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04 Tying Tradition With The future

The RSS’s top man, Mohan Bhagwat, is keeping the organisatiion abreast with the times




Developing Villages

The Visionary Speaks

The Making Of Modi

A country can develop only when its villages change and develop with it

Dr Bindeshwar Pathak speaks of the Sulabh perspective on the overall idea of a clean India

The man from Gujarat has risen to power with the help of the RSS and is charting new paths FIND US ONLINE

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RNI No. DELENG/2016/71561

A Good News Weekly

Vol - 2 | Issue - 08 | February 05 - 11, 2018 | Price ` 5/-

a Symbol of self-less service & dedication The RSS is not confined to ideology. It gives relief and spreads hope across the country. Tarun Vijay writes


Cover Story

February 05 - 11, 2018

Quick Glance The dream is gigantic and the energy levels immeasurable Maha CM Fadnavis and friend Joglekar are the prime movers RSS is running more than 1.7 lakh service projects in India


ecently, I was in Nagpur to attend the ‘sacred thread ‘ceremony of a friend’s son and just chanced to know about a National Cancer Institute coming up there in memory of Abaji Thatte, who was a personal physician and assistant to the RSS Sarsanghchalak (chief) M.S. Golwalkar (popularly known as Param Pujya Shri Guruji). The institute’s description aroused curiosity and I was taken for a visit by its chief architect and executive Shailesh Joglekar. It was an eye opener for a person like me- who is borne in an RSS family. The National Cancer Institute can be termed as one of the best - if not surely the better one amongst all cancer hospitals in India. The campus includes allied facilities in Yatri Niwas, Nursing College, Hostel, Staff Housing Facility and an Engineering Service Block with a total build space of 700,000 sq. ft. The dream is gigantic and the energy levels to valorise it are immeasurable. The two persons giving leadership to the entire project are Devendra Fadnavis and Shailesh Joglekar- both are friends and both have a story to tell how they got involved in this. Devendra, the present Chief Minister of Maharashtra, lost his father due to cancer and he tried his best to get the most advanced treatment in those years but he couldn’t save his life. And Shailesh, a senior advocate, lost his wife too due to cancer. He and Devendra both experienced that India lacks enormously the basic structure to help cancer patients and their relatives and

The National Cancer Institute can be termed among the best in the country and was an eye-opener for me, coming from an RSS family friends find very few centres to get a treatment with satisfaction that also takes care of the expenses within a reasonable limit. Cancer treatment is so expensive, inspite of the great centre like Tata Memorial Hospital in Mumbai. The dream to start a best yet affordable and patient friendly cancer hospital began taking shape - the helping hands came from Nitin Gadkariwho hails from Nagpur, Ratan Tata and almost every one who was any where- came forward to contribute his best and soon the first phase came up near Nagpur- which now serving 1248 PATIENTS with 53 specialist doctors, having state-ofthe-art 156 machines, and a facility of 470 beds. The national Cancer Institute was dedicated to the memory of a RSS stalwart- an embodiment of serving the society, Dr Abaji Thatte. The Cancer Institute has introduced a unique scheme- named Kark Yoddhas - the warriors against cancer. This is about a group of highly skilled professionals who are devoting their careers and lives to eliminate cancer. Shailesh explainsin the fight against cancer, doctors are at the front line. We give the best oncologists and other medical practitioners a platform that helps them in their quest for conquering

cancer by enabling them access to world-class infrastructure. We help them stay abreast with the latest and best innovations through affiliations with reputed international institutes. These Kark Yodhas help the patients, tale all their queries in a warm, friendly manner, assist their care takers, try to help them , as they are in a state of great anti, shock and feel dejected. The role of Kark Yoddhas is to provide hope to them and face the situation with calmness. We provide access to the latest in cancer care equipment needed for treatment; and most importantly, enable them to give back to the larger society and not restrict their knowledge and empathy to just a certain elite class. The institute also plans to start university-recognised training courses for nurses, paramedical staff and medical fraternity including super-specialty training in oncology and PhD programs.” I suddenly said- this cancer hospital is applied Hedgewar. Those who want to know what RSS is all about, and what was the vision of its founder Dr Hedgewar must visit this place- to know thermal introduction of the spirit that shapes RSS. RSS is running more than 1.7 lakh service projects all over India.

It is the only organization that is active in every single part of the nation- serving millions through hospitals, eyes banks and other Sewa projects. One cant understand RSS without knowing about the visionary who created the world of the singh. Who was he ? If we have to select a person whose life and organizational capacity has impacted the life of an average Indian the most, that would undisputedly be Dr Keshav Baliram Hedgewar. Born in Nagpur on the Hindu new year ( Varsh PratipadaVikrami Samvat ) in 1889, Hedgewar later rose to become the architect of a modern powerful India with unapologetic pride in Hindu civilization’s legacy. His is the incredible story of a person who succeeded in transforming society with a new generation of dedicated youth, whose influence is seen today in every corner of India- from Tawang to Leh and Okha to Andamans. He founded the Rashtriya Swayamsewak Sangh (RSS) on Vijayadashami day in 1925 but the name was given a year laterthe very first announcement that day was a simple one liner- ‘I am announcing the formation of Sangh (organisation) today.’ The name RSS was given a year later after intense deliberations and after receiving many suggestions which included- Bharat Uddharak Mandal (loosely translated as – Society to Rejuvenate India) and Rashtriya Swayamsewak Sangh. The principal purpose was to create a society that would never fall prey to internal squabbles and forge a kind of solidarity so no one would be able to subjugate us in future. Before that, Hedgewar had been an active member of the Congress and was one of the people in charge of organising the famous Nagpur session of the party. He participated in the non-cooperation movement and was sentenced to a year’s rigorous imprisonment for giving

Cover Story

February 05 - 11, 2018 passionate freedom speeches. He also became a target of the British government for his connections with the revolutionaries of the Anusheelan Samiti and its leader Pulin Behari Bose. Still, he never sought or got publicity and remained relatively lesser known than the people he moulded who later became internationally renowned. It is modestly said that the person who influenced Narendra Bhai Modi is none other than Dr Hedgewar and this is true for about a million other Swayamsewaks who shone in their respective fields. You name an area of our national life and you will find a person inspired by Dr Hedgewar. From medical help to schools and colleges and institutions of technology, from labour unions to students’ fronts and tribal service projects, Dr Hedgewar’s vision is being implemented by thousands of those young souls who have dedicated their lives for the cause of every citizen even in the remotest of areas. It’s difficult to believe that just one organisation, which is providing education and health services to tribal children, the Vanavasi Kalyan Ashram, is running twenty thousand service projects that include hostels, schools, medical centres, women self reliance projects, girls’ hostels and so on. The largest number of inter-caste marriages happen within RSS families and the silent revolution to eradicate the castebased discrimination is happening with the RSS workers active against casteist behaviour. When I took dalits for temple entry in Uttarakhand’s remote area villages

in Jaunsar Bawar, the so-called high caste people kept a studied silence, while the only solace came from the RSS national general secretary Shri Suresh Joshi who said that ‘you are fighting for social justice’. Today, the largest network of service projects run by any organisation in India are efficiently run by RSS workers – the people who are inspired by Dr Hedgewar. One lakh seventy thousand is the number of these projects – which include hospitals, blood banks, eye banks, special centres to help Divyangs, visually challenged and Thalassaemia-affected kids. Whether it’s war time or a natural calamity, Hegdewar’s followers are the first to reach and provide relief. Whether it was Charkhi Dadri plane crash, Tsunami, Bhuj, Uttarkashi earthquakes or the Kedarnath tragedy, the RSS’s Swayamsewaks were in the forefront to help the affected people and later in rehabilitation work too. It is true that though the BJP owes its moral strength to the RSS and a large number of its leaders are swayamsewaks. Still it would be underestimating Dr Hedgewar’s impact on Indian society to judge the RSS only by the political spread of the BJP. Think of Moreh, the last village on India-Myanmar border – where the RSS is running a school there and providing medicines to the local villagers. It is the people inspired by the vision of Dr Hedgewar. Similarly, the Mokukchang and Changlang projects for serving local tribes in far North-East and Port Blair ashram for the tribal students in Andamans are run by these people. The RSS today has the biggest network of schools and teachers

Dr Sailesh, Ratan Tata, Fadnavis, Nitin Gadkari and Piyush Goel at a hospital ceremony

and educational institutions in the country. Vidya Bharati today runs more than 25,000 schools, has a quarter million students and 1 lakh teachers from the farthest village in the northeast to the snow deserts of Ladakh and border areas of Rajasthan, Jammu and Punjab. Last week, I was on a shoot to make a documentary on Dr Hedgewar’s ancestral village Kandakurti in Telangana. It’s a historic village on the confluence of Godavari, Haridra and Manjiri. The ancestral home of the Hegdewar family is about 50 feet by 28 feet which has been turned into a memorial by local villagers helped and inspired by a senior RSS leader, Moro Pant Pingle. It is running a beautiful co-educational school Keshav Bal Vidya Mandir, having a modest strength of about 200 students. I was pleasantly surprised to find a good number, almost 30 per cent Muslim girls and boys, studying there. It is not that the village doesn’t have other schools. The sleepy, calm village has almost 65 per cent Muslims and 35 per cent Hindus. There are as many mosques as the ancient temples. They exist side by side and there has not been a single unpleasant incident. Why do Muslims here love to send their children in a school established in memory of the RSS founder? I met a parent, Mr Jalil Begh, who traces his ancestry to the moguls. He is a journalist, writing for the famous Urdu daily Munsif. He said his family founded the school as a nice place to study because it caters the best facilities to the poor and financially weaker sections. Above all, the standard is good and they have a digital class also, training kids with computer education. I heard Rafia, a little sweet student of the school, sing rhythmically ‘Hind Desh Ke Niwasi, Sabhi Ham Ek Hain, Rang Roop, Vesh Bhasha, Chahe Anek Hain‘. (We the people of Hind are one, even if our colour, attire and language differ). Dr Hedgewar, who remains the biggest influence on several prominent leaders, has given the best gift to them through his ancestral village representing the theme of Sabka Saath, Sabka Vikas in its full glory. The man who gave a pan Indian vision to millions, inspired bright young Indians to be part of a new

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Vidya Bharati runs more than 25,000 schools, has a quarter million students and one lakh teachers order of thought as Pracharakmonks, who might not be wearing ochre robes but live a life of an ascetic, giving their utmost for peoples’ education, health care, civilisational awakening in a most silent, unpublicised way, keeping away from the media glares, is a story of an India that is being transformed like never before. Dr Hedgewar, who inspired millions to live for the greater good of the nation, injected a sense of pride and courage to stand for the universal values and Dharmic traditions of Bharat, that is India, needs to be studied and appreciated more. He is the biggest change maker India has ever witnessed. No wonder the Sangh in 1988 decided to bring out a postage stamp of its own to honour him! That’s RSS- Ready for Selfless Service. (Traun Vijay was the longest serving chief editor of the RSS weekly Panchjanya for 20 years and has created a documentary on RSS founder Dr Hedgewar’s ancestral family’s journey from Kandakurti, Telangana, to Nagpur for Doordarshan)


Mohan Bhagwat

February 05 - 11, 2018

Tying tradition with the future Sarsanghchalak Dr Mohan Madhukar Bhagwat is engaged in the task of keeping the RSS abreast of the times, and that without compromising on the core ideals of Hindu nationalism


n SSB bureau

r MOHAN MADHUKAR BHAGWAT was named Sarsanghchalak, the top man, of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) in 2009. It marked a generational change. Bhagwat was then only 59, and he took over from predecessor K.S.Sudarshan who was 77 at the time, and who was not keeping well. The BJP had lost the 2009Lok Sabha election under the leadership of L.K.Advani. The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), was in the doldrums. Bhagwat had the delicate task of helping the BJP to recover its poise and become a winning team again. The RSS and the BJP maintain their separate identities, and the RSS does not interfere in the day-to-day affairs of the party. BJP leaders, however, look to the

The RSS and BJP maintain their separate identities, though the BJP looks to the RSS leadership for guidance

Illustration by Dhir

February 05 - 11, 2018

RSS leadership for guidance and support. There is little doubt that Bhagwat had played a positive role in helping the BJP to finds its leader in Narendra Modi in 2013, who then led the party to victory in the 2014 Lok sabha election. Many feathers were ruffled in the process and it was left to Bhagwat as the head of the ideological family to sort out the differences and tensions. He did it quietly, without compromising the internal autonomy of the BJP. Bhagwat was the youngest Sarsanghchalak with the exception of MS Golwalkar, who took over as head of the RSS when he was 34, and KB Hedgewar, the founder was 36 when set up the RSS. He was unassuming but it became evident quite soon that Bhagwat was alive to the challenges facing the organisation. The fact that a younger mad had taken over the reins was reflected in the positive direction he gave to the 40 and more RSS affiliated organisations, ranging from the trade union to educational institutions. Interestingly, Bhagwat was born in the same year and month as Prime Minister Narendra Modi. While Bhagwat was born on September 11, 1950, in Chandrapur in Maharashtra, Modi was born on September 17, 1950 in Vadnagar, in neighbouring Gujarat. Of course, the similarity ends there. Bhagwat’s family was associated with the RSS for two generations before him. His grandfather Nanasaheb was an associate of RSS founder Keshav Baliram Hedgewar. His father Madhukar Rao Bhagwat was a pracharak in Gujarat, and mother Malati was a member of the RSS’s women’s wing. A relative recalls that though the Bhagwats were practically members of

Mohan Bhagwat

been surprised, but insiders say the ‘generational shift’ had been carefully planned. Bhagwat set 75 years as the age limit for office bearers across the Sangh Parivar. He began to shape the Parivar into his own flexible and accommodative nature. Nitin Gadkari, 52, and a novice at national politics, was made party president; relatively young BJP leaders took on the mantle in Parliament. He attracted the masses towards a cadre-based Parivar and opened its doors to grassroots leaders, including those from the opposition. The RSS’s khaki shorts were replaced with trousers. Shakha timings became flexible. The Parivar learned how to use the Internet and social media. The results were all too visible in no time. The 2014 Parliamentary elections were not fought by the BJP alone but by the Sangh Parivar. The entire Sangh parivar worked like a well-oiled machine. He even deputed several Sangh leaders specialising in organisational matters to work for the BJP. A spectacular victory was like a cherry on the cake. Bhagwat and Modi have immense leadership qualities and both have mutual respect and admiration for each other. Bhagwat has successfully brought about the transformation in the Sangh Parivar and made it look easy.

