__MAIN_TEXT__
feature-image

Page 1


ORIGINALITY STATEMENT I hereby declare that this submission is my own work and it contains no full or substantial copy of previously published material, or it does not even contain substantial proportion of material which have been accepted for the award of any other degree or diploma of any other educational Copyright @2018

institution, except where due acknowledgement is made in this degree project. Moreover I also declare that none of the concepts are borrowed or copied without due acknowledgement. I further declare that the intellectual content of this degree project is the product of my own work, except to

Student document publication, meant for Private circulation only.

the extent that assistance from others in the project’s design and conception or in style, presentation and linguistic expression is acknowledged. This

All right reserved.

degree project (or part of it) was not and will not be submitted as assessed work in any other academic course.

Under Graduation Programme in Design, Furniture and Interior Design,

Student Name in Full: Sushan Kumar Yumkhaibam

2014 - 2018, National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad, India. Signature: No parts of this document will be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronically or mechanically, including photocopying, xerography

Date:

and videography recording without written permission from the publisher,

COPYRIGHT STATEMENT

Sushan Kumar Yumkhaibam and National Institute of Design. All illustrations and photographs in this document are copyright @ 2017-2018 by respective people/ organizations.

I hereby grant the National Institute of Design the right to archive and to make available my degree project/ thesis/ dissertation in whole or in a part in the Institute’s Knowledge Management Centre in all forms of media, now or hereafter known, subject to the provisions of the Copyright Act. I

Edited and designed by Sushan Kumar Yumkhaibam

have neither Used any substantial portion of copyright material in my document nor have I obtained permission to use copyright material.

E-mail: sushanyumkhaibam@gmail.com

Student Name in Full: Sushan Kumar Yumkhaibam

Processed at: National Institute of Design (R&d Campus), Bangalore, Karnataka

Signature:

Printed digitally in Bangalore. November 2018

Date:


DEVELOPING OFFICE FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO


PREFACE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I was working as a part of South Asia Bamboo Foundation (SABF), which

I would like to extend my gratitude for the help and support of the following people who have assisted me in making this project.

had tied up with Unati Co-operative Marketing-cum-Processing Society Limited, Talwara, Punjab. With the help of Punjab Forest Department

PRADYUMNA VYAS AND SUSANTH C S

which provided facilities such as a Common Facility Centre (CFC)

I would like to thank both my guides for encouraging me and giving me constant feedback and advice throughout the

equipped with a few bamboo machinery and workers graduated from ITI,

project and for being understanding and patient with the process.

my purpose was to introduce the machinery and the hand tools to the workers necessary in bamboo processing for making bamboo furniture

KAMESH SALAM (SABF)

and creating new products.

For giving me the opportunity to work with bamboo and guiding me, and for trusting me with responsibilities at Unati.

For two months I accompanied Bipul Boro, a master craftsman to train the

UNATI BAMBOO MISSION

ITI workers. This process involved setting up an entire industry for which

To all at the members of Unati for their support and care during my stay and at work, and the extremely cooperative

we arranged all the necessary tools and machinery, as well as the right

artisans for making this journey productive and effective.

kind of bamboo from the market. This project required an understanding of the raw material availability, skills and the market condition.

BIPUL BORO & RANJIT DEBARMA For teaching me and helping me gain a deeper understanding on bamboo and helping me make my own products. Their

This project was proposed for a period of six months that would include

relentless dedication in helping me build my prototypes was commendable.

field studies, product conceptualization, skill training of craftsmen and development of new products.

I am thankful for the moral and emotional support of family and friends. I want to thank Anurag, Rahul, Nanda, Shriram for their help and support throughout the project. Sampda Mago for her love, support and for always standing by me. Last but not the least my parents for their love, encouragement and incessant confidence and faith in me.

8

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

9


SYNOPSIS The objective of this project was to promote bamboo through a project which includes setting up a bamboo processing facility for bamboo furniture, training of workers and creating new products. This project has been done in collaboration with South Asia Bamboo Foundation (SABF) and Unati where a master craftsman and I were sent to Punjab as a part of SABF. Before the project I went to Punjab for a week as a pre-visit to study the raw material availability, bamboo value chain, market and the requirements for the training. The training was carried out for two months where ten ITI graduates were trained with the basic bamboo processing methods for making bamboo furniture. After the training the company wanted to have some office furniture designs which they would later use in their offices and eventually sell to government offices as a part of promoting their industry. The main factors that influenced my design were the raw material, skill of the workers and the workshop limitations. The designs made as a result were simple, giving them the opportunity to be mass produced and by adding attributes of office or working chairs.

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

11


1 2 3 UNDERSTANDING

UNDERSTANDING

WORKSHOP AND

DESIGN BRIEF AND

PRODUCT

MATERIAL

CONTEXT

TRAINING

DEVELOPMENT

DEVELOPMENT

INTRODUCTION

1.1 ABOUT NID

2.1 BAMBOO

1.2 FURNITURE DESIGN

2.2 BAMBOO MATERIAL PROCESSING

1.3 ABOUT SABF

3.1 ABOUT TALWARA, HOSHIARPUR 3.2 BAMBOO IN HOSHIARPUR, PUNJAB

4 5 6 7

CONCLUSION

4.1 EXPERIENCE

5.1 WORKSHOP CONDITIONS

6.1 INITIAL SKETCHES

7.1 CONCLUSION

4.2 SETTING UP A WORKSHOP

5.2 DESIGN BRIEF

6.2 RECEPTION CHAIR

7.2 BIBLIOGRAPHY

4.3 TRAINING

5.3 OFFICE FURNITURE

6.3 CONFERENCE TABLE

7.3 LIST OF FIGURES

4.4 PRODUCTS MADE AND JOINERY

5.4 CHAIR ERGONOMICS

6.4 VISITORS CHAIR

7.4 TECHNICAL DRAWINGS

5.5 ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA

6.5 CONFERENCE CHAIR

5.6 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR OFFICE CHAIR

6.6 SINGLE SOFA/ LOUNGE CHAIR

2.3 BASIC EQUIPMENT USED 1.4 ABOUT UNATI

3.3 MARKET AND FIELD VISITS 2.4 JOINERY

1.5 ABOUT GUIDE 2.5 FINISHING 1.6 THE PROJECT 1.7 METHODOLOGY

6.7 TASK CHAIR 6.8 FINISHING


1

INTRODUCTION 1.1 ABOUT NID 1.2 FURNITURE DESIGN 1.3 ABOUT SABF 1.4 ABOUT UNATI 1.5 ABOUT GUIDE 1.6 THE PROJECT 1.7 METHODOLOGY


Fig 1.0 : National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad

ABOUT NID

After India got independent, 1950s were

design education in India. NID was established

a decade of rapid industrialization which

in 1961, and has been a centre for design

lead to a mammoth task of nation building,

education, practice and research since then.

of balancing age old tradition with modern technologies and ideas. The philosophy

The National Institute of Design (NID) is

of Machine Aesthetics, and revolutionary

internationally acclaimed as one of the foremost

experimentation in the arts, architecture and

multidisciplinary institutions in the field of design

design were all taking place.

and research. The institute functions as an autonomous body under the aegis of the Ministry

In 1957 the Government of India requested

of Commerce and Industry, Government of India.

the Ford Foundation to invite Charles and

NID has been declared ‘Institution of National

Ray Eames to visit India. The Eames Report

Importance’ by the Act of Parliament, by virtue of

defined the underlying spirit that would lead

the National Institute of Design Act 2014.

to the founding of NID and beginning of 16

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

FURNITURE DESIGN Furniture Design is one of the disciplines offered at NID which is specialized under the department of Industrial Design. Furniture impacts our living environment by adding function and practicality to a space and adds ones style and personality. Furniture design can cater to a variety of human needs such as those of the elderly, children, and the differently abled, which emphasizes on a

Fig 1.1 : Furniture Design

hands on approach. Students gain a thorough understanding of form, structure, context and the material by making workable prototypes. A combination of both the craft sector and mass manufacture and the study of subjects of material, ergonomics, modularity, anthropometry, traditional techniques, lifestyle, manufacturing and customization help approach furniture and interior design in a holistic manner. GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

17


SOUTH ASIA BAMBOO FOUNDATION South Asia Bamboo Foundation is a Trust registered under Indian Trust Act, and located in Guwahati, Assam, India is a non-profit conservative action organization established to ensure livelihood support to the rural masses by using native bamboo species throughout South Asia. The foundation aims at providing networking, awareness, technical knowhow, training, and

UNATI BAMBOO MISSION

Unati Bamboo Mission focuses on value

Unati in collaboration with Punjab State

adding bamboo to food and handicraft.

Council for Science and Technology has

Bamboo is one of the biggest bio-resources

planned to establish a bio-resource complex

of the Kandi region which is the transitional

where the bamboo processed by local

zone between the Shivaliks and the plains

community to Handicrafts, Charcoal, Food

and use the bio-resource as tool for

Products will be marketed by Unati.

employment generation.

capacity building, design development, technology, cluster development, marketing, advisory, and services, related to bamboo and its products including bamboo housing and structures in the

The Unati under World Bank funded National

scale employment at primary and secondary

South Asian countries. SABF also engages in promoting Bamboo Summits for providing platform

Agriculture Innovation Program (NAIP) and

level. Presently, Unati is in process to establish

for bamboo policy makers, enterprise and entrepreneurship development globally and regionally

running a project in collaboration with Guru

following programs under Bamboo Mission :-

to enhance trade of bamboo.

Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences

THE UNATI CO-OP. MARKETINGCUM-PROCESSING SOCIETY LTD.

University, Ludhiana.

The Unati Co-op. Marketing-cum-processing Society Ltd. is a cooperative society established in year 2003 by young, dynamic, innovative and entrepreneur brains working with a shared vision of sustainable utilisation of agriculture and natural bio-resources of lower Himalayas for the empowerment of rural community. The Unati Co-op. Marketing-cum-processing Society Ltd. is a cooperative society established in year 2003 by young, dynamic, innovative and entrepreneur brains working with a shared vision of sustainable utilisation of agriculture and natural bio-resources of lower Himalayas for empowerment of rural community.

18

This initiative will help them generate mass

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

1. Establishing a high-tech Bamboo nursery with tissue culture lab facility.

Under this project local bamboo handicraft families were supported in terms of skill

2. Introduction of elite class high yielding

development and common infrastructure for

bamboo planting stock in the region.

processing. 3. Establishing bamboo processing facility for Unati is also promoting cultivation of bamboo

furniture and handicraft.

through cutting transplantation method in Kandi region of Punjab. The technology for

4. Starting a course on skill development

this is provided by Institute for Himalayan

in Bamboo Processing under Unati Skill

Bio-resources Technology, Palampur,

India Program in collaboration with Local

Himachal Pradesh.

Government ITI.

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

19


ABOUT GUIDES

PRADYUMNA VYAS

Fig 1.2 : Pradyumna Vyas

SUSANTH C S

Fig 1.3 : Susanth C S

Pradyumna Vyas did his Masters in Industrial Design from the Indian Institute of Technology,

Susanth C S is a senior faculty member of Industrial Design at National Institute of Design,

Bombay. He has over 27 years of professional and teaching experience in different spheres of

Bangalore, India. He has graduated from National Institute of Design during 1998 in Industrial

design. For the last 22 years he has been a faculty in the Industrial Design discipline at NID

Design with specialization in furniture Design. He has started his carrier with NID’s Outreach

and has a special interest in design for social and sustainable development intervention for

Programmes and Consultancy Services during 1998 and served as a faculty member in Furniture

SMEs and crafts. He took charge as the director of the institute from April 2009. Pradyumna

& Interior Design during 2002 to 2005 in NID Ahmedabad Campus and since 2006 he is based in

has two years experience in Product Design in Bombay and 3 years overseas experience at the

NID Bangalore. In 2007 he started an M. Des programme called Design for Retail Experience at

Kilkenny Design Centre, Ireland. He has coordinated major design promotion events in India

NID Bangalore which he is heading as Discipline Lead. One of his core areas of interest is Bamboo

and represented NID in various international and national events. He has been elected as an

and its applications in furniture, space and lifestyle products, in which he has been involved since

ICSID Executive Board Member for 2009–11. A Design Council was constituted in 2009 and

last 18 years. He has been supporting and promoting bamboo based activities through new design

Pradyumna was nominated as its Member Secretary by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry,

application/workshops/seminars/exhibitions to create awareness & business opportunities.

