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Sanitation In Japan

Book Launch: Exam Warriors

If there’s one thing that Japan is passionate about, it is their toilets

Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s ‘Exam Warriors’ advises students to stay calm and focus

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12 Swachh Bharat Campaign ‘Swachh Gurugram, Swachh Haryana’ : Seminar for a cleaner India

The Eternal Ramayana

The Indian epic is still central to the culture of not just this country but to cultures in other ASEAN countries sulabhswachhbharat.com FIND US ONLINE

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RNI No. DELENG/2016/71561

A Good News Weekly

Baba Ramdev:

“Great saint, Great Yogi, Great Social Worker” There are very few people in this world who do selfless work, who do not think about the benefits they may acquire from others and who dedicate their lives to social service. One among such magnanimous persons is yoga guru Baba Ramdev, a well-known saint, master yogi and experienced social worker

Vol - 2 | Issue - 09 | February 12 - 18, 2018 | Price ` 5/-


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Quick Glance He moved yoga from the confines of a room to gatherings of masses A biopic TV series on Baba Ramdev is set to hit the air from February 12 Discovery’s new Indian venture Jeet is set to monitise the serial

Bindeshwar Pathak Ph.D., D.Litt.

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his world is much like a fair, to which people come for an excursion. You will find different kinds of people here. Some are here to explore, some to enjoy. Some are lost in their own self and then there are some whose sole purpose of existence is to serve others instead of focusing exclusively on their own enjoyment or pleasures and desires. There are very few people in this world who do selfless deeds, who do not think about the benefit they will acquire from others and who dedicate their

Discovery India to Telecast TV Series on Baba Ramdev

The Bharat Swabhiman Movement of Baba Ramdev is concerned with the core of India’s pride and self-respect, including its social, political and economic aspects lives to social service. One among such magnanimous people is Yoga Guru Baba Ramdev, a well-known saint, master yogi and experienced social worker. Who are Saints? Those people who have controlled their desires and consume the lowest

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biographical TV series on Baba Ramdev is set to go on air from February 12. Discovery India said that the TV series ‘Swami Ramdev: Ek Sangharsh’ will be telecast from the day on its new general entertainment channel Discovery Jeet. The show has been co-produced by Ajay Devgn Films and Watergate Production

of natural resources, who sacrifice worldly pleasure, showing a great degree of holiness and sanctity are called saints. Baba Ramdev sleeps on the floor, wears minimal clothes, eats furgally, and being unmarried, he becomes completely devoted to the service of society by controlling his personal desires. In such a way, he is a great saint. for the broadcaster. The broadcaster said that the 85-episode TV series will showcase the Yoga guru’s never-beforeseen life-journey. Swami Ramdev: Ek Sangharsh’s trailer and TV campaign have generated immense interest on social media and have racked up an impressive 25 million plus views across YouTube and Facebook. The company said that Discovery Jeet will be launched with the highest-ever distribution of more than 100 million households and will be available across all leading DTH and cable TV platforms. The channel will be available in Hindi, Tamil and Telugu languages. It has also signed Netflix as the exclusive global OTT platform partner.

Why is Baba Ramdev a ‘Great Yogi’? In India, people have knowledge of yoga since the Vedic period and there has been tradition of yoga in India since then, but for some time, the focus on yoga has been neglected and only few people were practising it. The credit goes to Baba Ramdev for bringing back yoga in a comprehensive way among people or as it is widely said, Baba Ramdev has revived yoga in the world. He gave knowledge to the public about how one can keep one’s self healthy through the practice of yoga. He did not just talk but showed and taught people by doing yoga. Thousands of people took part in Baba Ramdev’s camps, but more than that there are people who like Eklavya became disciples of the yoga guru and practised yoga every day without even seeing him in real life. Those who have not seen Baba Ramdev or took part in his camps just follow his yoga techniques by watching his videos and CDs. Ramdev has taken yoga to the masses, both in the domestic market and internationally. He has taken this training of the mind, body and soul, first practiced by ancient Indian saints, and turned it into a daily ritual in everyone’s life. Why is Baba Ramdev a ‘Great Social Worker’? Baba Ramdev is providing pure food, medicine from natural components, and chemicals-free products to the public, which is something that the government should have done but failed to do. Today, where medicines and foodgrains are full of chemicals, Ramdev is providing Patanjali products which are being

Baba Ramdev is providing pure food, medicine and chemicals-free products to the public


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Re-inventing Yoga For The Masses

Louis Vuitton wants to fund Patanjali and take it global

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rivate equity fund L Catterton, which is coowned by French luxury group LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton SE — also known as Louis Vuitton (LVMH) — is keen on buying a stake in Baba Ramdev’s Patanjali. “We would love to work with him if we can find a model,” L Catterton Asia Managing Partner Ravi Thakran said. He also said he is aware that Ramdev’s business model does not support working with multinational companies and with foreign money or brands. The L Catterton private equity fund is co-owned by Louis Vuitton. They claim to be ready to bet USD 500 million, which is close to half of their remaining funds in Asia, to buy a stake in the Patanjali enterprise. “Patanjali has the potential to go to the world and I can tell you today that Patanjali has been a disruptor in its category, as strong a disruptor as many of the global disruptors are and it has taken Indian-ness and celebrated it with pride,” Thakran told. He said L Catterton can help Patanjali go international and expand its markets in US, Japan, China, South Korea and Europe. Getting a stake in the company might be a challenging prospect as Baba Ramdev has always projected his company as shudh desi and as anti-MNCs. The company’s ‘swadeshi’ label has also been highly instrumental in shooting the company to success.

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ndia got its first celebrity yoga guru Baba Ramdev for the masses. He brought about the revolution of yoga. He never talked about God or religion; instead he talked about good health. He did not sit on chair and preach. He did not show instant remedies or solutions. It was in 2001. A devotional channel called Sanskar started airing Ramdev’s yoga programme at 6:45 in the morning. The 22-minute programme soon became the most popular show of the channel. The programme, in fact, created a kind of health revolution in the country. Pranayama became the buzzword for everyone. And the followers were not just fitness enthusiasts or health freaks. From corporate bosses to housewives to students, everyone wanted to practise the yoga packaged by Ramdev – it was easy, short and promised quick results. It stressed on the health benefits of eating vegetables, fruits and herbs regularly. It instilled a sense of pride in the Indian medicinal system.

made through ayurvedic, organic and natural resources, without any harmful ingredients in them. As food and medicines are the first priority of any person so it should be pure and harmless. Abroad, governments keep an eye on this, that their citizens should not get food and medicines which carry harmful chemicals. There is provision for heavy penalties if any company is found guilty in this process. The social service Ramdev is providing in the form of his Patanjali products is not an easy task. It requires hard work and dedication to provide such natural products to the masses. That’s why Baba Ramdev is a great social worker. baar baar gahi charan sankochee, chalee bichaari bibudh mati pochee. oonch nivaasu neechi karatootee, dekhi na sakahin parai bibhooti.. The meaning of this shlok from Ramchartimanas is true to

Many liked his prescription. It was not about getting a set of lab tests done by spending huge sums of money. They did not have to buy expensive medicines. Most of the ingredients were easily available and they came cheap. For yoga, they did not have to make big changes in lifestyle. All they needed to do was some exercise and take care of the quality of food. From 2004, Aastha started telecasting his daily yoga sessions in Haridwar a n d also live

its sense. I can relate it to my own life experience and even to Baba Ramdev’s life. People can’t say a single word to praise someone but will take an hour to criticise others. Rather than appreciating Ramdev’s commendable work and social service, people keep accusing him every now and then. For the past 15-20 days, I had a pain in my leg, I was quite upset, and so I popped two tablets of Baba Ramdev’s Giloy Ghan Vati. Two hours after consuming it, I felt better

footage of his camps, and expectedly the public response was massive. From that moment, there was no looking back. The brand of Baba Ramdev was firmly established. Here was a guru who taught yoga, offered Ayurvedic cure and came live on TV. He did not show instant magic. He did not predict the future. Instead, he demonstrated what he preached. He did not advise people to feed pigeons for good fortune, but told them to eat healthy food. His medicines were not magical water or secret churna – he came upfront about what he used to make them. What started out as a 22-minute yoga capsule on Sanskar channel culminated with Ramdev setting up his own media empire called Vedic Broadcasting, which runs five TV channels that have become Ramdev’s medium for reaching out to a vast audience to extol yoga and ayurveda. He was a baba whom India had never seen before – hairy, bare-chested man performing impossible stunts on stage. He not only smiled but also laughed uproariously. He spoke the common man’s language; he was a yogi who was aware of the pains of family life.

and relaxed. I had earlier taken other medicines for the pain but nothing worked. For the first time I have had consumed Patanjali’s product and I was very impressed by it. I had also consulted my Jyotishacharya S. Bhattacharya regarding it, so he suggested getting a check-up once. A great man like Baba Ramdev is very rare to find in this time, who sacrifices worldly pleasures solely for social service. People have begun to envy him and his success and started saying that he became a moneymaker and a pure businessman. Baba Ramdev is doing nothing for himself, whatever money comes from his products goes to the trust, which is used in the interest of the society. A businessman is the one who works for himself, but whatever Baba Ramdev is doing, it is for the country and in public interest. There is another example in the same


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Today we are behind the world because we do not admire our culture and those who promote them, we look at their actions with suspicion. This is our biggest irony

Patanjali Products From ‘Haridwar’ to ‘Har Dwar’

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oga guru Ramdev’s Patanjali Ayurveda opened its exclusive store at the Indira Gandhi International Airport Terminal 2 in New Delhi on January 18, 2018. Earlier on January 16, Patanjali Ayurveda entered into an agreement with e-commerce websites to give a big push to the online sale of its Swadeshi range of Fast-moving Consumer Goods (FMCG). Its products will now be available online on websites like PayTM Mall, Big Basket, Flipkart, Grofers, Amazon, netmeds, 1mg, Shopclues, and others. Ramdev said the online mechanism aims to provide convenient and efficient option along with the extension of the traditional retail market. “Utmost care has been taken to ensure (the) Swadeshi movement and it has been ensured that Patanjali products reach into every home without compromising on policies and business ethics,” he said. Baba Ramdev tweeted that this attempt to take Patanjali products from Haridwar to ‘har dwar’ is

now set to reach ‘samudra par’ or across the ocean, with the new shop at Delhi’s IGI airport. Patanjali will also expand into new product segments such as bottled water through brand Divya Jal and apparels and footwear under the brand name Paridhan this year. The company had recently ventured into kids and adult diapers and sanitary napkins segments. In December, Patanjali had also announced that it would foray into solar equipment manufacturing. Managing Director and CEO of Patanjali Ayurveda Acharya Balkrishna said the new mechanism would help to reach people who prefer to use online platform for shopping these days. It would reach those who do not have access to the point of purchase and they are looking for alternate mechanism to shop and can get Patanjali products at home, and provide most efficient and convenient digital shopping experience. Patanjali has created an ecosystem which helps to settle at least a million orders every day.

context. When Neil Armstrong returned from the moon, people asked him about his experience and that he must be feeling very good. Then Neil Armstrong said that going to the moon was a pleasant feeling but had I known that after returning from the moon, my friends would stop talking to me, I would have never gone. Similarly, when a postman brought a letter to Sherlock Holmes, the latter read it and then kept it aside. His friends sitting next to him asked Sherlock that you haven’t given any reaction to the letter, what is the letter about? He responded that a murder has happened and the government wants me to solve the mystery. His friends replied “this is a good thing that government wants you to help them, go and solve the murder case” on which Sherlock answered: “I don’t like to do government’s work. I will solve the murder mystery and government will say it has solved the mystery.” His friends said, “So what, the government will praise you for that.” On this, Sherlock said that people always distance themselves from praising others. They think praising others will lessen their own importance. If someone is praising anybody, then understand that the person who is praising is greater than the person who is being praised. Praising others in this society is a difficult task.” I agree with Sherlock Holmes because this has been my personal experience. I built two-pit

toilet back in 1968, but whenever the government talks about it, they never mention my name along with it as if it is their own invention. The previous government created One-pit toilets between 1986 and 2008, in which money was wasted because its benefits were not seen by the people. Now the government has adopted the two-pit but never mentions Sulabh’s name. Today, we are behind the world because we do not admire our culture and those who promote them, and rather look at their actions with suspicion. This is our biggest irony. People of India cannot say two words for a good person who is doing great work for the country and society. All of us should praise Baba Ramdev’s work as he is not only providing pure medicines or cereals, but also employing millions of people along with it. His work has benefited society and the people. Such great figures come on earth rarely. We should all admire such people and praise their work. His dream is to see an addiction-free, vegetarian and corruption-free India. He touches the lives of millions of people every day through his message of peace, wellness, and enlightenment, and his non-violent movement to end corruption promotes the ideals of a healthy democracy. He has written books which explain in detail about the system of Yoga, acupressure and the role of some medicinal plants in curing the diseases. Some of the famous books written by him are: Aushadh Darshan Pranayama Rahasya Yoga Sadhana evam Yoga Chikitsa Rahasya Jeevaniya and Vayasthapan Besides the books, a large number of DVDs which help the individuals practice yoga at home are available in the market. Undoubtedly, Baba Ramdev has an important role in reviving Yoga and making it famous all over the world and he can be aptly called as the Yoga Guru.