“The Bhagwats were known for winning people over rather than being confrontationist. Mohan has inherited that quality” the RSS aristocracy, “their door would be open for everyone.” The Bhagwats were known for winning people over rather than being confrontational. “Mohan has inherited the same quality.” Young Mohan Bhagwat, the oldest of four siblings, decided early to dedicate his life to the RSS. Bhagwat completed his schooling from ‘Lokmanya Tilak Vidyalaya’ and then the first year of his BSc from the Janata College in Chandrapur. Then he went on to do a course in veterinary science. After six months as a veterinarian in rural Chandrapur in Maharashtra, he quit the job in 1975 and moved to Akola, to be the district RSS pracharak. He later served in Vidarbha, and then in Bihar. He became Akhil Bhartiya Sharirik Pramukh (incharge of physical training) from

1991 to 1999. He was further promoted as ‘Akhil Bharatiya Pracharak Pramukh,’ (in-charge of RSS volunteers working fulltime for India). All along he built a strong network and a reputation for accessibility, to become general secretary in 2000. The RSS office-bearers met in Nagpur in March 2009 to select a Sarkaryavah as Mr. Bhagwat had completed his third term. RSS ideologue MG Vaidya, who was the election manager, says: “I was about to initiate the process of the election of Sarkaryavah when Sudershanji stopped me. He took the microphone, said that he was not keeping well, and proposed Mohan Bhagwat’s name for the post of Sarsanghchalak.” Mr. Bhagwat at 59 was young for the top post by RSS standards. The outside world may have

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Developing Villages

February 05 - 11, 2018

From Developing Villages To Developing The Nation India is a country of villages. A country can develop only when its villages change and develop with it. That is why the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh resolved to develop the villages of our country. The workers initiated a volley of development in the remote villages of the country and this amazed the entire world. This was presented by the RSS senior leader and member HV Sheshadri in his authored pieces. This is a translated chapter from the Hindi book – Kruti Roop Sangh Darshan written and edited by HV Sheshadri


n the recent years, social-work has taken a special curve at a rapid pace for transforming the villages’ of India One becomes simply captivated knowing the efforts made by the swayamsevaks in improving the quality of life of the villagers, considering the plethora of different circumstances and problems. The swayamsevaks have held social transformation as their most important goal. The change brought on by the project holds utmost importance for the swayamsevaks as it provides an embodiment to the revival of a lifestyle as that of a Hindu-nation. Here are some examples which show that even in remote areas, the swayamsevaks were able to bring about extraordinary results. The Gonda Gramodaya Project, a

Quick Glance The members of RSS improved the lives of villagers The RSS has several projects for rural development Government resolves to resurrect and restructure the life of India

catalyst of rural development, was started in 1978 by the Deendayal Research Institute. The project involved innovative efforts for the holistic development of Gonda district in Uttar Pradesh. Nanaji Deshmukh, a senior RSS campaigner, was its founderpresident. Gonda was the most backward district of the country for decades. Most of the people in the district were dependent on agriculture for that would primarily depend on rainwater. Therefore, the researchinstitute chose water resources development through tubewells as its first project. When the Institute

Gonda was the most backward district of the country for decades, dependent on rainwater, so the research institute focussed on water resources development through tubewells announced its goal of constructing 20,000 tubewells in the first two years, many experts expressed doubts on whether they would be able to achieve their goal in such a short period of time. But by the end of 1980, the number of tubewells constructed in Gonda was 28,000.

The Institute didn’t dig the wells itself. Instead, it taught people how to avail government help and bank loans. The mantra of the Institute’s success was its inspiration. The swayamsevaks of the organisation motivated people with the utmost care. Gonda also has an immaculate

February 05 - 11, 2018

record of the repayment of debts. Where the percentage of the national debt repayment is only 40 percent, the repayment percentage of debt in Gonda is 80. When a novelty-loving farmer from Kharegaon used bamboo instead of metal taps for his tubewell, he tried to involve others in his experiment. Two enterprising adventurers came forward. One was from Umari Begamganj and the second from Ramnagar Jhinna. They gathered and inspected that in what state bamboo provides the best power and economy. The use of their innovative bamboo taps was so successful that now they can rarely meet their growing demands for their endless thrist for knowledge. What the research institute achieved was very unique. It pioneered a new method of rejuvenating wheat seeds before sowing time. There are 7,410 species of wheat seeds. The seeds are treated with fertilisers in cow urine. Thus, when the seeds are treated, the yield of wheat is increased by 20-25 percent. This method of rejuvenating seeds is essentially credited to the agricultural scientist, MV Pant. But the credit for the initiative in this direction goes to the research institute itself. Because of this method, the requirement of fertiliser has dropped by 50 per cent and there is no need for pesticides. As a result -- low labour requirements, low costs, and more profit. An acre can now yield 40-50 quintals. Due to various programmes run by the research institute, the financial condition of more than 100,000 families improved. Inaugurating the project on November 25, 1978, the then President Neelam Sanjiva Reddy predicted “The entire country will watch this development project in Gonda district with intense interest.” Through the plantation, the demand for fuel and building wood should be fulfilled, apart from this, there would be a healthy environment created by the greenery. All this would keep things like malnutrition at bay. The research institute is moving towards this direction of planting trees in rural areas. It has encouraged villagers to plant different kinds of fruit trees. This would have them yielding ripe fruits throughout the year. Under the Gonda Project, about 3,00,000 trees are being planted annually in 2,814 villages of the district.

Developing Villages

Eknath Ranade, former Secretary General of the Sangh, was given the responsibility of establishing the Vivekananda Shila Memorial, and later, the Vivekananda Centre Rapture for Social Renaissance Eknath Ranade, a senior advocate of the Sangh was also the SecretaryGeneral of the Sangh for a few years. He was given the responsibility of establishing the Swami Vivekananda Shila Memorial. After the establishment of the monument, he made plans for the second phase. Thus the Vivekananda centre was born. He prepared a dedicated youth life course dedicated to different areas of social revival. He selected them and trained them and then appointed them. Currently, 110 fulltime workers are running about 500 projects across the country. These projects are present Arunachal (for North east), Kashmir (for North) and Tamil Nadu (for South). The Vivekananda Centre believes that the multifaceted activities of the village-development programme run by them will be successful only when they make the locals, especially the youth, the participants. All 75 kindergartens of 75 villages of Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari districts were built by the donations of the villagers or had money allocated to them by the panchayats. In one village, where the poorest villagers could not afford to donate, one of them even sold off his house and started living in a handmade hut himself.

Four to five youth camps are organised every month. The objective is that their energies should be channelized in creatively developing their villages. They make roads, ponds, and damns. This creative labour is supplemented by adequate mental stimulation as well. Grappling poverty The 24 villages in the Dakshina Kannada district of Karnataka are successfully running the Sangh’s branches, and have been selected for multifaceted transformations in their villages. Here are some places where the processes of social transformation are catching up. The financially backward families have been identified in Nitte village of Karakal Taluk. Free education was arranged for them and the textbooks have been made available for free. Providing basic facilities such as medical assistance, organising health camps and distributing grain free of cost to the poor people of the village - These functions are a regular part of their efforts and continue throughout the year. In these villages, a medical vehicle operates 24 x 7, which provides medical assistance at the doorstep. Fruit trees were distributed to 24 poor families , with the help of the Horticulture Department. The Women’s Industry Board has already trained dozens of


women for various crafts and sewing activities. Arrangements have also been made to provide them with the necessary means to do their business so that they can become self-reliant. Punacha: ideal selfsufficient village The Punacha village, which was considered to be backward has transformed extraordinarily in the last 15 years due to the well-organized efforts of swayamsevaks from RSS. Earlier, agricultural labourers rarely sent their children to school. Social distinctions and backwardness were rife everywhere. Rarely a sport or cultural program was organized in the village. Now, there are three ‘shishu vihars’ in Punacha and the high school there is now considered to be the most advanced school in the district. There is a cooperative committee in Punakha, which is considered to be an ideal example for all the states. This committee provides financial support to the work of agriculture. There is also a branch of ‘Milk Producers Union’ which has been established recently. Karvesh is a remote village of Karakal taluk. It is built on the Western Ghats. Established in the year 1990, under the auspices of ‘Yuva Jan Vedike’, there is regular labour service in local schools, village temples, and on water source sources of agriculture. ‘Labour Service’ is a regular workbusiness in the ‘Kamaraj’ village of Suliya Taluk through which the villagers improve roads, widen the school’s playgrounds, restore the post office, and grow coconuts in the school premises. Functions such as planting are done. The coconut trees planted in this way give a good yield, which proves that coconut trees are well cared for.


Developing Villages

quality of life Vikas Bharti located in Vishnupur in Ranchi district of Jharkhand has a unique story. A group of dedicated youths are guiding it. They have received training in social work from the RSS and the Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad and are now highly qualified engineers and scientists with appropriate educational qualification. The speciality of the project is that it uses scientific and technical knowledge for the overall development of forest dwellers. In some ways, Vikas Bharti is making rapid progress, as refined substances are prepared from available raw materials; ‘Gyan Prabodhini’ is running a project of integrated village development in all the villages of Shivanganga and Gunjawani river basins of Pune district. The academy is also giving primary importance to health. It runs three courses for village-level health workers. It has also set-up health camps from time to time to create awareness about the personal and collective cleanliness in the villagers. Special emphasis is given on eradication of leprosy and tuberculosis. Leprosy sufferers have been reduced. The work being done in villages now has more strength from receiving the support of a 100-bed hospital located in Pune. This hospital is the result of education-experimentation of knowledge-management. In Pune, the pre-students of the talented Bal Vidyalaya have taken up the responsibility of managing this hospital to present the ideal form of ethics and rational medicine. The ‘Ayurveda Box’ has been provided under a special health project since 1990. In this box, there are some simple Ayurvedic medicines that are beneficial in common illnesses.This box will be with any worker or teacher of the village who wants to do this work with the spirit of service. Uplifting Dalits After completing his education in Pune, swayamsevak Madhukar Rao Deval returned to his village Mahaisal in Sangli district of Maharashtra to take care of his ancestral property. He was very disheartened to see the poverty of the Harijans. Deval inspired the Dalits in his village to establish Vitthal Agricultural Cooperative Committee. Through the committee, they gave them loans, gave them back their property, taught them ways of saving agricultural production and helped them in building their own homes. 125 Dalit families have

already paid all their debts and the average annual income of each family is about Rs 11,000. There has also been a clear change in social life. The distinction between ‘touchable’ and ‘untouchable’ has ended. The Dalits now roam free in the village and they are living in the society with a sense of equality. Swayamsevaks in the district and elsewhere have followed this model. Forest protection and forestry Swayamsevaks have started ‘SewaSagar’ project in Sagar tahsil of Shimoga district of Karnataka. This has given rise to many such movements of social transmigration. There are several types of activities going on in dozens of villages of Tehsil, such as Yoga and SanskritPromoting-Centre, Sanskar-Kendra, Health Centre, Vanvasi-KalyanKendra, Maternal Circles, BalGokul etc. have been opened. Villagers have given immense support to the programmes of forestshielding and plantation. Until a few decades ago, the tehsil which was famous for very dense forests has now become mostly tree-free. Due to tampering with the environment of these tropical forests, the trees supporting the lives of millions of depending on forest have been broken for centuries due to their daily needs. Wood industries, hydropower projects and mining

February 05 - 11, 2018

Madhukar Rao Deval was very disheartened to see the poverty of the Harijans in his village and inspired them to set up the Vitthalbhai Agricultural Cooperative Committee have had a lot of fierce clashes with them. In 1983, the participants of an adult education centre led by swayamsevaks carried out resistance campaign in Jiglemamna. Soon it spread to surrounding villages. Initially, this team successfully resisted tree cutting in 90 acres of forest. The result is front. Its creative side is the ‘plant millions of trees’. Every village under its flag is encouraged for ‘village-forest’. This expansion of the villagers has been rekindled by this. New practices have been introduced to create environmentrelated consciousness, as these are given in the form of awards as well as on auspicious occasions and those achieving success in various fields. Due to all these efforts, a flood of millions of new trees has come to Tehsil. mantra: self-sufficiency The ‘Gram-Gaurav’ programme is actually a unique project. It was conceived in central Bihar and

its implementation is being done successfully. So far, the experience in 58 places of 18 districts is really very instructive. In essence, this programme is centred on creating a sense of pride for the remarkable achievements of its village. It has had an amazing effect. This is where the feeling of social harmony is felt all around. It also gave rise to the desire to improve their villages. The entire program is characterized by its ‘villagers, in relation to the villagers and in the style of operation’ for the villagers. The committee formed for this purpose determines a convenient day and invites the neighbouring villages and the local villagers living outside the village, and the specific or well-respected person of the state level in the area is as the ‘Chief Guest’ After that, the person of the village who has studied the achievements of the village narrates the same. The prominent people of the village in, education, social service, handicraft, politics, trade,

