Sebastiao Salgado

Page 1


galler y m i s s i o n Established in 2000, Sundaram Tagore Gallery is devoted to examining the exchange of ideas between Western and non-Western cultures. We focus on developing exhibitions and hosting not-for-profit events that encourage spiritual, social and aesthetic dialogues. In a world where communication is instant and cultures are colliding and melding as never before, our goal is to provide venues for art that transcend boundaries of all sorts. With alliances across the globe, our interest in cross-cultural exchange extends beyond the visual arts into many other disciplines, including poetry, literature, performance art, film and music.




ebastião Salgado is among the most famous documentary photographers in the world, known for combining fine compositions with very long and complex projects on the pressing problems of the age, including famine, labor, migration, and the fate of the environment. At the same time, his work has been subject to frequent criticism for its conservative aesthetic values, and for its beautification of poverty and oppression. In the West, this critique has been caused by the striking lack of fit between Salgado’s work and intellectual conventions: Surely humanist documentary was long dead, so how could such an accomplished example of it continue to flourish? And surely the scenes of vast pre-industrial labor and of naked exploitation and oppression should long have been banished from the perfectible neoliberal world. Postmodern critics looking at Salgado’s work were faced with a conundrum; they were forced either into ad hominem attacks on the macho, Leica-wielding photojournalist, or into admitting their conflict—David Brittain of Creative Camera commented on his disturbance in the face of this “terribly competent” artist, and this terror is a natural result of being confronted with such a flagrant counter-example to one’s beliefs.1 While the latter discomfort now carries less weight than it did, in the light of the worldwide financial crisis, and particularly from places such as India where neoliberal politics, economic development, and the intensification of oppression plainly go hand in hand, the issue of beauty is a trickier one. Salgado produces traditionally beautiful pictures out of hard labor, squalor, pain, and even death, and immediately the question is: Why?

What does it mean to make of the suffering of his subjects a form of art? A first response to this question is to ask what the alternatives would be. It is hardly conceivable that they could be depicted with the distanced, anaesthetic mode of much contemporary photography, suited to portraying suburban ennui. Should one show such events using an anti-aesthetic form of photography, one which strove to be as ugly as oppression itself? Salgado’s works show an expenditure of time and skill which may be taken as a homage, especially when compared with the speedy gathering of horrific images by the newspaper photographers. We also need to be specific about the style of the pictures. Salgado’s work owes a good deal to W. Eugene Smith—both formally in its luminous monochrome tones, and in subject matter, especially in the grace of the people represented and their tenderness with each other. In their strong formal design, Salgado’s pictures revive photographic modernism with its emphasis on geometry and visual contrast. Beauty is pressed into the service of an old-fashioned humanism: It is as if Diane Arbus, Robert Frank, and the photography of alienation, along with all subsequent developments, had been wished away. For Salgado, beauty elicits sympathy: “I wanted to respect the people as much as I could, to work to get the best composition and the most beautiful light ... If you can show a situation this way—get the beauty and nobility along with the despair—then you can show someone in America or France that these people are not different. I wanted Americans to look at the pictures of these people and see themselves.” 2

Left: Dinka Group at Pagarau Cattle Camp, 2006, gelatin silver print, 24 x 35 inches