Government of India. 20

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

21


THE PROJECT

METHODOLOGY

Design and Skill development training workshop and setting up a work place for making bamboo furniture in Talwara, Punjab.

Product

Unati Co-operative Marketing-cum-Processing Society Limited, Talwara, Punjab has tied up with South Asia Bamboo Foundation (SABF) to

DESIGN METHODOLOGY

train their workers and help produce bamboo

The design process for this project starts with

furniture as a part of Unati Bamboo Mission

the understanding of the material, species- its

and Punjab Forest Department has provided

characteristics and the business involved in the

a Common Facility Center which is equipped

trading of bamboo. Before the project, I had

with a few bamboo machinery.

also worked with Bipul Boro in Tripura where

Sector study Direction of Workshop Market and Raw Material

he taught me about the tools and the process As a part of the project Bipul Boro, a master

of making bamboo furniture. This helped me a

craftsman trained at CBTC accompanied me

lot with the setting up of a Bamboo workshop

to Talwara for two months. During the period

in Talwara.

we trained 10 ITI graduates with the skills necessary for making bamboo furniture. This process involved setting up an entire industry for which we also arranged all the necessary tools and machinery as well as the right kind of bamboo from the market.

22

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

The first two months consisted of setting up the CFC with required tools and the training on bamboo furniture. Before this project I went to Talwara for a week to study bamboo and the bamboo markets.

Understanding Material

PHASE 1

PHASE 2

PHASE 3

PHASE 4

PHASE 5

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

23


2

UNDERSTANDING MATERIAL 2.1 BAMBOO 2.2 BAMBOO MATERIAL PROCESSING 2.3 BASIC EQUIPMENT USED 2.4 JOINERY 2.5 FINISHING


COMMON USES OF BAMBOO

PROPERTIES OF BAMBOO

PLANT- ORNAMENTED HORTICULTURE

1. Bamboo is renewable and sustainable. It is a grass. Culms are ready to harvest within 5 years.

1. Ecology

BAMBOO Bamboo is a woody, strong and exceptionally

and decays. So culms are ready for harvest in

used to make vast range of utility items. Bamboo

fast growing grass. The growth rate is

3 to 7 years. Harvest is best at the end of dry

ply, panels, flooring, roofing are new value-added

dependent on local soil and climatic conditions

season few months prior to the wet.

products substituting wood.

can grow over 30m (98ft) tall, and as large as

The most commonly used part of the bamboo

Bamboo can naturally be found in tropical to

15-20cm (5.9-7.9 in) in diameter.

is culm. A majority of the species have hollow

temperate regions and the alluvial plains to the

stems, but a few of them are solid. They are

high mountains. In India there are 125 indigenous

Unlike trees, individual bamboo stems, or culms

called male bamboos. Culms may be large and

as well as exotic species of bamboo belonging to

emerge from the ground at their full diameter

hollow when grown in moist, fertile climates and

23 genera. Bamboo forest occupy an area of 10.03

and grow to their full height in a single growing

small and solid in dry, sandy soils. They tend to

million hectare, roughly 12.8% of the total forest

season of three to four months. During these

taper towards the top. The culm is segmented

area in the country. India is the second richest

months each new shoot grows into a full culm

into sections by nodes called internodes.

country in bamboo genetic resources after China.

with no branching out until the majority of the

Nodes are always solid. This structure makes

Together these two countries account for more

height is reached. Then the branches extend

the bamboo culm strong and flexible. Bamboo

than half of the total bamboo resources globally.

from the nodes and leafing out occurs. In the

culms can be used in their natural or whole form,

next year the pulpy wall of each culm slowly

or cut into sections, or into strips, slivers and

hardens. The shoot is now considered a fully

slats. People have been using bamboo culms for

mature culm. After 5-8 years the culm collapses

building houses, fences and bridges. They can be

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

After harvesting the mother plant, new shoots

1b. Use of marginal land

continue to develop from the root system.

1c. Hedges and screens

2. Agro-forestry

2a. Natural stand plantation

2. It has evenly distributed stress as there

2b. Mixed agro-forestry system

are no knots or rays, which gives far more distributed stress through its length.

USE OF BAMBOO AS MATERIAL

as per the species. Some of the largest bamboo

26

1a. Stabilize the soil

3. Its natural appearance is smooth and coherent. 3. Local Industries

3b. Furniture

4. It is very light. The specific gravity of bamboo

3c. A variety of utensils

varies between 0.4 and 0.8.

3d. Houses

[Specific gravity of a substance is the density of

4a. Strand boards

it in comparison to density of water]

4. Wood & paper

3a. Artisans

4b. Medium density fiber board

4c. Laminated lumber

5. Bamboo has high wettability, bamboo

4d. Paper and rayon

strips can be glued firmly. It has a good wear

4e. Parquet

resistance.

5. Nutritional

5a. Young shoots (human consumption)

5b. Fodder 6. Chemical Fig 2.1 : Anatomy of bamboo plant

6. Bamboo is elastic and very resistant.

6a. Biochemical products

6b. Pharmaceutical Industry Energy

7. Young bamboo shoots have been a food

6c. Charcoal, Pyrolysis and Gasification

supply for a long time. They are edible.

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

27


CULM

BAMBOO ANATOMY

Culms are the most visibly distinguishable feature of a bamboo plant.

The main components of a bamboo plant include rhizomes, roots, culms,

Culm can vary in size, shape, colour and even smell. The appearance

culm sheath, internodes, nodes, branches, leaves, and flowers. The

can range from thick or thin, tall or short, erect or bent and can exhibit

structural foundation of the plant is an underground vegetative network

irregular patterns. Most culms are round in shape and mostly green in

called rhizome. Over the ground is the stem or culm. Primary vegetative

colour but there can be black, brown, yellow or striped.

axes are the rhizome and the culm. Others are the branches and the New culms will generally emerge in the spring time. As the culm shoots

root system.

RHIZOME

2.2

from the soil it have already reached its maximum diameter and reach its final height by the end of the first growing season. Most Indian bamboos

Bamboo culms grow from underground stems called the rhizome. The

have clump forming and such stems will cluster together. It is normally a

rhizome stores food and nutrients for the plant and utilizes it during

hollow cylinder under arid or otherwise culm may tend to become solid

the growth period. It interconnects with each other to form a system.

2.5

The buds of the rhizome gives rise to new rhizomes which allow the system to expand laterally underground or shoot up vertically to form a culm. There are two types of rhizomes- Monopodial (running) commonly

or semi-solid in adverse condition.

CULM SHEATH

2.3

Culm Sheaths are tough and fibrous leaf like structures that attach on developing bamboo internodes. They are attached on alternate sides of

found in cooler climates and Sympodial (clumping) found in the tropics.

each subsequent nodes to provide complete protection of the growing

ROOTS

culm. After the internode is fully developed, the sheaths turn outwards

The root grows from the nodes of the rhizome and lower portion of

and detach from the culm. It is smooth on the top and rigid towards the

the culm in some species. It absorb nutrients and water also providing

bottom and acts as a dependable pointer of the age of the culm.

anchorage. Without the root system, the culm would be vulnerable to damage from sever weather. They allow the culm to hold more weight, giving it the ability to grow more leaves over wider distances. Generally roots go no deeper than one foot below the surface.

28

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

2.4 2.6

Fig 2.2 : Monopodial Rhizome Fig 2.3 : Sympodial Rhizome Fig 2.4 : Bamboo roots Fig 2.5 : Bamboo culm Fig 2.6 : Bamboo culm sheath

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

29


INTERNODES

BRANCHES

The hollow sections of the culm are called internodes. These sections which

A bamboo culm begins to grow branches only after reaching its full

are surrounded by the culm walls are called the lacuna or pith. The outer part

height. The length and the number of branches differ for each species.

of the culm wall is called the cortex. It consists of epidermis cells covered

The branches appear right above the node and consist of main and

with a cutinized waxy layer. Cortex protects the culm from physical damage

secondary branches from which branchlets may further emerge. The

and also acts as a watertight barrier preventing from loss of moisture.

branches are arranged alternately along the nodes. The majority of

NODES

bamboo species will grow multiple branches from a single bud located at

The hollow segments of the bamboo are segmented by nodes. They are solid.

the nodes.

The axial orientation of the culm fibers changes to the transverse or across

FLOWERS, FRUITS AND SEEDS

the culm directing at the nodes. This results in high specific gravity, lower

Bamboo mostly flowers once in their lifetime. In India some bamboo

volume shrinkage and lower tensile strength compared to the internodes.

flowers annually or once in three years. The flowering cycle differs

2.7

2.10

LEAVES

with every species. There are three flowering types annual, gregarious and sporadic. A few bamboo culm blossom at a time when they flower

Leaves are present at every main portion of the bamboo plant, which includes

sporadically or all culms flower simultaneously in gregarious flowering.

the rhizomes, culm, and branches. The anatomy of the leaf itself includes a

Bamboo generally dies after gregarious flowering once in their lifetime,

blade, sheath, and ligule. Leaves are first present in the rhizome where they

2.8

releasing plenty of seeds that take six to twelve years to grow into

are almost completely comprised of the sheath. At this stage, leaves serve as

mature culms. All the seeds of the same batch will flower at the same

a protective cover to encase the rhizome as it travels underground. After the

time whichever part of the earth they may be growing on.

rhizome shoots through the soil and becomes a culm, the blade will become the predominant feature. The blade provides the photosynthetic function of the plant by converting sunlight into energy. The appearance of the blade varies among species. In some species the leaves are very large and less numerous, while other species have a large amount of very small leaves. The appearance of leaves plays a large role in the identification of bamboo.

30

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

2.9

2.11

Fig 2.7 : Section of internode Fig 2.8 : Section of bamboo node Fig 2.9 : Bamboo leaf Fig 2.10 : Bamboo Branches Fig 2.11 : Bamboo Flower, seeds

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

31


APPLICATION OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF BAMBOO

6 8

There are a variety of parts in a bamboo plant that can be used for their structural properties. Leaves are used to line baskets and thatch roofs. Bamboo rhizome is used for making smoke pipes and for decorative carvings. The

7

node and diaphragm are used strategically to

5

make spoons and smoke pipes. 1. SHEATH AND RHIZOME: Handicraft 2. SHOOTS: Food

4

3. BASE: Handicraft, Charcoal, Pulp 4. MID-BOTTOM: Slats, Laminates, Furniture 5. MID-TOP: Handicraft, Slats, Sticks, Blinds 6. APEX: Dowels, Sticks, Poles, Scaffolding

2

7. BRANCHES: Handicraft, Brooms, Handles 8. LEAVES: Fodder, Medicine, Packaging

3

9. LEFTOVER WASTE: Charcoal, Fuel, Fiber

1 Fig 2.12 : Different parts of bamboo for different applications

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

33


BAMBOO MATERIAL PROCESSING

Fig 2.13 : Bamboo affected by termites Fig 2.14 : Smoking of bamboo

they age it gradually turns murky. But different

can be cut into sections with a knife or a saw by

climatic conditions can affect the appearance of

cutting perpendicular to the nodes to facilitate

TREATMENT METHODS

the same species in different locations.

transport to work areas.