February 05 - 11, 2018 sports, pahlavani (wrestling), music, etc. highlights their specific contributions in different fields. The head of the family is highly respected. All such persons are called on the platform by name and they are honoured by the Chief Guest. The people who have passed, their family members are called on stage and honoured on their behalf. Special attention is given to ensure the active role of girls throughout the programme. The list of enthusiasts is created in the middle of the programme and next year’s Gram-Prashashan Samiti is formed from this. The idea behind this is that they carry forward the message of this program by regularly organized and social and religious events. These events are done for the purpose of cultivating a sense of mutual unity and brotherhood. Transplantation by Vedic Agriculture Sanjivan Agricultural Research Establishment (Sanjivan Agro Research Foundation) and Agricultural Production Family are mutually associated, but separate efforts in the direction of integrated and all-round development. It is located in ‘Jamban’ in Sagar Taluk of Shimoga district of Karnataka. The organisation wants to make research work for socio-economic reform in rural farms and village dwellings. Its goal is to provide training to young people in such a way that they can provide successful, knowledgeable and constructive leadership for these goals committed. On the other hand, it is an attempt to create a strong organisational structure that is formed by collaborative village

level entrepreneurs. It can be said that the aim of the ‘agricultural experimentation family’ movement is indigenous; Self-help and public initiatives (in conformity with bioecology) promote agriculture, revitalise local health-traditions, and make agriculture youth’s developmentoriented and empowering families, by providing them constructive, non-political, impartial and development-oriented leadership. The research scholar of Sanjivan Agricultural Research Establishment has already started documenting the national agronomic system and techniques as the main basis of the alternative development plan. Similarly, the health research scholar has started documenting local health traditions. The number of programme started so far for the purpose of achieving these goals is above 300. About 25,000 farmers are participating in different periods and other types of programmes. Nearly 2000 farmers have started making biomass again. So far, in as many as 13 districts, scientists and researchers in the field of agriculture have been actively involved in the project. Some of the important contributions made by

Developing Villages the project are as follows: compost method, liquid manure, compost wall, worm-cleavage enhancer wall, plant-protective vegetative derivative, go-based farming system, pyramids in agriculture. As a basis of the activities of the workshop, a laboratory has also been developed at Shimoga District Center. So far, experts and researchers in this field from New Zealand, Australia, the Netherlands, the US, and Japan have come to see the multi-purpose projects running on 15 acres of land in Jambanna village. Dr Hedgewar Memorial Service Project has been started under Dr Balasaheb Lele Memorial Committee of Sawantbadi. The objective of this is to eliminate the need to provide a source of income to the youth and to make them selfreliant. All this started from the establishment of a hostel named ‘Tembe Swami Vidyarthi Vidhit Gharat’ for 50 poor boys in rural areas. The objective was to provide them with such an education that they eventually settle in their respective areas. In its food processing training centre, 8-10 trainees per year learn the method and skill of preparation of mush,

The ‘Gram Gaurav’ project is being run in Bihar and so far, experts from New Zealand, Australia, the Netherlands, the US and Japan have visited the village to study it

09 07

squash, juice, marmalade etc with fruits like mangoes, berries, pineapple, jackfruit etc. These are preserved and sold in the market. Of the 40 persons who were trained till 1991-95, 10 have opened their own small units. Similarly, 40 women have received training in making chocolate from mango, cashew, jackfruit, milk etc. In place of two tonnes of paddy per hectare, a pilot project for a better crop of 6-tonne paddy and training of raw materials is underway, machinery and marketing system and the removal of technical problems shows just how much this institution has accomplished. Under this kind of project for the forested youth, groups of 4-7 families were encouraged to be organized in each district of Raigad, Nashik and Dhule in the form of a village group in each district. Based on their co-operation, appropriate guidance and assistance were provided to grow and sell leaf goblet, eggplant, tomatoes and chillies etc. They were also provided portable pumps with seeds, fertilizers and pesticides. In their first attempt, a yield of 5 times on the land earns Rs. 5000 per family. These families also did not delay the re-payment of seeds etc. The amount of cash which was generated by increasing the quantity in excess of its domestic consumption was done to meet the daily needs of cloth, utensils etc. As the modern practices grew, they were taught to cultivate mangoes, cashews, coconut, lemon, cocoa etc and neem, eucalyptus, bamboo etc., on their land. Under the Integrated Rice Agrochemical Programme (Integrated Rice Agro Technics), new species are grown for protection of paddy from diseases and pests, and row plantation is done for green manure. With this, the farmers have been able to grow four tonnes per hectare of paddy. All the paddy-growing districts of the Western Ghats of Maharashtra, Gujarat and Dadra Nagar Haveli are covered under the aforesaid villages and WCAs. The number of farmers participating in the programme was only 20 in 1993, it increase to 400 in 1997. Using a fund from the famine-prone area programme of Maharashtra in 1995, a new concept of development of hydro-gradient has been started. Due to the increase in availability of water, forest land has started growing crops like cash crops, oilseeds, fodder etc. This has increased their income from Rs 2000 to Rs 20,000 / per year.



FEBRUARY 05 - 11, 2018


ODF India

Toilets In Rented Premises To Be Mandatory In Goa The government will provide toilets with biodigesters and a solution would be worked through legal provisions for houses without land to build toilets



t will soon be mandatory for home and budget-lodgings owners to install toilets on their premises before leasing out their property, Goa Chief Minister Manohar Parrikar said in an interview. There are more than 72,000 homes without toilets in the coastal state. “The government will provide toilets with bio-digesters and a solution would be worked through legal provisions for houses without land to build toilets,” he said. Soon, police verification and toilets on premises will be made compulsory for those who lease rooms,” Parrikar said at a function organised by the Directorate of Panchayat as part of the ‘Swachh Bharat’ Mission. “There are more than 72,000 houses without toilets, which is a serious issue. For making the state Open-Defecation Free, this issue has to be seriously discussed and an action plan formulated,” Parrikar said, adding that the state would be made ODF by October 2.

States Pledge To Ensure ODF India In 2019 The States shared their plans on achieving an Open Defecation Free status in 2018 SSB BUREAU


he Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation organized a two-day National Consultation on Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) from January 1920, 2018 in Gurugram, Haryana. The Consultation was attended by the senior most officers from States and Swachh Bharat Mission Directors from across the country. The participants focused on a variety of issues related to SBM(G), including progress so far, way forward, with a particular focus on IEC (Information Education Communication) efforts underway in the States. With the SBM entering its pre-final year of implementation, the States shared their plans on achieving an Open Defecation Free status in 2018, with a strong focus on behaviour change communication, delivered through a mixture of targeted interpersonal communication and mass communication. The States shared their plans for sustaining their ODF status after achievement, by ensuring that the toilets constructed under the Mission are used by all members of every household in a village. The State IEC plans for 2018 were presented and discussed with the Ministry. The Ministry also held special sessions on resolving issues faced by the States on a case-to-case basis, with a special focus on the States of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Odisha. Young professionals, deployed as Zila Swachh Bharat Preraks in districts, also attended the workshop and interacted with Ministry officials to

With states actively participating in Swachhta efforts and ramping up toilet constructions, the 2018 ODF goals for India are not far away

Quick Glance The states will focus on behavioural change and communication States shared specific action plans for achieving ODF status The State IEC plans for 2018 were also presented with the Ministry

share the work being done by them at the grassroots and were assured of consistent support by the senior officers of the Ministry in their role as valuable resource persons for the districts and States. Entrepreneurs in the sanitation sector were also invited to make presentations to the States on innovative toilet technologies developed by them that can help scale up the design and production of toilets, and help design toilets that are easier for use by senior citizens and the differently- abled persons . The Secretary, Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation Parameswaran

Iyer in his inaugural address at the workshop, spoke about the long way that the Mission had come since its launch. He shared that 3 lakh villages, 300 districts and 10 States/Union Territories have been declared Open Defecation Free, and that the rural sanitation coverage today stands at over 76%, up from 39% at the time of the launch of the Mission in October 2014. He also expressed confidence that, with the sustained and focused implementation that the Mission was receiving by the State governments, the Prime Minister’s vision of a Swachh Bharat by October 2, 2019 would be realized.


FEBRUARY 05 - 11, 2018

65 New Toilets Inaugurated Under ODF Initiative The new toilets are part of a joint initiative by the Rotary Club of mid-West Delhi, Rotary Club of Denver, US, and Sulabh International



Film stars willing to act for free for Swachh Bharat PM Modi’s clarion call for a Swachh Bharat didn’t go unheard even in the entertainment industry with film stars stepping up to give their helping hand



s many as 65 new Sulabh toilets were inaugurated for the residents of a village in Gurugram in a move to end the practice of open defecation. The new toilets are part of a joint

initiative by Rotary club of midWest Delhi, Rotary Club of Denver, US, and Sulabh International. The toilets were handed over to the families in the Indri village of Sohna. “This initiative is under the effort of the Prime Minister for

his flagship programme to ensure total sanitation coverage by 2019,” said William Korstad, coordinator Rotary club of Denver, US. Dr Bindeshwar Pathak, founder of Sulabh Sanitation and Social Reform Movement, on the occasion said: “We are trying our best to make places open defecation free (ODF). And handing over toilets to villagers here is part of it.” n agency


Cartoonist Gurera To Bat For Gurugram’s Swachh Survekshan Shekhar Gurera, a cartoonist, was appointed by the Municipal Corporation of Gurugram as its official cartoonist for Swachh Survekshan 2018 n ssb bureau


he Municipal Corporation of Gurugram (MCG) appointed cartoonist Shekhar Gurera as its official cartoonist (Brand Ambassador for Cartoons) for Swachh Survekshan 2018, officials said. The engagement would entail Gurera contributing a series of cartoons around various aspects of cleanliness. The aim is to sensitise citizens to follow best sanitation practices through the unique medium of cartoons. Additionally, the cartoons will

also appeal to citizens to actively participate in the ongoing “Swachh Survekshan” with their feedback, thus contributing to the city’s ranking. Speaking on the occasion, Anu Sheokand, Joint Commissioner and Nodal officer for the Swachh Bharat Mission in Gurugram, said: “MCG is delighted to have Gurera on-board. Being a distinguished citizen of Gurugram, I appreciate his voluntary support in our efforts to sensitize citizens.” Gurera said: “I am happy to support MCG. Cartoons have a unique way to inspire people and often have a profound impact on the onlookers.”


ilm stars are willing to act free of cost and even contribute in person towards popularising Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s Swachh Bharat Mission, Union Minister for Mines, Narendra Singh Tomar said . “It is difficult for corporates to get endorsement despite paying huge sums to film actors, but today the situation is such that, even the biggest of the stars, when they get a call from the government of India for the Swachh Bharat Mission, they offer to act free of cost and are ready to contribute physically. This is a big achievement for the country,” Tomar said while speaking at the 5th Indian International Metal Re-Cycling Conference which is underway in Goa. “Because of Modiji’s call, the issue of cleanliness has become a national issue. Today, every individual feels that they should contribute in the area of cleanliness,” Tomar said.



FEBRUARY 05 - 11, 2018 Vertebral Disc


3-D Printed ShapeShifting Gel Could Deliver Drugs The approach involves printing a 3D object with a hydrogel that changes shape over time when temperatures change

Scientists Use Silk To Develop Artificial Vertebral Disc A group of Indian scientists have developed a silk-based bio-artificial disc that may find use in disc replacement therapy Quick Glance Degenerative disc disease is a major cause of low back pain Group now has a fabrication procedure for a silk-based solution The fabricated discs supported primary annulus fibrosus

n agency


ngineers have invented a printing method for a smart gel that could be used to create materials for transporting small molecules like water or drugs to human organs. The approach involves printing a 3D object with a hydrogel (watercontaining gel) that changes shape over time when temperatures change, said senior author of the study Howon Lee, Assistant Professor at Rutgers University-New Brunswick in New Jersey. The study, published online in the journal Scientific Reports, demonstrated fast, scalable and highresolution 3D printing of hydrogels, which remain solid and retain their shape despite containing water. Hydrogels are everywhere in our lives, including in contact lenses, diapers and the human body. The smart gel could provide structural rigidity in organs such as the lungs and can contain small molecules like water or drugs to be transported in the body and released. It could also create a new area of soft robotics and enable new applications in flexible sensors and actuators, biomedical devices and platforms or scaffolds for cells to grow, Lee said.

n Ratneshwar Thakur


egenerative disc disease is a major cause of low back pain affecting mobility of people. A group of Indian scientists have developed a silk-based bio-artificial disc that may find use in disc replacement therapy in future. At present, therapeutic treatment for degenerative disc disease can only provide symptomatic relief of pain without restoring the functions of discs, while disc replacement surgery is very costly. The use of a silk bio-polymer to fabricate a biocompatible disc can reduce the cost of artificial discs in future, claim researchers from the Department of Biomaterial and Tissue Engineering at Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati, who have developed the new technology. The group has developed a fabrication procedure for a silkbased bio-artificial disc adopting

a “directional freezing technique”. The disc mimics internal intricacy of human disc and its mechanical properties too are similar to those of the native ones, according to research results published in international scientific journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). The fabricated discs supported primary annulus fibrosus or human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation, differentiation, and matrix deposition of a sufficient amount. The annulus fibrosus is a specialized tissue having a complex, multilamellar, hierarchical structure consisting of collagen, proteoglycans and elastic fibers. “Major challenges toward successful intervertebral disc tissue engineering remain elusive, mainly because of tremendous complexity of annulus fibrosus tissues. We have successfully recapitulated its internal intricacy - angle-ply construct, which is critical for the proper

