2Y/84EprEA9BuI/s1600/DJL_00039733.jpg FIG. 27 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Site Plan - http://www.archdaily.com/322464/crematorium-baumschulenwegshultes-frank-architeckten FIG. 28 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Ground Floor Plan - http://www.archdaily.com/322464/crematorium-baumschulenweg-shultes-frank-architeckten FIG. 29 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – First Floor Plan - http://www.archdaily.com/322464/crematorium-baumschulenweg-shultes-frank-architeckten FIG. 30 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Northwest-southeast section in front of the rear wall - http://www.archdaily. com/322464/crematorium-baumschulenweg-shultes-frank-architeckten FIG. 31 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Entry reference plan - http://www.archdaily.com/322464/crematorium-baumschulenweg-shultes-frank-architeckten FIG. 32 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Front entry - A Design Manual - Sacred Buildings, by Rudolf Stegers FIG. 33 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Side entry - https://c2.staticflickr.com/9/8386/8514551745_8a79bc96e9_b. jpg FIG. 34 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Urban square reference plan - http://www.archdaily.com/322464/crematorium-baumschulenweg-shultes-frank-architeckten FIG. 35 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Urban square - A Design Manual - Sacred Buildings, by Rudolf Stegers FIG. 36 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Urban square - http://www.archdaily.com/322464/crematorium-baumschulenweg-shultes-frank-architeckten FIG. 37 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Chapel reference plan - http://www.archdaily.com/322464/crematoriumbaumschulenweg-shultes-frank-architeckten FIG. 38 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Chapel - http://www.archdaily.com/322464/crematorium-baumschulenwegshultes-frank-architeckten
List of Figures FIG. 39 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Chapel - http://www.archdaily.com/322464/crematorium-baumschulenwegshultes-frank-architeckten FIG. 40 | Baumschlenweg Crematorium – Chapel – https://ksamedia.osu.edu/sites/default/files/originals/07_0002742_0.jpeg FIG. 41 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Building View - http://assets.inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/files/2016/05/ Diamond-Hill-Crematorium-by-Architectural-Services-Department-4.jpg FIG. 42 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Exterior Circulation - https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/564x/d9/43/1f/ d9431fe45dd0510f3c15d727c7f55e27.jpg FIG. 43 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Site Plan - http://www.archdaily.com/779427/diamond-hill-columbarium-architectural-services-department FIG. 44 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Lower ground plan - http://cetmarch12.blogspot.com/2012/10/diamond-hillcrematorium-hong-kong.html FIG. 45 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Ground plan - http://cetmarch12.blogspot.com/2012/10/diamond-hill-crematorium-hong-kong.html FIG. 46 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Podium floor plan - http://www.archdaily.com/779427/diamond-hill-columbarium-architectural-services-department FIG. 47 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Building section - http://www.archdaily.com/779427/diamond-hill-columbariumarchitectural-services-department FIG. 48 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Entry reference plan - http://www.archdaily.com/779427/diamond-hill-columbarium-architectural-services-department FIG. 49 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Entry Looking Up - http://assets.inhabitat.com/wp-content/blogs.dir/1/ files/2016/05/Diamond-Hill-Crematorium-by-Architectural-Services-Department-3-1020x610.jpg FIG. 50 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Entry Looking Down - http://images.adsttc.com/media/images/567c/5093/e58e/ cee2/8a00/0311/slideshow/C02_rock_in_courtyard%E4%B8%AD%E5%BA%AD%E5%85%A7%E6%96%B9%E5%BD% A2%E8%8A%B1%E5%9C%83%E7%9A%84%E7%9F%B3%E5%A1%8A.jpg?1450987639 FIG. 51 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Square entry space - http://www.archdaily.com/779427/diamond-hill-columbarium-architectural-services-department FIG. 52 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Circular entry space - http://www.archdaily.com/779427/diamond-hill-columbarium-architectural-services-department FIG. 53 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Service halls reference plan - http://www.archdaily.com/779427/diamond-hillcolumbarium-architectural-services-department FIG. 54 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Service hall - http://www.archdaily.com/779427/diamond-hill-columbariumarchitectural-services-department FIG. 55 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Service halls natural lighting - http://cetmarch12.blogspot.com/2012/10/diamond-hill-crematorium-hong-kong.html