Bamboo contains high percentage of cellulose

Smoking of bamboo is mostly practice in our

which makes it prone to insect attacks. It is a

country. The bamboo materials are arranged on

Marking culms or marking method is one of the

POST HARVESTING: STORAGE

source of food for many organisms especially

top of a fire place and smoking is carried out

Durability of bamboo is less than five years

reliable methods in selecting bamboo as raw

Storage plays an important role in protecting the

fungi and insects such as bore beetles.

or one culm at a time where the worker can

without any protective treatment. Biological

material. In this method, new culms are marked

bamboo from infections. Bamboo culms should

Treatment is required to prevent from these

straighten the culm too while smoking. Heat and

degradation can affect the usage, strength, utility

with a code indicating the year of emergence

not be kept with direct contact with soil as fungal

kinds of attacks and to increase the durability of

smoke destroy the starch inside the bamboo

and value of the bamboo or bamboo products.

and involves inspection of the entire plantation.

and termite attacks can happen. Culms should be

bamboo. Factors reducing bamboo quality are

thus making it immune to insect attacks.

To prevent it from decay, disintegration splits or

This helps to harvest required bamboo culms

placed on a tarpaulin sheet or thick plastic or on a

stains, treatment is necessary when bamboo is

for various applications.

raised platform with good ventilation.

1. Fungus- in humid areas it grows everywhere.

White washing prevents the bamboo from

used as a structural member where safety is of

STACKING OF BAMBOO

2. Discoloration and physical damage is common.

excess moisture absorption which prolongs the

major concern. By treating bamboo it increases

BAMBOO HARVESTING

3. Insects- mainly borers- makes holes

life of bamboo. Slaked lime is painted on both

the life and becomes more economical where

Harvesting of bamboo mainly depends on the

Vertical stacking gives quick drying and less

4. Powder post beetles attack from inside

the ends of the culm blocking the open fibers

there will be no frequent replacement and

application and the use of bamboo or if the

chances of fungal attack. Culms can be stored

5. Termites- more aggressive- eat cellulose.

to decrease the rate of moisture absorption.

involvement of costly labour and time.

culms are getting clustered. Bamboo grows

in an upright position against the wall or in

well during the rainy season. During this time

support of other bamboos. Horizontal stacking

Treatment of bamboo can be divided into

Soaking in water causes leaching out of starch

Moreover selection of bamboo is more

is has the highest moisture content and high

should be done on a raised platform without

traditional and chemical treatment methods.

from the culm. It is one of the traditional ways for

important for making high quality products. The

starch content. Therefore harvesting of bamboo

ground contact. It is generally preferred for

raw material required depends on the intended

should not be done during the rainy or growing

large stacks. Culms at the bottom tend to

TRADITIONAL METHODS

application and the characteristics of the

season. Bamboos should be cut during the dry

bend or crack due to the weight of the stack.

These are age old methods which are used by

product that will be manufactured. Finding the

season as the moisture and starch contents are

Freshly cut bamboos are stored either on

artisans and villagers in India as well as other parts

right age of the bamboo is an important skill in

low. The culms should be cut between the first

running water or pools for 3-4 weeks to leach

of the world. These methods has been passed

Traditional methods of treatment show

the selection process. It can be determined by

or second node above the ground. After cutting

the starch out. It prevents the bamboo from

on from one generation to the next. The most

considerable resistance against fungal and

the colour of the culm as the one year old young

the branches should be removed cautiously

insect attacks. The water should be changed

commonly used methods are smoking, white

insect attacks but they do not provide complete

new culms will have a dark green colour and as

without damaging the culm. The bamboo poles

frequently to prevent fouling.

washing and soaking in water.

satisfaction in the long run.

34

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

2.13

storing and transportation of bamboos through rivers. Soaking can be done in a pool for 3-4 weeks but frequent change of water is necessary.

2.14

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

35


CHEMICAL TREATMENT

top of the bamboo to keep them submerged.

BUTT TREATMENT METHOD

BOUCHERIE METHOD

In case of tower the preservative drum has

For dry bamboo, quick and uniform

Chemical treatment protects the bamboo

Round bamboo should be submerged for 15-20

Freshly cut bamboos are put into a tank

Using this treatment only a few bamboos can

to be at a height of 4-6m above and connect

penetration pressure chambers or cylinders

from degradation even in adverse conditions.

days and 7-5 days for split bamboo. For quicker

containing preservative solution, mainly borax

be treated at once. In boucherie treatment the

the ends of the bamboo with cuffs which are

can also be used. The main aim is to force the

It is more effective than the traditional

treatment, the solution can be heated by firing

and boric acid. It usually takes one to two

preservative is forced under pressure through

connected by pipes to the drum.

preservative inside the bamboo by removing

method. Is consists of chemical and chemical

underneath the tank. 2-3 hours of treatment in a

weeks. It depends upon the moisture content

the entire length of the bamboo. The fresh

components. The most commonly used chemical

boiling solution is enough.

and the length of the culm. The solution

culms should be stored in water overnight

Using air pump the air pressure should be above

more durable. This treatment will take around

enters the bamboo by capillary action and

before treatment. In this treatment the sap

1- 1.5kg.cm. The preservative will start dripping

1-3 hours. After the treatment culms are

in 30 minutes in the other end.

collected and stacked horizontally under shade

preservatives are boric-borax, CCA, hydrogen peroxide and creosote oil. After the treatment

The treated bamboo needs to be stacked

subsequently by diffusion. After the treatment

of the culm is replaced by the preservative.

bamboo materials are stored in shades until they

horizontally to facilitate further diffusion and

the culms are placed in an empty drum to

Pressure is needed to press the preservative

are processed further.

should be air dried under shade.

drain the excess preservatives. Heating the

into the bamboo by air pumping or a tower.

Treatment with borax and boric acid is the most

Fig 2.15 : Open tank treatment in Talwara, Punjab

popular treatment method as it is very effective

air inside the bamboo. It makes the bamboo

for lateral diffusion.

solution is common in this treatment.

2.17

Fig 2.16 : Boucherie treatment Fig 2.17 : Pressure treatment tank

and more environment friendly than other chemical methods. The proper combination of borax and boric acid is a ratio of 1:1.5.

OPEN TANK METHOD Open tank method is best for round bamboo, splits and slivers. The material can be cut according to the size of the tank where it is going to be treated. Borax and boric acid treatment is preferred for open tank method. The combination is about 25 grams of each to one liter of water. All the bamboo should be covered with the solution. A big stone or a heavy object can be placed on 36

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

2.16

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

37


BASIC TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

2.18

2.21

2.24

2.26

2.28

2.32

2.19

2.22

2.25

2.27

2.29

2.32

2.30

2.33

Fig 2.18 : Measuring tape Fig 2.19 : Calipers Fig 2.20 : Hex saw Fig 2.21 : Files Fig 2.22 : Pliers Fig 2.23 : Hammer Fig 2.24 : Clamp Fig 2.25 : Knifes 2.20

38

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

2.23

Fig 2.26 : Metal cutter Fig 2.27 : Screw driver and Allen key Fig 2.28 : Chisels Fig 2.29 : Angle rule Fig 2.30 : Mortise Chisels Fig 2.31 : Steel scale Fig 2.32 : Drill bits Fig 2.33 : Hand planer

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

39


2.34

2.35

2.40

2.37

2.38

2.41

Fig 2.34 : Right angle Fig 2.35 : Hand saw Fig 2.36 : Glue Fig 2.37 : Hand bamboo splitter Fig 2.38 : Wood sealer and Melamine finish Fig 2.39 : Bench vise Fig 2.40 : Vise Fig 2.41 : Sand papers

2.36

40

2.39

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

2.42

2.44

2.43

2.45

2.47

Fig 2.42 : Cross cut saw Fig 2.43 : Bending Stand Fig 2.44 : Jig saw Fig 2.45 : Hand grinder Fig 2.46 : Hand Sander Fig 2.47: Hot air gun Fig 2.48 : Pillar Drill

2.46

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

2.48

41


BASIC BAMBOO WORKING METHODS

Thin green bamboo can be cut by a knife itself.

Using a knife and a hammer/ mallet to split the bamboo.

Using a bench vise to hold the bamboo tightly while cutting, drilling or any machinery.

A hand held power drill can be used for drilling on the splits or smaller size bamboo.

A Pillar drill can be used for drilling bigger sized bamboo and for bigger holes.

Bending the bamboo splits using a hot air gun or with gas flame. The burned skin can be removed by using a knife.

Always branches should be removed from the bottom part of the branch.

Reducing the thickness of the bamboo by using knife and peeling the skin.

Cutting bamboo with hex saw to get clean cut.

Cutting bamboo with cross cut saw. Angles can be set for cutting.

Hand grinder can be used to level out the knot before peeling.

Straightening or bending of solid bamboo using the bending stand with gas flame.

42

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

43


BAMBOO JOINERY

Fig 2.49 : Bamboo tenon and mortise joint

44

Fig 2.50 : Spline miter joint

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Fig 2.51 : Screw and stud

Fig 2.52 : Male and female connector joints

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

45


FINISHING METHODS Bamboo being a natural and cellulose material, it can absorb moisture at any time even after making a product. Thus surface coating is required to protect the product from moisture attack especially during the rainy season. This can cause fungus growth, expansion of material, which change the dimension of product and the shape etc. There are various types of coating available which are commonly used for wood products. Melamine is one of the best finishes that can be applied on bamboo surface, which is normally available

Fig 2.53 : Melamine

Fig 2.55 : Mixing of melamine with thinner in a ratio of 1:2 with hardener.

in glossy and matte finish. Matte finish always makes it look like natural finish. Glossy makes the surface shiny. This can also be mixed together in 1:1 proportion which adds to the appearance. Various stainers can be added with melamine to get an attractive colour on products. The surface of the product has to be smooth and dust-free before the spraying is done. There should be no moisture content on the products. It is crucial to wear a mask and an eye guard during the process to avoid any accidents.

Fig 2.54 : Sanding of the product before applying

46

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Fig 2.56 : Spraying using an airbrush

Fig 2.57 : Melamine with stainer.

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

47


3

UNDERSTANDING CONTEXT 3.1 ABOUT TALWARA, HOSHIARPUR 3.2 BAMBOO IN HOSHIARPUR, PUNJAB 3.3 MARKET AND FIELD VISITS


ABOUT TALWARA, PUNJAB Punjab has an inland subtropical location,

temperature here reaches up to 40.2°C and

tree species adopted by the farmers. These are

and its climate is continental, being semi-arid

minimum temperature goes down to 4.5°C.

the raw materials for ply and paper industries.

to sub-humid. Summers are very hot. Daily temperatures usually reach upper 30s C. Annual

AGRICULTURE

RESOURCE & POWER

rainfall is highest in the Shivalik Range.

The upper region of Hoshiarpur District is

The flood plains provide the most fertile area

constituted by flood plains comprising Dasuya,

of the district. All over Punjab, groundwater

Talwara is a census town in Hoshiarpur district

Umar Tanda and Mukerian blocks. This is

is highly used in agricultural, domestic and

in Punjab. It is situated on the banks of river

the most fertile area of the district covering

industrial sectors. Pong dam upstream Talwara

Beas and surrounded by the Shivalik hills. The

one-fourth of the geographical area. It has

provides water through canals throughout the

township area is inhabited with people from

widespread irrigation facilities, high ground

year and hydroelectric power.

various parts of India who are employees of

water level and canals from Pong Dam.

