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COA S TAL SAFE T Y BRIE F RIP CURRE NT S S U R F L I FE S AV I N G AU S T R A L I A


R INPAT CU I ORN RA E LN TO V SN E RAVP ISEHWO T 2 0 0 4 -1 9

ANALYSIS On average 21 people drown per year as a result of rip currents in Australia. It’s the highest number of deaths for an individual hazard or activity.

4 57

28 22 AVERAGE DEATHS PER YEAR

21

152

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE

0.09

42 10

PER 100,000 POPULATION

LOCATION 7%

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC MEN AGED

3% 1%

1%

15-39

Australian residents Australian born & Overseas born

88%

MALE

FATALITIES

BEACH

88%

AVERAGE AGE

315 87% 36

Beach Rock/Cliff Bay Jetty Offshore

0.16 0.12

0.11 0.10

0.10

0.10

0.07

32

21

2004-05 2005-06

26

22

2006-07

2007-08

0.10

14

0.10

2008-09 2009-10

14

23

2010-11

2011-12

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR SECTION ALIA

0.09

0.06

0.07

22

0.10

22

22

14

0.08

0.05

26

13

25

20

2016-17

2017-18

2018-19

21

2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16

COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – RIP CURRENTS SECTION NAME COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – RIP CURRENTS


RIP CURRENTS IN AUSTR ALIA

Rip currents are the number one hazard at the Australian coast with more than 17,000 rips in Australia on any given day. A rip current is a narrow seaward flowing current of water moving through the surf zone. Rip currents are a significant contributor to coastal drowning deaths and account for more deaths per year than sharks, floods and cyclones combined1. The Surf Life Saving Australia National Coastal Safety Survey 20192 revealed that there are 9.3 million Australian adults who go swimming and wading at the coast. Furthermore, rips have been the contributing factor in 25% of drowning deaths over the last 15 years (2004–2019). There were 315 rip-current-related drowning deaths between 2004–19 on the Australian coast, which is an average of 21 per year3. Most of these deaths occurred while swimming or wading, predominantly at unpatrolled locations or at patrolled locations outside of patrol hours. Young males aged 15-39 are highly represented in the drowning statistics and are a key target group for rip-current-related interventions. This demographic comprises over one third (39%) of coastal drowning deaths and represent more than half (59%) of rip current related fatalities. The Ipsos Social Research Institute Swimming and Wading Report 2016 highlighted that swimming at the beach is a core part of Australian culture. It is primarily about fun and relaxation. As a result, swimmers typically do not feel that they need safety information and they do not seek it out. Public messages regarding rip safety need to be pushed to swimmers and other coastal participants, and they need to challenge their beliefs regarding beach safety. Surf Life Saving Australia has created a national rip current safety campaign that aims to increase awareness of the rip current hazard and influence risky behaviours, particularly in young men. The campaign was launched in 2016 and over a five-year period will deliver key messages and strategies for beachgoers to identify and avoid rip currents, as well as understand what to do should they get into trouble.

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L O C AT I O N

2004-2019

RIP CURRENT DROWNING DEATHS BY STATE (n=315)

Key to Drowning Activity

Attempting a Rescue Boating and PWC Fall Jump Land-based Fishing Other Rock Fishing

28 (9%)

Scuba Diving Snorkelling Swimming/Wading Unknown Watercraft Multiple instances per activity at the same location

4

Capital city

2 2

PERTH

RIP CURRENT BLACKSPOTS

NSW

VIC

QLD

Byron Shire (19) City of Coffs Harbour (17) Central Coast Council (15) City of Wollongong (12) City of Shoalhaven (12) Ballina Shire (10) Tweed Shire (8) Waverley Council (6) Northern Beaches Council (6)

Bass Coast Shire (7) Surf Coast Shire (7) Mornington Peninsula Shire (6)

City of Gold Coast (27) Sunshine Coast Council (15)

SA City of Victor Harbor (7)

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – RIP CURRENTS


DARWIN 2

4 (1%)

57 (18%)

3

2 5 2 2

22 (7%)

3 3

BRISBANE 3 23

7 16 2 7 2 2 12 3 2

1 2

152 (48%)

3 2 6

2 2 10 3 2

ADELAIDE

6 11 2

2 3

SYDNEY 4 2

CANBERRA

MELBOURNE

10 5

2 3

4 3 4

5

3

42 (13%)