FIG. 56 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Smoke exhaust chimney reference plan - http://www.archdaily.com/779427/ diamond-hill-columbarium-architectural-services-department FIG. 57 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Overall building view - http://www.archdaily.com/779427/diamond-hill-columbarium-architectural-services-department FIG. 58 | Diamond Hill Crematorium – Chimney - http://www.archdaily.com/779427/diamond-hill-columbarium-architectural-services-department FIG. 59 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Overall building view - http://jacobginesprofessing.blogspot.com/2011/05/ ashwinikumar-crematorium-matharoo.html FIG. 60 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Overall building view from the river - https://www.architectural-review.com/ pictures/1180xany/4/0/3/3046403_ashwinikumarcrematorium6.jpg FIG. 61 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Site plan - http://jacobginesprofessing.blogspot.com/2011/05/ashwinikumarcrematorium-matharoo.html FIG. 62 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Building plan - http://www.world-architects.com/en/projects/29502_Ashwinikumar_Crematorium#/ID_583ba30a5f1fb_tab1 FIG. 63 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Building sections - http://jacobginesprofessing.blogspot.com/2011/05/ashwinikumar-crematorium-matharoo.html FIG. 64 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Entry reference plan - http://www.world-architects.com/en/projects/29502_ Ashwinikumar_Crematorium#/ID_583ba30a5f1fb_tab1 FIG. 65 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Entry view - http://jacobginesprofessing.blogspot.com/2011/05/ashwinikumarcrematorium-matharoo.html FIG. 66 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Entry view - http://jacobginesprofessing.blogspot.com/2011/05/ashwinikumarcrematorium-matharoo.html FIG. 67 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Entry reference plan - http://www.world-architects.com/en/projects/29502_ Ashwinikumar_Crematorium#/ID_583ba30a5f1fb_tab1 FIG. 68 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Cremation Ritual - https://pbs.twimg.com/media/CupD9lrWcAAnRyu.jpg:large FIG. 69 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Furnace chamber - http://66.media.tumblr.com/37ca4667a2399e7709bff84f7c7 435f5/tumblr_mhqsqiJrXb1qkg57fo1_1280.jpg FIG. 70 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Furnace chamber to pavilions - http://jacobginesprofessing.blogspot. com/2011/05/ashwinikumar-crematorium-matharoo.html FIG. 71 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Entry reference plan - http://www.world-architects.com/en/projects/29502_ Ashwinikumar_Crematorium#/ID_583ba30a5f1fb_tab1 FIG. 72 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Meditation Space - https://architexturez.net/data/styles/large/public/media/ gsm-crem-img-h-03_0.jpg FIG. 73 | Ashwinikumar Crematorium – Furnace chamber to pavilions - http://jacobginesprofessing.blogspot. com/2011/05/ashwinikumar-crematorium-matharoo.html
List of Figures FIG. 74 | Conceptual Collage FIG. 75 | Conceptual Collage – Portal FIG. 76 | Conceptual Collage – Edge FIG. 77 | Conceptual Collage – Scene FIG. 78 | Conceptual Collage – Filter FIG. 79 | Conceptual Collage – Monument FIG. 80 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Exterior Chapel - https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-6J8JJcEJWJQ/UKIj3UvVBtI/AAAAAAAAruo/jQkIpWN5Uco/s640/P1060704.JPG FIG. 81 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Exterior Circulation - http://www.phaidon.com/resource/carlos-scarpa-brion-2.jpg FIG. 82 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Floor Plan - http://www.bibliotecaltivole.it/images/CarloScarpa/CarloScarpa_-_Tomba_-_pianta.jpg FIG. 83 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Floor Plan with Sections and Elevations - https://aylinasir.files.wordpress. com/2016/04/scarpa-drawing.jpg?w=676 FIG. 84 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Main Entry Portal - https://dome.mit.