TRANSPORTATION

departments. The census town is home to

The most important crops are rice, wheat, maize

Talwara is linked with other cities by road.

about 19 thousand people, among them about

and sugarcane. Other crops grown in the area

The nearest railway station is in Mukerian city

10 thousand (52%) are male and 9346 (48%)

are cotton, urd, groundnut, til, mango and amla.

which is around 25kms. Jalandhar- Mukerian-

are female. 81% of the whole population are

Livestock farming and dairy products are a huge

Pathankot main railway line was constructed

from general caste, 19% are from schedule

success in the area.

during the late 1950s for the construction of

power generating projects and government

caste. There are 4191 households in the census

Fig 3.1 : Punjab State and Hoshiarpur District

50

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Pong Dam. The rail link between Mukerian and

town and an average 5 persons live in every

Most farmers have started adopting agro-forestry

Talwara was uprooted by the authorities after

family. There is no industry in Talwara. Goods

due to the increasing amount of wood and wood

the completion of the dam as it had no other

are imported usually from other places to meet

based products and they get more economic

traffic and was no longer needed.

the daily needs of the residents. Yearly average

returns as compared to traditional cropping

rainfall of the census town is 860 mm. Maximum

system. Poplar, eucalyptus and dek are three main

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

51


BAMBOO IN KANDI REGION, PUNJAB Punjab has a total area of 50,362sq km

Department encourages bamboo plantation in

geographically. Punjab has 84% of its total area

clusters under the National Bamboo Mission for

under agriculture and only 6.07% under forest. The

two reasons: One to make it an alternate source

Kandi region spans from Kashmir region, Punjab

of employment as timber obtained from bamboo

and Haryana. It’s a transitional zone between the

could be used to manufacture handicraft goods,

Shivaliks and the Plains. Kandi area of Punjab is a

furniture fencing, greenhouse structures and

sub-mountainous zone that stretches in a thin belt

irrigation pipes, and second it would also help in

along the northeastern boarder which comprises

preventing soil erosion. The forest of Karanpur

the Punjab Shivaliks & strips of land below the hills

and Bindraban are mainly bamboo areas where

in the district of Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur, Fatehgarh

Dendrocalamus Strictus occur gregariously.

Sahib and Ropar, with a length and width of

Under Dasuya forest division in Hoshiarpur

161km and 10km respectively.

district there are private individuals who only grow bamboo for the use of construction and

The majority of forest area in Shivalik hills or

paper industries. Mostly, bamboo is used in

Kandi region is in the form of block forest.

paper industries.

About 83% of its total area in the Kandi belongs to the local communities and private

There are four common species of bamboo

individuals. Private forest includes those owned

available in Hoshiarpur District, Dendrocalamus

by individuals, groups of individuals or the

Strictus (local name- Lathi banns), Bambusa Nutans

Panchayat. The Forest Department exercises

(local name-Naal), Dendrocalanus Hamiltonii

control over these areas under the Land

(local name- Magar) and Bambusa Bamboos (local

Preservation Act, 1900. The vegetation of these

name- Kata banns). Dendrocalamus Hamiltonii

region can be broadly classified into two types:

and Bamcusa Nutans are often imported from

Bamboo forest and Scrub forest. Punjab Forest

Himachal for paper industries.


1. DENDROCALAMUS STRICTUS Dendrocalamus Strictus also known as the male

forest and teak plantations. It grows on hill

USES

bamboo is a tropical and subtropical clumping

slopes, ravines and alluvial plains from sea level

Extensively used for paper pulping,

species native to Southeast Asia. The bamboo is

up to 1,200m. It prefers a low relative humidity

construction purposes, agricultural implements,

extensively used as a raw material in paper mills

and mean annual temperature between 20°C

musical instruments, furniture etc. Tender

and has edible shoots.

-30°C, but can withstand extreme temperatures

shoots are commonly used as food items.

LOCAL NAMES

as low as -5°C and high as +45°C. The optimum

Latthi banns (Punjab); Skal Banh (Assam); Tursing

per month during the growing season. The

(Mizoram); Lath bans (Tripura); Karail (Bangla);

species does not grow well in on water- logged

Salia (Oriya); Male bamboo (English)

or heavy soil such as pure clay and lime. It rather

IDENTIFICATION FEATURES Decideous, sub-arborescent, densely tufted.

annual rainfall is 1,000- 3,000 mm, with 300mm

prefers sandy loam soil with good drainage and pH between 5.5 - 7.5.

CULM: hollow in wet, solid in dry climates,

FLOWERING & FRUITING

6-20m tall 2.5-7.5cm in diameter; nodes

Sporadic flowering have been reported in

somewhat swollen, internodes 30-45cm long.

almost every year from different parts of

LEAVES: linear- lanceoclate, rounded at the base

India. Blatter (1930) recorded flowering years

into a short petiole; sharp acuminate; twisted

of this species from various parts of India and

point, rough and hairy above and soft hair below.

adjoining regions from the period 1865-1914.

HABITAT

According to Troup (1921) flowering cycle

This species is mainly found in semi dry and

years. Gregarious flowering cycle varies from

dry deciduous forest, or as understory in mixed

25-45 years.

54

Fig 3.3 : Dendrocalamus Strictus in Dasuya forest Division, Hoshiarpur

for Garhwal outer Himalayan track is 20-30

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Fig 3.2 : Dendrocalamus Strictus clump

Fig 3.4 : Mature Dendrocalamus Strictus in Hoshiarpur bamboo market

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

55


2. BAMBUSA NUTANS Bambusa Nutans is an evergreen or deciduous,

usually 25-45cm long, thick walled.

clumping-forming bamboo with a straight long

USES It is used for house construction, paper mats

fairly thick-walled culms and edible shoots.

CULM SHEATHS: 10-23cm long, upto 30cm

LOCAL NAME

wide at base with black hairs on the back,

Naal (Punjab and Himachal); Mokal/ Mallo/

yellowish green at apex. Sheaths covered

Kali (Arunachal Pradesh); Jadie Makal (Assam);

sparsely with dark-brown yellow hairs.

and poles.

base with soft deciduous hairs, young shoot

Utang (Manipur); Mal Bans (Sikkim); Rungazumi (Nagaland).

LEAVES: 15-25cm long and 2-3.5cm broad,

DISTRIBUTION

linear lanceolate acuminate at apex, round and

This species is cultivated in the North East,

Petiole 3-5mm long, leaf-sheath hairy when

Orrissa and West Bangal. It occurs naturally in

young, striate; auricle falcate with few long hairs.

Himalayan tracks.

HABITAT

IDENTIFICATION FEATURES Medium sized elegant bamboo

Fig 3.6 : Bambusa Nutans plantation in Neknama, Dasuya forest division

usually oblique at base, dull green upper surface.

This species is found between 600 to 1500m altitude. It requires well drained sandy loam to clay loam soil with tropical to sub tropical climate.

CULM: 6-15m tall, 5-10cm diameter, loosely clumped, with much of its branch above, usually

FLOWERING & FRUITING

no branch below, straight, green, smooth

Flowering type is both gregarious and sporadic

not shining, white ring below the node, node

in the species. Flowering cycle is reportedly

slightly thickened, often hairy, internodes

gregariously after an interval of 35 years.

56

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Fig 3.5 : Bambusa Nutans clump

Fig 3.7 : Bambusa Nutans in Mukerian bamboo market

Fig 3.8 : New Bambusa Nutans Culms

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

57


3. DENDROCALAMUS HAMILTONII Dendrocalamus Hamiltonii, also called tufted

branched above. Internodes 30-50cm long.

bamboo is a giant clumping bamboo native to

Culm sheaths long and stiff, 35-45cm long.

the northeast Himalayas.

LOCAL NAMES

LEAVES: Variable, small on side branches but on

Magar(Punjab and Himachal); Kalo/

the base into a short thick petiole; leaf sheath

Hate(Arunachal Pradesh); Kako banh(Assam);

covered with white, appressed stiff hairs.

Unap(Manipur); Aotsu(Nagaland); Choya

FLOWERING & FRUITING

Bans(Sikkim); Phulrus (Mizoram); Pecha(Tripura).

DISTRIBUTION West, Central and Eastern India in the lower hills from Simla eastward extending to the upper Myanmar.

IDENTIFICATION FEATURES A large bamboo, evergreen or deciduous,

new shoots reaching 37.5cm broad rounded at

This species usually flowers sporadically every year, some times gregariously and the flowering

Fig 3.10 : Dendrocalamus Hamiltonii culms in Hoshiarpur bamboo market

cycle is reported to be 30-40 years.

HABITAT It is found in tropics and sub tropical climatic zone and prefers hilly terrains.

densely clumped, sometimes growing tall and

USES

erect, but more often sending out its stems at

This species is used in building houses,

an angle or curved downwards.

construction, basketry, mats and ropes. A large quantity is used in paper and pulp industries

CULM: Large, 12-20m or up to 25m tall,

and has edible shoots.

10-18.5cm diameter, usually naked below,

58

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Fig 3.9 : Dendrocalamus Hamiltonii clump

Fig 3.11 : Dendrocalamus Hamiltonii in Neknama, Dasuya forest Division

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

59


4. BAMBUSA BAMBOO Bambusa Bamboo also known as Giant Thorny

IDENTIFICATION FEATURES

Bamboo or Indian Thorny Bamboo, is a species

SEEDS: This bamboo species may flower every 30-50 years. Gregarious flowering was last

of tropical dense clumping bamboo native to

CULMS: Strong, cylindrical, erect, hollow at the

reported in the early 90's where single clumps

Southeast Asia. This bamboo is often used for

top, dark green colour, up to 30m tall, 15-18cm

gave about 50-100kg of seeds. Bambusa

construction purposes.

diameter, the wall is very thick, branching at all

bamboos seeds are generally viable for a period

nodes. Upper leafy branches bear small spines,

of 6-8 months.

nodes are slightly swollen and few lower nodes

USES

LOCAL NAMES Katabanns (Punjab); Katabah (Arunachal

produce aerial roots.

Pradesh); Kotoha/Kothabanh (Assam); Saneibi (Manipur); Kanday bans (Sikkim)

HABITAT

Raw material for paper, house construction, CULM SHEATHS: Coriaceous, smooth with dark

panel production and fencing, used for

brown velvety hairs.

scaffolding, handicrafts, furniture.

Bambusa bamboos prefers a humid tropical

BRANCHES: Nodes contain a dominant branch

climate and grows best along river banks or

with one or two lateral branches and are often

river valleys with a rich, moist soil. It reaches its

spinelike. Thorny lower branches are long, wiry,

best development in moist deciduous forests

and usually bent towards the ground. The upper

up to an altitude of 1,250m and receiving

leafy branches produce a fan like plume and

nearly 2,000-2,500 mm rainfall a year. In flat

bear small spines.

alluvial soil, the culms are reported to attain a height of 25-30m and a diameter of 20-25cm.