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The yoga teacher who became the market guru Baba Ramdev gave the corporate honchos run for the money by monetizing yoga and Ayurvedic products

urooj fatima

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aba Ramdev was born Ramkrishna Yadav in Mahendragarh district of Haryana on December 25, 1965. His father was Ram Nivas Yadav and mother Gulabo Devi. He studied up to the eighth standard at Shahjadpur. He showed interest in yoga and Sanskrit and soon joined Arya Gurukul in Khanpur. He learned Sanskrit, Indian scriptures and yoga here. A book that made a huge impact on him in this period was Sri Aurobindo’s “Yogik Sadhan”. He became an ascetic and adopted monastic vows, donned saffron under Swami Shankadevoji

Maharaj, and took the name of “Baba Ramdev”. He pursued his studies at Kalva Gurukul at Jind where he studied Sanskrit grammar, yoga, philosophy, the Vedas and the Upanishads. He taught yoga to the villagers when he was at the gurukul. He had then moved to Uttarakhand, where he studied the Indian scriptures at the Gurukul Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, while focusing on meditation and yoga. Baba Ramdev is a yoga teacher with a difference. Unlike many other yoga teachers who taught asanas or yogic postures, he focused on Pranayama or the breathing exercises. This turned out to be both useful and

popular. In 1995, he had set up the Divya Yoga Mandir and later Patanjali Yogpeeth, both at Hardwar. In 2003, the religious television channel, Aastha, gave him a slot to teach yoga, and it became an instant hit. There was no looking back after this. He soon reached out to audiences in Britain, the United States and Japan. He set up Patanjali Yogpeeth campuses in India, and others in the United States, United Kingdom, Nepal, Canada and Mauritius. He soon found himself in political activism, especially during the anticorruption protest movement of Anna Hazare in 2011. He had launched the Bhrashtachar Mitao Satyagrah at Ramlila Maidan on June 4, 2011, and demanded that Indian black money stashed in foreign banks should be brought back. He was awarded an honorary doctorate for his contribution yoga studies by the Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology, Bhubaneswar in 2007 and the Sri Chandrasekhara Saraswati national eminence award by Maharashtra Governor K. Shankaranarayanan in 2011. What Baba Ramdev has done to popularise yoga is to connect with the new-found interest among a large number of urbanites in India and elsewhere to lead a healthy life. Many of them were falling prey to lifestyle diseases like hypertension, diabetes, obesity. His remedy of breathing exercises, which were based on the principles of pranayama based in Patanjali’s Yoga, caught on the imagination of young and middleaged people, both in India and abroad. He has marketed healthy living through yoga most successfully. And he speaks with authority of a professional corporate honcho when he said, “I would like to tell brands to innovate because if you can’t differentiate, you can’t emerge.” Baba Ramdev received the IMPACT Person of the Year Ward 2017 of exchange4mediagroup for

his Patanjali Ayurved emerging as the top player in the fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) segment with a turnover of Rs 10,561 crore in 2017. He is confident of beating the big players in the field, including the multi-national corporations (MNCs). Baba Ramdev’s success is an unusual story. He did not go to an English medium school or college, he is not the product of prestigious institutions like the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) and the Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs), but he has made yoga and Ayurvedic producs a huge commercial success. He has shown that traditional knowledge can be monetized and that it can become the market leader. He has shown that it is possible to run a successful commercial enterprise based on principles of marketing for intangible goods like yoga. At a time when well being and good health has become the goal of many people in the affluent and the well-off classes, he has spotted the social trend and he has taken market advantage of the new demand. There are many critics of Baba Ramdev but he remains unfazed. He is fighting his competitors with panache. He has overtaken many of them because he realized that the big market lies beyond the major urban centres and that an efficient distribution network is needed to reach out to the potential consumer. The Patanjali stores across the towns and cities reveals a successful market strategy. Here is a man who is selling traditional wares of yoga and Ayurveda using modern management techniques. Baba Ramdev is not afraid to use modern business approaches, and many of the people who are taking to his brand of yoga and healthy food stuffs are denizens of the modern world, most of them are highly educated and highly successful folk in the metropolises in India and abroad.


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From Angels To Demons Of Sanitation in Japan If there’s one thing Japan is passionate about, it’s toilets. Potties, loos, restrooms, john, powder room, however you say it, Japan has put a lot of thought into the smallest room of the house Here are some of those traditions that make Japan truly unique in the sanitation atmosphere of the modern world Mihir Paul

The Traditions

Kashima Reiko

Hanako is not the only young girl said to haunt the bathrooms of Japan. There is another legend of a young girl named Kashima Reiko, said to be the ghost of a girl who died when her legs were severed by a train. Her legless torso now haunts bathroom stalls, asking unlucky visitors, “Where are my legs?” The correct response, “On the Meishin Expressway,” could save your life. Otherwise, it’s said that she might tear a person’s legs off.

Hail The Toilet God!

You know how Japan’s washrooms got to be so clean and full of advanced technology? Maybe because they’re being watched over by a toilet god. According to the myth, Kawayano-kami, the Japanese toilet god, was, appropriately enough, born from the excrement of Izanami, the Japanese goddess of the Earth and darkness. In a time long before Washlets, the contents from outhouses were used as fertilizer, so Kawaya-no-kami was said to both provide a good harvest and also protect people from falling into the toilet pit. In 2010, the song “Toire no Kamisama” (“The Toilet God”) was a hit. Japanese loos, almost always a separate room in the house, often feature flowers to keep the toilet god happy. This also helps uphold another Japanese maxim, Kaori Shoji wrote in the Japan Times, “The restroom is the face of the household.”

the insides of toilets; others whisper through the stall walls. Each one has its own grim story and particular behaviour, but they all share a connection to the bathroom.

Toire no Hanako-san

ghost stories, the details of Hanako’s origins vary somewhat from telling to telling, but in general, Hanako is said to be the ghost of a young girl who died around WWII, and now haunts school bathrooms. Depending on regional variations, Hanako will respond by saying, “Yes I am,” or a ghostly hand will appear. If someone enters the stall, they could also be eaten by a three-headed lizard.

The Ghosts Of Japanese Bathrooms

One of Japan’s most famous mythological creatures, the kappa is said to sometimes found in bathrooms. However, it is not specifically thought of as a bathroom spirit, but more generally as a creature associated with water—usually rivers or ponds. But there are a lot of legends in which the kappa appears in an outhouse, where it harasses people (especially women)

Sound Princess

One of the best-known of Japan’s bathroom spirits is Toire no Hanakosan, or Hanako of the Toilet. Like all In Japanese folklore, there are a number of spirits rumoured to appear in bathrooms. Some reach out from

Kappa

The Japanese culture has a plethora of quirks regarding toilets and sanitation

One function of the Western toilet in Japan is famous enough to warrant its own section. The Japanese, particularly women, consider it good manners to silence any sounds you make in the toilet stall. Because of this, many toilets have a Otohime or “Sound Princess” feature. The Otohime masks all sounds by replicating a toilet flushing. This also saves water, as the user doesn’t have to flush the toilet more than necessary.

Bathroom Slippers


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it’s an important factor when visiting a house or traditional Japanese hotel. Take off the bathroom slippers immediately upon exiting and put on your house slippers.

The Japanese take off their shoes when entering a private residence and put on house slippers. The bathroom is considered an entirely separate part of the house, and usually family members and guests are expected to take off their house slippers and use a pair of bathroom slippers when entering. Though it might seem a foreign concept to Western minds,

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Using Traditional Japanese There’s an app for that and Western-Style Toilets There are a bunch of apps in There’s a big difference between a traditional Japanese toilet and the Western style to which Americans are accustomed. The Japanese toilet is sunken into the ground, with a hood covering part of it to prevent water from splashing up when you flush. To use it, you squat or kneel facing the hood with your legs on either side of the toilet. A lever or button near the hood flushes the toilet. The Westernstyle toilet looks almost exactly as you would expect in Western countries but is often electronic and features several buttons with various wash and dry functions for men and women. If the seat feels warm when you sit down, it probably has a heated seat function. The traditional Japanese toilet is still used in the majority of public restrooms throughout Japan, but Western-style toilets are prevalent in metropolitan areas. Here are four things you might not know about Japan’s obsession with lavatories.

The Government’s Involvement

Japan that can help you find the nearest public bathroom, or one with a special

facility, like large stalls with facilities for people with ostomates (a relatively common issue in rapidly aging Japan). Lion, a manufacturer of diarrhoea medicine Stoppa (and various toiletries and detergents), provides an app @Toilet for people who need to take care of their business urgently away from the home or office. Click on the “emergency” button and it locates the closest restroom. NPO Check operates a free app called Check a Toilet, listing over 53,000 restrooms in major cities. It shows restrooms nearby with information including whether they’re wheelchair accessible and/ or have ostomate-friendly functions. Users can contribute by submitting information on the restrooms they’ve visited.

There are toilet rituals

Different parts of Japan sometimes

The Japanese government has been actively involved in the collective efforts for the betterment of sanitation in Japan

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he Japanese government this year launched the Japan Toilet Prize, part of a campaign to improve quality of life by improving the quality of restrooms. No matter that Japanese public facilities are almost always clean and stocked with toilet paper. The task is to ensure that washrooms are always clean and safe and to tackle one of the thorniest of bathroom problems: how to reduce the lines outside ladies’ loos. “Without appropriate environments where women can use sanitation facilities, their access to social participation in schools and workplaces is restricted,” Haruko Arimura, the Japanese minister for women’s empowerment, told the government’s World Assembly of Women forum in Tokyo in August. She said that restrooms are so

pivotal to women’s advancement that she doesn’t mind if she’s known as “minister of toilets.” Akito Yokoyama, an architect who is part of the toilet challenge project, said Arimura had explained why she wanted to concentrate on restrooms. “In terms of sanitation, toilets are a way to encourage women’s participation in society, and there is a lot more Japan can do,” he said, according to the Wall Street Journal. “Japan has very advanced technology in terms of toilets in particular.” Japan is trying an unconventional way to impress visitors to their country with both their technology and their gracious hospitality — a toilet “gallery” where it’s just fine to touch, and sample, the exhibits. Toto, Japan’s leading toilet manufacturer, plans to soon open a high-tech bathroom “gallery” in

the departures section of Tokyo’s Narita international airport. “Gallery Toto” will feature four stalls each for men and women, so departing visitors can try out the company’s famous Washlet models, complete with all the features that come in an upscale Japanese toilet — bidet, seat-warmer, sterilizing and deodorizing functions, and electronic flushing. Almost every train and subway station in Japan, and many of its parks, boasts a spotless public restroom. It’s not uncommon to find a public restroom where the toilets feature all these impressive technologies, plus additional conveniences like a special seat for your baby while you do your business (which doubles perfectly as a bag-holder) and a flip-down board that you can stand on while you get changed so you don’t dirty your socks on the bathroom floor.

have customs associated with toilets. In Aichi prefecture, there’s a tradition known as “benjo-biraki” (opening of the toilet) during which people sit on the loo to eat snacks and sip tea. The Asahi Shimbun reported in August on a ceremony to celebrate the new restroom at Nagoya Bunri University in Aichi. The tradition honours the deity of the bathroom, the paper reported. A group of students placed a cushion on the toilet seat of a restroom in the new building, and one by one, participants including the school’s chairman and president, sat on the toilet seat and ate rice cakes and green tea.


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The History The earliest known toilets in Japan date back about 1,300 years. Excavations have uncovered pits that were used as toilets, as well as more advanced toilets consisting of a ditch carrying water through part of the house to convey the waste outdoors. Since ancient times, there also existed toilets built over running streams. These types can be considered a primitive form of flush toilets. Pit toilets came into widespread use over the following centuries. In the thirteenth century the Japanese, who were largely a farming people, began to use the waste taken out of these toilets as fertilizer. The remains of 50 toilets were found in Fujiwarakyo (present-day Kashihara, Nara Prefecture), the capital of Japan from 694 to 710. They were of two types: simple holes in the ground and primitive “flush” toilets set over specially dug gutters. Both types were constructed in such a way that their users faced north. In the old days, human waste was collected and used for fertilizer. Excrement was considered so valued that landowners owned the rights to it not the renters who produced it. Renters however did own the rights to their urine. Excrement was saved, stored in tanks and was classified into five grades in accordance with suitability for fertilizer. The waste of rich people was regarded as the best because their diet was better. The lowest grade came from prisons. Farmers continued to collect human waste from the cities until the 1930s. Some merchants made deals with farmers to exchange their waste for eggplants and white radishes. Plumbing and toilets were not widely used until after the Great Tokyo earthquake in 1923 when they importance sanitation to reduce disease was realized. After World War II, Western toilets became more widespread. Toto and other companies borrowed technology from France, the United States and Switzerland and, as the Japanese have done with other technologies, improved it and adapted it their own purpose. One idea that Toto developed that didn’t pan out was the female urinal, a cone-like devise that rose from the floor. Several hundred were made in the 1950s and 60s. One of the last remain ones can be seen in Japan’s National Stadium, built for the 1964

Summer Olympics. Japanese inventors had been experimenting with women’s urinals for some time. Nineteenthcentury earthenware models were shaped like open umbrellas. In 1977, shipments of Westernstyle toilets overtook Asian-style ones for the first time. The manufacturing of squat style toilets ended in 2003. Toto imported a bidet-toilet , called Wash Air Seat from American Bidet Co, in 1964. Two years later it produced its own version. In 1980 Toto introduced the Washlet. An advertising campaign for the new toilet in 1982 featured an actress in a flower-print skirt who thrust her rear toward the screen while a song went: “Bottoms want to get washed too.” The ads and the toilets---inspired by American and European toilets with bidets intended for haemorrhoid sufferers and medical use---were a big success. Imported toilets from Switzerland had been available before that but they cost ¥480,000 the cost

Access To Water

Percentage of population with access to safe water: 95 percent

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ne survey found that 72 percent of Japanese make some effort to conserve water. The survey also found that 37.5 per cent of Japanese get their drinking water from the tap; 32 per cent use water purifiers and 29.6 per cent drink bottled water. In another survey, 47 percent of Japanese said they don’t drink the tap water. Only 28 per cent said the tap water tastes good. Japan is very good at conserving water even though it has a lot of water

of a car. As of 2005, Toto has sold 20 million Washlets and sells about 3 million a year.

From Squat To Not?

Japan has launched a campaign to convert unpopular Asian-style squat toilets into sit-on “western” models,

and doesn’t really need to except in cases of localized droughts. High water prices create an incentive for ordinary people to conserve water. One way Japanese conserve water is by using bath water for several baths and then using the leftover water for washing clothes. Families in the United States and Japan use 10 times as much water as families in Kenya and dry areas of China. One study found that a three-member Japanese family used 280.7 litres a day compared to 223 litres for a family of 11 in Kenya and 800 liters for a family of four in the United States. Flush toilets account for 24 percent of total household water use. Bath and showers account for 26 percent. Kitchen use accounts for 22 percent. A survey of one Japanese family found it used 35 percent of its water for washing dishes, house work and for cooking and drinking, 32 percent for baths and showers and 14 percent for washing clothes. In the United States, a family used 62 percent of its water for baths and showers. In the 70s only 15 percent of Japanese homes were connected to sewers.

as the nation prepares to welcome tens of millions of foreign tourists in the run-up to the Tokyo 2020 Olympics. The high-tech country is famous for its toilet technology that can bewilder foreign visitors, with features ranging from seat warming to bidet functions – with variable pressure. But to the surprise of some and the dismay of many caught short, several toilets in public places are traditional “squatting” facilities. About 40% of toilets at 4,000 locations in popular tourist spots are “squatters”, according to the Japan Tourism Agency. The government is offering to shoulder one-third of the costs to install sit-on types, complete with the bidet function expected of a Japanese toilet, officials said. A survey by major toilet-maker TOTO has found more than eight out of 10 foreign tourists prefer siton types, said Akihiko Yamakoshi, an official at the government’s Japan Tourism Agency. “As we aim to receive 40 million foreign visitors (a year), we want them to enjoy touring Japan with as little stress as possible,” he told AFP. Some foreign tourists simply do not know how to use old Japanese-style toilets while others complain they are unsanitary, he said. The number of foreign visitors to Japan has been hitting records in recent years. More than 26 million foreign tourists visited Japan in the 11 months of 2017, already exceeding the annual record of 24 million set in 2016. The government aims to boost the number to 40 million by 2020 when Tokyo hosts the Summer Games.