The new disc has been tested in laboratory mice and scientists observed negligible immune response

biomechanical functioning of the disc,” Dr. Biman B. Mandal, who led the research team, told India Science Wire. Degenerative disc disease affects intervertebral discs, which are soft pillow-like cushions between interlocking bones that structure human spine. These discs act as shock absorbers for the spine and support weight and complex motions of the spine. With growing age, these discs change from a flexible state that allows the smooth fluid motion to a stiff and rigid state restricting movement and resulting in discomfort or pain. “Our construct mimics native structure-function attributes of the disc and provides sufficient mechanical strength to function in load-bearing activities,” explained Bibhas K. Bhunia, coauthor of the study. The new disc has been tested in laboratory mice and scientists observed negligible immune response. “We believe if the silkbased biodiscs transcends clinical translation, it can be an affordable option for disc replacement therapy in future,” said Dr. Mandal. The research team included Bibhas K. Bhunia, Biman B. Mandala (IIT Guwahati) and David L. Kaplan (Tufts University, Medford). This work was supported by grants from the Department of Science and Technology (DST) and the Department of Biotechnology (DBT). (Indian Science Wire)


FEBRUARY 05 - 11, 2018 Shed Extra Kilos


Standing For 6 Hours A Day May Help You Shed Extra Kilos The researchers found that standing burned 0.15 calories (kcals) per minute more than sitting



truggling to lose weight and are yet too lazy to hit a gym or follow a strict diet? Try standing instead of sitting for six hours a day as it may help you shed that extra kilos over a long term, finds a study. The researchers found that standing burned 0.15 calories (kcals) per minute more than sitting. By substituting standing for sitting for six hours a day, a 143.3-pound adult would expend an extra 54 calories (kcals) in six hours. “Standing not only burns more calories, the additional muscle activity is linked to lower rates of heart attacks, strokes and diabetes. So the benefits of standing could go beyond weight control,” said Francisco LopezJimenez, Professor at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, a US-based non-profit. Importantly, calories burned between standing and sitting is about twice as high in men as in women. This likely reflects the effect of greater muscle mass in men on the

Quick Glance A 143.3-pound adult would expend an extra 54 calories (kcals)

Researchers have found that injecting two immunestimulating agents directly into solid tumours in mice can eliminate all traces of cancer

Replacing standing for sitting could reduce the risk in future amount of calories burned because calories burned is proportional to the muscle mass activated while standing, researchers noted. “It’s important to avoid sitting for hours at a time. Standing for long periods of time for many adults may seem unmanageable, especially those who have desk jobs, but, for the person who sits for 12 hours a day, cutting sitting time to half would give great benefits,” Lopez-Jimenez added. In the new study, published in the European

Journal of Preventive Cardiology, the team analysed 46 studies with 1,184 participants. Participants, on average, were 33 years old; 60 per cent were men; and the average weight was 143.3 pounds. Replacing standing for sitting could be yet another behaviour change to help reduce the risk of long-term weight gain. However, more research is needed to see whether such a strategy is effective and whether there are long-term health implications of standing for long periods.

The blood test for Alzheimer’s disease can detect the illness up to 20 years before the appearance of primary symptoms


Cancer ‘Vaccine’ Found Effective In Mice

Calories burned during standing is about twice as high in men

World’s First Blood Test For Detecting Alzheimer’s Developed n ssb bureau

ustralian scientists in collaboration with researchers from Japan announced the world’s first accurate blood test for Alzheimer’s disease which can detect the illness up to 20 years before any symptoms occur. The test, which spots the illness at an accuracy of over 90 per cent, identifies the build-up of a protein called amyloid-beta, which is an early indicator of the disease, Xinhua news agency reported. Up until now, the only way to


determine if a patient had Alzheimer’s was by highly invasive and expensive methods, including brain scans and lumbar punctures.

But the breakthrough by the University of Melbourne’s Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health will mean diagnosing the disease will become far easier. “In the first instance, it will be an invaluable tool in increasing the speed of screening potential patients for new drug trials,” said Colin Masters, Professor at Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health. “Progress in developing new therapeutic strategies for Alzheimer’s disease has been disappointingly slow,” Masters said.

n ssb bureau


aising hopes for a cancer vaccine for different types of cancers, researchers have found that injecting minute amounts of two immunestimulating agents directly into solid tumours in mice can eliminate all traces of cancer in the animals. A clinical trial was launched in January to test the effect of the treatment in humans with lymphoma, cancer of the lymphatic system. The approach works for many different types of cancers, including those that arise spontaneously, said the study published in the journal Science Translational Medicine. The researchers believe the local application of very small amounts of the agents could serve as a rapid and relatively inexpensive cancer therapy that is unlikely to cause the adverse side effects often seen with bodywide immune stimulation.“When we use these two agents together, we see the elimination of tumours all over the body,” said senior author of the study Ronald Levy, Professor at Stanford University School of Medicine in the US. “This approach bypasses the need to identify tumour-specific immune targets and doesn’t require wholesale activation of the immune system or customisation of a patient’s immune cells,” Levy said. “Our approach uses a one-time application of very small amounts of two agents to stimulate the immune cells only within the tumour itself. In the mice, we saw amazing, bodywide effects, including the elimination of tumours all over the animal,” Levy explained.


Science & Technology

FEBRUARY 05 - 11, 2018

Monitoring air & water

Dual-Gated Devices Make Gadgets Efficient A group of Indian scientists at IISc have made a new generation of power efficient transistors n Sunderarajan Padmanabhan

efficient and high performance modes, depending on the need. The device has a special type of metalsemiconductor junction which can be tweaked to make it behave either like a MOSFET or a tunnel FET. “MOSFETs typically work like floodgates in a dam – they have a source, a drain, and a gate that controls flow of electrons between the two. When the gate is in the OFF position, there is a large energy barrier which prevents electrons from crossing over. When gate is turned on


n a thrust to roll out 5G in 2020 in line with the global markets, Finance Minister Arun Jaitley said that the Department of Telecom (DoT) will support a 5G-test bed at IIT Chennai. The 5G technology is being

The invention saves power whilst behaving like a MOSFET

than being a laggard,” said Hemant Joshi, Partner, Deloitte India. “This could be a boon for the telecom industry and guide the telecom operators to move to next-gen networks efficiently and effectively. India could take lead in setting up standards for the next-generation technologies,” Joshi added. Last November, global

communications technology leader Ericsson showcased the first-ever live 5G end-to-end demonstration in the country. According to Ericsson, 5G technology will enable a $27.3 billion revenue potential for the Indian telecom operators by 2026. “The 5G technology showcase has been organised in the direction of creating a robust 5G ecosystem as the government plans to have 5G network roll out by 2020,” said Nunzio Mirtillo, Head of Market Area-SE Asia, Oceania and India, Ericsson. The largest 5G opportunity will be seen in sectors like manufacturing, energy and utilities followed by public safety and health sectors. The retail sector in India will offer potential 5G-enabled revenue of up to $1.15 billion by 2026.

The Department of Telecom (DoT) will support a 5G-test bed at IIT Chennai standardised globally to enable Internet of Things (IoT) applications. The centre at IIT-Chennai can work on the development of IoT and Machine to Machine applications which are relevant and best suited for India. “The setting up of 5G centre in collaboration with IIT Chennai would help India being early adopter of the next generation technology rather

The new-generation Tunnel FETs are power efficient

with voltage, height of the barrier is reduced and electrons can jump over. The smaller the supply voltage to turn the transistor on, more efficient is the device,” explained Dr Navakanta Bhat, head of the Centre for Nano Science and Engineering at IISc who led the research team. However, he said, bringing down supply voltage for MOSFETs proportionately with transistor size is difficult because of a fundamental design flaw. A factor called subthreshold swing – which

Testing At IIT-C To Speed Up 5G Roll Out In India n IANS

Common transistors are called MOSFETs

determines the minimum gate voltage required for the transistor to switch from on to off – restricts the supply voltage to be not less than 1 volt. To overcome this, scientists have tried using tunnel FETs in which instead of the height, the width of the electron barrier is reduced to a point where electrons are able to “tunnel” through instead of jumping over it. Tunnel FETs can operate at lower supply voltages but the current flowing when the transistor is on is greatly reduced. In the present work, researchers designed a hybrid device capable of switching between MOSFET and tunnel FET modes by using two gates instead of one, and a special type of electron barrier created by joining a metal and semiconductor under certain conditions. The dual-gated device, Dr. Bhat said, is able to operate at a voltage lower than possible with conventional MOSFETs, greatly reducing power consumption. The research results have been published in journal Applied Physics Letters. The team included Dr. Bhat and Shubhadeep Bhattacharjee.


ver the years, transistors -- the building blocks of digital devices - have become smaller by the day, making devices faster and compact. But this has also meant increased wastage of power. A group of Indian scientists have found a way to address this problem. Transistors work by acting like electronic switches controlling the flow of current across circuits. The most common type of transistors called MOSFETs (metal–oxide– semiconductor field-effect transistors) cannot switch from ‘on’ to ‘off’ abruptly and thus leak current even after the device is turned off. The smaller the transistors the more power they waste. Tunnel FETs (field-effect transistors) waste much less power but are more suited for low performance devices like watches or notebook computers. Scientists at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) at Bengaluru have combined these two different types of transistors into a single device that can easily switch between power-

Quick Glance

FEBRUARY 05 - 11, 2018

Science & Technology


Weed Problem

Climate Change Will Exacerbate Weed Problem India loses crops worth US $ 11 billion dollar every year to these farm intruders


Quick Glance The research was carried out on 14 major crops The study evaluated yield losses in different field plots Weeds cause the highest economic losses for wheat and rice

n Dr Aditi Jain

eeds are a persistent problem for farmers. A recent assessment by the Directorate of Weed Research shows that India loses crops worth US $11 billion dollar every year to these farm intruders. This study, published in journal Crop Protection, was carried out on 14 major crops and utilized data from 1581 on-farm research trials covering various districts of 18 states in the country. The study evaluated yield loss in three types of field plots - plots where weeds are left uncontrolled; where weeds are managed by manual or mechanical weeding practice and plots where weed control was done by both manual weeding and herbicide application. Although, the yield loss due to weeds differs with location, soil type and crop but collectively the yield losses are seen the highest in groundnut and soybean, while economic losses are the highest for wheat and rice. The problem is projected to further aggravate with climate change as weeds can better adapt to temperature fluctuations than crop plants. Weeds, unlike crop plants, are sturdy and can grow in a wide range of climatic conditions and soil types. They produce an astounding number of seeds which are often light in weight and are carried by wind to near and far away destinations helping them to readily colonize a barren land or an already established field. Weeds are not only ecology destroyers but are a serious health hazard too. “In climate change scenario, there will be difficulty in terms of untimely rains, hardy temperature conditions, and extremes of weather. In any case, weeds are hardier than crop plants, as while humans breed crops, nature breeds weeds. So, weeds will be more tolerant to any climate aberrations”, explained Kapila S. Rathore, senior scientist at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute. While farmers use herbicides chemicals to eliminate weeds- research suggests that rise in the temperature

can increase volatility of herbicides rendering them ineffective to act and kill the weeds. Adding to the plight of farmers is the problem of resistance caused by overuse of herbicides. Parthenium, which is popularly believed to have reached India along with wheat import during famines of 1960s has not only covered roadsides and fields but also led to allergies in humans. Likewise, water hyacinth competes with marine organisms for nutrients and light and is a serious threat to the fishery industry. Prevention challenge Weed control is particularly difficult as the strategies which intend to kill weeds also harm crop plants. Traditionally famers have used manual pulling or with tools like weeders. However, manual pulling is increasingly getting replaced with other techniques, mainly due to high labor costs. Currently, most farmers do manual weeding in combination with herbicide application to overcome the weed menace. Asia Pacific Forest Invasive Species Network (APFISN), which is a cooperative alliance of the 33 member countries in the Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission, a statutory body of the United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organisation, lays stress on practices such as use of weed-free certified seeds, ensuring clean harvesting equipment

and application of pre-sowing herbicides in the field to prevent weed germination. Scientists advocate that land should not be left uncovered and that plants like ”Dhaincha”, which also act as green manure, be grown in between two seasons and in between the crop rows. Studies have shown that agricultural practices such as growing dissimilar crops together (intercropping) or one after the other (crop rotation) help by disrupting the adaptation of weeds to a particular crop and field. Further, early and highdensity sowing, narrow row width and use of cultivars that grow rapidly and cover the land have been shown to help suppress weed growth. A study reported in Indian Journal of Weed Science shows that combination of early sowing of quicker growing wheat varieties significantly smothered a major weed, Phalaris minor. Another potential solution is use of bio-herbicides - herbicides based or derived from plants, fungi, bacteria, viruses, protozoans, and nematodes. They promise to specifically kill the weed without causing harm to humans and environment. One of the success stories of biological control was seen in Khairi village of Madhya Pradesh where Mexican beetle was released to eliminate gajar ghaas. In a similar attempt, exotic weevils which specifically eat leaves and petioles of

Water hyacinth were left in a pond. This experiment was also successful. Several plants such as barley, rye, annual ryegrass, buckwheat, oats, sorghum, sudan sorghum hybrids, alfalfa, wheat, red clover, and sunflower have been found to display allelopathy- a process where they exudate a chemical in soil that does not allow any other plant to grow near them. They can also be used to suppress weed growth. Also, the aqueous extracts from several plants such as cogongrass, sacrificial grass, Kleberg bluestem, and Johnson grass suppress the growth of weeds. Currently, seventeen mycoherbicides—herbicides based on fungus—have been registered across the globe. However, not many bio-herbicides are being deployed. “Bio-herbicides are advantageous as they do not have any residue like chemicals. They are target specific and generally are end-user friendly,” pointed out Dr. Sanjai Saxena, professor at Thapar University, Patiala who holds a patent for bio-herbicide for Lantana camara, parthenium and water hyacinth. However, he said, in India hardly any bio-herbicide has been deployed. Research focused on better understanding of biology and weed ecology can help in devising strategies for their removal. Further, identification and use of crop cultivars which are early sowing, or exhibit allelopathy can tackle the problem. It is also a need of the hour to identify or develop herbicide tolerant crops to reduce the herbicide pollution. The potential of application of ecofriendly bio-herbicides to evade the weed issue also needs to be examined. Experts also stressed the need to educate and communicate to the farmers about sustainable agriculture practices as well as methods for weed removal like increasing crop density, practicing crop rotation and intercropping. “Farmers are aware about the presence of parthenium but do not know about its poisonous nature.