Further, thinks Salgado, beauty is not simply produced by the camera or the photographer, for there is something inherently aesthetic about the people themselves. This aesthetic quality is linked to poverty which, in removing its sufferers from consumer culture, also takes them beyond reach of commercial vulgarity. Of his Latin American subjects, Salgado wrote: “dignity and poverty ride on the same horse. The struggle for survival is very difficult, and man, a hard beast, faces it from birth till death, always with signs of resolution—fighting the barrenness of the land, the long droughts, and the still-feudal agrarian structure.” 3 And of the subjects of Sahel themselves: “Sometimes we from the Southern hemisphere wonder why you in the North think you have the monopoly of beauty, of dignity, of riches. Ethiopia is a country in crisis, where the people are suffering so acutely, yet Ethiopians are probably among the most beautiful, most noble people in the world. There is really no point in going there to deny this reality.” 4 Modernism is used to imply that behind the image of dignified poverty lies that of the ugly and bloated West, with its indulgent cultural pluralism acting in symbiosis with consumer society. Martin Parr’s brash color photographs of food, eating, and shopping, of the fine distinctions of snobbery traced out in goods graded by price, and of the uncertain navigation of over-sized consumers around minor obstacles, are as different from Salgado’s work as documentary pictures can be, but even so the two bodies of work are negative images of one another; what is registered in one being printed in complementary tones in the other. 5 High modernist style, once used to glorify leviathan industry and occasionally its workers, is here turned to elegy. The relation to modernist photography is signaled in the style and subject matter of the pictures in Salgado’s epic project, Workers, which are often reminiscent of the work of Margaret Bourke-White. Here are the same masked workers, and fragile 6

figures pressed up against gigantic machinery; here are images of a modern, heroic industry—sometimes angular and bathed in the clean light of rationality, sometimes tenebrous or swathed in smoke, the location of mysterious forces—all recast by Salgado in a period of decline. So in the Serra Pelada pictures, there are echoes of Max Alpert’s 1939 series, Construction Site of the Fergana Grand Canal (the depiction of a huge project employing many thousands of laborers) but there is no great construction in the making here, merely a scrambling in the mud for gold. The charge against Salgado’s work of an excess of beauty, however, is a strong one, particularly when allied to such subjects. In part, the charge assumes that the subjects are themselves artless, that they never act upon their representations, being innocent of the billions of images that are directed at them, or which they consume incidentally, from billboards and TV sets. Some pictures by Salgado directly refute this, comparing his subjects directly with pictures in their environments. Besides, in the world of satellite TV and the phone camera, there are fewer and fewer places that remain untouched by consumer image culture. David Levi Strauss has written of the pictures that Salgado took during the famine in the Sahel: “The difficult questions that arise from such representations—the aestheticization of suffering and the concomitant objectification of the other—do not disappear when we look at these pictures. They are, in fact, intensified, clarified, and made more insistent.” 6 It is obvious that this problem is made a theme of Salgado’s work, but it is not enough to leave the issue there. While the Nazis conducted their slaughter across Europe, in exile Theodor Adorno wrote darkly of the prospects for art: “there is no longer beauty or consolation except in the gaze falling on horror, withstanding it, and in unalleviated consciousness of negativity holding fast to the possibility of what is better.” 7 While in straight reportage,

suffering is represented as an ineluctable aspect of the world of brute fact which must simply be accepted, in Salgado’s work there is something about its highly formal, resolved, even excessive beauty which, finally, suits its extreme subject matter, for, while it threatens to tip over into sentimentality or mannerism, neither is quite possible given the scale of the suffering with which he is dealing. The old-fashioned formal qualities, especially the stress on the resolution of detail, even—perhaps especially—in the shadows, is married to Salgado’s faith in the significance of his subjects, something which some contemporary photojournalists and certainly artists have lost. This “retro” style, which seems excessive only in a climate of cynicism, matches an equally “retro” ideology. Salgado has said that, “You photograph with all of your ideology”—and this ideology is Marxist. 8 The specters of faith in the subject, high-art beauty, and Marxism are found haunting this work together, and they are bound together by the memorial aspect to Salgado’s work, obviously much suited to the fixity of photography. The process fixed in this photography is generally one of expiry, not of becoming. This most definitely separates it from the high modernist work from which Salgado borrows so many of his means. Yet the style is highly appropriate: It is less a simple revival of modernist forms than their deliberate use as a retrospective mode which has come to invoke the twilight of the industrial age. It is also a bringing of current realities up against the aesthetic norms and ideals of a yesterday which had promised a better tomorrow—it is a reminder of broken promises.