Sanitation

FEBRUARY 12 - 18, 2018

The Meaning Of Cleanliness In Japan In Japan, cleaning is a public service to be performed by everyone, not relegated to one marginalised section of the society.

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t is do-it-yourself with a difference, involving no greater technology than brush, broom and cloth. On every normal school day, after a thorough post-lunch brushing of teeth, Japanese school children get down to a more public service for the next 15 minutes : cleaning the school. A starker difference with India’s paranoid aversions to cleaning and cleaners, its high tolerance for dirt, especially when ‘not in my own backyard’, and its determined condemnation of whole sections of society to ‘specialise’ in such work cannot be found. In Japan, they do more than dwell on their glorious past, and certainly, do not rely on a specific group of people to clear up their filth. They spend a good deal of time and effort on training the young to take care of their surroundings, and especially their toilets. Nothing is left to the vagaries of youth or the mood of the teacher. Cleaning is a part of the primary school curriculum. At KitaYamada Elementary School in Osaka, for instance, children from as young an age as six years spend 15 minutes cleaning classrooms, corridors and yes, toilets, with brushes, pails, cloths and brooms (which are then in turn cleaned and put away). No advanced technology or chemical is used here. In the corridors, a Grade VI student is paired with a six-year-

The toilet conversion is mainly designed for foreign tourists but it could also help elderly Japanese who may have difficulty in squatting down, said Yamakoshi.

The Sewage Side Of Things

To improve environment of residential areas and public toilets, municipalities have quickly constructed sewerage system over the past 50 years. Now, sewerage system covers 80% of Japanese households.

old, each doing their systematic part. Students go down on their hands and knees to erase the marks of the morning’s calligraphy class. A brush and sponge are used on already-fairlyclean toilets to produce sparkling ones. By a system of rotating the chores, students are well trained in outdoor and indoor cleaning. Nor is the supervision of the teachers left to chance. Teachers themselves (as well as students) are trained by cleaning professionals (DASKIN is among the most well-known companies) and are provided with instructional sheets with exact directions on how to wield the mop or broom. There is neither shame nor opprobrium attached to these activities. No municipal school employs cleaning staff; professionals may come in twice a year, as do parents when strong chemicals are to be used. But otherwise, the students learn an enduring lesson, collectively and willingly participating in cleaning their spaces and wielding brush and

Recycling of sewage sludge •The lives of Japanese citizens has greatly improved, but they no longer use the original excreta recycling system. • Recycling of sewage sludge has increased. • Sewage sludge utilized as fertilizer, fuel or construction materials . • It is important to make these more cost-effective. A land known for its creative beauty and artistic landscape, Japan’s sewer

broom, washcloth and rubber, with impressively meticulous care. Where else, in any part of the world, might one encounter a medieval monks’ toilet or tosu being designated as ‘Important Cultural Property’? Did monks in other parts of the world even enjoy anything more than the great outdoors? Hay on the landing was the preferred choice of many European monarchs, as a visit to Versailles quickly reveals; at best there was the portable chamber pot to be carried off and cleaned by the minions. In our subcontinent, the muchmarvelled sanitation systems of the Indus civilisation have left not a trace on subsequent centuries, and certainly not in our modern times, when the brutal practice of manual scavenging is continued as a monumental vestige – lest we forget – of power that some castes enjoy over others. The lessons in cleaning no doubt account for overall high quality of public toilet usage and maintenance in Japan. Though workplaces may employ professionals, the token collective cleaning, of the outdoors during fall, for instance, are gentle reminders of the lessons well learned in childhood. Faculty, staff and students at the National Museum of Ethnology, Osaka, for instance, participate in the ritual of cleaning a few times a year.

system stands apart from any other in the world. The most striking example can be found in the city of Saitama, which features a storm sewer system that is a true work of art. Typhoons are a dreaded occurrence in this part of the world and to reduce the onslaught of their destruction, the sewer system of Saitama has some unique features. Its construction includes giant concrete silos, which are 65 metres (213 feet) tall and 32 metres (105

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feet) wide. They are connected by 6.4 kilometers (almost 4 miles) of underground tunnels that lie 50 meters (about 164 feet) below the city’s surface. The sewer system also has a giant tank with 59 concrete columns The construction of this incredible urban infrastructure began in 1992 and it is open to tourists. The result of centuries of practice, Japan’s first sewage system dates back more than 2,000 years. Some 1300 years ago, the city of Heijo-kyo had a drainage system network that ran throughout its borders and five centuries ago, a stone culvert, called the Taiko Sewerage, was built around Osaka Castle and is still in use today. The Kanda Sewerage, which was built in the Kanda area of Tokyo in 1884, represents the first modern sewerage system in Japan. It wasn’t until the end of World War II, however, that it became a national project to initiate the construction of sewerage systems throughout Japan. In many countries, sewers are a neglected aspect of a nation’s infrastructure, but not in Japan where storm sewer systems are a work of art.

The Laws

Since 1958 when Sewerage Law was enacted, sewage works have quickly become widespread and many organizations have been established. Main Points of Sewerage Law in Japan • Local governments are primarily responsible for public sewage works. • National government directs local governments, and provides national grants and loans for construction. • Ordinances under the law provide fundamental technical standards. When sewer is constructed, service area must be made known to the public. • Building-owners in sewer service area must connect their buildings to sewer. • Highly concentrated wastewater from industries is regulated to protect sewerage facilities and water quality • Sewage works administration has the right to let officials inspect private facilities connected to sewer if necessary. • Basic rules regarding sewage service charges are laid out in this law. • The details of sewage service charges for each municipality are stipulated by local ordinances.


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Science & Technology

FEBRUARY 12 - 18, 2018 Tesla

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paceX successfully launched the world’s most powerful rocket, a towering behemoth known as the Falcon Heavy that tore through the sky with the thundering force of 18 Boeing 747 jetliners. The maiden flight marked the first time a privately financed venture ever attempted to launch a rocket so powerful that it was capable of hoisting a payload out of Earth’s orbit. As a promotional stunt, SpaceX founder Elon Musk loaded the Falcon Heavy with his own cherry-red Tesla Roadster carrying a spacesuit-clad mannequin named “Starman” in the driver’s seat. Lifting off at 3.45 p.m., on February 6, 2018 from the same launch-pad that sent the crew of Apollo 11 to the moon, the rocket sent up a mountainsized plume of smoke and a rattling roar across Florida’s Space Coast, where thousands gathered to watch, reports The Washington Post. The mission represented the first test of the massive rocket, powered by 27 engines in three first-stage boosters that are strapped together. Musk said he planned to send the convertible, built by another one of his companies, into an orbit around the sun that would take it near Mars. SpaceX topped off the launch by

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t is not an easy time for people to feel hopeful, with the effects of global warming no longer theoretical, projections becoming more dire and governmental action lagging. And while few, if any, studies have examined how large a role climate change plays in people’s childbearing decisions, it loomed large in interviews with more than a dozen people ages 18 to 43. Among them, there is a sense of being saddled with painful ethical questions that previous generations did not have to confront. Some worry about the quality of life children born today will have as shorelines flood, wildfires rage and extreme weather becomes more common. Others are acutely aware that having a child is one of the costliest actions they can take environmentally. The greatest impact individuals can have in fighting climate change is to have one fewer child, according to a new study that identifies the most effective ways people can cut their carbon emissions. The next best actions are selling your car, avoiding

Tesla’s ‘F1’ in space

Tesla’s Roadster, riding a SpaceX rocket, is now in Deep Space, with a mannequin driver a first in our collective science history

Quick Glance Company’s visionary boss launched the first ever ‘road car’ Fitted the car with a spacesuited mannequin as the drive Rocket useful to Pentagon for lifting national security satellites

successfully landing two boosters on land, setting off twin sonic booms on their return. A third first-stage, the socalled centre core, crash landed at sea. “I’m still trying to absorb everything that happened because it seemed surreal to me,” The Washington Post

quoted Musk as saying. “I had an image of a giant explosion on the pad with a wheel bouncing down the road and the Tesla logo landing somewhere. But fortunately that’s not what happened. The mission seemed to have gone as well

climate change

Quick Glance

Baby-Scare From Climate Change

Global warming is becoming increasingly apparent to scientists The environmental cost of having children is deterring prospective From what once termed ‘babyboomers’ it is now a population

It is driving young couples to reconsider having children, for they are not certain what world they would bequeath their progeny long flights, and eating a vegetarian diet. These reduce emissions many times more than common green activities, such as recycling, using low energy light bulbs or drying washing on a line. However, the high impact actions are rarely mentioned in government advice and school

as possible.” If SpaceX can fly the Falcon Heavy reliably, the rocket could prove useful to the Pentagon for lifting national security satellites and to NASA for helping its human exploration goals. The company has said that the rocket is capable of hauling more mass farther than any existing rocket - an estimated 140,000 pounds to low Earth orbit, and nearly 40,000 pounds to Mars. After the launch, SpaceX broadcast a live stream from the Roadster in space using the three cameras mounted to the vehicle. In addition to carrying a plaque with the names of 6,000 SpaceX employees, the car also transported a data storage device containing Isasac Asimov’s classic Foundation science fiction trilogy.

textbooks, researchers found. Overpopulation has been a controversial factor in the climate change debate, with some pointing out that an American is responsible for 40 times the emissions produced by a Bangladeshi and that overconsumption is the crucial issue.

The new research comes a day after researchers blamed overpopulation and overconsumption on the “biological annihilation” of wildlife which has started a mass extinction of species on the planet. People who choose not to have children are used to being called “selfish.” But many of them see their decision as a sacrifice. This attitude seems particularly common among people who have seen the effects of climate change firsthand. Most of the people interviewed, parents and non-parents alike, lamented having to factor climate change into their decisions at all.


Book Launch

FEBRUARY 12 - 18, 2018 Modi Book

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25 mantras for stress-free examinations Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s ‘Exam Warriors’ advises students to stay calm and focus the advice he gave in that programme, Modi decided to write a book on the same subject to help students. Publishers Penguin Random House then released the copy of the cover of the book. Dedicated to “the youth of New India”, the book is integrated with the Narendra Modi Mobile App. The idea, according to Modi, is to create an Exam Warrior Community. “After all, it is all about sharing and growing -- Exam Warriors can share their exam journeys with others and discover how others have embarked on theirs, through the app,” he writes in a note from the author. Stating that the book was an attempt to “add to the debate and discourse around the importance of stress-free examinations...” Modi, in his ‘note from the author’, writes, “It is our collective duty to ensure that their (students’) childhood is not overshadowed by the burden of exams

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he thought of examinations usually leaves students under stress. Not only students, the pressure of scoring good marks also takes a toll on parents and teachers. To help them cope with the trials, Prime Minister Narendra Modi authored ‘Exam Warriors’, published by Penguin Random House. It was released on February 3 in the national capital by HRD Minister Prakash Javadekar and External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj. With stressful days round the corner for those appearing for their Class X and XII board exams, Prime Minister Modi has penned this book detailing ‘25 mantras’ to help students treat examinations as a cause for celebration and not despair. The first 25 chapters are mantras, starting with “Exams are like festivals -- celebrate them”, a message he shared in the January 2017 Mann Ki Baat, through “Be your own anchor -- celebrate your strengths” to “To cheat is to be cheap”. Interestingly, each chapter comes with an activity at the end. For instance, a chapter with a mantra titled “It’s your time -- make the most of it” asks “exam warriors” to make their “own timetable” by filling up a “24-hour clock with your daily activities”. As the book has been written

keeping young audiences in mind, it reads in an informal and conversational manner. It has also addressed issues such as prioritising knowledge over marks and how to grapple with becoming responsible for the future. In the January 2017 Mann Ki Baat -his monthly outreach programme over the radio -- the Prime Minister spoke of exam stress. In July, after results to the Class X and Class XII exams were announced and after receiving letters from some students thanking him for

The 189-page book carries rich illustrations and is printed on fine paper. The book, published by Penguin India and BlueKraft Digital Foundation, is priced at Rs 100 only. Notably, books of similar length and genre from the same publishing house are priced anywhere between Rs 250 to Rs 400.

Quick Glance To help students cope with exam stress, PM Modi authored ‘Exam Warriors’ First 25 chapters are ‘mantras’ such as “Exams are like festivals -- celebrate them” ‘Exam Warriors’ as a book is about more than just preparing for exams

and the constant anxiety of ‘what do I do next?’ ” In the ‘note by author’, PM has also reached out to parents and teachers with two letters. In first, the PM writes, “You (parents) are your child’s best mentor. You know your child better than anyone else, having seen him or her grow up in front of your eyes. Thus, I would request you: always accept

rather than expect.” He also advised parents against trying to realise their unfulfilled desires through their children. The other letter is addressed to teachers where he advises them to “empower the students to pursue their interests as well as create their own opportunities. Motivate them so that they do something driven by their passion instead of seeking to become something”. External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj gave an example of ‘elections’ to help children cope with the stress in exams during the launch of ‘Exam Warriors’. She explained that the ministers are also told not be afraid of the elections. Prime Minister Modi also says that he is not afraid of elections. Similarly, the students too should “not be afraid of the exam”. She said that Prime Minister Modi says that the ministers have to take their examinations every five years. In case of dissolution of the Lok Sabha earlier that marked, the exams sometimes get pr-poned, too, but they never fear of the tests. Although the book has focused on the problems of students who give board exams, ‘Exam Warriors’ as a book is about more than just preparing for exams. It emphasises the importance of playing, sleeping, and even travelling. “India is Incredible – travel and explore,” says one mantra. As the publisher’s blurb puts it, “this book will be a friend not only in acing exams but also facing life.” In a country where he is the most popular political leader, and admired by many young people, the Prime Minister’s book is certain to be widely read. Nor are young people preparing for exams likely to be the only ones reading it. Indeed, it could have its uses even for Modi’s Cabinet colleagues. In a chapter titled “Presentation is keymaster It”, he says “good presentation is like beautiful icing on your favourite cake – it enhances the tastes and leaves a lasting impression”.