LEAVES: Leaves are lances-shaped with a long-

DISTRIBUTION

pointed tip. They measure between 15-30cm

This species is found throughout India up to

in each complement.

long and 8-15mm broad, with about 10 leaves

1200m altitude. 60

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Fig 3.12 : Bambusa Bamboos in Neknama, Dasuya forest Division

Fig 3.13 : Bambusa Bamboos clump

Fig 3.14 : Bambusa Bamboos culms in Hoshiarpur Bamboo Market

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

61


FIELD VISITS - VILLAGE VISITS - BAMBOO MARKET VISITS

AIM AND OBJECTIVE

VILLAGE VISITS

As a part of this project, several field visits were carried out

- KARARI, TALWARA

regarding the material availability, its value chain, local skills

- BEHDADULO, DASUYA FOREST DIVISION

and plantation in Dasuya region. Also to get an idea about the geographical and cultural factors which are necessary to

Karari and Behdadulo are two main villages where most of

understand before any design intervention and promotion of

the families are engaged in making bamboo products. Both

bamboo. These field visits helped me map out where to get the

the villages are under Dasuya forest division, Hoshiarpur

raw materials and the tools for setting up a bamboo workshop.

district about 7km away from Talwara. Villages under Dasuya forest division are dependent on forest resources for subsistence, income and employment. These villages have been using and making bamboo products Fig 3.16 : Bamboo from Dasuya forest division, Behdadulo village

for a long time. Effects of cast system can be seen. Earlier a particular cast worked only with bamboo and exchanged their products with other cast people. These ideologies in people effected the widespread use of bamboo in an area where the materials are plenty. Both the villages use bamboo for making baskets of different sizes using the same weaving technique. They prefer freshly cut bamboo, specifically Dendrocalamus strictus for making baskets as it is more flexible with no treatment, using a traditional knife call Dat or Dati. Agriculture is their main source of income for most of the families. At present the elder people, mostly the males make bamboo products as a Fig 3.15 : Bamboo basket

62

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

part of their culture and for some side income.

Fig 3.17 : Making of bamboo strips with knife in Karari village.

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

63


RAW MATERIAL AND PROCESSING

Most of the villages under Dasuya forest division are rich in forest wealth. Bamboos are abundant in this region. It is a mix of bamboo forest and scrub forest. The main forest region is under the Punjab forest department, even though the bamboos are plenty, the villagers have to buy their raw material from nearby bamboo markets or by unauthorized removal from the forest.

MARKET AND LOCAL CONDITIONS There are no proper markets which sell bamboo products. A few street stalls are present in Dasuya and on the way to Hoshiarpur. Most of them sell bamboo baskets. The villagers sell their products to these street vendors as they are not capable of setting up a stall for themselves. The price ranges from Rs.150-300 depending on the size of the basket.

Mainly two species are used- Dendrocalamus Strictus and Dendrocalamus Hamiltonii. Raw materials are not treated or processed with any preservatives. Most of the people make baskets. They split fresh culms using a knife called Dat or Dati. The size and the length of the splits are decided based on the sizes of the baskets they are making. The splits are then smoothened by removing the nodes and uneven filers using the same knife. After they place the bamboo splits, they form a circle and start cross weaving from the centre with another bamboo strip. The contour of the basket is achieved by tightening the weave. They can make 2-3 baskets using two culms of bamboo.

Fig 3.19 : Road side bamboo stalls on the way from Dasuya to Hoshiarpur.

Fig 3.18 : Making of bamboo basket in Karari village.

64

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

65


OBSERVATIONS 1. A minority of people are involved in making bamboo baskets. It has been affected by the cast based work that only the poor people work with bamboo. 2. Only baskets are made using the same weaving technique which has been passed down. 3. Lack of proper market and exposure. 4. The elderly people are only involved in making the baskets. They consider it as their pastime and for a bit of income. 5. Minimal use of the bamboo baskets. The customers mainly use it for selling vegetables in the market and for storing. 6. Knife is their only tool for making the baskets. No other tools are used which can increase their work efficiency. 7. Mostly the raw materials are from the bamboo forest which are cut illegally. 8. Other uses of bamboo can be seen in making fences, as a support for climbers in the garden.

66

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

67


BAMBOO MARKET VISITS

RAW MATERIAL AVAILABILITY AND VALUE CHAIN

- MUKERIAN BAMBOO MARKET

Three common species of bamboo are available in Hoshiarpur district

- HOSHIARPUR BAMBOO MARKET

of Punjab, namely Dendrocalamus Hamiltonii (local name Magar), Dendrocalamus Strictus (local name Baans) and bambusa bamboos (local name Naal) out of which Strictus is most commonly grown in this area. All of these are of natural growth. Nearest bamboo markets to Unati are in Mukerian and Hoshiarpur. Mukerian Bamboo market is about 25km from Talwara and it is the nearest. These bamboos are from the bamboo forest which has been cut down by the forest department as they are mature and from other bamboo cultivators. Some species like Faglu and Nada Faglu are available

Fig 3.20 : Mukerian Bamboo market

Fig 3.21 : Hoshiarpur Bamboo market

at Hoshiarpur bamboo market which are imported from Himachal. These bamboos are used for construction purposes like ladder, used for scaffolding and for making tents. Most of the culms are solid so good quality culms go to the paper mills. Both the places don't sell only culms but they make more value added products to make their sales higher.

Fig 3.22 : Truck full of bamboos from Himachal

68

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Fig 3.23 : Straighten Bamboo in Mukerian bamboo market

Fig 3.24 : Matured Bamboo in Hoshiarpur market

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

69


Another common practice in these markets is A common practice observed in both the

that each bamboo pole is divided into three

markets was that in order to get more

equal sections (top, middle and base). They

output from the given material, bamboo is

are then segregated into these three groups

straightened by applying oil, heating the

and organized in bundles of 7 to 10 in order

bamboo and straightening it. Colours and

to be sold at higher prices than those of intact

pattern are added as finishing touches.

bamboo poles.

70

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

71


BAMBOO VALUE CHAIN DENDROCALAMUS STRICTUS

STEP 1: SELECTION OF GOOD BAMBOO

STEP 2: CUTTING OF BAMBOO

The process can be seen in the Hoshiarpur bamboo market which is

Good quality bamboo which are around 20ft long

Selected bamboo is then cut into three parts

in Banjer Bhag, Bhaarwain road, Hoshiarpur. The following process is

with no defects are selected for cutting.

(top, middle and base), almost 7ft each. Top part

carried out only for the species Dendrocalanus Strictus as it is almost

of the bamboo which is thin and flimsy is made

solid due to the climatic conditions in Punjab.

into bundles for sale.

72

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

73


STEP 4: PATTERN Patterns are made by rolling the bamboo in

STEP 3: CLEANING

between two hot iron rods. It only contributes to the appearance.

The branches are trimmed with a hand tool and cleaned by heating and rubbing with a cloth removing dirt and oil from the bamboo.

74

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

75


STEP 5: STRAIGHTENING

FOR BAMBOO SPECIES- DENDROCALAMUS HAMILTONII AND BAMBUSA NUTANS

Final step is when bamboo is straightened & made into bundles of 10-15 pieces. Other products for

Fresh culms which have higher wall thickness are sent to the paper mills.

construction are also made from it.

The remaining culms are used for making ladders for construction purposes.

76

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

77


OBSERVATIONS 1. Plenty of raw material is available but the lack of skills and exposure limits the uses of bamboo. 2. Most of the good quality bamboo with thick culms goes for the paper mills, mainly

BAMBOO FARMERS

BAMBOO COLLECTORS

ARTISANS

WHOLESALERS

RETAILERS

CUSTOMERS

Dendrocalamus Hamiltonii and Bambusa Babmoos. 3. Dendrocalamus Strictus and Bambusa Nutans are mostly used for making products for construction purposes like tents, scaffolding and ladder.

BAMBOO FARMERS

RETAILERS

CUSTOMERS

4. Adding value to the bamboo by straightening and making patterns can be seen, which are then sold at higher prices.

CUSTOMERS

5. The bamboo markets are open mostly during the winter season as bamboo is harvested in winter after the rain.

BAMBOO AS RAW MATERIAL

6. Most of the profits of these markets are from the paper mills and from construction products.

BAMBOO AS PRODUCT

7. They are not aware of any bamboo based industries where bamboo products are made like bamboo ply, flooring, boards etc. 8. Finding out the nearby bamboo markets for the training.

78

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

79


4

WORKSHOP AND TRAINING 4.1 EXPERIENCE 4.2 SETTING UP A WORKSHOP 4.3 TRAINING 4.4 PRODUCTS MADE AND JOINERY


EXPERIENCE 1. World Bamboo Day celebration 2016, held at Bangalore NID gave

and helped make two Bamboo stalls for Assam forest department

me the opportunity to explore the basic cutting, spliting and flexibility

and Dima Hasao District with the help of Kamesh Salam. Here I was

of bamboo.

introduced to joinery techniques for making a bamboo structure.

2. In February 2018 I went to Katlamara bamboo workshop in Tripura for three days with the craftsman, Bipul Boro to make a prototype of a rocking cradle. We made two prototypes of the cradle in two days. These helped me understand the process involved in making a bamboo product and the tools required to work with bamboo. Fig 4.4 : Bamboo Joinery

Fig 4.5 : Bamboo working tools

Fig 4.6 : Rocking cradle Prototype

3. For the Advantage Assam Global investors Summit 2018, I designed

Fig 4.1 : Katlamara, Tripura

Fig 4.7 : Assam Forest Department Stall, Advantage Assam Fig 4.2 : World Bamboo Day workshop, Bangalore NID

82

Fig 4.8 : Dima Hasao Stall, Advantage Assam

Fig 4.3 : Katlamara Bamboo workshop, Tripura

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

83


SETTING UP A WORKSHOP The Common Facility Centre (CFC) where we set up the workshop was allotted to Unati by the Punjab Forest Department to carry out the training of workers and manufacturing of furniture. The facility is located within Herbal nursery & Herbal Garden, Bhatoli which is around 3km from Unati. Several machines have been provided to Unati to be used in the premises. All the required hand tools, machinery and hardware were bought from Ludhiana and Jalandhar as there are no proper hardware stores in Talwara. Most of the machines which are already there are either not appropriate or in poor condition for making furniture. However, we fixed them so that all of them are in working condition for Unati's future plans under the Unati Bamboo Mission. The required raw materials for the training were bought from Mukerian Bamboo market, particularly Dendrocalamus Strictus and a few of Dendrocalamus Hamiltonii.


1. CROSS CUTTING SAW

4. COMPRESSOR

The CFC has not been in use for a long time. Proper electricity

The following are the machinery which were

2. BAMBOO SPLITTER

5. TABLE SAW

connection to the CFC and the machines is carried out by hiring a local

already there in the CFC.

3. TWO SIDE PLANNER

6. NODE REMOVER

electrician. All the required hand tools and equipment are bought from the local hardware market and from Ludhiana. The CFC is located around 3kms from Unati and Around 8kms from the Talwara market. It is connected by road. There are no markets or settlements around 2km radius. Most of the workers are from the nearby villages. Basic necessities like water, food, stand fans and furniture were arranged in the first week before the training. Fig 4.9 : New tools for the Bamboo workshop

Fig 4.10 : Basic amenities for the workers

86

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

87


TRAINING

RAW MATERIAL AND TREATMENT

The two months training workshop was carried out by master craftsman Bipul Boro and I accompanied him. He is a trained craftsman in

The required raw materials for the training

making bamboo furniture and other products

were bought from Mukerian Bamboo market,

from CBTC, Assam.

mainly Dendrocalamus Strictus and a few of Dendrocalamus Hamiltonii.

We have trained 10 graduates from Industrial Training Institute (ITI) with the skills necessary

For the treatment Borax and boric Acid

for making bamboo furniture. All of them have

treatment was used as it is the most popular,

basic woodworking skills from ITI and it is their

effective and more environment-friendly than

first time working with bamboo. These workers

other preservatives. Before the treatment we

are selected by Unati and they will be working

Fig 4.11 : First day of training.

made two holes of 4mm diameter for each

for Unati towards their bamboo mission.

Fig 4.12 : Unati head and SABF

node to let the preservative go inside the culm.

Fig 4.13 : Semi solid bamboo from Mukerian bamboo market (D.Strictus and Nutans mainly)

Combination of boric acid and borax with water The purpose is to let them understand the

was 25g each for 1l.

process involved in making bamboo furniture. Starting from raw material selection, treatment,

We used open tank method as it is best suited

reading cad drawings, introduction to basic

for round and splits which were in large numbers.

joinery, tools required and the finishes.