See Richard Ehrlich, “Sebastião Salgado. The Case of the Lone Leica,” Creative Camera, June-July 1990, p. 27. 2 Sebastião Salgado, “The Sight of Despair,” American Photo, Vol. 1, No. 1 (1990), p. 39. 3 Sebastião Salgado, Other Americas, New York 1986, p. 12. 4 Sebastião Salgado cited in Amanda Hopkinson, “Sebastião Salgado,” in Martin Marix Evans, ed., Contemporary Photographers, New York 1995, p. 992. 5 See for example Martin Parr, The Cost of Living, Manchester 1989; Signs of the Times: A Portrait of the Nation’s Tastes, Manchester 1992; Martin Parr and Nicholas Barker, From A to B. Tales of Modern Motoring, London 1994. 6 David Levi Strauss, “The Epiphany of the Other: Sebastião Salgado,” Artforum, February 1991, p. 98. 7 Theodor Adorno, Minima Moralia. Reflections from Damaged Life, trans. E.F.N. Jephcott, Verso, London 1974, p. 25. 8 Cited in Fred Ritchin “The Lyric Documentarian,” in Sebastião Salgado, An Uncertain Grace, New York 1990, p. 147. 1

Julian Stallabrass is a writer, curator, photographer, and lecturer. He is professor in art history at the Courtauld Institute of Art, and is the author of Art Incorporated, Oxford University Press 2004; Internet Art: The Online Clash Between Culture and Commerce, Tate Publishing, London 2003; Paris Pictured, Royal Academy of Arts, London 2002; High Art Lite: British Art in the 1990s, Verso, London 1999; and Gargantua: Manufactured Mass Culture, Verso, London 1996. He has written art criticism regularly for publications including Tate, Art Monthly, and the New Statesman. He is an editorial board member of Art History, New Left Review, and Third Text. He curated the 2008 Brighton Photo Biennial, “Memory of Fire: Images of War and the War of Images.”


Iceberg Between Paulet Islands and the Shetland Islands, Antarctica, 2005, gelatin silver print, 24 x 35 inches



Children’s Ward in the Korem Refugee Camp, 1984, gelatin silver print, 20 x 24 inches

Mentawai Man, Siberut Island, Indonesia, 2008, gelatin silver print, 20 x 24 inches


Indians Fishing, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 2005, gelatin silver print, 24 x 35 inches



Mountain Zebra, 2005, gelatin silver print, 20 x 24 inches

Marine Iguana, Rabida Island, the Galรกpagos, 2004, gelatin silver print, 20 x 24 inches



Chinstrap Penguins, Deception Island, Antarctica, 2005, gelatin silver print, 35 x 24 inches

Dinka Man at the Cattle Camp of Kei, 2006, gelatin silver print, 24 x 20 inches


Kafue National Park, Zambia, 2010, gelatin silver print, 24 x 35 inches



This Used to Be the Large Lake Faguibine, 1985, gelatin silver print, 20 x 24 inches

The Population of the Cattle Camp of Keny Walk Towards the Polio Vaccinators, 2001, gelatin silver print, 20 x 24 inches



Boys Fleeing from Southern Sudan, 1993, gelatin silver print, 20 x 24 inches

Blinded by Sandstorms and Chronic Eye Infections, This Woman Is Waiting for Food, 1985, gelatin silver print, 24 x 20 inches


Arizona, USA, 2010, gelatin silver print, 24 x 35 inches



Woman’s Head with Flowers in Her Hair, India, 2003, gelatin silver print, 20 x 24 inches

Villagers in Exodus Between Tokar and Karora, 1985, gelatin silver print, 20 x 24 inches



Rwandan Refugee Camp at Benako, Early in the Morning, 1994, gelatin silver print, 20 x 24 inches

Boat People, Beach of Vung Tau, Vietnam, 1995, gelatin silver print, 24 x 35 inches


Bushman, Botswana, Africa, 2008, gelatin silver print, 24 x 35 inches


Group Portrait of all the Kamayura Shamans, 2005, gelatin silver print, 20 x 24 inches



Amazon Forest, State of Amazonas, Brazil, 2009, gelatin silver print, 20 x 24 inches