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Speech By Dr Bindeshwar Pathak

FEBRUARY 12 - 18, 2018

cleanliness seminar

‘Swachh Gurugram, Swachh Haryana’ Rashtra nirman ke yogdaan: Sulabh ki pehel’ (‘A contribution to nation-building: An initiative by Sulabh’) was a one-day joint session on the critical issue of sanitation, health and social uplift of ‘human scavengers, organised by the Haryana Institute of Public Administration, Gururgram, and the Indian Institute of Public Administration, Haryana branch n Dr Ashok Kumar Jyoti

When I went to America in the recent past, the people there said that they should also have ‘Sulabh magic toilets’ there. When I asked, “America is a prosperous nation and everything is good here, then why is there a need for Sulabh magic toilets?” To that they said there is a sewer line facility in American cities, but the villages have septic tank toilets, which is why the Sulabh technique of converting human-waste into manure will be beneficial there and a safe disposal of stool will be done. Hence there is a universal need for Sulabh magic toilets today. The technology of our Sulabh magic toilets is very effective in making the country clean and beautiful.” These were the words of Sulabh International Social Service Organisation founder Padmabhushan Dr Bindeshwar Pathak while speaking as a key-note speaker on the topic ‘Rashtra Nirman ke yogdaan: Sulabh ki pehel’ (‘A contribution to nationbuilding: An initiative by Sulabh’) in a one-day joint session organised by the Haryana Institute of Public Administration, Gururgram, and the Indian Institute of Public Administration, Haryana branch, on ‘Swachh Bharat Abhiyan ke antargat Swachh Gurugram, Swachh Haryana’ (‘Clean Gurugram, Clean Haryana’ under ‘Swachh Bharat Mission’) on February 2, 2018. In his address, Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak presented the historical background of the landscape of cleanliness in the country and the special class of people involved in that process. In his initial statement, referring to Mr. G Prasanna Kumar, he said that some 42-43 years ago, Sulabh International initiated the work of toilet-construction in Bhiwani city of Haryana, after having done the same in Bihar, and it was then when Mr. Kumar was the Bhiwani Municipal Corporation officer. He added that with the cooperation of Mr. Kumar and his team and due to societyfriendly technology, they are today working in many parts of the country

and the world. Dr. Pathak said that Haryana has always been looking forward to its development and that is why this state has done so much. He said that the politicians and officials have been contributing to the same. While mentioning the tradition of open defecation in the country, Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak said it is mentioned in our ‘Devi Purana’ that one should defecate as far from their house that an arrow when pulled and thrown from the house, travels. Before defecating, first a pit should be dug, thatch should be thrown in, and then similarly after defecating, it should be covered first by throwing in thatch and then covering it with clay. He said that this is why the practice of open defecation still prevails in our country. Referring to religious texts,

he said that the people cleaning the toilets have been referred as ‘Chandal’ and the term is defined in the 30th division of ‘Yajur Veda’. In the ‘Thori Gatha’ of Pali-literature, Lord Buddha and his disciple Anand’s conversation has a mention of ‘Chandal’. In Pali, it is called ‘Paulkasya’. The context is that one day Lord Buddha was going along with his disciple Anand when on the way a person hid on seeing them and sat down. On this, Buddha asked Anand that why did this person hid on seeing them? Then Anand told him that this person is a human-waste cleaner and therefore, considering himself an untouchable, he hid away from them. Then Lord Buddha called him, talked to him and gave him his blessing. He told that the ‘Chandal’ community originates from Brahmin

Dr Pathak said when the Muslim rulers captured our country and started living here, their women used to live behind the curtains

caste. Dr. Pathak said when the Muslim rulers captured our country and started living here, their women used to live behind curtains and they did not go out for defecation. That is why there were constructions of ‘Baltinuma’ toilets in their homes and Hindu prisoners were kept for their cleanliness, mostly from Rajput castes. He mentioned Amritlal Nagar’s novel ‘Nachyau Bahut Gopal’ saying that this novel revolves around a scavenger woman and it tells that 29 sub-castes of Rajputs were made scavengers by the Muslims, whose caste titles remain the same today. Due to the manual scavenging practice, these people were placed in the category of untouchables. This malpractice of ‘Baltinuma’ toilets was later on adopted by Hindu families too and scavengers were appointed for their cleaning up. On the arrival of British, though huge houses were constructed, but they too had no toilet arrangements. For the first time, arrangements for sewer lines were made in Calcutta in


FEBRUARY 12 - 18, 2018 1870, but that too partially. Today there are 7,935 cities in India, of which mere 732 cities have sewer lines. The sewer system could neither get rid of the practice of manual scavenging, nor the practice of open-defecation. This system is very expensive and it is not possible to put it all the way. That’s why there is a lack of hygiene in Africa, Latin America and other countries. Second is the arrangement of septic tank. He said that the major reason behind this issue is that the Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras and people from various sub-castes of Shudras, will not clean the waste. Only the Shudras from Valmiki caste will clean it, which means 99.9 per cent of people produce the waste while only 0.01 per cent are cleaning it. The defecators have distanced themselves from the cleanliness process. It was Gandhiji who first focussed his attention on this problem. He got trench latrines constructed and talked about soiling human waste. Gandhiji said that the scavengers should get equal rights in society. For the social upliftment of the scavengers, he wanted that the nation’s President should be someone who comes from this caste. Dr. Pathak said, “I am working to fulfill Gandhiji’s dreams. I cannot make anyone president of the country, but I have made Mrs. Usha Chaumar, once a scavenger woman from Alwar, the President of Sulabh International.” He said that she is no more a scavenger, but a Brahmin instead. “I have changed her caste and converted her into a Brahmin. When there is a system of religion conversion

in the society, then there should also be a system of caste conversion. When people questioned me why I made them Brahmins then I told them that keep any caste as it suits you, it will not bend-down your head. Whichever caste you find not pulling you down, accept that, and this will put an end to untouchability.” In this mien, he also briefly talked about how the manual scavenger women of Alwar and Tonk were pulled out of that disgusting work by Sulabh and then educated, taught to cook, permitted entry to villages, performing Ganga-bath, Kumbh bath and enter mainstream society. He also mentioned the works done by Sulabh for the welfare of widows in Vrindavan, Varanasi and Uttarakhand and toilets being constructed in private houses in different parts of the country. Dr. Pathak said that in order to eliminate the malpractice of manual-scavenging, and to eradicate the concept of untouchability, he invented two-pit Sulabh magic toilet technology. In it, a pit is used at a time and the is on standby. When the first pit is filled, then the second is used and during that period of around 1.52 years, the human-waste in the first pot turns into compost. That’s why no scavenger is needed to clean it. In this way, he gave the technique of Sulabh magic toilets as a replacement to the ‘Baltinuma’ toilets, which could solve this major problem of the society. He said that Sulabh has constructed 15 lakh toilets, across the country, which are still running properly today. He said that they work along with government officials. The

Dr Pathak converted many Valmikis into Brahmins and insisted that like religious conversion, there should be caste conversion

Speech By Dr Bindeshwar Pathak

follow-up on toilets is necessary. The government should provide loans from banks to build toilets, only then the desired target can be achieved. The Sulabh International founder said that after Gandhi if anyone has talked the most about cleanliness and toilets, then that would be Prime Minister Narendra Modi. Today even the children are focusing on cleanliness. Dr. Pathak said that one lakh toilets can now be made any instant, in which six lakh people will be employed, and in its construction process masons and laborers will also find work. He said that we have to eliminate the notion that the bigger the man, the lesser the work. Now everyone has to work. Only when citizens, institutions and government work together, then only a total access to cleanliness is possible. In his welcome speech, Mr. G. Prasanna Kumar, Director General of Haryana Public Administration Institute, said that to make ‘Clean Gurugram’, ‘Clean Haryana’ and ‘Clean India’, we have to begin the process of sanitation from our homes. He said that h has known Sulabh and Dr. Pathak for the last 42 years, when he had constructed toilets in Bhiwani.

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He requested the people to go to the campus of Sulabh in Delhi, where they can see how much work is being done for the sanitation campaign. Underlining the change in her life, the President of Sulabh International, and former rehabilitated scavenger, Mrs. Usha Chaumar said that she has lived two lives in one life. She said that she had been living a life of hell earlier, but then got included in the mainstream of the society when Sulabh took her under its wings and gave her the tag of a Brahmin. She said that with this she not only got rid of her dirty profession but also out of ‘ghunghat’. While paying her gratitude to Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak for changing her life like this, she said that she has not seen Gandhiji but for her Dr. Pathak is Gandhi and God. She said that Alwar has undergone a vast change today. The Brahmins who never used to touch them before, now invite them to weddings in their homes, sit together, feed them and offer gifts. Regarding the cleanliness of the country, Mrs Chumad said that when she goes to other countries, the cleanliness there gives her a peace of mind and sher appealed for the same in India.


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Ramayana

FEBRUARY 12 - 18, 2018

Quick Glance

Ramayana

The epic of many journeys – Ramayana Ramayana, with various versions, is a common heritage that binds India to ASEAN n

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The Ramayana wove ethics, devotion, wisdom and values into one extraordinary narrative allegory

The epic is seen as a shared heritage of India and ASEAN

India, ASEAN & Ramayana

Lakshmana (not Rama) vs Ravana Rama is a follower of non-violence in the Jain Ramayana

One tale, many interpretations

Ramayana was initially the tale of journey of Lord Rama. The story is simple, about the good king Rama who fights and is victorious over the evil Ravana. It spreads the message of dharma, karma, loyalty, devotion to parents and duty towards citizens. It then became about our own

The presentation recognises its contemporaneity and symbolism

always interlace Rama’s nobility and Sita’s loyalty in the varied settings. Rama, who shone like the morning sun and never spoke ill of others, is said to reside as a pure virtue in the heart of everyone.

Swastika tripathi

amayana is the saga of love, friendship and bravery, and an exemplar of the victory of light over darkness. The epic has inspired poets, painters, sculptors, dancers and musicians as well as millions of seekers of the spirit and of solace, for ages. The Ramayana, a multi-layered chronicle, wove ethics, devotion, wisdom and values into one extraordinary narrative allegory. It is one of the world’s longest epics and called the ‘adi-kavya’, the first of the poems. It has had primal influence on the faith, culture and art of India. Its exploration of the concepts of duty and righteousness permeated Indian philosophy and literature. The Ramayana’s imagery and symbolism were so powerful that the epic easily made its way into the consciousness of people beyond India. The tale of Ramayana travelled beyond our shores, and became highly indigenous with various elements of the tale changing suitably to match the local cultural ethos. The travellers, storytellers, artists and philosophers have proudly carries the sacred epic across centuries, countries, cultures, languages and art forms.

The tale of Ramayana travelled beyond Indian shores

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n this version, Rama is a follower of non-violence. So, it is Lakshmana who kills Ravana and both of them go to hell. Rama, in the end, renounces his kingdom

individual journeys towards the ideal that is Lord Rama. This powerful allegory of twin journeys has lured people over centuries to journeys of their own, inward and outward. Thus, this epic of many journeys became Ramayanas. Originally written in Sanskrit by sage Valmiki, the Ramayana has been interpreted in different ways in different countries. These

and becomes a Jain monk and eventually attains moksha. He also predicts that both Lakshmana and Ravana will be re-born as upright persons and attain salvation. In a yet another interesting version of the Jain Ramayana is the one where Sita is Ravana’s daughter. In Jain versions, Rama, Lakshmana and Ravana are followers of Jainism. Those who have faith in tirthankaras don’t believe in the concept of a creator and creation, preservation or destruction. Since there isn’t a God who creates the universe, preserves it and later destroys it, the concept of Rama as an avatar also doesn’t exist in the Jain versions of the epic.

adaptations take the basic plot of Valmiki’s Ramayana but modify it according to the culture of their own communities. It is then represented in different ways in their literature, dance, theatre and also temple architecture. People did not always remember the origin of their own Ramayana. The epic’s name changed, as did those of its characters, but one could

The main characters of the epic – Rama, Sita, Lakshmana, Hanuman and Ravana – are deeply embedded in the cultural consciousness of South and Southeast Asia. The tale is a significant tradition for millions who now live in all continents, has become a global text, a highlight of the global theatre. The epic Ramayana is seen as a shared heritage of the eastern world and the saga is a popular theme for theatre presentation in ASEAN (The Association of South-East Asian Nations) countries. India enjoys strong civilizational links with all ASEAN countries. Ramayana, as it is performed in the various ASEAN countries, is not only a reflection of the strong cultural and civilizational links India has with them but it is also a bond which is their common heritage and binds them to each other. A year-long exhibition in Singapore on the mythological text, ‘Ramayana Revisited – A tale of love & adventure’, at the Peranakan Museum, ignited the exploration of the role the story plays as a cultural unifier for the Asian region.