February 05 - 11, 2018

India has a major stake in global dialogues

“For reforms of Hinduism and for its real protection, removal of untouchability is the greatest thing...Removal of untouchability is...a spiritual process” Mahatma Gandhi

Davos marks the gathering of the richest and most powerful elite in the world

Farmer’s fortitude The significance of agriculture is that without it, many of the art forms would not have evolved


nthropologists and historians, cultural critics and sociologists have in their own way proclaimed the fundamental importance of agriculture in the story of civilization. Without farming, many of the arts and crafts that helped in the evolution of society would not have emerged. Most importantly, society in its cultural sense and nationstate in the political sense are hugely dependent on the foundations of agriculture. So, it is not surprising that politicians are forced to pay attention to the condition of farmers. Without food production there would be no social stability, and it is a key to economic growth as well as political peace. It is not surprising then that Finance Minister Arun jaitley had rolled out policy initiatives to address the problems facing the farmers, and Prime Minister Narendra Modi had announced last year the target of doubling the farmers’ income by 2022. The question is not whether the government’s initiatives will succeed or not. The issue is the importance of the farmer in our society. What does the farmer symbolize? He stands for patience, steadfastness, and the ability to accept and withstand the vagaries of weather. There will be years of bumper crops and there will be years of crop failure. The farmer learns to live through the good and bad times. He is the personification of fortitude and perseverance, qualities that the rest of society would do well to learn and emulate.


Kumar Dilip Edited, Printed and Published by: Monika Jain on behalf of Sulabh Sanitation Mission Foundation, owned by Sulabh Sanitation Mission Foundation Printed at: The Indian Express Limited A - 8, Sector -7, NOIDA (UP) Published at: RZ - 83, Mahavir Enclave, Palam - Dabri Road, New Delhi - 110045 (India) Corporate Office: 819, Wave Silver Tower, Sector - 18, NOIDA (UP) Phone: +91-120-6500425 Email:,

n Dr Amit Kapoor & Bhawna Kakkar


ndia is putting together this year its largest entourage of ministers, policymakers and business leaders for the World Economic Forum’s annual meeting at Davos – with the Prime Minister addressing the opening plenary session at the prime event. The Davos meeting marks attendance of the richest and most powerful among the elite from across the world to discuss global economics and politics. This year’s theme is “Creating a shared future in a fractured world”, highlighting the need for collaborative and integrated action to address the multitudinal scale of challenges that our world faces today. Forums with international repute evolve over a period of time, just like other organisations. The World Economic Forum (WEF) too has widened its ambit since 1971 -- from discussions limited to global economic change to include political and social change as well. This broadening has been brought by an emphasis on dialogue and consensus between conflicting agendas. The growing unification within the world economy has helped India establish itself as an emerging market economy to a considerable extent. With elite economic powers now recognising India’s presence worldwide in major sectors, it is useful to understand the stature of our participation in forums

at the global level in view of erratic global developments that have become a common spectacle today. It is after a gap of 20 years that an Indian Prime Minister will be attending WEF’s annual meeting, the last being H.D. Deve Gowda in 1997. With recent economic reforms as the background and the Goods & Services Tax (GST) and demonetisation as the frontrunners, Prime Minister Narendra Modi is expected to echo his vision of a new and transformed India by 2022 at this global stage while taking on issues relating to economic imbalances, terrorism, and cyber threats. He is the chief marketing person of India’s narrative on national and foreign policies, entrusted with the responsibility of making sure that the message is received. The accompanying ministers, businessmen and civil society leaders too would be elaborating on the efforts made in the last three-and-ahalf-years in several sessions. This move comes at a time when there’s optimism surrounding the Indian sentiment towards economic growth and social advancement. The insightful interactions with top-notch world leaders at forums like the WEF make room for some of the best learnings and showcasing one’s own experiences to foster greater connectivity and cordial relations. While targeting global forums, India can lay out its position in today’s world order;

February 05 - 11, 2018

The result of such gatherings is that they help in moving one step forward towards higher integration in thoughts represent the willingness to take the lead and send out a categorical message across the global community regarding the creation of a conducive environment for doing business, and emerge as a potential partner in steering global economic growth. Reflecting upon this view, the government is preparing for the commemorative two-day Indo-ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) summit to be led by Narendra Modi in Delhi on from January 25. The summit will see the participation of all 10 ASEAN countries. This can prove to be an opportunity for our country to present itself as a powerful confederate to these countries in areas of strategic regional connectivity and target global positioning as well. However, India decided to give a miss at the Asian Financial Forum (AFF), the 11th edition of which (in Hong Kong ealier this week). The AFF features the world’s most powerful business and financial players discussing ideas and the developments in dynamic Asian markets. It is not to say that non-participation at the AFF this year reflects India’s weak stance on intensifying its global presence as the reasons for non-participation are not clear. If we look at the ramifications of such global and national forums, one can assert that these conversations and dialogues help in moving one step forward towards higher integration of thoughts and experiences. There are several other platforms even at the national level, like the National Competitiveness Forum, aiming to drive India’s productivity, competitiveness and leadership in global markets through its activities, and Thinkers Sandbox, a thought leadership platform, to name a few. Forums like these can help our country commandeer a resilient narrative both nationally and internationally. The average Indian here would think and say: “What’s the point in all this?” He may have never heard of a place like Davos and is very likely to think that it is nothing but a scheme by the world’s most powerful elite. As a matter of fact, there may not be big boost decisions affecting his routine activities from such dialogues. Sill, in a place where global tensions arise with a blink of an eye, it is a solace that there are neutral platforms where discussions will not turn unpleasant.

(Dr. Amit Kapoor is chair, Institute for Competitiveness, India. Bhawna Kakkar is researcher, Institute for Competitiveness, India)



Keeping Good Company

mihir paul

Mihir Paul is a graduate of Philosophy and Psychology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States


Our personalities are shaped by the company we keep. Your social interactions on a daily basis affect you deeply yet subtly


he people we surround ourselves with influence our life and behaviour much more than we think they do. Our personalities are shaped by the company we keep. We may not realize just how much this affects us. It’s not only your friends and family who influence you; your social interactions on a daily basis affect you deeply yet subtly. Your personality has been mostly shaped by the social interactions and social exposure you have had in your life. Choosing who you surround yourself is a discretionary measure that allows you to be in control of what you become. You need to reach a level of awareness that allows you to evaluate the factors that are affecting your personality and behaviour. You need to actively be conscious of who you are surrounding yourself with. Since personality is shaped by company, you become who you surround yourself with. People exert influence on another. These are the dynamics of the plethora of social interactions that take place in your life day in and day out.

You need ensure that your surroundings match your intentions for yourself and your life. You need to cultivate the right surroundings by moving away from negative influences. This is crucial for personal and spiritual growth. When your intent is aligned with your surroundings, you’ll notice that you are already in the right company. We all grow together and transform together. What direction the growth is dependent on your company. Being in good company simply means surrounding yourself with positive, happy people that enrich your life. In the workplace, good people tend to be productive people. They’re

organized, create schedules they stick to and don’t get easily distracted from the end goal. And all this help you be more productive! They are people that will inspire you to be a better person, provide you with motivation to achieve your goals, empower you to make the changes you need to succeed and cheer on your success. It’s important to note that “good” does not mean similar. Too much of the same thing can inhibit growth. You want to have diversity and healthy arguments. You should have an eagerness to soak up knowledge, and differing perspectives can help you with that. Remember that like attracts like. You have to give off positive vibes and be confident. You also have to be yourself. This will lead you to the people that are right for you. When you’re surrounded by good people, you’re surrounded by life. You’ll be less stressed and find more joy in daily things. Today, make a commitment to start spending more time with the good people in your life.

letters to the editor upon one of the most crucial issues of river conservation and restoration. The sanskrit words for water is jeevan, among others, which means ‘life’. The fact that there cannot be any life without water comes out when we see scientists trying to find water on other planets before seeing whether the plant can support life. Perhaps this crucial issue is being forgotten by modern architects of ‘development’ who are drying up that basic source of life. Ajay Rohtagi, Ambala Cantt water: crucible of life After a long time we found a well-rounded cover story in Sulabh Swachh Bharat on the environment and it touched

the bapu’s billets “It may be a difficult time for humanity, but there is still a ray of hope. That may come to us by embracing and practicins Bapu’s philosophy and thoughts. “

These words of the introduction to the articles on Bapu’s letters may not be the first ever said about him. But the more often these are repeated the more precious they become. Beyond the rather politcs motivated debate on whether Mahatma Gandhi did the right or wrong thing in his struggle for independence, what remains with us as his legacy is his vision for a truly independent India. India free of wants, rid of caste and egalitarian in its approach towards humanity. This is why I must heartily thank SSB for bringing out such a marvellous collection of Bapu’s letters. It is not for nothing that the Mahatma was admired by some of the top intellects like Rabindranath Tagore. Tanmay Basu, Kolkata

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Photo Feature

February 05 - 11, 2018

A Regal Spectacle

Beating the Retreat is perhaps the grandest military cultural celebration in India Photo: sipra das

February 05 - 11, 2018

Photo Feature


The armed forces bands march down Raisina Hill, which houses the President’s Estate, in a pomp that evokes nostalgia, as it marks the end of the three-day affair of the Republic Day. The unfurled flag is folded ceremoniously and carried away


Speech By Dr Bindeshwar Pathak

FEBRUARY 05 - 11, 2018


Swachh Bharat Abhiyan: Sulabh’s Participation & Perspective Dr Bindeshwar Pathak shared his perspective in a programme that was organised by Satyajit Ray Film & Television Institute, an academic institution of Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India



istinguished dignitaries on the dais, participants, ladies and gentlemen. At the outset, I welcome Dr. Debamitra Mitra, Director, Satyajit Ray Films and Television Institute, an Academic Institute under the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting, Government of India, for giving me an opportunity to share my views on Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. I also welcome Prof. K.J. Nath, Chairman, Science and Technology, Sulabh Internaitonal Social Service Organisation. Hon’ble Prime Minister of India, Shri Narendra Modi in his maiden Independence Day speech on 15 August, 2014, raised an important issue which no other Prime Minister had ever raised while addressing the nation from the ramparts of the

The Prime Minster stressed that citizens cannot be healthy if the country is not clean. Cleanliness, he said, is the first sign of development of any country Red Fort. The Prime Minister spoke passionately about keeping India clean and about building toilets. He said cleanliness has been accorded top priority by his government and that the first work he started after formation of government is of cleanliness. The Prime Minster stressed that citizens cannot be healthy if the country is not clean. Cleanliness, he said, is the first sign of development of any country; it is important that we set it right. It is therefore imperative that we take a pledge to collectively

keep our country clean. The Prime Minister said that majority of India’s 4.5 lakhs government-funded schools does not have adequate toilet facilities which results in high dropout rate and low attendance, particularly of girl students. We have to, therefore, ensure that all schools have toilets within a year so that children, especially girls, can attend school with dignity. The good news is that within a year the Government of India under the leadership of Prime Minister Modiji

was able to achieve the target of building toilets in every school. I believe that it is the responsibility of students and teachers to keep the toilets clean and maintain them properly. We have to see that good habits are inculcated in children so that they in turn become the flag bearers of cleanliness. We have seen this with our experiment at the Sulabh Public School, where teachers and students clean toilets. By doing so, they take the ownership of their toilets and keep them clean. Not only this, they develop a highest degree of civic sense and never indulge in littering the school campus and public place. The students of the Sulabh Public School are proud of their habits and advocate them to their friends, family members and neighbours. In the Sulabh Public School, there is arrangement for sanitary napkins for girls in their washrooms. The school also has an incinerator for the safe and hygienic disposal of sanitary napkins. On my flight from Udaipur, I saw a seven-year-old girl handing over a waste paper to the airhostess. This was remarkable in that children are becoming conscious about cleanliness! I have heard children saying, “If you litter, Modiji will notice”. This is significant in the sense children have become alarmed and this is purely due to what can be described as “Modi Effect”. The whole nation is talking about Modi’s immense contribution in leading the nation towards cleanliness. It is significant that the war against cleanliness must continue and it should not be seen as a symbolic gesture to keep the surroundings clean. For this to happen, there has to be a new sense of awakening or a cultural revolution towards cleanliness must dawn on the minds of people. We must improve our habits and lifestyles. When we sow the seed of positive change in us, then eventually it manifests in our family, neighbourhood, villages, towns, cities and the entire country. Prime Minister has said that every house must have a toilet and this