Arizona, USA, 2010, gelatin silver print, 20 x 24 inches


The Gold Mine, Serra Pelada, Brazil, 1986, gelatin silver print, 35 x 24 inches



Zo’e Group, State of Para, Brazil, 2009, gelatin silver print, 20 x 24 inches

Mentawai Girls, Siberut Island, Indonesia, 2008, gelatin silver print, 20 x 24 inches


Kafue National Park, Zambia, 2010, gelatin silver print, 35 x 24 inches


Church Gate Station, Western Railroad Line, Bombay, India, 1995, gelatin silver print, 50 x 68 inches



Worker Resting, Covered in Oil, Oil Wells, Kuwait, 1991, gelatin silver print, 20 x 24 inches

Workers Place a New Wellhead, Oil Wells, Kuwait, 1991, gelatin silver print, 20 x 24 inches


Sahara, Algeria, 2009, gelatin silver print, 50 x 68 inches


CURRICULUM VITAE Born in Aimorés, in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, 1944






Africa, Aram Art Gallery, Goyang, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea Africa, Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Art, Tokyo, Japan Aqua Mater, Maison du Brésil, Cité Universitaire, Paris, France Workers, Centre de Ressources Photographie, Lure, France Then and Now, The David Brower Center, Berkeley, California, USA Africa, Caja Canarias, Canarias, Spain Aqua Mater, Festival International de la Photographie de Mer, Vannes, France Migrations (The Children), Festival Etonnants Voyageurs, Saint Malo, France Migrations (The Children), Médiathèque Théodore Monod, Betton, France Other Americas, Cultural Center, Brazilian Embassy, Buenos Aires, Argentina Workers, Théâtre Forum Meyrin, Meyrin, Switzerland Workers, Austin Museum of Art, Austin, Texas, USA Africa, Sala del BBVA, PhotoEspana, Madrid, Spain Africa, Caixa Galicia, Santiago de Compostela, Spain Africa, Caja Sur, Cordoba, Spain Genesis, Festival Photo Nature et Paysage, La Gacilly, France Genesis, L’Oeil en Seyne, Villa Tamaris Centre d’Art, La Seyne-sur-Mer, France Migrations, San Leucio, Caserta, Italy Other Americas, The Royal Library, Copenhagen, Denmark Workers, The Royal Library, Copenhagen, Denmark Genesis, Parque Pedra da Cebola, Victoria, Espirito Santo, Brazil Genesis, Museu de Artes e Oficios, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil Genesis, Parque San Francisco, Oviedo, Spain





Workers, Zourab Tsereteli Gallery, Fine Art Academy, Moscow, Russia Workers, Fundacion Caja Vital, Vitoria, Spain Migrations, Triskel Arts Centre, Cork, Ireland Migrations, Center for Documentary Arts, The Leonardo Art, Culture and Science Center, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA Migrations, (The Children), Westlicht, Showplace for Photography, Vienna, Austria Workers, The de Menil Gallery, Groton School, Groton, Massachusetts, USA Workers, on a train touring throughout the country, Czech Republic Migrations, Ludwig Museum, Budapest, Hungary Migrations, Ackland Art Museum, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA Migrations, South Texas Institute for the Arts, Corpus Christi, Texas, USA Migrations, Fotomuseo, Bogotá, Colombia Terra, The Pharos Trust, Fotodos Gallery, Nicosia, Cyprus Migrations, Portland Museum of Art / Maine College of Art, Portland, Maine, USA Migrations, Barbican Gallery, London, England, United Kingdom Migrations, Fukuoka Asian Art Museum, Fukuoka, Japan Migrations, Chicago Cultural Center/Harold Washington Library Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA Migrations, (The Children), Aberystwyth Arts Centre, Aberystwyth, Wales, United Kingdom Migrations, (The Children), Bundeskunsthalle, Bonn, Germany Other Americas, Pingyao International Photography Festival, Pingyao, China Terra, The Utah Museum of Fine Arts, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA Migrations, Kornhaus, Bern, Switzerland Migrations, Berkeley Art Museum, Berkeley, California, USA Migrations, Alicante, Valencia, Murcia, Spain