2 6

2 4

0

1,000km

SCAL E

10 HOBART (3%) SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

5

2

COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – RIP CURRENTS


C A U S A L A N A LY S I S 2 0 0 4 –1 9

WHERE

WHEN

88%

68%

69%

AT A BEACH LOCATION

AFTERNOON (12-6PM)

SWIMMERS/WADERS

53%

54%

14%

MORE THAN 1KM FROM A LIFESAVING SERVICE

DECEMBER-FEBRUARY

ATTEMPTING A RESCUE

58%

57%

28%

LIVED MORE THAN 50KM FROM DROWNING LOCATION

OF KNOWN CASES COULD TOUCH THE BOTTOM WHEN THEY GOT CAUGHT IN A RIP

OF KNOWN CASES WERE RESCUED BY A MEMBER OF THE PUBLIC

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WHO

COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – RIP CURRENTS


C A U S A L A N A LY S I S 2 0 0 4 –1 9

WHO

87% MALE

39%

36

20%

AGED 15 - 29

AVERAGE AGE OF DECEASED

AGED 30-39

REGION OF RESIDENCE

RESCUED BY Of known cases

3% 9%

28% 2%

22%

22%

13%

86%

AUSTRALIA

Australia Europe Asia The Americas

86%

Member of the public

ACTIVITY

Lifeguard/ Other Lifesaver service (incl. off-duty) (incl. police)

Unknown

3%

2%

Family/ Friend

Body not recovered

DEPTH AT TIME OF INCIDENT Of known cases

2%

8%

14%

1%

69%

SWIMMING/ WADING

69%

Swimming/Wading Attempting a Rescue Watercraft Rock Fishing Snorkelling Falls & Jumps Scuba Diving Land-based Fishing Boating & PWC Other

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

43% 57% OVERHEAD

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – RIP CURRENTS

COULD TOUCH THE BOTTOM


C A U S A L A N A LY S I S 2 0 0 4 -1 9

AGE Male

49

Female

46

RIP CURRENT DROWNING DEATHS BY AGE (n=315) 20-29 year olds account for 30% of all rip current-related drowning deaths (n=95) and are twice as likely to drown due to rip currents with a mortality rate of 0.20 per 100,000 population, which is more than double the 15-year average (0.09 per 100,000 population).

35 28

27

22

20

19 15

16

11 8

8

0-4

5-9

5

10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74

3

3

75-79 80-84

85+

TIME 40

36

37

33

RIP CURRENT DROWNING DEATHS BY TIME (n=300*)

19 12

14 9

8 5

4

MONTH 55

50 42

Most rip current related drowning deaths occur during the summer months. Shading denotes seasons.

33

18

17 9 4 July

August

7

6

September October November December

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

8

January

February

March

COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – RIP CURRENTS

April

May

June

2

11 - 12am

8 - 9pm

7 - 8pm

6 - 7pm

4 - 5pm

5 - 6pm

3 - 4pm

2 - 3pm

1 - 2pm

0

74

RIP CURRENT DROWNING DEATHS BY MONTH (n=315)

12 - 1pm

10 - 11am

11 - 12pm

9 - 10am

8 - 9am

7 - 8am

6 - 7am

1

10 - 11pm

4

1

5 - 6am

0

4 - 5am

1

3 - 4am

1 - 2am

2

2 - 3am

5 1

9 - 10pm

7

12 - 1am

*Of known times. This is under reporting nighttime deaths. They are usually not recorded until the morning and happen without witnesses. Time would be recorded as 'unknown' and excluded from the analysis. 5% (n=5) of cases happened at unknown times. 68% (n=205) occurred in the afternoon between 12 – 6pm.

30

29


ORIGIN

36%

RIP CURRENT DROWNING DEATHS BY CONTINENT OF BIRTH (n=308) 20-29 year olds account for 30% of all rip current-related drowning deaths (n=95) and are twice as likely to drown due to rip currents with a average rate of 0.20 per 100,000 population, which is more than double the 15-year average (0.09 per 100,000 population).

22%

21% 14%

3% Australia

Oceania

Asia

Europe

5%

The Americas

Africa

DAY 24% 22%

RIP CURRENT DROWNING DEATHS BY DAY (n=314) 46% of drowning deaths occurred on the weekend. Day was unknown for one incident and was exlcuded from analysis.