FEBRUARY 05 - 11, 2018 has mobilised the authorities and administrators across the country. Now, children are doing the job of whistle blowers and asking people not to defecate out in the open. The number of men and women defecating in the open has drastically gone down. In the early 20th century, it was Mahatma Gandhi who raised the issues of cleanliness and toilets for the first time in India. When Mahatma Gandhi was in Phoenix Ashram in Durban in South Africa, he used the trench latrine system. He had a big farm house in about 128 acres and he used to shift the trench latrine from one place to another and after each use he would fill it with soil. On his second trip to India from South Africa, Gandhiji attended the Congress session in Calcutta. The sanitary condition of the Congress camp was horrible. Some delegates used the verandah in front of their room as latrines and nobody objected to it. Gandhiji reacted immediately. When he spoke to the volunteers, they said; “This is not our job, this is a sweeper’s job.” Gandhiji asked for a broom and himself cleaned the filth. He was then dressed in western style. The volunteers were astonished but none came forward to assist him. Years later, when Gandhiji became the guiding star of the Indian National Congress, volunteers formed a cleaning squad in the Congress camps. Two thousand teachers and students were specially trained for doing scavenging at the Haripura Congress session. Gandhiji could not think of having a set of people labelled as untouchables for cleaning filth and dirt. He wanted to abolish untouchability from India. Gandhiji was so moved by this inhumane practice that he suggested two things to stop the practice of open defecation. First, to use trench latrines as much as possible and the second was to put soil on the human excreta after defecation. It was popularized in India as “tatti pe mitti”. Gandhiji gave these two suggestions but he also wanted a scientific toilet so that people could use toilets and not defecate in the open. He believed that only technology could provide a solution to stop the inhuman practice of cleaning dry latrines with hand. Gandhi had said that he wanted a clean India first, Independence later. I was troubled by the pathetic conditions of the untouchables, and inspired by Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy and teachings in 1968, I vigorously applied my mind to come up with a suitable technology that could replace dry latrines and eventually bring an end to the problem of cleaning bucket toilets and the

dry pit toilets by the community of ‘untouchables’ in India. My idea was not just to provide a solution but to cleanse a belief system and liberate the society that remained imprisoned in the formulaic traditions which encouraged caste-based discrimination against scavengers who worked as manual scavengers. My actions are that of cleansing and reforming a system and give them the dignity that was denied to them for thousands of years. For these women, their freedom, voice and basic human rights were forfeited the moment they were born as they were perceived to belong to the lowest stratum of India’s caste-based society – the Dalits, formerly known as ‘untouchables’. By virtue of their birth, they worked as manual scavengers, cleaned dry latrines and faced severe social discrimination. I also simultaneously spearheaded a movement to restore the dignity and rights of the untouchables. In 1968, strongly influenced by Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy and personally witnessing caste-based discrimination practised in my own family against Dalits in the state of Bihar, I took a resolution to free them from the shackles of modern day slavery and dedicated my life for this cause. I invented a sustainable technology known as a two-pit pourflush ecological toilet, which could replace the bucket toilets that need manual scavengers for cleaning it and eventually bring an end to this inhuman practice. I started the sanitation movement to liberate the manual scavengers; the houses in rural areas did not have toilets. Everyone went out in the open for defecation. Women suffered the most. They had to go out to defecate either before sunrise or after sunset. If they ever felt the need to go during the day, they couldn’t relieve themselves which led to severe health problems. Even in darkness it was not safe for them because there was always the danger of snake-bites, scorpion stings, animal attacks and also the possibility of sexual violence and rape. Even the schools in rural areas did not have toilets and, therefore, the girls did not feel encouraged to go to schools. The mortality rate was very high and children used to die of diarrhoea, dehydration, cholera, and other diseases. The situation was equally bad in the urban areas. More than 85 per cent houses had bucket toilets, which were cleaned by the untouchables. In slum areas and on the outskirts of towns and cities, people practised open defecation. There was no provision of public toilets near railway stations,

Speech By Dr Bindeshwar Pathak


Next, I wanted to break the concept of ‘twice born’. I helped them perform rites and rituals of the Brahmins and the other upper caste public places like market yards, bus stops, and religious and tourist places. Foreigners who visited and travelled to India also faced lot of difficulties. The Sulabh flush toilet technology, which I invented to replace the bucket toilets cleaned by the untouchables or by anybody, became a great tool in helping stop open defecation in the villages. Now women in the rural areas go to toilets safely and with dignity with no fear of being attacked. The same technology in schools has helped increase student attendance, especially of young girls. They feel safe and comfortable going to schools. The child mortality rates have also decreased in these areas. In the Sulabh technology, the human excreta gets converted into fertilizer because out of the two pits; one is used at a time and the other remains as a standby. Manual cleaning of human excreta is not required in this system. In addition to this, biofertilizer is produced which can be used to raise the farm productivity, or for horticultural and floricultural purposes. This technology proved to be the effective solution to end the practice of manual cleaning of nightsoil by the untouchable scavengers and defecation in the open. So, about a million scavengers have been freed because of this invention. BBC Horizons has declared the

Sulabh technologies as one of five unique inventions of the world that has a direct bearing on humanity. The low-cost and appropriate toilet technology (popularly known as the Sulabh Shauchalaya System) that I developed and implemented on a pan-India scale is an invention, which has been declared as a Global Best Practice by the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. In 1878, an Act was passed in Kolkata in West Bengal to maintain public toilets on pay-and-use basis but it could not work. After a lapse of 96 years I tried this formula again. In 1974, the Patna Municipality, in the eastern Bihar, gave me an opportunity to try and implement this practice. They gave me land and cost of construction of toilet complex. They also informed me that I had to charge money from the public for the use of toilets. It was a new concept and after hearing about it, it became a joke in the city. People found it amusing in that somebody had to pay to use a toilet. I was of the opinion that public toilets need to be maintained round the clock, and if it is clean, then everybody will pay to use such a toilet. This was very important. We decided to provide facilities of urinals, wash basin, soap powder and towels in the public toilet and also ensured its


Speech By Dr Bindeshwar Pathak

maintenance around the clock. In India, on the first day 500 people came to use the toilets. And now throughout the country 20 million people are using these toilets daily. So the idea worked! The other technology I developed is a biogas digester linked with public toilets. It is a special system in which human excreta goes through the biogas digester. When decomposition takes place it produces biogas. This biogas can be used for cooking, lighting mantle lamps, and electricity generation. It can also be used to produce energy supply for the street lights. Water discharged from biogas digester is treated through ultra violet rays. When the water goes through this process it becomes pure. This water is safe to be discharged in river bodies or to be used as a fertilizer in the field to raise the productivity. We have also constructed five such public toilets with biogas digester in Kabul, Afghanistan and they are functioning very well. In 2007, the temperature went down to -300C and all the complexes worked very well despite the harsh winter. Mahatma Gandhi was in favour of Varna system and Dr Ambedkar was opposed to it. In my experiment, with the two towns in Rajasthan, I found that the caste of the untouchables may remain the same but their

FEBRUARY 05 - 11, 2018

The Sulabh flush toilet technology, which I invented, became a great tool in helping stop open defecation

prestige and dignity can be brought to the same level as Brahmins and other castes. I demonstrated that with the two towns in Rajasthan by taking up a fivefold programme to restore the human rights and dignity of the untouchables there and to make them a part of the mainstream society. My first step was to relieve them of the work of cleaning human excreta by converting the dry pit toilets into Sulabh flush toilets. Since owners got flush toilets they did not raise any objections. Next, I set up a vocational training centre. It was named ‘Nai Disha’. Since education is the key to human development, we first taught them how to read and write. For three months, we gave them stipend in cash but once they learnt to read and write, we gave them cheques so that they could withdraw money from the bank. The next step was to make them economically independent. The women scavengers themselves took the decision regarding the selection of courses. We trained them in different

fields like food processing as well as market-oriented trades like tailoring, embroidery, fashion designing, and beauty care. The women who underwent the training at the centre have acquired self-confidence. In fact, it has boosted their morale and they are now engaged in self-sustaining professions. All the women in Alwar and Tonk, who previously worked as manual scavengers in towns, have been rehabilitated and trained as beauticians or in food processing, sewing or embroidery. They have also taken courses in personality development. Next, I wanted to break the concept of ‘twice born’. I helped them perform rites and rituals of the Brahmins and the other upper castes. Initially, there was resistance from the people and they were denied entry into the temples. I decided to take the matters into my hands and lead some of the outcastes to the Nathdwara temple. Initially we were met with resistance. Instead of taking a confrontational attitude, I took the path of persuasion

and successfully convinced the priests to allow us entry. Our efforts succeeded and they were allowed entry into the temple. Now, the same Brahmin families offer the untouchables tea and even invite them occasions to attend the marriages of their daughters. The former scavengers freely mingle with the families of upper castes, especially the families, who earlier employed them to clean and carry night soil. This demonstrates a change in the mindset and attitude of the people of the society. There is hardly any sign of untouchability in these towns now. The untouchable scavengers also got the opportunity to attend the World Toilet Summit in 2007 at Vigyan Bhawan in New Delhi. Prince of Orange of the Netherlands, Willem-Alexander, now the King of the Netherlands, gave them an audience on that occasion. He offered them flowers and assured them that they would be invited by the United Nations Economic and Social Council to take part in the proceedings of the United Nations. The Economic and Social Council invited these liberated scavenger women in 2008 to attend the proceedings of the U.N. They also walked the ramp with famous models from the United States and India. They went to see the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of liberty, equality and freedom and they were so overwhelmed that from this great monument they gave a clarion call that they are no more ‘Untouchables’ and have achieved real freedom. Sulabh has thus been doing its utmost to make a difference in the life of manual scavengers, the most deprived and neglected people of our society. Now they are called ‘new Brahmins’. It is my honour to inform you that actions have been initiated by me to promote social security and rehabilitation of widows of Vrindavan and Varanasi and also steps taken to challenge the social norms that ostracized the widows and even condemned them to lead a life of destitution. On a writ petition filed by the National Legal Services Authority (NALSA) for ameliorating the lives of the Vrindavan widows, the Hon’ble Supreme Court had expressed concern over their plight, requesting the concerned authorities to inquire whether Sulabh could provide food to the widows, who were living in pitiab This prompted me to immediately pay a visit to Vrindavan. On visiting the Ashrams, I found their condition heartrending and pathetic. I was shocked and moved to tears on

FEBRUARY 05 - 11, 2018 hearing the widows’ tales of woes. I immediately provided a stipend of Rs. 1,000 per month to each of the 552 widows. Since then I have taken various steps to mitigate the sufferings of the widows and improve their living conditions. Later, it became apparent that the amount of Rs. 1,000 per month per widow was inadequate. Some of them used to go to various temples to sing ‘bhajans’ twice a day. From different temples, they earned only eight rupees a day (four rupees in the morning and four rupees in the evening) for meeting their expenses on food and other essentials. I wanted to ensure that the widows living in these government-run shelters do not go to bed hungry or eke out their living by begging, which was hitherto a common sight. Keeping these things in mind, I increased the stipend amount to Rs. 2,000 with effect from February 2013. This has enabled the widows to have two meals in their Ashrams, obviating the need to go out for singing and begging. This has instilled in them a sense of belonging and has lifted their broken spirits. They have been provided ambulances, televisions, refrigerators, etc., to make them comfortable. They are now being taught Hindi, Bangla and English languages and have been trained in making of garlands, Agarbattis, sewing, etc. To bring them back into the mainstream of the society we have made arrangements on different occasions such as Holi, Durga Puja, Diwali and they celebrate these festivals joyously. We took them

on tour to different cities such as Delhi, Kolkata, etc. They were very happy on the day they met the then Hon’ble President of India, Shri Pranab Mukherjee, and Hon’ble Prime Minister and tied Rakhi on their wrists. On October 15, 2016 they did the catwalk with the famous models of the country in the Mavalankar Hall. They were enthralled on these occasions.

Widows of Varanasi

We subsequently also adopted the widows of Varanasi like those of Vrindavan. I identified 150 widows who were given financial help of Rs. 2,000 per month and thus launched our second campaign against the age-old and oppressive tradition of widowhood at Varanasi. Besides taking care of the widows’ basic needs, Sulabh has made a significant contribution in creating awareness among the people by probing and highlighting the problems of poor widows. Widows of Village Deoli-Bhanigram Moved by the natural disaster that struck Uttarakhand in June 2013 that left many villagers and pilgrims homeless, Sulabh extended

Speech By Dr Bindeshwar Pathak a helping hand to women who had been widowed and others by giving financial help of Rs. 2,000 per month to the women and elderly members of the family and also Rs. 1,000 to each child, covering 155 devastated residents of six villages of DeoliBhanigram Panchayat. Later Sulabh gave Rs. 1,000 per month to 300 more families of these villages. A vocational training programme was also launched for the women and widows for imparting training in candle making, sewing, making diyabati and providing basic education. The vocational training centre has been provided with 12 computers, 25 sewing machines along with other equipments and materials. The centre is imparting training to women and others in eight trades, i.e., tailoring, knitting, machine embroidery, computer education, shorthand and typing, candle making, Agarbati making, Batti (cotton) making and paper plate and Dona making. The centre is also providing basic education to trainees, besides making them computer literate. Our main motto is providing vocational training to women and others in these villages, so that they can acquire the necessary skills to earn a living. Raw materials

This pragmatic plan will not only ensure successful accomplishment of the task, but also obviate the unnecessary expenditure on publicity and propaganda


like wax, thread, gas, oil, pen, pencil, paper, cotton, books, CD, stationery, ribbon, etc., are provided to them free of cost. Sulabh International Centre for Action Sociology is training them with a view to providing an alternative source of income and rehabilitating them by enabling them to be selfemployed in different trades.