The Ramayanas of ASEAN

The epic finds mention in Malay Peninsula in the form of Hikayat Maharaja Wana and Hikayat Seri Rama, composed in late 16th century. In these, the most interesting variant is the relationship between Maharaja Wana (Ravana) and Siti Dewi (Sita), who are biological father and daughter. Furthermore, Hanuman Kera Putih (Hanuman) is also depicted as the son of Seri Rama (Rama), born to him in his former life as Dewa Berembun (Lord Vishnu). Malays also believe that Hanuman built the causeway


Ramayana

FEBRUARY 12 - 18, 2018

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Renderings of Ramayana within India With multiple versions in India itself, there are about 300 variants of the Ramayana STATE-wise

Tamil Nadu – The Tamil

to Langkapuri (Lanka) singlehandedly and managed to dissuade the fish princess, Puteri Ikan, from destroying it by marrying her. Interestingly, Hanuman’s marriage with the mermaid also finds mention in the Thai and Khmer variants of the epic. In the Thai Ramakein, composed in 1798, Thotsakan’s (Ravana’s) abduction of Nang Sida (Sita) is presented sympathetically as an act of love and his fall is depicted with sadness. Meanwhile, we find the depiction of various episodes of the Cambodian Reamker on the carved reliefs at world-famous temples of Angkor

Wat, Banteay Srei and Baphuon, built around the 10th century. In Laos too, the epic is prevalent as Myongsing Ramayana, Phra Lak Phra Lam and Guay Duorahbi. In Myanmar, the two variants, Rama Thagyin and Maha Rama, composed in the 18th and 19th centuries respectively, are very popular. The Filipinos know Ramayana as Maharadia Lawana and Vietnam’s famous dance-drama lakhon bassac depicts their variant of the epic. In Indonesia, the epic was written in 10th century as Kakawin Ramayana with its influence also

Who’s who in ASEAN Ramayanas The counterparts of Indian Ramayana characters

INDIA

Ram Sita Lakshman Hanuman Ravan Vali Sugriva

MALAYSIA

Seri Rama Siti Dewi Laksmana Hanuman Kera Putih Maharaja Wana Balya Raja Sugriwa

BRUNEI Seri Rama Siti Dewi Laksmana Hanoman Rawana

THAILAND Phra Ram Nang Sida Phra Lak Hanuman Thotsakan Phali Thirat Sukhrip

SINGAPORE Rama Sita Lakshmana Hanuman Ravana

VIETNAM

Po Liem Sita General Hanuman Demon Riep

MYANMAR Yama Thida Lakhana Hanuman Dasagiri Bali

INDONESIA Rama Sinta Laksmana Hanoman Rawana Subali Sugriwa

PHILIPPINES

Prince Bantugan Princess Gandingan Hanuman Maharadia Lawana

LAOS

Phra Ram Nang Sida Phra Lak Hanoumane Thotsakane Sangkhip Palichane

CAMBODIA Preah Rama Neang Seda Preah Leak Hanuman Krong Reap Vali Sugriva

Kambaramayanam, a popular version, written by peot Kamban in the 12th century. Andhra Pradesh – The Sri Ranganatha Ramayanam was adapted by Gona Budda Reddy and is the Telegu version of the Ramayana between 1300 and 1310 A.D. The Molla Ramayanamu was adapted by poet Molla. The most extensive work in Telegu is that of Sri Viswanadha Satyanarayana, called the Srimadramayana Kalpavrikshamu. This is a free retelling of the Valmiki Ramayana. It was awarded the first Jnanpith award in Telugu, for which the poet was later acclaimed as Kavi Samrat. Karnataka–The Kannada versions of the Ramayana – the Kumudendu Ramayana (a Jain version), written in the 13th century and the Kumara-Valmiki Torave Ramayana, written in the 16th century. There is another version titled Ramachandra Charita Purana written by Nagachandra during the 13th century. Assam – Saptakanda Ramayana, The Assamese Katha Ramayana or Kotha Ramayana in the 14th century by Madhava Kandali. Bengal – The Bengali Krittivasi Ramayan written by Krittibas Ojha in the 15th century. Goa – Ramayanu written by Krishnadasa Shama in the 15th century in Kardalipura, Goa, in Konkani, manuscripts found in Portugal. Kerala – The Malayalam language Kannassa Ramayanam written by Niranam Rama Panicker in the 16th century, Adhyatma Ramayanam Kilipattu written by Thunchaththu Ezhuthachan in the 16th century (the most popular one) and

permeating to Wayang Kulit – one of the oldest and most revered forms of shadow puppet theatre in that region. Interestingly, some variants here include the story of Arjuna Pramada, which elaborates the meeting of Krishna and Arjuna, with Rama and Lakshmana. It says that during the construction of Situbanda (causeway) between South India and Sri

Mappila Ramayanam among the Muslims. Maharashtra – The Marathi Bhavartha Ramayana written by Eknath in the 16th century. There is also reference of a Ramayana being translated into old Marathi during the 12th or 13th century. Orrisa – The Oriya Dandi Ramayana or Jagamohan Ramayana was adapted by Balram Das in the 16th century. Uttar Pradesh – The Ramcharitmanas written by Goswami Tulsidas in the 16th century is the Ramayana version popular in North India. Gujarat – The Tulsi-Krta Ramayana is a Gujarati adaptation of Tulsidas’ Ramcharitamanas in the 17th century, by the poet Premanand Swami. Jammu and Kashmir – The Kashmiri Ramavatara Charita was written in the 19th century. Telangana – The Telugu Geya Kavyam Manthenna Ramayanam, also known as Manthani Ramayana written by Sri Muddu Balam Bhattu.

Tongue-wise

Kannada – Two prose works

by Nanadalike Lakshminarayana (‘Muddanna’) entitled Adbhuta Ramayana (1895) and Ramaswamedham (1898). Urdu – The version called the Pothi Ramayana was written in the 17th century.

Lanka, Arjuna, on the request of Rama, fires an arrow towards Alengka (Lanka) creating the bridge instantly. Every presentation of the epic is recognition of its contemporaneity, its many levels of inspiration and symbolism. Reinterpreted ceaselessly by the creative genius of the artists and storytellers, it has traversed across centuries.


16

February 12 - 18, 2018

Mother Loving Saint of Dakshineshwar

“I believe that for every illness or ailment known to man, that God has a plant out here that will heal it. We just need to keep discovering the properties for natural healing”

A towering spiritual Hindu priest, who had also taken initiation into Islam and Christianity, explained Advaita Vedanta in a villager’s idioms

Vannoy Fite,

Natural healer and Herbalist

he changed the tide February 12 is observed as Swami Dayanand Saraswati Jayanti

“I

n this strange creation of God, he was a unique warrior and wonderful architect to give a living shape to human and humanly institutions” – Indian philosopher Sri Aurobindo very aptly penned the character of Swami Dayananda Saraswati. When Indians were enslaved, suffering, stranded in different ethnic conflicts, confronted with invasions, at that time Maharishi Dayananda Saraswati came forth as a beam of light that over-powered the darkness. Born on February 12, 1824, Dayanand Saraswati was a renowned scholar of the Vedic lore. His main message – “Back to the Vedas” – formed the bedrock of all his thoughts and actions. He toured the entire country and delivered fiery speeches. He abhorred child marriage and welcomed the advancement of science and technology and modern thinking. The first to coin the term ‘Swaraj’, Maharishi Dayananda viewed the Vedas as the source of all science and knowledge and advocated the right understanding of their meaning and import. He showed the Hindus how going back to the roots of their faith – the Vedas – they can improve their lot as well as the social, political, and economic conditions of the then India. His thoughts were a label of dynamic realism. Who isn’t aware about ‘Arya Samaj’, the noble society which promotes values and practices based on the infallibility of the Vedas? In April 1875, Swami Dayananda founded the Arya Samaj and created its 10 principles aimed at advancing the individual and society through the physical, spiritual and social betterment of the human race.

Editor-in-Chief

Kumar Dilip Edited, Printed and Published by: Monika Jain on behalf of Sulabh Sanitation Mission Foundation, owned by Sulabh Sanitation Mission Foundation Printed at: The Indian Express Limited A - 8, Sector -7, NOIDA (UP) Published at: RZ - 83, Mahavir Enclave, Palam - Dabri Road, New Delhi - 110045 (India) Corporate Office: 819, Wave Silver Tower, Sector - 18, NOIDA (UP) Phone: +91-120-6500425 Email: editor@sulabhswachhbharat.com, ssbweekly@gmail.com

n Sujit Chakraborty

Have you seen God?” The question was from a clean-shaven youth with wavy hair and large, rather disturbed eyes. The unbelieving youth was Narendranath Dutta, who the world would later know as Swami Vivekananda. It was the year 1884. Narendranath’s father, a rich lawyer till he had lived, had died and the family fell into serious financial troubles. Having always been interested in spiritualism, and especially in direct intuitive connect with the Supreme, a disturbed Naren, advised by his mentor, Dr William Hastie, principal of Calcutta’s premier college, Scottish Church, had visited Ramakrishna. Have you seen God? Naren had asked. The answer came from a person with a scraggly beard, balding slightly, and a peculiar style of wearing his dress. “Of course,” said the saint. “Just as I am seeing you.” The answer was shocking to the young man. The unbelieving youth then asked, “Can you show him to me?” Ramakrishna asked, “Do you really want to see?” On Naren’s assurance, Ramakrishna touched him on his chest with his right hand. Immediately, Naren went into a spiritual ecstasy, almost a delirium. This article not being meant to be one on Vivekananda, why do we narrate this here? Because this perhaps explains most graphically the ideal of Thakur Ramakrishna Paramhansa: Experiential Oneness with the Supreme Being.

Saint in Making

Biographically put, Ramakrishna was born Gadadhar Chattopaddhyay in a penurised family in the Kamarpukur village of Hooghly District in then undivided Bengal on February 18, 1836. Kamarpukur had two features, both conducive to spiritual growth. First, it was till then untouched by Calcutta’s city culture, and was marked by idyllic farms and ponds, orchards and cattle fields. The second remarkable feature was it lay bang on the route of pilgrims and mendicants travelling to Gaya, Varanasi and other holy places, so the little Gadadhar had constant interaction with these holy persons and learnt his Ramayan, Mahabharat and Vedanta, etc, by hearing these roaming scholars. It is in this milieu in which his elder

brother, Ramkumar, left him in search for survival in Calcutta. By that time, Rani Rashmoni, another towering Bengal Renaissance figure and hugely wealthy and powerful widow, had set up the Dakshineshwar Kali Mandir. Ramkumar was employed there was the head priest. He soon brought over Gadadhar, whose esoteric experiences and spiritual ecstasy even as a child had become legend. In this manner, Ramkumar, Gadadhar and their nephew Hriday, settled down in Dakshineshwar. Gadadhar was in charge of dressing the Mother Kali. When Ramkumar died, Gadadhar was made the chief priest, but was soon plagued by detractors who wanted the ‘mad man’ to be removed from the post of the priest of such a rich temple. Rashmoni’s second son-in-law, Mathur Biswas, managed Rashmoni’s huge estate. The detractors frequently complained about the ‘insane’ Gadhadhar, also known as Ramakrishna: He has no mind for proper rituals, they griped. Instead of offering the bhog, or ritual food to the Devi, he would be frequently seen talking to her and embracing her to plead her to partake of the meal. And when She did not, Ramakrishna would say: “Oh, you will not have it? So, I will have it,” and he gobbled the food. His relation with the Goddess was one of a demanding child. And though the detractors said Ramakrishna actually wanted to capture the temple wealth, he


February 12 - 18, 2018

had no desire for it Mathur Babu, however, told the detractors that Ramakrishna would alone deal with the temple. But having said that, Mathur Babu secretly went to watch Ramakrishna’s rituals. What he saw left Mathur Babu in a trance. And he came and announced: “Leave him alone… he is no ordinary man!” In between, Ramakrishna was married to Sharadamoni, but the marriage was never consummated. Instead, he would make her sit in front of her and worship as Mother Goddess.

Spiritual Wanderer

Despite being a Hindu priest, he had taken initiation into both Christianity and Islam. During his involvement with the two religions, he said he abhorred the worshiping of a deity, and he also said that he had divine sense of merging with Christ and Mohammad. In 1861, Ramakrishna accepted Bhairavi Brahmani, who appeared from nowhere in Dakshineshwar, and requested him to be her disciple. Bhairavi trained him into tantra, whose last rituals would put off any ordinary reader, being so repugnant. Before his trysts with Islam and Christianity, he had been initiated into Ram Bhakti and Bhaishnava Bhakti. In 1865, Ramakrishna was initiated into sannyasa by Totapuri, who trained Ramakrishna in Advaita Vedanta, the Hindu philosophy which emphasises non-dualism: “Brahman alone is real, and the world is illusory.” Under the guidance of Totapuri, Ramakrishna reportedly experienced nirvikalpa samadhi, which is considered to be the highest state in spiritual realisation. Ramakrishna’s sayings have been collated by many, but especially “Shri M”, or Dr Mahendra Gupta, and soon the saint was surrounded by the top intellectuals in Bengal, including some erudite Englishmen. Dr Hastie, teaching English literature and trying to explain the concept or ‘trance’, told his students that if they wanted to know its “real meaning”, they should go to “Ramakrishna of Dakshineswar”. Interestingly, despite his erudition, Thakur Ramakrishna never dabbled in spiritual riddles. He explained the basics of Vedanta in simple village idioms. For instance, he’d say: “Live like a maid servant who works for someone else, but whose mind and heart are always in her open home.” Or on detachment: “Be like the swan. Come out of the pond and shrug off all the water from your body.” And again, “Live inside a room of kohl, but emerge untouched by the black!” The depth of such profound spiritual awakening cannot simply pass away with the physical demise of perhaps the greatest saint of modern India.