We used a 10m long tank. Then we boiled the

Bipuls Boro's aim was to let them learn

solution with bamboo for 3 hours as the training

alongside working with bamboo. He had already

period was short. The treated bamboo was then

planned on making chairs, sofas and dining sets.

taken out and stacked in the shade.

88

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Fig 4.14 : Drilling before the treatment

Fig 4.15 : Two holes for each internode

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

89


Fig 4.16 : Treatment of bamboo

Fig 4.21 : Bending of bamboo

Fig 4.24 : Weaving using nylon thread

Fig 4.27 : Coffee table

Fig 4.30 : Sofa set

During the training, Bipul taught them about the following : 1. Treatment of bamboo using the open tank method. 2. Selecting the right kind of bamboo for particular furniture. Fig 4.17 : Workers making their own stool

Fig 4.19 : Legs for the stool

Fig 4.22 : Dining chair

Fig 4.25 : Bent bamboo for armrest

Fig 4.28 : Dust bins using split bamboo

3. Various techniques and tools used in making furniture. Cross cutting, bending, finishes etc. 4. Introduction to various types of furnitureRound bamboo furniture, Bent and split bamboo furniture. 5. In two months of training we created two dining sets, sofa set with coffee table, racks, dust bins, stools, lecture stands, white board

Fig 4.18 : Finished stool

90

Fig 4.20 : Bipul demonstrating about making a chair

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Fig 4.23 : Finishing

Fig 4.26 : Unati Workers

Fig 4.29 : Finished Products

stand, bed and also taught them to use the existing machinery.

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

91


METAL JOINERY

PROBLEMS FACED DURING TRAINING

These are some of the joineries that I found in markets in Hoshiarpur and Ludhiana which were suitable for making knock down furniture with

1. Over cuts and gapes in the joinery.

bamboo. Substituting bamboo with bamboo

2. Holes made for the treatment bent and

joints with metal joinery increases the efficiency

cracked while bending with blow torch.

of work.

Main cause was that the bamboo was not completely solid.

1. Connector screws

3. Touch wood finishes were not suitable

2. T-nut and screw (for fixing upholstery)

with bamboo as it could be scraped off easily

3. Insert screws

leaving marks.

4. Screw and stud (used in making knock down

4. Most of the bamboo was not straight and

furniture)

1

2

3

Fig 4.31 : Metal hardware

4

Fig 4.36 : Over cut

properly matured. Straightening of the bamboo was required for most of the bamboo and the premature bamboo cracked as it dried. Fig 4.37 : Spliting of bamboo while bending

Fig 4.32 : Connecting screw

92

Fig 4.33 : Insert Screw

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Fig 4.34 : Bolt and stud

Fig 4.35 : Immature bamboo cracks

Fig 4.38 : Touch wood not appropriate for bamboo

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

93


OBSERVATION 1. All the workers are new with no earlier woodworking experiences. 2. The quality of the finish and cuts for the joinery are not perfect as an experienced worker but improvement can be seen with time as all of them are dedicated. 3. A proper head worker or someone to guide them is required for segregation of the workers according to their skills. This can help in fast production process. 4. 3D renders or pictures of the product help them understand better rather than giving just the technical drawing. 5. The use of metal joinery instead of bamboo to bamboo joints wherever necessary increases the work efficiency. 6. Making of the product to the finishing has been done inside the CFC. While working on the finishing, others' work has to stop because of the dust. 7. A lot of improvement can be seen at the end of the training. All of them are aware of the process required for making a bamboo product starting from the treatment and selection of bamboo to the finishing.

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

95


5

DESIGN BRIEF AND DEVELOPMENT 5.1 WORKSHOP CONDITIONS 5.2 DESIGN BRIEF 5.3 OFFICE FURNITURE 5.4 CHAIR ERGONOMICS 5.5 ANTHROPOMETRIC DATA 5.6 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR OFFICE CHAIR


WORKSHOP CONDITIONS

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

SECTOR Functions and uses of office

PRODUCTION FRIENDLY:

for making bamboo products. There are no other tools or machinery for

Designs have to be simple keeping in mind the workers are new to

other materials like wood or metal. None of the workers are properly

bamboo, and their skills and time required to produce a product. Most of

experienced in wood working or with metal.

the members were kept straight with little or no bending.

The workers are not arranged on the basis of what work they will be

FAST PRODUCTION:

doing when the production starts as they all are in their learning process.

The products should be produced easily and should be mass

Their finishing and work on the joinery are not as clean as an experienced

manufactured, which can be done by limiting the hand dependent work

worker's work. This affects the quality of the product.

with machines and by using metal joinery wherever necessary.

The bamboo is semi-solid but it is not as straight so the workers have to

EASY TRANSPORTATION:

straighten each bamboo before any work. The peeling and cleaning take

As the main furniture markets are far, to reach more customers, the

time and perfection comes with experience which the workers are lacking.

products have to be knocked down or flat packed, which would make

bamboo in office furniture has not

scenario is important

ATTRIBUTES

with varieties of furniture, functions and implementation of

furniture and the current market The workshop is equipped with only the basic machinery and hand tools

Office furniture being the sector

been explored much.

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

SPECIES

the transportation easy beyond local areas. The intention of this project was not only to create new products for the market but to introduce more uses of bamboo in a place where raw

PRODUCT RANGE FOR THE URBAN MARKET:

material is abundant.

The market for bamboo furniture is new in India so developing an identity and branding would help increase awareness about bamboo furniture to the masses.

Limited basic skill sets of the

Properties of locally available

workers. Design has to be

species which would determine

simple and produced fast

the design

SKILLS

98

SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO

99


FINAL BRIEF

DEVELOPING OFFICE FURNITURE OUT OF BAMBOO WHICH IS LOCALLY AVAILABLE

People spend their lives in mostly three places- home, work and leisure. In all these places furniture plays an important role. Over the years, there have been several changes in the furniture systems in terms of comfort, style, functionality and the environment. Home furniture is changing because of the demand for flexibility and mobility. Office or work furniture are planned to ensure optimal ergonomics and functionality yet the space is considered an emotionless environment. The third place is where we go and forget about the stress of home and work.

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 101


FURNITURE CLASSIFICATION OFFICE FURNITURE

Office furniture can be classified into two types on the basis of purpose and on their

Office or workspace is a room or set of rooms or buildings used as a

physical appearance.

place of business for non-manual work.

OFFICE FURNITURE

Office furniture is an important part of the office environment. It is mostly used for indoor activity and provides the employees with comfort and convenient features so that they can work effectively. Right kind of

Base on appearance

furniture is necessary as it reduces fatigue and health hazards.

Desk - Executive - Clerical - Typist - Machine - Secretarial

Base on purpose

Others

Chair

-Executive/ special purpose

- Cabinets

- Office work chair - Multipurpose chair - Visitors

- Sofa/ lounge - Waiting seat - Conference room furniture - Bench

- Bookshelves - File organiser - Dust bins - Partitions

Office chairs are the most important furniture as the worker sits on it all day. Proper chair design increases work output and reduces absenteeism.

102 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

The furniture that I will be working on

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 103


OFFICE FURNITURE AT UNATI Fig 5.0: Office chairs at Unati

Fig 5.1 : Reception furniture at Unati

Fig 5.3 : Recreational area

Fig 5.4 : Conference room furniture

Fig 5.5 : Conference chair

Fig 5.2 : 3 feet wide sofa

Used as Dining Used as chair Stacking chair

Used as Visitors chair

Used as Task chair

Used as Conference chair Fig 5.6 : Visitors chair in front of an executive table

104 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Fig 5.7 : Working cell and task chair

Fig 5.8 : Visitors chair

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 105


2. ERGONOMIC CHAIR

COMMON TYPES OF OFFICE CHAIRS OFFICE CHAIRS ARE PARTICULARLY DESIGNED TO PROMOTE EXCELLENT POSTURE WHILE PROVIDING GREAT COMFORT.

-

Gives maximum back support.

-

Adjustable height, headrest or even the armrest.

-

Good for prolonged sitting.

1. CONFERENCE/ BOARDROOM CHAIR -

Perfect for meetings

-

Great to relax and allow you to remain in the same position.

-

Usually conference chairs aren’t adjustable and mobile.

-

Meetings are centred on talking and listening more than actual

Fig 5.10 : Ergonomic chair

3. MESH CHAIR

leg work so a consistently comfortable sitting position is of utmost importance.

Fig 5.9 : Conference chair

106 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

-

Uses different fabrics instead of leather and foam.

-

Has a good air circulation.

-

Perfect for offices that tend to be very hot.

Fig 5.11 : Mesh chair

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 107


4. GUEST CHAIR

6. STACKING CHAIR

-

For Visitors

-

Used in cafeterias

-

Chairs aren't flexible, adjustable/ mobile

-

Light weight, mobile

-

Some companies tend to have their guest chair custom made so as to complement or

-

Easy storage

-

Used in meeting rooms for the purpose of accommodating extra attendees.

reflect whatever products or services they offer.

Fig 5.12 : Guest chair

5. EXECUTIVE CHAIR -

Perfect for moving around in the office.

-

Usually have a high back rest and the armrests are usually padded for comfort.

-

Usually more expensive than ergonomic chairs.

-

Mostly with thick layers of polyurethane foam and soft material in the form of leather.

7. TASK CHAIR

Fig 5.13 : Executive chair

108 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Fig 5.14 : Stacking chair

-

Usually include wheels/ Caster for free movement.

-

Most affordable office chair

-

Seat height adjustable

Fig 5.15 : Task chair

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 109


ARMRESTS

The seat should be wide enough to

CHAIR RANGE OF MOTION

accommodate a user’s hips and clothing, and

The seat and backrest should allow for varied

provide good surface area for the arm to contact so that pressure

comfortably allow use of the armrests.

seated postures. This can be accomplished by

between an arm and armrest is minimized. The armrests should be

BACKREST

allowing a rearward tilt of the back. A minimum

adjustable up and down, as well as in and out. This allows for more

10° rearward tilt (between 90° and 115°) is

customization and better comfort.

SEAT HEIGHT

The seat back should conform to the contour of

preferable. The only guidelines for seat tilt

the person’s spine and give support to the back

measurement is to ensure the torso-to-thigh

The seat height should allow the user’s feet

to alleviate stress on back muscles while seated.

angle is not less than 90°, and that the seat

CHAIR ERGONOMICS

SEAT WIDTH

to be comfortably supported by the floor or a

angle is between 0-4° reward tilt.

Armrests help relieve neck, shoulder, and back stress. Armrests can

TECHNOLOGICAL IMPACT ON POSTURE

proper footrest.

These are the nine postures which are not adequately addressed by the

SEAT DEPTH

current seating solutions. If there are no ergonomic implications to these 0- 20° below horizontal line of sight (slightly below eye level)

Seat depth should be deep enough so that the region behind the knees (also called the popliteal area) is not hitting the front of the seat. Adjusting the seat depth on a chair should be a natural motion that does not strain the user. Separating the armrests from the moveable seat can allow the armrests to be

What causes the change in the way we sit? Upper Back

Lower Back (support lumbar) Sitting Bones (distributed pressure)

used as leverage for easily changing the seat depth while seated. The controls for seat depth movement should be intuitive and easy to use, and not require excessive bending to reach.

postures it will cause pain and discomfort.

Thigh Behind the knee (distributed pressure) Fig 5.16 : The right way to sit.

110 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Screen should be free of glare and should tilt and pivot Arms (minimal bend at the wrist)

Area Behind the Knee (not touching seat pan) Feet (flat on floor or footrest)

1. The new technology and their impact on the human body. With today's multiple devices, our body is forced to respond to these small technologies. 2. New ways of moving and working with the new technologies. Work is an inherently social process that requires people to rapidly shift

Fig 5.17 : Technological impact on posture.

between individuals, focused tasks and creative collaborations. Each new activity causes us to change posture.