13%

12%

11%

11% 8%

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

Saturday

Sunday

REMOTENESS 40%

42%

RIP CURRENT DROWNING DEATHS BY REMOTENESS (n=315) 82% of rip related drowning deaths occurred at locations within major cities or inner regional areas.

13% 4% >1% Major Cities

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

Inner Regional

9

Outer Regional

Remote

COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – RIP CURRENTS

Very Remote


P A R T I C I P AT I O N P R O F I L E

9.3 M

14.7 M

2014–2019 USUAL SWIMMING/WADING LOCATION

2019 AUSTRALIAN ADULTS ABILITY TO SWIM & FLOAT UNAIDED IN COASTAL AREAS

COASTAL SWIMMERS/WADERS

6%

AUSTRALIAN ADULTS VISITED THE COAST IN 2018/19

4%

7%

7% 8%

10%

Can swim for over 1 hour and float as long as I wish Can comfortable float, and swim for up to 60 minutes

22%

42%

42%

8%

22%

Patrolled beach during patrol hours only Patrolled beach, but not always during patrolled hours Unpatrolled beach Coastal pools Can't say

PATROLLED BEACH 26%

Comfortable float and swim up to 30 minutes

20%

Can comfortable float, and swim gently for 15 minutes

CANNOT SWIM OR FLOAT

Can comfortable float for 1+ minute, and swim a little Cannot float or swim Can't say

26%

3 IN10

AUSTRALIANS SAY THEY CANNOT SWIM OR FLOAT FOR MORE THAN A FEW MINUTES IN THE OCEAN

2019 REASONS SWIMMERS/WADERS DON’T ALWAYS GO TO A PATROLLED LOCATION DURING PATROL TIMES Can't say Other

1% 2% 18%

There is no patrolled beach close to where I live

21%

I like to visit other beaches that are unpatrolled

23%

I swim outside patrol hours

27%

I am a good/confident swimmer

31%

They are too crowded

32%

I like secluded and quiet beaches

35%

I feel safe where I go swimming

37%

I don't go far in the ocean

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HAZARD PERCEPTION

2014–2019 PERCEPTION OF COASTAL HAZARDS 3%

Can’t say

Not very or not at all hazardous

4%

4%

3% 4%

13%

6%

4%

6%

4% 8%

13%

18% 26%

Extremely or very hazardous

Somewhat hazardous

3%

5%

17% 27%

33%

26%

21%

47%

75% 64%

57%

55%

56%

65%

36%

Rip currents

Tropical marine stingers

Waves

Other marine stinger creatures such as bluebottles

Sharks

Crocodiles

Sun exposure

2015–2019 HAZARD PERCEPTION OF SWIMMING/WADING FREQUENT VS OCCASIONAL PARTICIPANTS

Frequent

Occassional 48%

48% 43%

37%

14% 8%

Extremely or very hazardous

Somewhat hazardous

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

ALMOST HALF OF COASTAL SWIMMERS/ WADERS DON’T BELIEVE IT IS A HAZARDOUS ACTIVITY

Not very or not at all hazardous

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – RIP CURRENTS


SAFET Y AWARE NE SS

2016–2019 HOW LIKELY ARE BEACHGOERS TO RESCUE SOMEONE WHO IS CAUGHT IN A RIP CURRENT?

2014–2019 HOW OFTEN DO SWIMMERS/WADERS LOOK FOR RIP CURRENTS BEFORE ENTERING THE WATER?

7%

2%

11%

42%

20%

45% ALWAYS LOOK FOR RIP CURRENTS

26%

7%

45%

Always Most of the time Sometimes Never Can’t say

42%

19%

VERY UNLIKELY TO RESCUE SOMEONE FROM A RIP CURRENT

22%

Very likely Somewhat likely Somewhat unlikely Very unlikely Can't say

2019 REASONS BEACHGOERS DON’T ALWAYS LOOK FOR THE PRESENCE OF RIP CURRENTS Depends upon the sea/water conditions

1%

I swim where other people swim

2%

I rely on rips signs on the beach

2%

I know the beach well/I know where the rips are Sometimes rips are hard to identify