Our Hon’ble Prime Minister has resolved to end the practice of open defecation by 2019, so that the nation can pay a fitting tribute to the Mahatma on his 150th birth anniversary.To attain this objective, it is imperative to train one person to play the role of motivator from each of our 6.46 lakh villages. The motivator will have the responsibility of visiting each and every house and motivating people to get the household toilet built. He will ensure that the toilets are actually built, and he will also take care of their maintenance for one year, and get the improper functioning or flaws, if any, promptly and properly fixed. He will also encourage the villagers to use the toilet, and also assist them in its maintenance and cleanliness. If this plan is put into practice, one motivator can build 20 toilets in a month and thus 240 toilets in one year. These 6.46 motivators will be able to build 15 crore (6.46x240) toilets. Thus the dream of an open defecation-free India can be achieved within a year. The government alone or any one organization cannot accomplish this mammoth task. The responsibility of organizing and executing this task must be given to a creditable Non-Governmental Organisation which has a wide and deep experience in this field. For motivation, implementation and follow-up, this organization should be given 5 per cent of the total expenditure on building the toilets. And the motivators who will work in 6.46 lakh villages should be given 10 per cent of the total expenditure. The government is currently giving an assistance of Rs.12,000 for building the toilet, but the government should also ensure that the people should get a bank loan up to Rs. 50,000 for building a good quality toilet—a toilet that endures and functions well so that people can use it. This pragmatic plan will not only ensure successful accomplishment of the task, but also obviate the unnecessary expenditure on publicity and propaganda. The above are excerpts from a speech by Dr Pathak on January 18, 2018 at the Satyajit Ray Film & Television Institute, Kolkata.


excerpts from the book: “NARENDRA DAMODAR MODI: the making of a legend”

February 05 - 11, 2018

The Making of Modi: The Making of Gujarat In October 2001, Narendra Modi started more than twelve years of unbroken rule as chief minister of Gujarat, which came to an end only when he assumed charge as Prime Minister of India in May 2014. As chief minister, he not only displayed political dexterity, but also emerged as an unparalleled champion of development. Gujarat’s economic growth, which came to be known as the Gujarat Model, presented other states an example of how dramatic improvements can be achieved in electricity and water supply, and how better roads and infrastructure can lead to faster growth and empowerment of people.

Gujarat is Narendra Modi’s Karmabhoomi. Karmabhoomi is a Hindi word which denotes the land where a person lives, works and contributes. It is also the land a person is deeply attached to, emotionally and spiritually. For Modi, the land of his birth and origin is also his Karmabhoomi. Prior to assuming charge as Gujarat chief minister, he worked in various capacities in central organisations of his party, but his heart was always in Gujarat.

February 05 - 11, 2018


n 2001, following the loss of two assembly seats in by-elections, Keshubhai Patel, the BJP chief minister of Gujarat, resigned and Narendra Modi, the rising star of the party, was asked to take charge of the government in the state. His brief was to create an enabling environment for the BJP to secure a majority win in the state assembly elections in December 2002. Getting back to Gujarat after a 15-year stint at the national level was inevitable for Narendra Modi. Gujarat held great importance for the BJP and its badly fractured politics was a cause of constant worry to the senior leadership. The party needed someone who could overcome internal party fissures and lead the government effectively. In the eyes of the party’s central leadership, Modi fitted the bill. Having made his mark as a brilliant strategist for the BJP at both the state and national-level, Narendra Modi had seen both sides of the coin. It was unanimously felt that he was most suitable to bring Gujarat back from the political brink. Modi won the Rajkot-II assembly constituency seat to be elected as an MLA in the Gujarat State Assembly, thus cementing his claim to the chair of chief minister. He defeated Ashwin Mehta of the Congress party. He took office with the heavy responsibility of preparing his party for assembly elections. The beginning was not a very good one due to a horrible incident at Godhra on February 27, 2002, wherein suspected Muslim arsonists allegedly burnt a train carrying Hindu Kar Sewaks from Ayodhya to Godhra. About sixty people were charred to death in this ghastly incident. When rumours started floating around that Muslims were behind it, it sparked off a communal conflagration that claimed many more lives. Narendra Modi took all steps to control the situation, including imposing curfew and issuing shoot-atsight orders to restore civic normalcy. However, opposition parties accused Modi of being responsible for communal disturbance, but eventually, after several years, a Supreme Court appointed Special Investigation Team (SIT) exonerated him. Closure was brought to the case at the judicial level in 2013.

excerpts from the book: “NARENDRA DAMODAR MODI: the making of a legend”

Modi has a track record of being a doer. Gujarat is an example and one should go there to see it.

Ratan Tata Chairman emeritus of the Tata group

Turning Gujarat around In October 2001, when Modi was called upon by the BJP to lead the government in Gujarat, the state's economy was in shambles. The devastation caused by a massive earthquake on January, 26, 2001, in the areas of Kutch and Bhuj added to the challenge posed to him and his government. The master strategist and organisational wizard that he was, Narendra Modi quickly identified economic revival and reconstruction and rehabilitation of areas devastated by the earthquake as his biggest challenge. Besides the large-scale reconstruction and rehabilitation, undertaken in the earthquake affected areas, the 14 months running up to the state assembly elections were used to chart out a bigger picture, i.e., correcting existing socioeconomic imbalances and focusing on growth-related initiatives. Narendra Modi’s hard work paid off with the BJP securing a majority win in the December 2002 elections. The BJP got 117 seats out of 182. Rehabilitation and reconstruction of earthquake devastated Kutch and Bhuj regions Kutch being the epicenter of the earthquake suffered maximum damage as did Bhuj, just 20 kms away. The tremors left their mark even in Ahmedabad where about 50 multistory buildings collapsed and several hundred people were killed. Government of India gave out figures of affected people as 1.5 million with 19,727 dead, 166,000 injured and 600,000 left homeless. 348,000 houses were destroyed and 844,000 damaged. Official assessment placed direct


Law and order is under control, people move freely, I no longer have to pay hafta to anyone. Things related to government have become simpler and transparent. I can freely

concentrate on my business. I may not love Modi, but I will vote for him. Zakir Hussain Owner of WoW, a Mughlai food restaurant in Ahmedabad

Narendra Modi with Keshubhai Patel, former Gujarat chief minister

economic losses at $1.3 billion while other estimates indicated losses as high as $5 billion. Narendra Modi, on taking over as Chief Minister in October 2001, directed his indomitable energy towards the quake hit areas that had suffered maximum loss. Knowing full well that the challenges could not be met without assistance from financial institutions he incorporated the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank and a number of Non Government Organisations to ensure that the work was done according to the requirement of the people and a viable plan put in place to build a sustainable township. Under the dynamic stewardship

of Chief Minister Narendra Modi, a 124000 house township was reconstructed in a little over four years. World Bank estimates put the time period for this work at about ten years.

Core plan to ensure speedy and robust reconstruction l Choice

of relocation or in-situ reconstruction taken by the village community ensured minimum relocation

l Construction

facilitated by financial, materialandtechnical assistance by government

l Housing

assistance packages announced in a record time


excerpts from the book: “NARENDRA DAMODAR MODI: the making of a legend”

February 05 - 11, 2018

l Guidelines

prepared to guide people for construction and repair

l Excise

duty exempted for building materials

l Multi-hazard

resistant reconstruction made mandatory

l Engineers

appointed to provide technical guidance and supervise construction

l Payments

made in three installments; second and third installmentsweregivenonlyafter verification and certification by engineers Sustained momentum for development post the electoral victory Modi did not waste time celebrating this electoral triumph. Immediately after the new government was sworn in, he conceived the Panchamrut Yojana, a five-pronged strategy for the integrated development of Gujarat. This was followed by an aggressive promotion of drip irrigation to save each drop of water. Today, more than five lakh hectares of land in Gujarat are under drip irrigation, thanks to this initiative of Modi. His government’s efforts towards water management resulted in a consistent ten percent growth in the agriculture sector in Gujarat, as against a national average of three percent. Drinking water was provided to towns and villages, thus, preventing people from walking miles to fetch water. Narendra Modi courageously staved off strong criticism and pressure from social activists to raise the height of the Narmada (Sardar Sarovar) Dam to 121.9 metres, a move that provided great benefit to Gujarat. He also initiated a programme to use desalinated seawater for industrial use from solar powered desalination plants. Through his Urja Shakthi Yojana, Gujarat emerged as the only state in India whose towns and villages receive 24/7 electricity. A booming rural economy contributed to reduced rural migration to urban areas. The state government’s assurance of surplus energy made Gujarat an attractive industry destination. Gujarat developed a gas grid to supply gas to industries and homes. Since then, the state has been involved in hydrocarbon exploration,

Panchamrut Yojana

The Modi model centred around “Five Shaktis” (Strengths) Jal Shakti, or Water Power Jan Shakti, or the Power of Human Resource Raksha Shakti, or Defence Power Urja Shakti, or Energy Power Gyan Shakti, or Knowledge Power

Narendra Modi spearheading a tree plantation drive in Gujarat.

A few visionary projects by Narendra Modi

Chiranjeevi Yojana to reduce infant mortality Nirmal Gujarat to encourage cleanliness and tree plantation Jyotigram Yojana to provide electricity to every village

Narendra Modi with school going girls in Gujarat.

Krishi Mahotsav to provide agricultural research laboratories Vana Bandhu Kalyan Yojana for development of tribal areas Khel Mahakumbh to encourage sports Mission Mangalam to provide credit links to women entrepreneurs

February 05 - 11, 2018

excerpts from the book: “NARENDRA DAMODAR MODI: the making of a legend”


Modi’s view of water as a key life source propelled him to introduce and support local water conservation efforts through the construction of lakhs of check dams. He introduced a scheme “Sujalam Sufalam” to create a grid of water resources in Gujarat for the sake of water conservation and its appropriate utilisation. This was done by interlinking small rivers and streams. His integrated approach resulted in the rise of ground water levels in a dry state like Gujarat.

Narendra Modi in a public meeting at Gandhi Ashram along with MLAs, MPs and spiritual heads of the state of Gujarat.

Inauguration of a canal in Gujarat by Narendra Modi.

Karmayogi to train the state bureaucracy Gunotsav and Vanche Gujarat for promotion of quality education Sadbhavana Mission to reach out to the Muslim community Beti Bachao campaign to save the girl child

Matru Vandana to provide preventive and curative services for child health Kanya Kelavani Yojana to encourage female literacy and education Sujalam Sufalam to link small rivers and streams and create a water grid

and a conscious attempt has been made to develop Gujarat into a gas-based economy. Gujarat’s comprehensive energy policy is focused on providing abundant and clean energy. Since the beginning of his tenure as the state administrator, Narendra Modi realised and harnessed the value of what he famously termed Jan Shakti or human resource. In the 13 years that he was chief minister, he made various successful attempts to correct anomalies in human-related indices. He launched vigorous campaigns to prevent drop-outs from schools, encouraged girl child education, personally setting an example by contributing money for this cause from auctioned gifts. His government’s popular “Gunotsav and Vanche Gujarat” campaigns promoted the need for quality education and improving reading habits. Public health was given due importance through initiatives like the “Chiranjeevi Yojana” and the 108 emergency services to decrease the infant mortality rate and provide emergency medical help. Cleanliness and tree plantation drives were launched under “Nirmal Gujarat”. A program to supply fortified flour with micro nutrients through the public distribution system (PDS) and a mid-day meal scheme were started to check malnutrition among Below Poverty Line (BPL) families and schoolgoing children. “Khel Mahakumbh” was initiated

to encourage physical activity and sports. For Gujarat’s huge and largely neglected tribal population, Narendra Modi launched the “Vana Bandhu Kalyan Yojana” to achieve all round development in tribal areas. “Mission Mangalam” was initiated to provide livelihood to women through credit linkages. Realising that knowledge and security are keys to success in a competitive world, the visionary Narendra Modi spent a considerable amount of his time developing plans for enhancing knowledge and skills of the people of Gujarat. Institutions like the Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University for Research in Energy, the Children’s University, the Indian Institute of Teacher Training, the Forensic Science University, the Rakshashakti University, the Kamdhenu University and the Law University came up. Delivering quality technical education was brought into focus to cater to the needs of a growing manufacturing sector. The administration under Narendra Modi increased and upgraded several ITIs, polytechnics and engineering colleges. A clear objective was to achieve synergy between industry and technical education. Skill development programmes were introduced to train manpower and treated as distinct from conventional education models. A “Karmayogi” programme was launched to train the state’s bureaucracy.


excerpts from the book: “NARENDRA DAMODAR MODI: the making of a legend”

As a result of all these initiatives, almost all villages in Gujarat are now connected with broadband network. Information technology is being effectively used in governance and the state has received many awards for its e-governance initiatives. On the security front, Narendra Modi worked with the Union Defence Ministry to strengthen Gujarat’s coastal defence and prevent infiltration. His zero tolerance on terrorism is well known and widely appreciated. On several occasions as chief minister, he expressed enthusiasm to make Gujarat a hub for defence related manufacturing. A thrust to rural economy In terms of agricultural output, Gujarat improved substantially due to a better supply of groundwater in places like Kutch and Saurashtra and other northern parts. Efforts were also made to increase the use of micro-irrigation and providing farms with efficient power supply. Gujarat’s agriculture growth rate increased to an average of 9.6 per cent during the period 2001-2007. Compound annual growth rate in Gujarat between 2001-2010 touched 10.97 per cent, the highest among all states of India. A radical change in the system of power supply to rural areas helped agriculture to flourish. In the infrastructure sector, development was seen in the construction of 500,000 structures in 2008 alone, out of which 113,738 were check dams. In 2010, 60 out of 112 tehsils regained their normal groundwater level, which in turn dramatically swelled production of genetically modified BT cotton. The Gujarat government under Narendra Modi changed the state’s system of power distribution, benefitting the farming and rural folk community greatly. The Jyotigram Yojana or Lighting up of villages was expanded. Agricultural electricity was separated from other forms of rural electricity. Agricultural electricity was rationed to fit scheduled irrigation demands, reducing its cost. In overall terms, electricity supply to rural areas in Gujarat stabilised. Narendra Modi as champion of business and investment Under Narendra Modi’s leadership, seven “Vibrant Gujarat” summits were organised between 2003 and 2015. These biennial investor summits, held under the auspices of the Government of Gujarat, were aimed at bringing together business

February 05 - 11, 2018

Sadbhavna Missions Modi organised the Sadbhavna (Goodwill) Mission in late 2011 and in early 2012 in an attempt to reach out to Muslims in the state. He undertook several fasts in the belief that such a step would “further strengthen Gujarat’s environment of peace, unity and harmony.” The mission started on September 17, 2011 in Ahmedabad. In all, he observed 36 fasts spread across eight cities and 26 districts.