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.3/68122/131314_ sv.jpg?sequence=2 FIG. 85 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Pavilion - https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/564x/de/4b/79/de4b799ab954f18414be32eada23a43e.jpg FIG. 86 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Memorial - https://c2.staticflickr.com/2/1145/1072771626_c188a51fd1_z.jpg?zz=1 FIG. 87 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Chapel Entry - http://c1038.r38.cf3.rackcdn.com/group1/building2658/media/media_63094.jpg FIG. 88 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Main Entry Portal - https://1.bp.blogspot.com/-UKdAMjiRyBE/UKIkfq6Kx7I/ AAAAAAAArvE/EBNEJ-Bd36c/s640/P1060833.JPG FIG. 89 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Intersecting Circles - http://www.italianways.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/iwtombabrion-12-665x498.jpg FIG. 90 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Intersecting Circles - http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-zneyp4rnvbk/UKIktATTs5I/ AAAAAAAArvM/y3XInNWt_3I/s1600/P1060894.JPG FIG. 91 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Pavilion - http://www.phaidon.com/resource/carlos-scarpa-brion-3.jpg FIG. 92 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Pavilion Sketch - http://www.phaidon.com/resource/carlos-scarpa-brion-drawing.jpg FIG. 93 | Brion Vega Cemetery – View through Pavilion - http://www.phaidon.com/resource/carlos-scarpa-brion-4.jpg FIG. 94 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Memorial Sketch - https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/96/c9/9c/96c99cebb1 c85d2f1a3c99b595718e2d.jpg
FIG. 95 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Memorial - http://www.cgarchitect.com/content/portfolioitems/2012/07/55853/Scarpa3_large.jpg FIG. 96 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Chapel Sketch - https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/89/32/31/893231c76d6 bee732ea9de7ba5b189af.jpg FIG. 97 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Chapel - http://www.italianways.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/iw-tombabrion10-665x443.jpg FIG. 98 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Chapel Void - http://except.nl/overig/brionvegacemeterychallenge/Brion_chapel_01. jpg FIG. 99 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Chapel Portal - https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/9d/8c/c3/9d8cc329c8 0767e7122d5f8b42a09155.jpg FIG. 100 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Portal FIG. 101 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Filter FIG. 102 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Scene FIG. 103 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Monument FIG. 104 | Brion Vega Cemetery – Edge FIG. 105 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Historical Map - http://tile.loc.gov/image-services/iiif/service:gmd:gmd408:g4084: g4084c:ct003089/full/pct:12.5/0/default.jpg FIG. 106 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Cemetery Map - http://www.cincinnativiews.net/Home%20Rule/Spring%20 Grove%20Map.jpg FIG. 107 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Dexter Memorial - https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6c/Dexter_Memorial.jpg FIG. 108 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Landscape Scene - http://www.springgrove.org/uploads/filelibrary/47537_1419441 364789_1195311586_30955020_3621461_n.jpg FIG. 109 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Fall Scene - http://www.springgrove.org/uploads/filelibrary/autumn%20lake2.jpg FIG. 110 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Winter Scene - http://www.springgrove.org/uploads/filelibrary/winter%20bridge. jpg FIG. 111 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Lake Scene - http://www.springgrove.org/uploads/filelibrary/44456_14837312144 36_1268527064_31210060_7852224_n.jpg FIG. 112 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Filter Scene - http://www.springgrove.org/uploads/filelibrary/59344_14902703779 11_1268527064_31223137_6242467_n.jpg FIG. 113 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Meandering Path - http://www.springgrove.org/uploads/filelibrary/WeepingCherry_ NOStopSign.jpg FIG. 114 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Woodland Preserve - http://www.springgrove.org/uploads/filelibrary/Woodland.jpg