3% 4%

No rips on my beach/where I go

5%

Calm water there/no surf

5%

I am a good swimmer

5%

Don't care/can't be bothered

5%

Other

6% 9%

I don't go far in the ocean

16%

Lazy/don't pay attention/forget

18%

I swim between the flags

27%

Don't know what to look for/can’t identify a rip

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R I P I D E N T I F I C AT I O N

2014-2019 CONFIDENCE OF MALE AND FEMALE BEACHGOERS IN IDENTIFYING RIP CURRENTS Male Female

35%

33%

31% 26%

26% 21%

13% 6%

Very confident

5%

Somewhat confident

Not very confident

Not at all confident

2019 RIP IDENTIFICATION OF BEACHGOERS THAT SAY THEY ARE CONFIDENT

5%

33% OF FEMALES AND 21% OF MALES ARE NOT VERY CONFIDENT OR NOT AT ALL CONFIDENT IN IDENTIFYING RIP CURRENTS

Can't say

2016–2019 AUSTRALIAN ADULTS WHO HAVE BEEN CAUGHT IN A RIP CURRENT

Males

21% 28%

44%

CONFIDENT MALES COULD CORRECTLY IDENTIFY BOTH RIPS 35%

22%

Females

39%

22%

44%

ADULTS HAVE BEEN CAUGHT IN A RIP 78%

33% Correct One correct Incorrect

Yes No

Survey participants were asked to identify a rip in two different images. Of the people who said they were very or somewhat confident in identifying rips, 44% of males and 39% of females could correctly identifying the rip in both images. One-third of both males (35%) and females (33%) could identify the rip in one of the images. More of the confident females (28%) were incorrect both times, compared to males (21%).

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B E H AVI OU R A L FR A M E WO RK FOR KEY AUDIENCES Desired Behaviour Change 1. Swim between the red and yellow flags

CORE BEHAVIOUR

2. Learn how to identify rip currents

KEY SOURCES OF BEHAVIOUR 4

CAPABILITY (Knowledge and skills) Psychological

• Confidence in their swimming ability, based on: - previous ‘education’ (including informal guidance from parents) - a lifetime of experience in the water (despite varied levels) - surfing experience and ability - feel safe within the flags, or even just near them, if the lifeguards or lifesavers can see them, or if they are still standing or not going too far out • Many lack clarity regarding rip identification and different escape options (especially without assistance) • Some (e.g. recent migrants) lack detailed understanding of the risks of swimming in the ocean, especially what rips really are and how they work, and the importance of swimming between the flags

Physical

2/3 of swimmers don’t always swim/wade at patrolled locations, during patrolled hours

MOTIVATION (Brain processes that energise and direct behaviour) Reflective

Automatic

OPPORTUNITY (Factors outside the individual) Physical

Social

4. Learn how to escape a rip current

FACTORS

56% don’t always look for the presence of rips

1 in 5 Australians have been caught in a rip current unintentionally

3. Always check for the presence of rip currents

• Swimming competence affects level of caution taken and perceived risk • Limited actual experience, and (where tested recently) varied ability, in escaping a rip or treading water in difficult conditions • Desire to relax and have fun makes it harder for ‘safety’ messaging to appeal to or cut through to the target audience • Many assume they are safe enough if others are swimming nearby • Some prefer non-flag areas or unpatrolled beaches for a number of reasons, including: convenience, space and quiet • Behaviour is limited by certain attitudes (e.g. I am experienced, I am already aware of the rules/recommendations, and I can judge a safe spot)

• Safety-related behaviour is somewhat habitual, subconscious • Some (e.g. migrants) haven’t really thought about safety

• Some live or park further away from the flags • Some live further away from patrolled beaches

• There is a strong norm to swim between the flags, for most (although not for some more experienced surfers/swimmers) • Some follow their more experienced friends (e.g. in deciding whether it’s safe enough to go in, or when they swim further out) • Friends aren’t necessarily trusted or seen as experts on rips or ocean survival • Lifeguards/lifesavers are an important source of advice, in situ

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K E Y TA R G E T S

Target Segmentation • Males 15-39 years • Australian and overseas born

WHO ARE THEY?