Migrations, Norsk Industriarbeider Museum, Rjukan, Norway Migrations, The Bunkamura Museum of Art, Tokyo, Japan Other Americas, De Beyerd, Centre for Contemporary Art, Breda, The Netherlands Migrations, Helsinki City Art Museum, Helsinki, Finland Migrations, Espaço Cultural Contemporâneo Venâncio - ECCO, Brasilia, Brazil Migrations, The New Art Gallery Walsall, Walsall, England, United Kingdom Migrations, La Pedrera, Barcelona, Spain Migrations, Sa Nostra, Palma de Mallorca, Spain Migrations, Le Botanique, Brussells, Belgium Migrations, International Center of Photography, New York, New York, USA Migrations, City Art Centre, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom Migrations, Ponte Alto, Modena, Italy Migrations, Manes Gallery, Prague, Czech Republic Migrations, The Marion Center for Photographic Arts/The Museum of Fine Arts/The Children’s Museum, Santa Fé, New Mexico, USA Migrations, Deutsches Historisches Museum, Berlin, Germany Terra, The University of Nottingham, Nottingham, England, United Kingdom Workers, Ghetto Degli Ebrei, Cagliari, Sardegna, Italy Workers, Associaçao Cultural Musica XXI, Faro, Portugal Workers, Palazzo Cisterna, Biella, Italy An Uncertain Grace, 4th Festival Chroniques Nomades, Les Greniers à Sel, Honfleur, France An Uncertain Grace, Expo Feria Diseño Independiente, Valencia, Spain Migrations, Georges Eastman House, Rochester, New York, USA Migrations, Maison Européenne de la Photographie, Paris, France Migrations, Sesc Pompéia, São Paulo, Brazil Migrations, Parque das Nações, Pavilhão de Portugal, Lisbon, Portugal Migrations, Planetário-Museu do Universo and Instituto Moreira Salles, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Migrations, Scuderie Papali al Quirinale, Roma, Italy Migrations, Usina do Gasômetro, Porto Alegre, Brazil Migrations, Circulo de Bellas Artes, Madrid, Spain Migrations, (The Children), United Nations Hall, New York, New York, USA Migrations, Hôtel de la Région, Marseille, France





Migrations, Arengario and Istituto Martinitt, Milan, Italy Migrations, Fundación Proa, Buenos Aires, Argentina Terra, Festival Son Latino, Tenerife, Spain Workers, Contemporary Art Center Zamek Ujazdowski, Warsaw, Poland Workers, Norsk Industriarbeider Museum, Rjukan, Norway Workers, Festival Schichtwechsel 2000, Saarbruck, Germany An Uncertain Grace, Expo Feria Diseño Independiente, Madrid, Spain An Uncertain Grace, Casa de las Ciencias, La Coruña, Spain Other Americas, Centro Insular de Cultura, Las Palmas, Canary Island, Spain Other Americas, Bayerische Staatsoper, Munich, Germany Workers, The Old Kornhaus, Berne, Switzerland Workers, Stadtische Gallery, Iserlohn, Germany An Uncertain Grace, Ayuntamiento de Valladolid, Spain Other Americas, Art Gallery, Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC, USA Other Americas, Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington, DC, USA Serra Pelada, Archivo Historico y Museo de Mineria, Pachuca, Mexico Workers, Andorran National Commission for Unesco, Principality of Andorra Workers, Museo de Arte Moderno, Mexico City, Mexico An Uncertain Grace, Victor Barsokevitsch Photographic Centre, Kuopio, Finland Serra Pelada, Groupe d’Animation Photographique, Cholet, France Sahel: l’Homme en Détresse, Biennale de Cétinié, Montenegro, Yugoslavia Terra, Festival Atlantida des Cultures Lusophones, Galerie de la Seita, Paris, France Workers, Elvehjem Museum of Art, Madison, Wisconsin, USA Workers, Museo de Bellas Artes, Caracas, Venezuela Workers, Museo de Arte Moderno Jésus Soto, Bolivar, Venezuela Workers, Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego, San Diego, California, USA Workers, Grand-Hornu Images, Hornu, Belgium Workers, Museu de Arte da Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Workers, Instituto Cultural Brasileiro, Berlin, Germany An Uncertain Grace, Städtisches Museum, City of Schleswig, Germany Other Americas, Hessenhuis, City of Antwerp, Belgium Retrospective, L’Espace Photographique de Paris, France