List of Figures FIG. 115 | Spring Grove Cemetery – 5k Race - http://www.springgrove.org/uploads/filelibrary/5KRace.jpg FIG. 116 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Portal FIG. 117 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Monument FIG. 118 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Filter FIG. 119 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Scene FIG. 120 | Spring Grove Cemetery – Edge FIG. 121 | Evergreen Cemetery – Location Map - http://www.metrojacksonville.com/photos/thumbs/lrg-7228-evergreen-map.jpg FIG. 122 | Evergreen Cemetery – Funeral - https://thelegendseriesjax.files.wordpress.com/2013/10/131019_legends_0076.jpg FIG. 123 | Evergreen Cemetery – Cemetery Plan (From actual Cemetery) FIG. 124 | Evergreen Cemetery – Main Entrance - http://www.unexplainedresearch.com/files_spectrology/florida_cases/ florida_images/FL_jacksonville_evergreen1.jpg FIG. 125 | Evergreen Cemetery – Cemetery Edge - https://photos.smugmug.com/photos/821641522_jybpW-M.jpg FIG. 126 | Evergreen Cemetery – Tree Density - https://bostonorbust330.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/img_0088.jpg FIG. 127 | Evergreen Cemetery – Family Crypt - https://photos.smugmug.com/Art/Evergreen-Cemetery-in-HDR/iPpTxrfm/1/S/Evergreen%20Cemetary-S.jpg FIG. 128 | Evergreen Cemetery – Tree Filtering Light - http://www.theglobeandmail.com/multimedia/camera-club/inphotos/article17631940.ece/BINARY/w620/dayinpics10.JPG FIG. 129 | Evergreen Cemetery – Filed of Monuments - https://photos.smugmug.com/Neighborhoods/EvergreenCemetary/i-DDH8WrJ/1/X2/DSC_0011-X2.jpg FIG. 130 | Evergreen Cemetery – Annual Halloween Pumpkin Run - http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-g8K9oj0dInk/Um8J7suxAI/AAAAAAAAFG8/Jn83fTUG5qo/s1600/1396901_10151679266492283_15718963_o.jpg FIG. 131 | Evergreen Cemetery – Bell Tower and Mausoleum - https://jaxpsychogeo.files.wordpress.com/2015/05/evergreen__1.jpg FIG. 132 | Evergreen Cemetery – Portal FIG. 133 | Evergreen Cemetery – Edge FIG. 134 | Evergreen Cemetery – Filter FIG. 135 | Evergreen Cemetery – Monument FIG. 136 | Evergreen Cemetery – Scene FIG. 137 | Large Scale Site Analysis
FIG. 138 | Medium Scale Site Analysis FIG. 139 | Site Scale Site Analysis FIG. 140 | Journey Plan FIG. 141 | Existing Portal FIG. 142 | Existing Scene FIG. 143 | Existing Scene FIG. 144 | Existing Wetlands Scene - East FIG. 145 | Existing Wetlands Scene - Central FIG. 146 | West Extension Portal FIG. 147 | West Extension Scene FIG. 148 | West Extension Scene FIG. 149 | North Portion - Portal FIG. 150 | North Portion - Scene FIG. 151 | Existing Scene – Wetlands FIG. 152 | Ideograms FIG. 153 | Ideograms FIG. 154 | Refined Ideograms FIG. 155 | Refined Ideogram FIG. 156 | Ideogram Models FIG. 157 | Refined Ideogram Model FIG. 158 | Conceptual Collage – Procession FIG. 159 | Conceptual Collage – Procession FIG. 160 | Concept Sketches FIG. 161 | Site Plan Sketch FIG. 162 | Program Diagram FIG. 163 | Procession Diagram FIG. 164 | Process Sketches
List of Figures FIG. 165 | Site Plan FIG. 166 | Entry Sculpture FIG. 167 | Building in Site Plan FIG. 168 | Entry Level Plan - Elevation 50’ FIG. 169 | Second Level Plan - Elevation 55’ FIG. 170 | Third Level Plan - Elevation 60’ FIG. 171 | Fourth Level Plan - Elevation 65’ FIG. 172 | Section through Entry Platform - Elevation 50’ FIG. 173 | Section through Funeral Home Platform - Elevation 55’ FIG. 174 | Section through Body Preparation Platform - Elevation 60’ FIG. 175 | Section through Ritual Platform - Elevation 65’ FIG. 176 | Section looking towards Site FIG. 177 | Section looking towards Lake FIG. 178 | Exterior Perspective FIG. 179 | Entry Perspective looking at procession FIG. 180 | Perspective at Funeral Home platform looking at procession FIG. 181 | Perspective from Body Preparation platform looking into Ritual platform FIG. 182 | Interior Perspective at cremation ritual space FIG. 183 | Perspective from lower Ritual platform towards lake FIG. 184 | Perspective towards outer platform stairs to lake FIG. 185 | Perspective from lower Ritual platform towards interior
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