OpEd

17

Lose Yourself To Find Yourself

mihir paul

Mihir Paul is a graduate of Philosophy and Psychology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States

upfront

You have to lose the ego and find what lies beyond and deeper within

T

he idea that you have to find the purpose of your life, or the source or the goal of your life has caused immense damage to spiritual seekers and set them up on an empty, endless run. Ignorant people have constantly goaded spiritual seekers to somehow find themselves. Maybe to start off on the path, you need a fruit to attract you because you only work with temptation – so something needs to be set up. But spirituality is not about finding yourself, it is about losing yourself. You are willing to lose everything that you call as “myself”. If you try to find yourself, you will be on an endless run. A human being is constantly longing to be something more than what he is right now. If he knows only money, he is thinking of a little more money; if he knows power, a little more power; if he knows love, a little more love. There is something within him which will not settle for who he

is. In whatever way you know best, you are trying to be a little more because there is something within you which does not like boundaries, which is looking for a boundless experience. Working Inside Out If you work to lose yourself, to become a nothing and a nobody, then you are no longer trapped inside the house. You begin to operate and experience a little beyond this. Slowly, as the walls of the home become more porous, it allows you the possibility of being beyond the physical. If you want to lose yourself, the most fundamental thing is your

likes and dislikes. Everything else is based upon this. Most human beings have built their personality only on the basis of what they like and what they dislike. Essentially, your personality is all about your likes and dislikes. If you like something, it gets exaggerated in your mind positively. If you dislike something, it gets exaggerated negatively. Do you want to spend your life doing your silly drama in your mind or do you want to know this life and experience it, or at least be touched by this life. That is why life is here, so that it happens in full force and blossoms into its fullest possibility. Life is not here for you to do your own drama. This is not your stage. This creation is the stage for the source of creation to dance in full glory. Life allows you a little freedom to do some side act, but don’t start thinking it is all true and cry your heart out. This is not your drama. Just allow this cosmic drama to touch you – that is what life is about.

letters to the editor 04

Tying Tradition With The future

The RSS’s top man, Mohan Bhagwat, is keeping the organisatiion abreast with the times

24

20

06 Developing Villages

A country can develop only when its villages change and develop with it

The Making Of Modi

The Visionary Speaks

The man from Gujarat has risen to power with the help of the RSS and is charting new paths

Dr Bindeshwar Pathak speaks of the Sulabh perspective on the overall idea of a clean India

bharat.com sulabhswachh FIND US

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Vol - 2 | Issue - 08 /2016/71561

RNI No. DELENG

A GOO D NEW S

| February 05 - 11,

2018 | Price ` 5/-

WEE KLY

-LESS A SYMBOL OF SELF TION CA DI DE & ICE RV SE

ed to The RSS is not confin and relief ideology. It gives s the spreads hope acros writes country. Tarun Vijay

Gift of friendship ‘Keeping Good Company’ is an article about the gift of friendship given to the human race, it is one way they can find

and select friends according to their interests. Keeping good company is must for every one of us. It solves a lot of problems that we face in our day to day lives. But after reading the article one still cannot find a solution to the problem as to what criteria and base should good company is identified. Meher Singh, Chandigarh developing nation ‘From Developing Villages to Developing the Nation’ is an exceptional article. The way it presents the concept of developing the villages to developing the nation is very inspiring. The thought

of ‘one village, one well, one crematorium’ should be mentioned along with this. RSS has been working from the grassroots to develop the nation. Articles like these are an example of looking at the methods of change in thoughts and ideologies of the common people. Kaushal Srivastava, Agra inspiring weekly Rare is the vision of having a weekly tabloid that shuns all the negativity of the usual media, especially the social media and focusses purely on good and positive news. This is truly inspiring. Anant Gupta, Varanasi

Please mail your opinion to - ssbweekly@gmail.com or Whatsapp at 9868807712


18

Photo Feature

February 12 - 18, 2018

Ramayana In Other Lands Ramayana – as retold in Southeast Asian countries is a saga of love, friendship and bravery, and an exemplar of the victory of light over darkness Photo: jairam


Photo Feature

The epic Ramayana is seen as a shared heritage of the eastern world and the saga is a popular theme for theatre presentation in ASEAN countries

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20

Ganga

February 12 - 18, 2018

Recycling Wilted Flowers A Lucrative Enterprise Two Indian engineers have come up with a novel solution to prevent ‘religious waste’ being dumped into Ganga at Kanpur

n Srawan Shukla

T

wo technocrat friends have come out with a unique‘ecofriendly solution’ to give much needed push to the Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s ‘Swachh Bharat Mission’ and ‘Namami Gange Project’ in Kanpur, rated as one of the most polluted industrial cities in Uttar Pradesh. Ganga is worst polluted in Kanpur than in Allahabad, Varanasi and other places. Not only effluents from

innumerable industries and tanneries but hundreds of tonnes of ‘religious waste’ is dumped into the river every day. To some extent, the Supreme Court / High Court and Green Tribunal orders have put a check on discharge of effluents by industries. Tanneries are now being shifted outside Kanpur. But there was no check on the religious waste which continued to choke the river.Religious belief goes that flowers, statues of gods and goddesses painted in colours with

“The holy river symbolises the purity of our cultural heritage. It is time for that purity to reflect within its waters”

Quick Glance Ankit and Karan researched into ways of cleaning Ganga The two engineers founded the Help Us Green organisation They started converting wilted flowers into usable compost chemical and other material used for offering prayers or performing ‘yajana’ are sacred and throwing them into garbage is strictly prohibited. Once wilted or used for religious purposes, dumping them into the river is the only sacred allowed in scriptures. Not many are aware of the amount of toxins, chemicals and pesticides these flowers, statues and other

material carry. Once dumped into the river, toxins they carry mingle with the water of the river polluting it beyond anyone’s imagination. Since Ganga is the most sacred river in the country, these materials are largely dumped into it. According to a conservative estimate, about 80,00,000 tonnes of religious waste which mainly include flowers, is dumped in Ganga and other rivers in the country every year. Ankit Agarwal (29) and Karan Rastogi (29), two engineering graduates, researched for two years in 2012 on a unique idea of recycling this waste from rituals, particularly flowers, into bio-fertiliser, joss sticks, lifestyle items and material used for havan /Yajna etc. “During our visit to ghats in Kanpur, we were shocked to find


Ganga

February 12 - 18, 2018

heaps of flowers rotting and flowing into Ganga polluting the river. What was shocking to us was that people were drinking that polluted and toxin-contaminated water thinking of getting ‘moksha’ and using it for other religious purposes,” said Ankit. The two had then decided to do something to ensure that this religious waste was not thrown into the holy river. “We started data collection on temples and their waste disposal and did a lot of research to develop a mechanism to recycle the religious waste into reusable items. It took us two years before we started to give shape to our flower cycling idea,” said Ankit. Working as Automation Scientist in a Pune-based software company, Ankit quit his job and returned to Kanpur. Karan too left his foreign assignment to join hands with his childhood friend to start something unheard of. They founded an organization called ‘HelpusGreen’ with a motto of ‘Reviving the Ganges through Livelihoods’. The duo started off their operations with only Rs 75,000. Initially, they started collecting about 300 kgs of wilted and disposed flowers from about a dozen temples in Kanpur on daily basis. “When we shared our ideas with others of collecting flowers from temples and recycling them into bio-fertilizers and other products, people called us crazy and having lost our minds to quit the cozy highsalaried jobs to take up menial work. But our parents and family members supported us in this unique Ganga cleaning project,” said Karan. Since they did not have any workshop or factory, they would split the daily collection and take it home for recycling. The flowers are

mixed with organic cow dung and treated with as many as 17 natural components including corn cobs, coffee residue, used tea leaves etc to generate nitrogen. After a few days, earthworms are added into the mixture to turn it into varmicompost. The entire process takes about 60 days to get the bio-fertilizer as the end product,” claimed Ankit. The duo named their unique product as ‘Mitti’. Within a year, both the friends did brisk business and saved enough to buy land in Bhaunti village on the city outskirts to setup a recycling plant and open an office there. While 80 per cent of the flowers are used for developing varmicompost, remaining 20 per cent are used for making joss sticks, materials used for havan/yajna and other life-style items.

21 23

Within a year, both friends saved enough to buy land in Bhaunti village on the city outskirts to set up a recycling plant After seeing their noble work, the management committees of temples, Gurdwaras and mosques too extended their support to the duo. They would keep used and disposed flowers in a bin for collection by the HelpusGreen staff. Today, the organization collects about 800 kgs of flowers from 29 temples, three mosques and about half a dozen Gurudwars in Kanpur. The daily collection is only 1/3rd of the total flower waste generation of 2400 kgs a day in the city. Suddenly, Ganga looked cleaner than before. Even the priests of temples near Ghats would persuade devotees not to throw flowers and religious waste into Ganga but put them into bins placed on the banks for recycling by HelpusGreen. “We are expanding our operations to target collecting entire religious waste from all places of worship in Kanpur and Bithoor,” claimed Ankit. Today HelpusGreen has given employment to about 85 women of different self-help group in their plant recycling flowers into biofetilizer, joss sticks and other natural products. “We don’t use any chemical or compound for fragrance in our brand of joss sticks. They have aroma of all natural flowers,” said Ankit proudly. “We like the work of turning

flowers into incense sticks without using any chemicals. What is good about the organization is that they pay handsome and there are flexible hours of working. Usually we take flower dough home to make joss sticks. It gels well without affecting our family household chores,” said Priti, a worker at the plant. Today, natural products made by HelpusGreen are being exported to Switzerland and Germany and are available on world’s biggest online mafkets like Flipkart and Amzaon etc. From the sale of few thousand, the company’s turnover within two years has gone over Rs 3 crore. Recently, they have bagged an order of Rs 4 crore from IIT Kanpur also. What is more unique about HelpusGreen natural products is their packaging. All their items are wrapped and packaged in recycled packaging, usually made from environment-friendly seed paper packets which will grow into plants once discarded. The duo have big plans to expand their business taking it to Allahabad, Varanasi, Ayodhya, Mathura-Vrindavan and other places of religious importance to make the rivers in these cities cleaner and free from religious waste rotting in them.


22

Northeast

February 12 - 18, 2018

e-nam

STRAWBERRIES SMILE IN BENGAL e-Nam, the agricultural portal has been impacting heavily both farmers and consumers of the state n Prasanta Paul

O

nion is being sold at Rs 23 per kg in the wholesale markets of Kolhapur in Maharastra; this is in contrast to the price of onion (Rs 44 per kg) in the markets of Kolkata and the price in retail is anywhere between Rs 50 and Rs 60. Brinjal in Akbarpur wholesale market of Uttar Pradesh is being sold around Rs 8 per kg in contrast to Rs 22 in Kolkata; retail price of brinjal in Kolkata is between Rs 40 and 45. Potato’s wholesale price in West Bengal is Rs 3.80 as against Rs 5 in any of the wholesale markets in Maharastra or Madhya Pradesh. Blame it on the failure of West Bengal in getting connected to the all India electronic agricultural platform (e-NAM i.e National Agricultural Marketing portal) which has been impacting both the farmers and consumers of the state. In fact, e-NAM, the agricultural portal of the union government which was launched by Prime Minister Modi on April, 2016, has succeeded in establishing a chain between wholesale traders and wholesale customers among more than 475 remote agricultural markets of the country. The wholesale traders, after registering themselves in the portal, have been trading in more than 90 varieties of agricultural products across India. Among many an important measure for agricultural reforms that the Narendra Modi government has so far undertaken since assumption of power in 2014, e-NAM is one of them ; through this portal, the marginal farmers have been immensely benefited as not only could they avoid the nexus between middlemen and other non-traders for getting a right price for their produce, the farmers can now get the actual information of the price of various listed agricultural products that are up for sale in the wholesale markets of the country, merely by clicking the mouse on the portal. After dillydallying for a long time, the West Bengal state agricultural

Quick Glance e-Nam has established a chain between wholesalers and consumers e-Nam was originally launched in April 2016 Marginal farmers have immensely benefited from e-Nam

department has now decided to connect to this portal and around 16 markets producing various agricultural products will shortly start trading through e-NAM. Among the markets that will figure in the site from Bengal are Siliguri, Bishnupur, Karimpur, Dhupguri, Parulia and Karimpur besides Phalakata. “ These 16 markets specialise in certain key agri products which have demand across the country. “The farmers in these markets, it’s true, have been suffering owing to lack of promotional efforts to market their produce,” said Sanatan Hazra, a senior officer in the state agricultural department. Prices of vegetables in city markets have

been quite exhorbitant this winter and there has been hardly any let up in them. Prices of cucumber, carrot and peas among others have been ruling very high and only potato, which grows abundantly in Bengal these days, has not hit consumers below the belt. According to the state agricultural minister Tapan Dasgupta, the state government has convened a meeting of the state agricultural distribution board this month where the members would discuss inclusion of other markets from the state in the portal to facilitate easy trading of the several other agricultural products in various parts of the country. Among the

e-Nam has established a link between wholesalers and customers in more than 475 remote villages

products in West Bengal that have the potential to trigger a bull run in the e-market are strawberry and pineapple, both grown in North Bengal. Strawberries which once used to be imported from Patna, are being grown abundantly in Siliguri, thanks to pioneering initiative of the Centre for Floriculture and AgriManagement department of the North Bengal University. Speaking over phone from Siliguri, the department spokesman Amarendra Pandey said, “ We mainly provide guidance to alternative farming to farmers when they are tired of growing traditional items like jute, rice or wheat. We have given guidance to a farmer about growing strawberries in view of the temperate climate in North Bengal; and now, he’s keen on expanding his cultivation.” Sukumar Mallik, the farmer,


Northeast

February 12 - 18, 2018

23

Bengal

who once thought of selling out his parental land in view of a drastic fall in the production of rice, approached the floriculture department in the North Bengal University. The department advised him to plant strawberry seeds after a proper mix of organic farming, especially cow-dung in the soil, Mallik hardly wasted time and did exactly what he was asked to do. He not only reaped a bumper harvest, the taste of the strawberries was so tantalising that once his produce would reach the wholesale market, traders would start bidding among themselves for awarding him the highest price ! Sukumar’s yield of strawberry from one bigha of land is more than 15 kg and he sells the same in the wholesale market at a price between Rs 450 and 500 per kg. No wonder Sukumar is endeavouring to expand his business by buying out lands from the neighbouring farmers. Other farmers who have seen Sukumar’s fortunes skyrocketing fast, have now begun approaching the North Bengal University to help them grow strawberries. “ We expect Siliguri will shortly turn into a major strawberry producing area by end of this year as it does not take much time for the fruit to grow,” Pandey pointed out. But why the delay on the part of the West Bengal government in enlisting the markets of the state in the national e-portal? According to sources in the state agricultural department, the union agricultural ministry imposed certain conditions for enrolment of the Bengal markets in the portal. The conditions envisaged simplification of the methods of sale and purchase of items under the West Bengal Agricultural Produces Marketing (Regulation) Act. The Small Farmers’ Agri-business Consortium which has been constituted under the aegis of the union agricultural ministry for launching and monitoring the portal, has asked the state government to first bring the markets under e-trading, introduce a single licence to enable the traders to trade through the e-platform and create a single-point levy collection centre to abolish any practice of multi-level collection. Since the Act of the state did not have the necessary provisions, markets of West Bengal failed to register themselves in the e-portal at the beginning. With the state government introducing the required amendments in the act, the markets are now free to enrol themselves and start the e-trading from early February, sources said.