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 111


ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS

Sitting is one of the most common workplace postures. Knowing what parameters to design

Anthropometry is the science that measures

for while the user is seated can help increase

the range of body sizes in a population. It is

the comfort of the user.

important to remember that people come in many sizes and shapes. Anthropometric data varies considerably between regional populations.

PERCENTILE HUMANS Anthropometric dimensions for each population

Fig 5.18 : The relative sizes of different percentile humans.

are ranked by size and described as percentiles.

Fig 5.22 : Values for 5th to 95th percentile males and females in the seated position .

It is common practice to design for the 5th percentile (5th%) female to the 95th percentile

Fig 5.21 : Common anthropometric measurements for the seated position.

(95th%) male. The 5th% female value for a particular dimension (e.g. sitting height) usually

SPINE AND LUMBAR

represents the smallest measurement for design in a population. Conversely, a 95th% male value may represent

Fig 5.20 : Anthropometric measurements (including allowances for clothing) of small and large males and females.

the largest dimension for which one is designing. The 5th% to 95th% range accommodates

Fig 5.19 : Common office environment posture measurements.

approximately 90% of the population.

112 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Maintaining the neutral, or standing shape of

spine’s shape when standing.

the lumbar, or lower spinal area is important

A good seating posture is one that is

for comfort and posture. Chairs can give

comfortable and does not put a lot of stress

appropriate and correct lumbar support. This

or strain on the user’s buttocks, back, or arm

seated lumbar support will help the spine

muscles, and allows the user’s feet to be on

maintain an S-shaped curve similar to the

the floor.

Fig 5.23 : Appropriate S-shaped curve of the spine.

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 113


FACTORS WHILE CHOOSING OFFICE FURNITURE

ADVANTAGES OF BAMBOO FURNITURE

FUND

DURABILITY

SAFE

The amount of fund available for the purpose

Furniture that can last long as well as the ability

Bamboo can grow without fertilizers/

affects the choice. But it should be the most

to adapt as business changes. The furniture

pesticides. Therefore bamboo products are

suitable furniture.

should stand fire. It should be such that if it is

organic. They are entirely clean with no residue

subjected to fire it should not turn to ashes.

of chemicals left on them.

Furniture should be light weight and easy to

ADAPTABILITY

SUSTAINABLE

move around.

Furniture should be adaptable to different uses

Bamboo furniture is more impact resistant

in the office.

than wood. With treated bamboo it can ensure

WEIGHT

APPEARANCE

Bamboo will not shrink/expand in moist and

sustainability and no-termite.

Good appearance of furniture adds greatly to

FINISH

the looks of an office. Thus furniture should

Finishing should attract the eye. Glossy

CREATES GREEN SPACE

be functional and should have a pleasing

surfaces should be avoided because they create

Bamboo furniture not only creates simple and

appearance.

glares and increase tension.

comfortable spaces. It also brings human life closer to nature.

PROTECTS ENVIRONMENT

dry environment. Bamboo is more scratch resistant than most hardwood as well as keeps the colour bright for many years. Bamboo furniture is lighter than wooden furniture. So it can be moved and arranged easily. Best renewable material. Production of bamboo products can sustain without harming the ecology. Suitable for any space- wide or narrow, traditional or modern.

Wooden trees take decades to mature but bamboo takes about 3-5 years to regrow the bamboo that has been cut.

114 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 115


DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

FOR OFFICE FURNITURE AESTHETICS

FUNCTIONALITY

COMFORT

SAFETY

ERGONOMICS

Bamboo for office furniture is a new thing.

Functionality is the principal aspect especially

A comfortable and responsive furniture

It should be user friendly, stable and sturdy.

Proper support for varieties of work to

Setting a price of a furniture depends

The material, colour and form of the

for office furniture. Furniture should be easy

helps the user to increase in their work

It should have rounded corners and no

prevent strain and discomfort, which can

upon many factors. As for bamboo, making

design should make the space warm and

to use, low maintenance, durable, light weight

efficiency and productivity. Design should

protruding hardware or loose pieces.

increase in productivity.

the design easy to manufacture and easy

comfortable. Reducing stress and anxiety by

and as comfortable as possible.

reflect on the postures of people in an office

to transport can decrease the cost, thus

environment.

reaching more customers.

increasing social interaction.

116 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

BUDGET

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 117


6

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT 6.1 INITIAL SKETCHES 6.2 RECEPTION CHAIR 6.3 CONFERENCE TABLE 6.4 VISITORS CHAIR 6.5 CONFERENCE CHAIR 6.6 SINGLE SOFA/ LOUNGE CHAIR 6.7 TASK CHAIR 6.8 FINISHING


INITIAL SKETCHES

120 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

RECEPTION CHAIR

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 121


VISITORS CHAIR

122 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

LOUNGE CHAIR

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 123


CONFERENCE CHAIR

124 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 125


TASK CHAIR

126 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 127


CONCEPT

RECEPTION CHAIR I started designing furniture in between the training where the workers could have a hands on experience

DIMENSIONS

of making furniture using the skills that they would learn from the training. They were given detailed design drawings with a three dimensional view of the product so that they would understand the drawing more. The first chair I designed is for the reception area of the office. Furniture or chairs in the reception area are usually cushioned properly and comfortable. They are neither flexible nor mobile and one should be able to lean back and relax. The Chair has fixed frames and all the members are joined by using the tenon and mortise joinery. I designed the chair and let the workers make it as a part of training.

Fig 6.0 : Reception Chair 3D

128 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 129


Fig 6.1 : Making of Reception Chair

130 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Fig 6.2 : Different views of the chair

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 131


PROCESS The process started with selecting the bamboo

by drilling holes with the same diameter as

on the basis of their characteristics, diameter

that of the connector member that was to be

and the components according to the drawing.

connected perpendicular to the other bamboo.

Bigger diameter bamboos were taken as the

The frames were checked for proper alignment

cleaning process would reduce the diameter.

and then fixed with Araldite glue and for security, bamboo dowels were used.

Straight bamboo culms were selected and cut

132 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

a little bigger than the required measurement.

After the chair frame was done, all the excess

Cleaning was done using a knife and a hand

dried glue was removed by using a chisel and

grinder. Members were joined by using basic

sanded for smoothening. Two coats of wood

tenon and mortise joinery which was made

sealer were applied for the finish.

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 133


CONCEPT

CONFERENCE TABLE The design of this table was made as a part of the training. This was done by exploring the new hardware which made it half collapsible. This conference table was made for small meeting rooms for 4-6 people. The pair of three legs made it more stable and it looked firm to the ground. The design of the table was made in a way that the legs provided a strong stability. The table consists of three components, the pair of three legs, the tie member and a glass top. The length of the table can be played by the length of the tie members which are connected to the legs with a screw and stud hardware.

DIMENSIONS Fig 6.3 : Conference table 3D

134 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 135


PROCESS The table was made out of two species of

connected to the legs using screw and stud

bamboo. Dendrocalamus Hamiltonii which was

hardware. The finishing of the table is done by

used for the legs and Bambosa Nutans for the

putting three layers of wood sealer and four

tie members. Respective bamboo was selected

suction cups are attached on the leg member

and cut according to the measurements. The

for the glass top.

members of the leg components are joined by using tenon and mortise. The bamboos are hollow so for making the joinery we have to put another solid bamboo inside to fill the hole using glue. The are two tie members which are

Fig 6.6 : Common conference table tops

Fig 6.4 : Conference table

Fig 6.5 : Different sizes of conference table

136 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 137


CONCEPT

VISITORS CHAIR DIMENSIONS

The design was made during the time of the training as a part of the learning process for the workers. Visitor Chairs are mainly placed opposite to an executive table for the visitors. The form of the chair is inspired from the Wishbone Chair by Hans Wegner. In this chair I have played with new joinery and a bit of bent bamboo to show the varieties of forms that we can use while making a bamboo furniture. The form of the chair and the natural fibre weaving for the seat give a whole lot of value to bamboo. I made this as a visitors chair just to show how bamboo can be versatile to the visitors. For a place where bamboo furniture is new, these kinds of forms and details can get people's attention.

138 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 139


PROCESS The bamboos were selected and cut according

whereas the backrest curve was made by

to their length and diameter, out of which three

making two mitre joints using ply wood as a

of them were selected for bending- two for the

spline.

legs and one for the backrest. First full scale drawings were made on paper to use as guides

Araldite was used to hold the joints. The chair

while bending. The bamboos were bent by

was finished with three layers of wood sealer

using a blow torch to hit the bamboo. Cleaning

and natural fibre weave for the seat.

of the bamboo was done by peeling the outer burnt skin with a knife and hand grinder. All the members were marked and measured for making joinery. The leg frame of the chair was fixed by using tenon and mortise joints

Fig 6.7 : Visitors chair in 3D

140 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 141


Fig 6.8 : Making of visitors chair

Fig 6.9 : Mitre joints using ply as spline

Fig 6.10 : Tenon and mortise joinery

142 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Fig 6.11 : Weaving of seat using natural fibre

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 143


Fig 6.12 : Finishing of chair

144 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 145


CONCEPT

CONFERENCE CHAIR

DIMENSIONS The chair design was developed after my guide visits where I was told to look into knock down and flat packable furniture. Here I separated the main parts of a chair and designed them to make them knock down, considering the ergonomics and posture of how people behave and work in a conference hall. The chair has been divided into four main parts i.e. two pair of legs, backrest, seat and tie members. The members are connected by using a male female connector screw. Conference or boardroom chairs are predominantly used for meetings where a person is centered on talking and listening more than actual leg work so a consistently comfortable sitting position is of utmost importance. Here the design is in a way that the back rest hugs the person and with an inclined hand rest to give comfort which allows the user to remain seated at the same position.

146 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 147


PROCESS The prototype was developed in NID Bangalore

The main four components were made by using

using the species Dendrocalamus Stocksii

tenon and mortise joints. The backrest member

which is semi solid and similar to D. Strictus.

and the ply members were bent by heating and making a mould respectively. The finished

The process started with selecting the bamboo

components were clamped together to get the

according to its diameter and length. Selected

form of the chair and the points were drilled

ones were then straightened and cut roughly

where the connector screws were coming. For

bigger than the actual measurement. The outer

the finishing the chair was sanded and coated

hard skin was removed by using a knife and

with wood sealer and melamine.

turned the bamboo using a lathe machine to get the regular smith finish.

Fig 6.13 : Components of conference chair

148 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 149


Fig 6.14 : Getting members ready

Fig 6.15 : Turning using lathe machine

Fig 6.16 : Leg component of conference chair

Fig 6.17 : Backrest bend and plywood mould for cushion

150 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Fig 6.19 : Tie members

Fig 6.18 : Peeling of outer hard skin of bamboo using knife

Fig 6.20 : Components of conference chair

Fig 6.21 : Framework of conference chair

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 151


GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 153


CONCEPT

SINGLE SOFA/ LOUNGE CHAIR Lounge chairs are becoming more prominent

DIMENSIONS

in an office environment. The lounge posture encourages creative thinking, supports the new ways people work with their technology and lounge settings promote personal connections. This gives employees a stronger sense of engagement and belonging. The chair is designed in such a way that the employees feel relaxed and allow their mind to wander which can lead to unexpected insights and breakthroughs. Making it a knock down adds more value and transportational convenience. The relaxed posture is achieved by using thick cushions with the bamboo frame which gives a slick look.