BEHAVIOUR

HOW DO WE TALK WITH THEM?4

The least confident or least experienced swimmers (including recent migrants)

This group tends to be reasonably cautious, once or if they are aware of the risks

Early awareness is critical among this group. They are relatively easily targeted as they are open to new information

Everyone in the middle

This group think they know enough and are doing enough, but this is not necessarily the case

Communications need to challenge this belief and show swimmers that they are not doing enough to be safe. If it is made clear enough to this group that they lack particular knowledge, they seem to listen

The most confident or experienced swimmers (including surfers)

This group takes more risks and is harder to convince to stay between the flags, as they think they are experienced enough not to need to. They are (or believe they are) better able to identify rips and (if caught) to escape

There is a need to challenge this group’s belief that they are knowledgeable and experienced enough by showing them situations where their knowledge is either lacking or inaccurate

ONCE YOU ARE EXPERIENCED ENOUGH, YOU KNOW HOW TO GET OUT.

I KNOW THERE IS DANGER, BUT I DON’T REALLY THINK ABOUT IT.

IF IT LOOKS CALM, I’LL BE HAPPIER TO STAY AWAY FROM THE FLAGS.

Born overseas, male, 18–24 years old

Born overseas, male, 18–24 years old

Born in Australia, male, 25–34 years old

I AM MORE WORRIED ABOUT BEING BITTEN THAN DROWNING. IN A LARGE SWELL I KNOW I CAN SWIM OUT, BUT I CAN’T FIGHT OFF A SHARK. Born overseas, male, 18–24 years old

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C O M M U N I C AT I O N S

Surf Life Saving Australia implemented a five-year coastal safety campaign addressing rip current drowning which kicked off in 2016. The diagram to the right shows the five year national rip current awareness campaign.

2016-2020 SLSA COMMUNICATIONS STRATEGY: NATIONAL RIP CURRENT CAMPAIGN

The first two years of the campaign focussed on busting some of the common misconceptions about rips, with the aim to create better awareness about rips. ‘The Facts About Rips Campaign’ challenged swimmer beliefs when it comes to their understanding of rips, their ability to identify a rip, their knowledge of what to do if caught in a rip and ultimately providing guidance on how to swim safe at the beach.

YEAR 1

Key facts include: • Rips are the #1 swimming hazard on Australia’s beaches, with an average of 21 people drowning per year as a result • 2 out of 3 people who said they could spot a rip, could not • Only 12% swimmers are very confident they could escape a rip without assistance • 73% of people who drowned in a rip current could stand or touch the bottom when they were caught in the current • Some people continue to swim outside the flags for a variety of reasons (unpatrolled beach, outside patrol hours, etc) • Over 4.2M Australians report they have been unintentionally caught in a rip current

YEAR 2

• State the facts about rips. • Challenge people’s perceptions of rips. • Challenge people’s rip identification knowledge. • Convey the message people don’t know what they think they know. • Sow the seeds of doubt.

AWA R E N E S S

YEAR 4

YEAR 3

YEAR 5

• Take awareness and changed perception to give clear directive of new behaviour that’s catchy and memorable. • Encourage consideration of beach conditions and rip current identification. • Stop. Look. Make a safe plan. • Continue messaging around swimming at patrolled beaches and between the red and yellow flags. • Harder hitting message to impact on behaviour change.

B E H AV I O U R C H A N G E

Successful outcomes of the first two years included an increased ability for people to correctly identify a rip, decreased over confidence of rip identification, as well as an increased awareness that coastal swimming can be hazardous. Based on the outcomes of this first phase, the second phase of the campaign was developed. Phase 2 aims to influence the behaviours of swimmers going to the beach and maintain awareness from Phase 1.

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – RIP CURRENTS


Phase 2, ‘The Think Line Campaign’ introduced the concept of a line in the sand where swimmers stop to check for rips before entering the water. Phase 2, years three to five, aims to influence the behaviours of beachgoers by urging them to always check for rips before entering the water. This phase of the campaign will continue to target young men as well as the wider community. The concept is applicable to other safety messages by encouraging coastal visitors to STOP. LOOK. PLAN:

Draw the line on Rips.

Stop. to check for rips Look. for other dangers Plan. how to stay safe Swim between the flags. If there’s no flags, only enter the water if you can do so safely, considering things like: • not swimming alone • knowing what to do if caught in a rip • observing safety signs • checking conditions Learn more about rips and other beach safety tips at www.beachsafe.org.au

#dontrisktherip

Stop. Look. Plan. Thousands of people are caught in rips every year, and too many of them drown. Before you cross the line, STOP to check for rips. LOOK for other dangers. PLAN how to stay safe.