Japan Steps In To Construct Cold Chain The quality of the strawberry being produced at Siliguri, has impressed Japanese officials n Prasanta Paul

K

wa s ak i - R i k u s o Transportation Co, Ltd, formerly a subsidiary of Nissan Motor Corporation, Japan, has evinced interest in providing technical assistance to Sukumar Mullik in the scientic preservation of the strawberry variety that he has been producing in his farm in Matigara, off Siliguri in North Bengal. A top delegation from KRT which visited Mullik’s farm middle of January this year felt that the company could provide him with technical know-how to further improve production and subsequent preservation of this rich variery of strawberry. KRT has already made its presence felt in West Bengal, with the

company undertaking construction of a state-of-the-art cold storage for preservation of fruits and crops at Singur in Hooghly district. Quoting the KRT Indian director Paran Das, Mr Pandey said the quality of the strawberry being produced at Siliguri, has impressed the Japanese officials who, in turn, expressed their eagerness to establish a `cold chain’ in the state to enable the farmers to obtain the right price for their produce. A cold storage like the one being built in Singur, could revolutionise the farming prospects in North Bengal as a large number of fruits and other vegetables perish in this part of the state in view of an acute lack of proper facilities for preservation, he pointed out. The KRT officials had reportedly

expressed their surprise and dismay after having learnt that the farmers in North Bengal have perforce to literally throw away their produce in the backyard of their gardens as they fail to preserve the excess production in view of a near-absence of a proper cold storage in the region. Barring KRT, no investor has so far evinced any interest in investing in this kind of a cold chain in North Bengal. Not only Mullik, but other farmers of the region are quite excited about the KRT proposal. The proposed KRT cold chain, when implemented, could ring in a new era in agriculture in North Bengal.

sensors

Teens Design Sensor That Detects LPG Leaks Two Bengaluru teens have designed a sensor which can detect gas leaks and alert people in advance

n G ULAGANATHAN

A

s the incidents of accidental explosions and fires caused by domestic gas cylinders keeps increasing, two Bengaluru youngsters , both teenagers, have designed a sensor which can detect gas leaks and alert people in advance. Purushottam N (14), a Class 9 student of Government High School, Uttarahalli, and his sister Shravani N (16), a first-year Pre-university Commerce student of Dayanand Sagar College, have

designed the sensor to exhibit it at the college’s talent search competition. Purushottam says , “To solve the problem of accidental fires and explosions of gas cylinders, we used Arduino Uno, a micro-controller, MQ5 sensor, which exclusively senses LPG gas, LCD, a potentiometer (an instrument for measuring voltage) to increase and decrease the voltage of the LCD, and an LED and a buzzer for the output. If there is a gas leak, the LED turns red and the servomotor will turn off the cylinder automatically.” “The buzzers will also set off. Our objective is to save women, especially mothers. We would also like to integrate

the GSM technology also as it will also be able to send messages, too,” he adds. The teenagers’ innovation gains significance from the fact that the total number of accidental deaths from cooking gas cylinder and stove explosions in India was 3,667 during 2015, according to the National Crime Records Bureau. In Karnataka, there were 359 deaths during 2015. Of the total 3,667 dead, 2,736, or 74.6 per cent, were women. The teenagers’ parents -Krishnamurthy N, an autodriver, and Kalavathi N, a tailor -- said they felt proud of their children’s achievement and hoped that their innovation would help bring down the deaths due to LPG leaks.


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excerpts from the book: “NARENDRA DAMODAR MODI: the making of a legend�

February 12 - 18, 2018

The Emergence as a National Leader Even his worst critics cannot deny that Narendra Modi is a living legend, a charismatic global leader of modern times. His rise from humble origins to become Prime Minister of the world’s largest democracy in 2014 is the stuff legends are made of. In the run-up to the 2014 elections, he emerged on the national scene like a colossus and led a spellbinding campaign with his brilliant oratory and boundless energy. His every word, every gesture, every move and every action was superbly crafted, and the enchanted nation saw in him the paragon of a progressive, pro-active and tech savvy leader. Conquering all obstacles and opposition, he won the largest election ever conducted anywhere in the world for his party almost single-handedly. Since then, even his critics accede that Narendra Modi is a phenomenon, a phenomenon unlike any other

Gujarat Chief Minister Narendera Modi interacts with students at the Shri Ram College of Commerce Management Festival Business Conclave, 2013 in New Delhi.


February 12 - 18, 2018

N

arendra Modi has a dynamic and commanding personality. Physically, he is not very tall, but is broad shouldered with a captivating aura around him. He is impeccably dressed in a manner that is most suitable for the occasion. Above all, he is a gifted leader and an exceptional orator capable of mesmerising his audience for hours on end. He speaks extempore and hardly refers to notes even if he carries them with him. It becomes apparent that he has done his homework meticulously and is quite sure of what he wants to tell his audience. As a communicator, he is at par with the best that the world has seen in the recent decades, such as Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton, Margaret Thatcher and Barack Obama. The third consecutive state assembly victory of Narendra Modi in 2012 gave a major boost to his stature as a foremost BJP leader. At that stage, it became quite evident that he would be playing a larger role for his party on the national stage. All eyes were on the manner in which he would take the next step in his political journey. The atmosphere was rife with speculation of the timing for his movement from Gujarat towards Raisina Hill in New Delhi. An enormously popular leader in his state, Narendra Modi aged 62 then, had no doubt in his mind about the significance of his victory in the state assembly election. To him, and to thousands of his

If one were to think of a single event that propelled Narendra Modi into the national consciousness post2012, it was his inspiring 59-minute speech to students and alumni at Delhi University’s prestigious Shri Ram College of Commerce

excerpts from the book: “NARENDRA DAMODAR MODI: the making of a legend”

25

I am coming from the land of Gujarat. I am coming from the land of Mahatma Gandhi and I am coming from the land of Sardar Patel. Many great people have sacrificed, spent their youth in prison, done penance, given up their lives, so that our land may get freedom. And because of their tireless efforts, this dream became reality. Since Swaraj (self governance), it has been more than six decades, but the nation is still waiting for Su-raaj (Good governance). There is no alternative to development. The nation has been destroyed by vote bank politics. The nation needs development politics. If the nation’s politics are based on development, then there can be great changes in this nation. Narendra Modi

Senior BJP leader Murli Manohar Joshi embraces Narendra Modi after the latter was declared the party's prime ministerial candidate for the 2014 Lok Sabha polls, on September 13, 2013 in New Delhi.

supporters, it cemented his position as a national alternative not only to then Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh, but also to many among the BJP top brass. Delivering a long speech in Hindi that was clearly meant for a wider national audience, Narendra Modi used his third victory in state elections to remove what one major daily called the rough edges in his personality. He was deliberate and deft in using his already renowned public oratory skills to seek the pardon of “six crore Gujaratis” for “any past mistakes”. He was deliberate in his appeal to the electorate of Gujarat which had given him power to now give him their blessings so that he “would not make any mistakes in future either.” He pointedly mentioned that

“good economics makes for good politics”, and by that norm, therefore, “good governance can bring electoral dividends”. The running theme of that speech was to highlight the disconnect of his rivals with the electorate. Carping political pundits were made fun of for underestimating him, even as supporters raucously indicated that they wanted their beloved leader to be in South Block as Prime Minister. There was a growing feeling surfacing in society, that “Modi must be doing something right which the BJP could ill afford to overlook.” The election result confirmed that Modi was more than a match for the combined might of the Congress, the breakaway faction led by former BJP chief minister Keshubhai Patel,

Praveen Togadia’s Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP) and other activists, who left no stone unturned to keep the memory of the February 2002 communal riots alive. To cut the long story short, the stage was set for a political realignment both within and outside the BJP.

The catalytic speech at Shri Ram College of Commerce, New Delhi Narendra Modi addressed about 1,800 students, girls more than boys, at the Shri Ram College of Commerce (SRCC) on February 6, 2013. The address made him a rock star; a darling of the media. His speech instantly connected Narendra Modi with the youth; an enduring bond was established between them.


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excerpts from the book: “NARENDRA DAMODAR MODI: the making of a legend”

Playing to the gallery and to a generation that had gotten used to watching captivating and commontouch speeches of U.S. President Barack Obama, Modi was at his element. It is no wonder, that a majority decided then and there, that he was the right man to lead India into the future. With this, Modi pioneered a “political mantra” hitherto unknown in India. He established that, if a politician aiming to lead the country in an aspirational and I-me-myself era, does not seize an opportunity of addressing the urban youth in a premier institution, he or she is a fool and unfit to be a politician. In the eyes of the youth of Delhi and elsewhere, the Gujarat growth story struck the right chord. They saw in Narendra Modi an excellent moderniser and administrator, a decision-maker not scared of consequences. They saw in Modi a commanding and powerful personality responsible for Gujarat’s development. Modi’s evocation that he was a son of the soil and had come from the land where Mahatma Gandhi and Sardar Vallabhai Patel had been born and made a mark in national life also struck an emotional chord. It enhanced his appeal and popularity, making him the political superstar for the majority. His reference to P2G2 (ProPeople leads to Good Governance),

February 12 - 18, 2018

Gujarat Chief Minister Narendera Modi addressing the Shri Ram College of Commerce Management Festival Business Conclave 2013 in New Delhi.

POINTERS IN FAVOUR OF NARENDRA MODI’S CANDIDATURE FOR PRIME MINISTER

The will and ability to alter dreams into reality

The charisma and oratory to charm a crowd

Successful image makeover from a Hindu nationalist leader to a statesman with exceptional leadership qualities

A pro business leader focussed on rapid urban and rural development

Adroitness to align economic change with cultural traditions

Narrative of transforming India into a superpower with which the younger generation instantly connected

There are many leaders of the party who moulded me. They filled me with goodness. Sometimes I feel, there are leaders of the party who have done more for me than even their own children. Narendra Modi at the BJP’s National Executive Meeting in Goa

Shri Lal Krishna Advani hands over his nomination papers to an election officer as BJP prime ministerial candidate Narendra Modi looks on at Gandhinagar, Gujarat, April 5, 2014.

the call to end the feeling of despair, to see a glass half full rather than half empty, and the fact that 65 percent of India was below the age of 35, presented the image of a driven and determined leader and projected him as the most deserving candidate for Prime Minister. By the end of his speech there


February 12 - 18, 2018

excerpts from the book: “NARENDRA DAMODAR MODI: the making of a legend”

elections with a vision document that lays down its future projects, what the party says, the party will do. … Seeing your enthusiasm today, I am confident that no power can stop the BJP from victory, only your support is required. …

India is a democracy, and in a democracy, the person who is most loved by the people, becomes their leader. The Prime Minister has to be a source of inspiration. BJP will go for

was little doubt left that Narendra Modi was the type of leader India was looking for; a leader who would walk on untrodden paths to change the nation’s destiny. There was a universal acknowledgement of his being a strong, decisive, no-nonsense leader capable of steering India out of a mire of chronic corruption and inefficiency.

The build-up to the top

To Narendra Bhai, on being appointed as Chairman of the Election Campaign Committee, I extend felicitations and best wishes. Rajnath Singh the then president of BJP, at the BJP’s National Executive Meeting in Goa

The BJP carried out extensive internal debates and brainstorming before homing onto Narendra Modi as the leader chosen to lead the BJP’s 2014 electoral campaign and then as the prime ministerial candidate of the party. In the first week of March 2013, veteran party leader, Lal Krishna Advani, had welcomed the election and appointment of Rajnath Singh as the new president of the BJP. He

In our country it usually takes a decade to change a policy, but going by his speech where he talked about speed and skill, he has

the potential to bring about a change and deserves to be the next Prime Minister. Abhishek Virmani B. Com. (Honours) student at SRCC

was unaware of the dramatic changes likely to take place in the party’s leadership structure in the near future. At that point in time, Advani urged the entire party organisation to reenergise under Rajnath Singh’s leadership. He reminded the rank and file about the BJP always projecting itself as a “Party with a difference” and how it was now being perceived as a “Party with differences”. Advani spoke about the BJP taking legitimate pride in the fact that it was a non-dynastic party that valued and promoted internal democracy, but also reminded about the importance of internal cohesion at the top of the leadership ladder for sustaining inner democracy. He cautioned that internal cohesion must not be allowed to be weakened by lack of internal discipline, which had always been the hallmark of the BJP. He talked about people wanting change to end the stagnation of India’s progress and the popular mood to remove the ineffective UPA Government. He called for working more closely with like-minded parties to form a credible political alternative to the UPA, and also about the need for the BJP to prepare a strategy to win the hearts and minds of the people to become a robust, large and leading constituent of a non-Congress alternative.

And the die is cast

Having established his credentials as a leader with nationalistic vision, Narendra Modi landed in Goa to attend the BJP National Executive and BJP office bearers meeting on 7

27

Whether you’re a fan of Narendra Modi or not, you have to admire the content of his speech. The audience was youth, and every area that

Modi focused on, was an area that matters most to the young: a bright future.

Anant Rangaswami columnist and editor, Campaign India

June, 2013. He was warmly received at Dabolim Airport by Goa Chief Minister Manohar Parrikar and thousands of cheering BJP workers. The deliberations and outcome of the Goa conclave pitchforked Narendra Modi onto the national stage as the leader chosen to lead the BJP’s 2014 electoral campaign. At that stage the BJP faced a dilemma of taking this major decision in the absence of L K Advani and other senior leaders who did not turn up for the National Executive meeting in Goa as they were said to be opposed to the move. Ill health was cited as the reason for Advani’s decision to keep away from the two-day meeting, even as party leaders clamoured for Modi’s elevation as campaign head for the elections. BJP president Rajnath Singh said the conclave would end on a positive note and everyone will go back “happy, energised and enthusiastic”. Eventually, a 12-member campaign committee, led by Narendra Modi, was appointed at the Goa conclave. It included M. Venkaiah Naidu, Nitin Gadkari, Madhya Pradesh Chief Minister Shivraj Singh Chouhan, Chhattisgarh Chief Minister Raman Singh and Goa Chief Minister Manohar Parrikar. Senior party leaders Murli Manohar Joshi and Sushma Swaraj were also made part of the team. Rajnath Singh, Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Lal Krishna Advani were declared mentors.

Political turbulence caused by the decision

Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi speaks during the BJP national executive meet at Panaji, Goa on June 9, 2013.

Over a week after the Goa conclave, the BJP was confronted by another crisis. The appointment of Narendra Modi as its campaign committee chief for the 2014 Lok Sabha elections did not go down well with key ally, the Janata Dal United ( JD-


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excerpts from the book: “NARENDRA DAMODAR MODI: the making of a legend”

U) which had been a partner for 17 long years. Bihar Chief Minister Nitish Kumar was particularly peeved, though he did not say so in as many words categorically, over Narendra Modi’s elevation. On 16 June, 2013, Kumar and JD-U President Sharad Yadav formally announced their split from the BJP and the NDA. They cited “a divergence of opinion on basic issues” as their reason for leaving the NDA. Chief Minister Kumar highlighted the fact that the BJP was entering a new phase, and as long as there was no external interference in the Bihar alliance, it had run smoothly. He said problems began whenever there was external interference, and without taking the name of Modi even once during the news conference, he aimed several barbs at him. He also announced that he had recommended the removal of 11 BJP ministers from his government to the governor, as they had refused to attend to their duties. Reacting to the JD (U)’s decision, the BJP said there could be no compromise on the decision to elevate Narendra Modi, even if the NDA alliance breaks.