154 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018


Fig 6.22 : Components of lounge chair

156 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Fig 6.23 : Framework of lounge chair

Fig 6.24 : Render for lounge chair

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 157


PROCESS The process started by selecting the right bamboo of the right diameter and length, and straightening it. No bends made it more production friendly. The chair has four components i.e. the pair of legs, seat, back rest and tie members. The members of each component were joined by using tenon and mortise. The components were then connected by using connector screws.

Fig 6.25 : Leg component of lounge chair

Fig 6.26 : Sanding of components

Fig 6.27 : Fixing of components

Fig 6.28 : Framework of lounge chair

158 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018


GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 161


CONCEPT

TASK CHAIR Working chair or task chair is one of the most

DIMENSIONS

common chairs in an office environment. Most of the employees use it with a table for hours. This chair needs the most lumbar support to get maximum output from the employee without causing any discomfort. By making the back rest flexible or reclinable it gives more leverage to the user rather than sitting up right. The design of this chair incorporates the flexibility of bamboo in achieving the reclinable backrest. The mechanism is achieved by making the seat slide forward making the back rest tilting back, which is connected by two bamboo strips. It is a complete knock down furniture which is only connected by eight connecting screws.

162 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018


Fig 6.29 : Exploded view of office chair

164 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Fig 6.30 : Seat and backrest component

Fig 6.31 : Framework of the office chair

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 165


Fig 6.32 : Bending of tie member using a blowlamp

Fig 6.33 : Bent tie members

Fig 6.34 : Members of backrest

166 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Fig 6.35 : Details of the seat component

Fig 6.36 : Details of the bamboo rail

Fig 6.37 : Fixing of the tie members

Fig 6.38 : Framework of the tie members

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 167


PROCESS The process started with selecting bamboo and straightening them. The Design demands the seat component to be as regular as possible as it has to slide along a rail which is bamboo too. Proper turning of bamboo using the lathe machine is required. The chair consists of six components -the pair of legs with the armrest, the seat rail, the seat, the backrest and the bamboo connector. The Fig 6.39 : Tie member with seat component

Fig 6.40 : Tie member with backrest

members of each component are joined using tenon and mortise with Araldite. The bamboo connectors are just inserted by making slits on the seat and the backrest. Using double bamboo for the armrest not only provides comfort but also acts as a locking mechanism for the backrest. When assembling, all the six components are kept in place by using the tie member one in front and one in back using only four connecting screws. The finish is done by using wood sealer and melamine.

Fig 6.41 : Framework of the office chair

Fig 6.42 : Fixing double bamboo for armrest

168 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018


Fig 6.43 : Working position of office chair

Fig 6.44 : Reclined position of office chair

170 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 171


FINISHING The finishing of the chairs started with sanding of all the components with a rough sand paper. The scratches from the lathe machine on the bamboo were removed by using a knife. It was done my scraping the bamboo with the knife by holding it slightly perpendicular to the bamboo. Higher grid sand papers were used for making the surface smoother. Wood sealer was applied to cover up the imperfections on the bamboo and sanded it with using 400 grid sand paper. Before applying melamine the final sanding was done by using steel wool. Melamine with thinner

Fig 6.45 : Sanding of component using rough sandpaper

Fig 6.47 : Sanding of component higher grade sandpaper

Fig 6.48 : Application of sealer

Fig 6.46 : Mixing of wood sealer with thinner

Fig 6.49 : Application of sealer to all the components

Fig 6.50 : Sanding after applying sealer

were mixed in a ratio of 1:2 in a clean container and with hardener. Air brush was used for applying the melamine finish on the product. Matte finish was used as to prevent glare and to have a natural look.

172 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 173


Fig 6.54 : Application of melamine

Fig 6.51 : Sanding using a 400 grade sandpaper

Fig 6.55 : Hardware for all 3 chairs

NUMBER OF SCREWS Conference Chair - 10 screws Lounge Chair- 14 screws Working chair - 8 screws

Fig 6.52 : Steel-wool for final sanding

Fig 6.53 : Application of melamine using airbrush

174 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Fig 6.56 : Finished components of all 3 chairs

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 175


7

CONCLUSION 7.1 CONCLUSION 7.2 BIBLIOGRAPHY 7.3 LIST OF FIGURES 7.4 TECHNICAL DRAWINGS


CONCLUSION This project gave me a wholesome experience of working with bamboo at a ground level with the workers. I got a good understanding of the properties, possibilities as well as the limitations of bamboo as a material and about its variety of species with different characteristics. The field visits, workshop and interaction with people involved in bamboo made me appreciate and admire the material in terms of its versatility. I got an opportunity to run a whole bamboo processing unit under me which help me learn about the process and management involved to keep the unit in progress. This whole process helped me in designing products which could be made and processed in minimal time. As far as my contribution to the project is concerned, my designs showed the varieties of ways in making bamboo furniture ranging from fixed frame to knock down and even by using the flexibility of bamboo. All this helped the new workers to gain a variety of skills and techniques while making the product. Since all the prototypes were an extension of my explorations during the workshop, I know they could be redeveloped by the workers, keeping in mind the needs and the purpose of the design. At the end, I gained a lot from the experiences and insights I got from workshops, field visits, my mentors and colleagues. All this helped me in a great way to grow even on the personal front. I am more confident about the use of material and even handling a workshop now.

178 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 179


BIBLIOGRAPHY

LIST OF FIGURES, ILLUSTRATIONS AND PHOTOGRAPHS

• ABBREVIATIONS

Compiled and Written by Scott Openshaw,

SABF- South Asia Bamboo Foundation

Allsteel Erin Taylor, Allsteel

CFC- Common Facility Centre NID- National Institute of Design

8. https://www.nationalbusinessfurniture.com/ blog/types-of-office-chairs 9. http://www.allsteeloffice.com/

WEBSITES

1. http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/office-

synergydocuments.pdf 10. http://www.guaduabamboo.com/

• BOOKS

management/office-furniture/office-

11. http://www.inbar.int/

1. Training Manual for Bamboo Craft,

furniture-factors-to-be-considered-and-

12. http://design-for-india.blogspot.com

types-office-arrangements/68974

13. http://modernbamboo.com

Published by Commonwealth Education Media Centre for Asia 2. Ranjan, M P., Iyer Nilam, Pandya Ghanshyam, Bamboo and Cane Crafts of

2. http://scalar.usc.edu/works/topazfurniture/ why-an-ergonomic-office-chair-isimportant-at-work

Northeast India, New Delhi Development

3. http://makeitwood.org/carbon-cycle/

Commissioner Handicraft 1990.

4. https://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/

3 Reubens Rebecca, Bamboo from Green

ergonomics/office/chair.html

Design to Sustainable Design, Rainbow

5. https://www.btod.com/blog/2015/07/08/

Publishers and Promilla & co Publishers,

how-to-layout-and-design-the-perfect-

2012

waiting-room/ 6. https://www.ontimesupplies.com/solutions/

• DOCUMENTS AND PROJECT REPORTS 1. Global Posture Study by Steelcase. 2. Ergonomics and Design A Reference Guide,

conference-tables-size-guide 7. http://bestofficechair.org/most-commontypes-of-office-chairs/

180 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

14. http://www.allsteeloffice.com/ergo 15. http:// www.bifma.com

Fig 2.1 : Anatomy of bamboo Plant, Venu Bharati, Page 46 Fig 2.11 : Different parts of bamboo are used for different applications, Bamboo( from green design to sustainable design) Fig 2.16 : Boucherie treatment method using gravity pressure(http://pintrest.com/) Fig 3.1 : Punjab State and Hoshiarpur district(http://www.culturenorthindia.com// Fig 5.9 : Conference chair, Most Common types of Office Chair( http://www. bestofficechair.org/) Fig 5.10 : Ergonomic Chair,Most Common types of Office Chair( http://www.bestofficechair. org/) Fig 5.11 : Mesh Chair,Most Common types of Office Chair( http://www.bestofficechair. org/) Fig 5.12 : Guest Chair,Most Common types of Office Chair( http://www.bestofficechair. org/)

Fig 5.13 : Executive Chair,Most Common types of Office Chair( http://www.bestofficechair. org/)

Ergonomics and Design A Reference Guide, Allsteel, pdf page 14. Fig 5.23 : Appropriate S-Shaped curved( http://

Fig 5.14 : Stacking Chair,Most Common types of Office Chair( http://www.bestofficechair. org/)

www.doctorspainreliefsystem.com/) Fig 6.6 : Different sizes of Conference Table, Conference table how to choose the right

Fig 5.15 : Task chair, Most Common types of

size. (http://www.onetimesupplies.com/)

Office Chair( http://www.bestofficechair. org/) Fig 5.16 : The right way to sit, Showcasing a decade of innovation, Wipro, page100. Fig 5.17 : Technological impact on posture, Steelcase Global Posture Study pdf, Page 4 Fig 5.18 : Relative sizes of different percentile humans, Ergonomics and Design A Reference Guide, Allsteel, pdf page 6. Fig 5.19 : Common office environment posture, Ergonomics and Design A Reference Guide, Allsteel, pdf page 9. Fig 5.21 : Common anthropometric measurements for seating position,

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 181


TECHNICAL DRAWINGS

182 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Designed by : Sushan Kumar Yumkhaibam

Furniture Drawing

Date : August 2018

Product :

Sheet number : 1 of 1

Drawing :

Material Specifications Lounge Chair

Dimensions : mm

Finish :

Melamine

Material :

Bamboo & Connector screws

Scale : NTS

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 183


Designed by : Sushan Kumar Yumkhaibam

Furniture Drawing

Date : June 2018

Product :

Sheet number : 1 of 1

Drawing :

Material Specifications Reception Chair

Finish :

Melamine

Material :

Bamboo

184 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Dimensions : mm

Designed by : Sushan Kumar Yumkhaibam

Furniture Drawing

Scale : NTS

Date : July 2018

Product :

Sheet number : 1 of 1

Drawing :

Material Specifications Visitors Chair

Dimensions : mm

Finish :

Melamine

Material :

Bamboo

Scale : NTS

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 185


Designed by : Sushan Kumar Yumkhaibam

Furniture Drawing

Date : July 2018

Product :

Sheet number : 1 of 2

Drawing :

Material Specifications Conference Table

Finish :

Melamine

Material :

Bamboo

186 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Dimensions : mm

Designed by : Sushan Kumar Yumkhaibam

Furniture Drawing

Scale : NTS

Date : July 2018

Product :

Sheet number : 2 of 2

Drawing :

Material Specifications Conference Table Components of conference table

Dimensions : mm

Finish :

Melamine

Material :

Bamboo

Scale : NTS

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 187


Designed by : Sushan Kumar Yumkhaibam

Furniture Drawing

Date : August 2018

Product :

Sheet number : 1 of 1

Drawing :

Material Specifications Conference Chair

Finish :

Melamine

Material :

Bamboo

188 SUSHAN KUMAR YUMKHAIBAM | B.DES | FURNITURE AND INTERIOR DESIGN | NID2018

Dimensions : mm

Designed by : Sushan Kumar Yumkhaibam

Furniture Drawing

Scale : NTS

Date : August 2018

Product :

Sheet number : 1 of 1

Drawing :

Material Specifications Task Chair

Dimensions : mm

Finish :

Melamine

Material :

Bamboo

Scale : NTS

GRADUATION PROJECT DOCUMENT | BAMBOO FURNITURE OUT OF SOLID BAMBOO 189


Profile for Sushan Yum

Developing Office Furniture out of Solid Bamboo  

The objective of this project was to promote bamboo through a project which includes setting up a bamboo processing facility for bamboo furn...

Developing Office Furniture out of Solid Bamboo  

The objective of this project was to promote bamboo through a project which includes setting up a bamboo processing facility for bamboo furn...

Advertisement

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded

Recommendations could not be loaded