Draw the line at beachsafe.org.au

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – RIP CURRENTS


REFERENCES

Surf Life Saving Australia National Coastal Safety Report 2019 The Surf Life Saving Australia National Coastal Safety Report (NCSR) is published annually and contains information on Australian community behaviours and attitudes to the coast; SLS capability and membership capacity; rescues and emergency response; and coastal drowning deaths. The 2019 NCSR represents the statistics from the period of 1 July 2018 to 30 June 2019. Trend analyses from 2004-19 are also included. All care is taken to ensure the statistical information included within this report is correct. However, pending the outcome of ongoing coronial investigations and as SLS state/territory entities update their operational information, this data may be amended. Surf Life Saving Australia National Coastal Safety Surveys The annual Surf Life Saving Australia National Coastal Safety Surveys collect Information about community swimming ability, behaviours and attitudes to coastal safety. The survey is conducted by Newspoll Market Research and Omnipoll and is run online over a four-day period each April among a national sample of approximately 1,400 respondents aged 16 to 69. The study is carried out in compliance with ISO 20252 - Market, Social and Opinion Research. To reflect the population distribution, results were post-weighted (on age, gender, geographic strata and education) and projected to Australian Bureau of Statistics data. Ipsos Social Research Institute Swimming and Wading Report 2016 The Ipsos Social Research Institute Swimming and Wading Report 2016 was a result of research comprised of two distinct methodological phases: a qualitative research component, followed by a quantitative research component. Both phases covered similar topic areas:

swimming attitudes and behaviours, risk perceptions and strategies, rip current identification and safety, information needs and sources, and interventions. The qualitative research also explored reactions to specific campaign concepts, and the qualitative findings helped to shape the subsequent questionnaire used in the quantitative component. The quantitative research phase was carried out from 6-27 November 2015. This component comprised an online survey of n=1,094 swimmers and waders, followed by comprehensive analysis of the data. Given the geographic spread of the Australian coastline, Ipsos SRI used a representative sample of Australian swimmers and waders, involving the application of non-interlocking quotas according to the following demographic characteristics: gender, age, state, and area. Weighting was then applied to the sample to ensure the representativeness of the data was maintained.

Page References

Data illustrated in figures may not always add up to 100% due to rounding.

Every attempt has been made to trace and acknowledge copyright, but in some cases this may not have been possible. Surf Life Saving Australia apologises for any accidental infringements and would welcome any information to redress the situation.

References R. Brander, D. Dominey-Howes, C. Champion, O. Del Vecchio, and B. Brighton (2013): “Brief Communication: A new perspective on the Australian rip current hazard” Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 13, 1687–1690, 2013. Ipsos Social Research Institute (2016) Swimming and Wading Report 2016. Ipsos: Sydney

1.

Reference: R. Brander et al. 2013

2.

SLSA National Coastal Safety Survey 2019

3. 4.

SLSA National Coastal Safety Report 2019

Ipsos Social Research Institute Swimming and Wading Report 2016

Data correct at 7 August 2019. Changes may occur at a later date. © 2019 Surf Life Saving Australia This publication is copyright. Except as expressly provided in the Copyright Act 1968 and the Copyright Amendment Act 2006, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval systems or transmitted by any means (including electronic, mechanical, microcopying, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without prior permission from Surf Life Saving Australia. For enquiries concerning reproduction, contact SLSA on: phone 02 9215 8000; email: info@slsa.asn.au

Acknowledgements Surf Life Saving Australia wishes to thank Frederic Anne (Omnipoll) for his contribution to this report.

Surf Life Saving Australia (2019) National Coastal Safety Report 2019. SLSA: Sydney. Surf Life Saving Australia National Coastal Safety Survey (2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019). Newspoll/Omnipoll Online Omnibus April 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019.

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Suggested Citation Cooney, N., Lawes, J., Daw, S. (2019) Coastal Safety Brief: Rip Currents. Surf Life Saving Australia: Sydney.

COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – RIP CURRENTS

Profile for SLSA

Coastal Safety Brief - Rip Currents 2019  

Coastal Safety Brief - Rip Currents 2019