Serra Pelada, Palm Beach Photographic Museum, Florida, USA Serra Pelada, Musée de la Photographie, Charleroi, Belgium Serra Pelada, Cleveland Center for Contemporary Art, Cleveland, Ohio, USA Workers, Palmer Museum of Art, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA Workers, Museo dell’automobile, Movimento Sviluppo e Pace, Turin, Italy Workers, Chiostri S. Domenico, Imola, Italy Workers, Honolulu Academy of Arts, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA Workers, Deichtorhallen, Hamburg, Germany Workers, Hall Victor Hugo, Limpersberg, Luxemburg Workers, Joslyn Art Museum, Omaha, Nebraska, USA Other Americas, Montpellier Photo Visions, France Serra Pelada, Palais des Congrès, Saint Jean des Monts, France Serra Pelada, Le Latina, Paris, France Workers, Kulturhuset, Stockholm, Sweden Workers, International Center of Photography, New York, New York, USA Workers, The Royal Photographic Society, Bath, England, United Kingdom Workers, Onomichi Municipal Museum of Art, Hiroshima, Japan Workers, The Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia Workers, Basilica Palladiana, Vicenza, Italy Workers, Palais de Beiteddine, Le Chouf, Lebanon Workers, The John & Mable Ringling Museum of Art, Sarasota, Florida, USA Workers, George Eastman House, Rochester, New York, USA Retrospective, McLellan Galleries, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom Serra Pelada, Galerie Debret, Paris, France Workers, Fundacion Cultural, CAM, Alicante, Spain Workers, Palazzo delle Esposicioni, Roma, Italy Workers, The University of Iowa Museum of Art, Iowa City, Iowa, USA Workers, Musée de l’Elysée, Lausanne, Switzerland Workers, Museu de Arte Moderna, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Workers, Museu de Arte de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Workers, Museu Metropolitano de Arte de Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil Workers, The Bunkamura Museum of Art, Tokyo, Japan Workers, Arbejdermuseet, Copenhagen, Denmark Workers, Nederlands Foto Instituut, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Workers, Dallas Museum of Art, Dallas, Texas, USA Workers, Bibliothèque Méjanes, Aix-en-Provence, France





Workers, High Museum of Art, Art and Photography Galleries, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Workers, Palazzo Affari ai Giureconsulti, Milan, Italy Workers, The National Museum of Photography, Film and Television, Bradford, England, United Kingdom Other Americas, Gran Teatro de Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain Retrospective, National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo, Japan Workers, Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA Workers, Palais de Tokyo, Paris, France Workers, Centro Cultural de Bélem, Lisbon, Portugal Workers, Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid, Spain Workers, The Speed Art Museum, Louisville, Kentucky, USA Workers, National Gallery Slovakia, Bratislava, Slovakia Workers, Royal Festival Hall, London, England, United Kingdom An Uncertain Grace, Corcoran Gallery, Washington, D.C., USA An Uncertain Grace, Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA Other Americas, Musée Municipal, Dudelange, Luxembourg Other Americas, Pazo de Fonseca, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain Other Americas, Galeria 2000, Cordoba, Spain Retrospective, Ffotogallery, Cardiff, England, United Kingdom Retrospective, Glasgow Arts Centre, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom Workers, Römisch-Germanisches Museum, Cologne, Germany An Uncertain Grace, Wight Art Gallery, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA An Uncertain Grace, International Center of Photography, New York, New York, USA An Uncertain Grace, Museum of Photographic Arts, San Diego, California, USA Other Americas, Museum Für Photografie, Baunschweig, Germany Other Americas, Festival de Rouen, France Other Americas, Rencontres Internationales d’Arles, France Retrospective, Royal Albert Memorial Museum, Exeter, England, United Kingdom An Uncertain Grace, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, San Francisco, California, USA Retrospective, Künsthalle, Dusseldorf, West Germany