The final endorsement as prime ministerial candidate In view of LK Advani’s refusal to drop his opposition to Narendra

February 12 - 18, 2018

During the election campaign Narendra Modi spoke of the NDA alliance as his biggest strength. In a rare show of loyalty the BJP, under Narendra Modi, has been true to its alliance partners despite winning a clear majority in the Lok Sabha.

MDMK chief Vaiko greets Prime Minister-elect Narendra Modi in New Delhi.

Modi as the party’s prime ministerial nominee, hectic efforts commenced to convince him to give his blessings to Modi. Ending weeks of backroom manoeuvring, and at the behest of the RSS, the BJP informally named Narendra Modi its prime ministerial candidate on 14 September, 2013, for the 2014 Lok Sabha election, leaving L.K. Advani as the last man standing. That announcement was preceded by hectic parleys between BJP president Rajnath Singh and two

senior leaders opposed to the move— Leader of Opposition Sushma Swaraj and former party president Murli Manohar Joshi. Minutes before the hour-long parliamentary board meeting, L.K. Advani shot off a two-paragraph

delivering speeches and addresses in India’s national language—Hindi— was a winner for believers in cultural nationalism. The formal announcement came at a meeting of the BJP Parliamentary Board, which Advani skipped, after

Had I been in the BJP's place, I would have immediately declared Modi as my party's prime ministerial candidate to maximise gains in the next general elections. Subramanian Swamy Janata Party President, Jul 27, 2013

Prime Minister Narendra Modi with President of the Telugu Desam Party N. Chandra Babu Naidu.

letter to Rajnath Singh expressing his ‘anguish’, while informing him that after deep contemplation, he had decided to stay away from the meet. Immediately after the board meeting, Modi, accompanied by other members, barring Advani and an ailing former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, walked into the media conference room. Amid sound of conch shells, Rajnath Singh, as the BJP president, made the announcement, and followed it up with a brief media statement. Modi, on his part, thanked both Vajpayee and Advani for their valuable contribution in building the party and assured that he would do all he could to bring the BJP back to power through the 2014 general

elections.

Why the RSS rooted for Narendra Modi

The RSS, at that stage, felt very rightly that for the BJP to make a comeback on the national stage, its primary appeal lay in its Hindutva roots and in Narendra Modi. The RSS saw in him the required charisma to revive its agenda. He was seen as someone who could turn the RSS into a mainstream force and cement a healthy future for rightwing politics. From the RSS perspective, Modi also successfully anchored himself as a promoter of cultural nationalism. His emphasis and insistence on


February 12 - 18, 2018

excerpts from the book: “NARENDRA DAMODAR MODI: the making of a legend”

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Almost 75 percent of top Indian business leaders said they wanted Modi to lead the country,

Prime Minister Narendra Modi with President of the Lok Janshakti Party Ram Vilas Paswan.

while only 7 percent expressed support for Rahul Gandhi in the same spot, according to an Economic Times/ Nielsen opinion poll published in September 2013. Reuters Report

the RSS clearly said that it wanted Narendra Modi’s name announced before the commencement of the ‘inauspicious’ fortnight on September 20.

The political rush to join the NDA coalition

As soon as Narendra Modi was named prime ministerial candidate of the BJP and by default that of the NDA coalition, a host of smaller parties queued up to join what was looked upon as a winning horse. Janata Party Chairman Dr. Subramanian Swamy officially merged his party with the BJP. An economist, lawyer, politician and a former Union minister, Dr. Swamy had the advantage of being a seasoned campaigner against corruption. It was he who had brought to light the 2G scam and created public opinion against

corruption and awareness about black money being stashed away by Indians abroad. Dr. Swamy said that his decision to merge with the BJP was motivated by the fact that the country was passing through very difficult times and he felt that the need of the hour was to strive for unity to see a new future for India being built. From Tamil Nadu, the DMDK, the MDMK, the PMK-led Social Democratic Alliance, the Kongunadu Munnetra Kazhagam and Indhiya Jananayaga Katchi joined the NDA alliance. In Maharashtra, two regional political outfits, Swabhimani Paksha and Rashtriya Samaj Paksha, joined the NDA taking the state tally of parties with the NDA to five, the BJP, Shiv Sena, Republican Party of India, Swabhimani Paksha and Rashtriya Samaj Paksha. Later the

BJP President Rajnath Singh greets Narendra Modi with a garland during BJP national executive meet at Panaji, Goa on June 9, 2013.

Subramanian Swamy being welcomed into the fold of the BJP by Party President Rajnath Singh in the presence of Nitin Gadkari & Arun Jaitley.

Maharashtra Navnirman Sena also joined the NDA. In Bihar, the Rashtriya Lok Samata Party led by Upendra Kushwaha joined the NDA and agreed to contest from three Lok Sabha seats. Four days later, the Lok Janshakti Party led by Ramvilas Paswan joined NDA and agreed to contest from seven Lok Sabha seats in Bihar. The Indian National Lok Dal, the Lok Satta Party and the All India NR Congress (AINRC) formally joined NDA and backed Narendra Modi for prime ministership. In Andhra Pradesh, Chandrababu Naidu’s Telugu Desam Party (TDP) threw its lot with the NDA on April 6.


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February 12 - 18, 2018

Story & POEM

Story

The important things in life

A

philosophy professor stood before his class with some items on the table in front of him. When the class began, wordlessly he picked up a very large and empty mayonnaise jar and proceeded to fill it with rocks, about 2 inches in diameter. He then asked the students if the jar was full. They agreed that it was. So the professor then picked up a box of pebbles and poured them into the jar. He shook the jar lightly. The pebbles, of course, rolled into the open areas between the rocks. He then asked the students again if the jar was full. They agreed it was. The professor picked up a box of sand and poured it into the jar. Of course, the sand filled up the remaining open areas of the jar. He then asked once more if the jar was. The students responded with a unanimous “Yes”. “Now”, said the professor, “I want you to recognize that this

POEM

Literary Satisfaction

The True Meaning of Life

Here we feature weekly poems and short stories from classics for tickling your literary bones The year have passed by, In the blink of an eye, Moments of sadness, And joy have flown by

People I loved Have come and have gone, But the world never stopped And we all carried on Life wasn’t easy And the struggles were there, Filled with times that it mattered Times I just didn’t care I stood on my own And I still found my way Through some nights filled with tears And the dawn of new days

jar represents your life. The rocks are the important thingyour family, your partner, your health, your children- things that if everything else was lost and only they remained, your life would still be full. The pebbles are the other thing that matter- like your job, your house, your car. The sand is everything else, the small stuff. “If you put the sand into the jar first, “he continued, “There is no room for the pebbles or the rocks. The same goes for your life. If you spend all your time and energy on the small stuff, you will never have room for the things that are important to you. Pay attention the things that are critical to your happiness. Play with your children, Take your partner out dancing. There will always be time to go to work, clean the house, give a dinner party, or fix the disposal. Take care of the rocks firstthe things that really matter, Set your priorities. The rest is just sand.”

And now with old age It’s become very clear Things I once found important Were not why I was here And the worries and fears That plagued me each day In the end of it all Would just fade away And what’s really important Is my opinion of me And whether or not I’m the best I can be And how much more kindness And love I can show Before the Lord tells me It’s my time to go.

A Perfect World A smile on every face With sadness having no trace No cries of help from drug addicts And lying becomes the last thing that clicks Fortune, success and love smiles on each With no one left out of its reach God resides in every soul

And everybody chooses to be kind Courage is filled in every man

And everybody is ready to console No deaths caused by dreadful diseases

Corruption is completely banned Inner beauty is what matters

With compassion and benevolence Pain decreases Betrayal becomes the last thing on the mind

And the myths about beauty shatter This is how I want my world to be With love, truth and strength, being the key.


Events

February 12 - 18, 2018

events & more...

CULT Zumba Party - With Shwetambari Shetty VENUE

Amphitheatre (DLF CyberHub) 13 Feb, 7:00PM - 9:00PM

SSB crossword no. 9

events

SOLUTION of crossword no. 8

SXVIII’s Champagne Sunday Brunch Venue Radisson Blu - Noida, Sector 18

14 Jan 2018 12:30pm-25 Feb 2018 4pm

Mela Phulkari 5 Venue

India Habitat Centre, Lodhi Road

10 Feb 2018 10am - 19 Feb 2018 8pm

1.Cloves 2.Korea 3.Prithvi 4.Loire 5.Sicily 6.Malaysia 7.Greenland 8.China 9.Cuba 10. Monaco

solution of sudoku-8

Coffee Festival-Hot Cuppas At INR 20 Venue Greenr Cafe, Shahpur Jat Feb 11–13 12pm–8pm

11.Japan 12.Ceylon 13.Brazil 14.Hawkins 15.Lily 16.Tarapur 17.Hockey 18.Sugar 19.Nepal 20.Venice

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ACROSS 2. Prime Minister’s official website - www. pmindia.gov.in - is available in how many languages? 5. The Arjuna Awards were instituted in the year 10. Which is post-harvest folk dance in Assam? 14. India-Japan Smart Grid Pilot Project inaugurated in Haryana. 15. Which country hosted the first Asian Games? 17. This country tops in the Global Democracy Index. 19. Which company opens 1st Machine Learning Research Lab in Asia with Google AI China Center? 20. Which of the following is the name of the World’s Biggest Health Plan? DOWN 1. The National Anthem was first sung in the year 3. When was Mahatma Gandhi assassinated? 4. Jude Felix is a famous Indian player in which of the fields? 6. The largest country of the world by geographical area is 7. Vijay Stambha’ is situated in 8. Who is the father of Geometry? 9. Himachal Pradesh sets a new helpline for reporting crimes against women. The name of the helpline is? 11. Which city is called ‘White City’ of Rajasthan? 12. The largest continent in the world is 13. How many Toilet facilities are provided at so far under Swachh Bharat Mission? 16. National Science Centre is located at 18. Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurates Global Investment summit in.?

sudoku-9

World On A Platter - International Food Festival Venue Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium , South Delhi 17 Feb 11:00AM 10:00PM

on the lighter side by DHIR

Please mail your solution to - ssbweekly@gmail.com or Whatsapp at 9868807712, One Lucky Winner will win Cash Prize of Rs 500/-. Look for the Solution in the Next issue of SSB


32

POSTAL REGISTRATION NO. DL(W)10/2240/2017-19

Newsmakers

February 12 - 18, 2018

unsung hero

Garima Singh

An extra mile for memorable first learning experience to children

to’s n a k i S r o f Make way Swachhta Cart 15-year-old Mathura boy invents unique garbage-collecting cart

S

IAS Garima Singh spent her own savings to renovate Anganwadi School

I

t all started when Garima Singh, an IPSturned-IAS officer, took over her post in Hazaribagh district, Jharkhand, and noticed the dilapidated state of a local anganwadi. She recognised the importance of good-quality education, and thus decided to adopt the anganwadi in Matwari Masjid Road and transform it into the first model centre in the district. Spending Rs 50,000 out of her own savings, Garima got the entire building freshly painted with alphabets adorning the walls and had a bright hoarding fixed at the entrance.

Additionally, she equipped the preschool with educational materials like charts, learning blocks and toys, which she hopes will ignite inquisitiveness and help drive the learning process of these children. She also bought a rocking horse for them so that they can have some fun while they learn. The intention of taking up the project was nothing commercial but to ensure that the first learning experience for all the 22 children enrolled at the centre was memorable. This is how Garima went the extra mile to make a tangible impact on the society.

‘Heyday’ to the rescue of women’s hygiene Deepanjali Dalmia quit her well-off job to voice the personal hygiene of women everything in her power to empower other women. Probably the push that made her quit her wellDeepanjali Dalmia paying job as a financial consultant at Ernst & Young (New York) in aving grown up and 2015 and venture into the studied in women’s personal hygiene sector to start only institutions like her own company – Heyday Carmel Convent School in – a complete end-to-end New Delhi for 14 years and biodegradable and organic Barnard College in Columbia sanitary napkin to help women University, New York, in a metropolitan setting make Deepanjali Dalmia always had an informed choice. a feminist drive within her. If Heyday’s 12 production there was one thing she was lines across China and Finland clear about- she wanted to do

H

make over 448 million pads today. While the pad is produced in China, its fully biodegradable cover is manufactured in Finland. The final packaging, instead of polythene like regular sanitary pads, is done in a paper mono carton. So, the full packet including the cover and the soiled napkin is 100 per cent biodegradable. Even though the company may not make as much margin as big players, their focus is on women making conscious educated choices first.

ikanto Mandal was a mere 15-year-old when he first came up with the idea of creating a manual waste lifting and dumping device as an innovative alternative to picking waste with bare hands. Sikanto is a student of Jai Gurudev Sanstha Sikanto Mandal School, Mathura, which provides free education to underprivileged children. Here at school, one of their early morning duties is to pick up and dump waste. During this only Sikanto observed his batchmates struggled with the unenthusiastic task. Thus he decided to help his friends clean up the school premises better. Spending over a month and a half, Sikanto built his first model out of wood. Scraping together parts of old furniture, discarded bicycle chains and brakes, he created the preliminary model of his mobile garbage collection machine. The USP of the ‘Swachhta Cart Sikanto’ is how it is fully manual and easy to carry and operate – unlike other garbage collection devices in the market, which require electricity, battery or fuel for functioning. The garbage collection cart is equipped with a picker that collects garbage without the need to manually touch it, a gripper and a handle which helps easy dumping of the garbage. When Sikanto discussed his idea and the problem of funds with his teachers, they encouraged him to apply for the Inspire Awards by the Ministry of Science & Technology, Government of India. The authorities were impressed by the young innovator’s design, selected his entry and awarded Rs 5,000 to him to build a model. Sikanto dreams of becoming an engineer and innovate many more solutionbased machines. Nonetheless, he continues to worry about his family’s financial condition and hopes his innovation will help him pull his family out of their financial doldrums.

RNI No. DELENG/2016/71561, Joint Commissioner of Police (Licensing) Delhi No. F. 2 (S-45) Press/ 2016 Volume - 2, Issue - 09 Printed by Monika Jain, Published by Monika Jain on behalf of SULABH SANITATION MISSION FOUNDATION and Printed at The Indian Express Ltd., A-8, Sector-7, NOIDA (U.P.) and Published from RZ 83, Mahavir Enclave, Palam-Dabri Road, New Delhi – 110 045. Editor Monika Jain

Sulabh Swachh Bharat - Vol-2 - (Issue 09)  
Sulabh Swachh Bharat - Vol-2 - (Issue 09)  
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