1987 1986

1984 1983 1982 1978 1977

Retrospective, Photographer’s Gallery, London, England, United Kingdom Retrospective, Stills Gallery, Edinburg, Scotland , United Kingdom Other Americas, Palace of Youth, Shanghai, China Retrospective, Hasselblad Center, Göteborg, Sweden Retrospective, Bienal de Cuba, La Habana, Cuba Sahel: l’Homme en Détresse, National Gallery of Art, Beijing, China Other Americas, Tornio Arts Museum, Oulu, Finland Other Americas, Museum Mishkan Le’Omanut, Israel Other Americas, Museum Voor Land in Volkenkunde, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Other Americas, Fundação Nacional da Arte, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Sahel: l’Homme en Détresse, Museu de Arte de São Paulo, Brazil Other Americas, Musée de l’Elysée, Lausanne, Switzerland Sahel: l’Homme en Détresse, Musée de l’Elysée, Lausanne, Switzerland Other Americas, Museo de Arte Contemporaneo de Madrid, Spain Other Americas, Maison de l’Amérique Latine, Paris, France Sahel: l’Homme en Détresse, Canon Photo Gallery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Sahel: l’Homme en Détresse, Palais de Tokyo, Paris, France Sahel: l’Homme en Détresse, Festival International d’Arles, France Vidas Sêcas, Magnum Galerie, Paris, France Other Americas, Fotogaleria Fotoptica, São Paulo, Brazil Other Americas, Galeria de Fotografia da Funarte, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Les 4000 Logements de la Courneuve, Centre Culturel “Jean-Houdremont,” La Courneuve, France Anger in Africa, Galerie Henri Plait, Paris, France Anger in Africa, The World Council of Churches, Geneva, Switzerland

COLLECTIONS Musée de l’Elysée, Lausanne, Switzerland The National Museum of Modern Art, Tokyo, Japan Tokyo Metropolitan Museum of Photography, Tokyo, Japan Ville du Port, Ile de la Réunion, DOM, France Glasgow Arts Centre, Scotland, United Kingdom Fundação Cultural de Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil Bibliothèque Nationale de France, Paris, France Maison Européenne de la Photographie, Paris, France Museum für Moderne Kunst, Frankfurt/Main, Germany Australian National Gallery, Canberra, Australia San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, California, USA New York Museum of Modern Art, New York, New York, USA Chicago Art Institute, Chicago, Illinois, USA Minneapolis Museum of Arts, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA Museum of Photographic Arts, San Diego, California, USA Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA Los Angeles County Museum of Art, California, USA Deutsche Börse, Frankfurt/Main, Germany Museu Histórico Abilio Barreto, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, California, USA


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS SUNDARAM TAGORE GALLERIES Hong Kong 57-59 Hollywood Road Central, Hong Kong Tel 852 2581 9678 Fax 852 2581 9673

New York 547 West 27th Street New York, NY 10001 Tel 212 677 4520 Fax 212 677 4521

Beverly Hills 9606 South Santa Monica Blvd Beverly Hills, CA 90210 Tel 310 278 4520 Fax 310 278 4525

WWW.SUNDARAMTAGORE.COM President and curator: Sundaram Tagore Director, New York: Susan McCaffrey Director, Hong Kong: Faina Goldstein Designer: Russell Whitehead Printed in Hong Kong by CA Design

Art consultants: Joseph Lawrence Benjamin Rosenblatt Melanie Taylor Brad Vartan

First published in the United States of America in 2011 by Sundaram Tagore Gallery Text © Sundaram Tagore Gallery Photographs © Sebastião Salgado/Amazonas Images All rights reserved under international copyright conventions. No part of this catalogue may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any other information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. Cover: Sahara, Algeria, 2009, gelatin silver print, 50 x 68 inches ISBN-13: 978-0-615-49487-6