Muslim leaders greet Chief Minister Narendra Modi at the Gujarat University Convention Centre in Ahmedabad on September 17, 2011.

leaders, investors, corporations, thought leaders, policy and opinion makers. These summits were advertised as platforms to understand and explore business opportunities in Gujarat. For the first summit held between September 28 and October 2, 2003, the Industrial Extension Bureau acted as the nodal agency for the Gujarat government. It organised the signature event at two major commercial cities—Ahmedabad and Surat, in association with the Government of India, United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO), the Federation of Indian

Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) and the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII). Focus sectors in Ahmedabad were industrial investment, agro-processing, biotech pharma, natural gas and oil, infrastructure, mining, tourism, apparels, gems and jewellery. In Surat, it was garments, textiles, gems and jewellery. At the end of the event, 76 MoUs worth USD14 billion were signed. The legacy of Vibrant Gujarat Summits left by Shri Narendra Modi as chief minister continues in Gujarat. The sixth and seventh editions of the summit (2013 and 2015)

provided enormous prospects to the state to display its strengths, progressive values and initiatives taken to improve governance, the investor-friendly climate, art and culture. The eighth edition of the initiative was held from 10 to 13 January 2017 at Mahatma Mandir, Ghandhinagar, Gujarat, with a central focus on “Sustainable Economic and Social Development.” It brought together heads of states and government and institutions with leaders of the corporate world and academia from across the world for an energetic and exciting interaction.

February 05 - 11, 2018 As Gujarat’s chief minister, Narendra Modi undertook several trips abroad, and among the prominent ones, was a trip to China, where he paid special attention to the model of socio-economic progress. To give a boost to Gujarat’s tourism sector, Modi appointed Bollywood superstar Amitabh Bachchan as brand ambassador. To his credit, Bachchan did not charge a contractual fee for this. The “Khushboo Gujarat Ki” campaign, voiced by Bachchan, has increased tourism in Gujarat by four per cent per annum, twice that of the national growth rate for this particular sector. The effective branding of Gujarat as a state in constant and consistent development mode resulted in the World Bank’s endorsement of Gujarat as the best Indian state in terms of ease of doing business for two consecutive years. The Modi style of doing business: Minimum fuss, maximum results As is well known, the talks for the setting up of a Tata Nano plant in

excerpts from the book: “NARENDRA DAMODAR MODI: the making of a legend”

Singur between the Government of West Bengal and Tata Motors collapsed in 2008. On October 3, 2008, after a meeting with West Bengal Chief Minister Buddhadev Bhattacharya, Ratan Tata declared his decision to move the Nano Project out of West Bengal. Tata mentioned his frustration with the opposition movement against the

Singur project led by Trinamool Congress chief Mamata Banerjee as the key reason for taking that step. Narendra Modi then sent an SMS to Ratan Tata, which simply said: Suswagatam! (Welcome to Gujarat!), inviting him to establish his automotive plant in Gujarat. He persuaded the Tata Group chairman to relocate the Nano factory to


The Vibrant Gujarat Global Summit, which started in 2003 to rekindle the pace of investments in the state, has since established itself as one of the most important international business events in the country.

Chief Minister Narendra Modi at the inauguration of the Vibrant Gujarat Global Summit, 2011 at Mahatma Mandir, Gandhinagar on January 10, 2011.

Narendra Modi with Tata Group chairman Ratan Tata at the rollout ceremony of Nano car on June 2, 2010.

Gujarat. It took 14 months to build a new factory in Sanand, compared with 28 months for the Singur factory. While Gujarat continues to accelerate on the path of growth and development, the creative voyager in Modi continues to walk tirelessly, leaving behind his footprints on the sands of time, achieving one milestone after another, and thus, changing the face of Gujarat.

Chief Minister Narendra Modi along with Ratan Tata, Chairman of Tata Group and Mukesh Ambani, Chairman of Reliance Industries Limited and others at the function of Vibrant Gujarat Global Investors' Summit 2007 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

Unparalleled success of the Gujarat Model Today, Gujarat is India’s leading state in several sectors such as e-governance, investments, poverty eradication, power generation, creation of special economic zones, road development and fiscal


excerpts from the book: “NARENDRA DAMODAR MODI: the making of a legend”

February 05 - 11, 2018

Swagat complaint redressal system Held every fourth Thursday of the month

Chief Minister Narendra Modi has made India and Indians proud by putting Gujarat on the global map. … In its

Grievance applications registered online at Swagat Office between 9 AM to 12 PM

Golden Jubilee year, Gujarat is shining like a land of gold today. The credit goes to the visionary, effective and passionate leadership of Narendra Bhai….The Gujarat of the 21st century is the embodiment of a nation transforming itself into an emerging super power.

Details immediately available to the concerned officers Officers enter responses and information online between 12 PM to 3 PM Chief Minister and senior officers interact with applicants at 3 PM District Officers in attendance through video conferencing All directions given by the Chief Minister recorded the same day Cases redressed on the same day or in a specified time bound manner

discipline. Gujarat’s growth story is based on the development of all three sectors—agriculture, industry and services. Behind this robust growth is Narendra Modi’s dynamic leadership and his inspiring mantra of “Sabka Saath, Sabka Vikas”

The Khushboo Gujarat Ki campaign, voiced by Amitabh Bachchan, increased tourism in Gujarat by four per cent per annum, twice that of the national growth rate for this particular sector.

Narendra Modi inspects a scale model of The Gujarat International Finance Tech-City (GIFT) in Ahmedabad.

(Together with all, Development for all), which puts emphasis on pro-people, pro-active good governance (P2G2). Novel ideas instituted by Narendra Modi have ushered multi-dimensional development in Gujarat in a time-bound manner. Under his brilliant leadership, Gujarat has bagged numerous awards and accolades from across the world, including the UN Sasakawa Award for Disaster Reduction, Commonwealth Association for Public Administration and Management

(CAPAM) Award for Innovations in Governance, the UNESCO Award, and the CSI award for e-Governance, to name just a few. Narendra Modi has established a formidable reputation as an administrator. The party’s phenomenal electoral performances helped advance his position as not only one of the nation’s most influential leaders, but also cemented his position as a potential candidate for Prime Minister of India. His twelve years at the helm of affairs in Gujarat greatly helped the state march forward

Mukesh Ambani Chairman and Managing Director, Reliance Industries Limited

As Chief Minister, Narendra Modi showed exceptional energy to make things happen. India’s

growth would come accelerated on the back of steps that have been taken by Narendra Modi.

Jim Yong Kim President, World Bank

economically and culturally. The fact that Narendra Modi was ranked as the number one chief minister by the public for three consecutive years, speaks volumes for his leadership and achievements. In Gujarat, Narendra Modi became synonymous with the BJP. By July 2007, Modi completed 2,063 consecutive days as chief minister of Gujarat, setting a new record for holding the post in the state. Since then, his rule has extended for many more years.


February 05 - 11, 2018

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Wild City BBQ Feat. Cinnaman, CEE, Boxout Soundsystem & More Venue

Wild City BBQ w/ Cinnaman (Rush Hour/NL), CEE (Monkeytown Records/ MY), Boxout Soundsystem (IN), DJ Anjali & The Incredible Kid (US), Moniker (IN) Date: Feb 3 2017 Time: 2pm onwards

SSB crossword no. 8


SOLUTION of crossword no. 7

The G-Talk Show : Standup Comedy By Curtain Call Productions Venue Boombox Wednesdays with Bass Machin3 & Aries Venue

Akshara Theatre , Delhi Thu, 8 Feb 8:00PM - 9:30PM

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1. Youth 2. Mexico 3. Manipur 4. 1928 5. Armyday 6. India 7. China 8. Apple 9. Coach 10. Bacchus

11. Egypt 12. Area 13. Odisha 14. Surat 15. Uber 16. HDFC 17. 1961 18. 1906 19. TCS 20. Ponter


ACROSS 4. The largest river in France is 8. The country which is the largest producer of tin in the world is 9. The country known as the Sugar Bowl of the world is 11. The country called the Land of Rising Sun is 12. The earlier name of Sri Lanka was 14. What is the name of first British to visit India ? 15. The national flower of Italy is 16. Where is India’s First nuclear centre ? 18. The principal export of Jamaica is 20. The city which is also known as the City of Canals is DOWN 1. Madagascar is popularly known as the Island of 2. The country known as the Land of Morning Calm is 3. Name of First Indian Missile ? 5. The largest island in the Mediterranean Sea is 6. The country which is the largest producer of rubber in the world is 7. The biggest island in the world is 10. The country which has highest population density is 13. The country famous for Samba dance is 17. In which sport do players take long and short corners? 19. The Gurkhas are the original inhabitants of

solution of sudoku-7

sudoku-8 Comedy Munch Comedy Nights With Manish Tyagi, Nishant Suri By Comedy Munch Venue

Acting Experimental Workshop The Darzi Bar & - With Asif By Whatashort Kitchen , central Venue Delhi The Social House , West Delhi Sat, 10 Feb 12:00PM - 4:00PM

Thu, 8 Feb 7:00PM - 8:30PM

on the lighter side by DHIR

Please mail your solution to - or Whatsapp at 9868807712, One Lucky Winner will win Cash Prize of Rs 500/-. Look for the Solution in the Next issue of SSB




February 05 - 11, 2018

Shesh Anand Madhukar

Sahitya Akademi’s Bhasha Samman

Shesh Anand Madhukar has been working extensively for the development of Magahi


agahi writer Shesh Anand Madhukar, who has been working extensively for the development of the language, was honoured with this year’s Sahitya Akademi Bhasha Samman award on Wednesday. The second writer of Magahi language to be given the award, Madhurkar was conferred the award, comprising a Rs 1 lakh cheque and a memento, by Sahitya Akademi President Vishwanath Prasad Tiwari. “Sahitya Akademi currently honours writers from 24 regional languages, but Bhasha Samman identifies those languages which are equally spoken in different parts of the country. The award is an attempt to make the writers of other languages feel equally important,” said Tiwari at the award ceremony. “A language is the identity of a community, it reflects its the culture and tradition. A regional language might be limited to a particular region but its effect is not restricted

within a certain territorry. Bhasha Samman is an attempt to highlight such languages,” Sahitya Akademi Secretary K. Sreenivasarao added. Madhukar started his career as a lecturer in Hindi at the BSK College, Methan in 1966 and eventually became a reader and professor at the Saint Columba College, Hazaribagh. He entered the field of literature in 1960 and since then he has immensly contributed in the enrichment of the language. His poems have been published in leading literary magazines. In his long and illustrious career, he has a large body of work to his credit in both Magahi and Hindi. Some of his important works in Hindi are “Magahi Kavita Ke Bimb”, “Eklavya”, and “Bhagwan Birsa”. In Magahi, his well-acclaimed works are “Eklavya” and “Magahi Bhulachal Hey”. His books have been included in the graduate and postgraduate syllabus of Vinoba Bhave University, Hazaribagh.

A.J. Paulraj

US patent office honours AJ Paulraj Indian-origin Paulraj has been inducted into the National Investors Hall of Fame for his work on developing wireless technology


he US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has inducted Indian-born Stanford University Emeritus Professor Arogyaswami Joseph Paulraj into its National Inventors Hall of Fame for developing wireless technology to transmit and receive data at high speeds, the agency of the US Department of Commerce said on Monday. “Paulraj, 73, has been inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for his pioneering work on developing wireless technology to transmit and receive data at high speeds,” the agency said in an e-mail to IANS from Washington, DC. The agency awarded Paulraj a patent in 1992

for inventing Multiple In-Multiple Out (MIMO), which enables transfer of data, including videos through broadband and mobile technologies like 4G and the upcoming 5G. “We honour people responsible for the greatest technological advances that make human, social and economic progress possible,” noted the agency. The Patent Office will formally induct Paulraj at a special ceremony on May 3 in Washington. Though the agency honoured five other Indianorigin scientists in the past, Paulraj joins eight other world famed inventors in the wireless technology field, who were inducted into the Hall of Fame.

unsung hero

he t g n i n ea Cl ree F r o F s t Stree Lakshmi Narayan has been cleaning the streets of Chennai along with his group, going around schools, hospitals and hostels


akshmi Narayan, a resident of Mylapore, whilst discussing a newspaper article on a cleanliness initiative in a village, was struck by an idea. Lakshmi Narayn, took up cleanliness activities because he was drawn to the cause of social work. He would bury corpses of street animals and birds when he was a teenager. An innate altruist, Narayan helps local traffic police in congested areas of Chennai like Mambalam and Koyembedu. He volunteers and manages the ongoing traffic. He has been doing this for the past 15 years. “I was quite content with the little difference that I was making without any publicity. But the issue of the garbage-strewn streets kept gnawing at me, and I wanted to do something to change the situation,” he says. “I have always believed that if you wished to see a change, you should be the one to make it happen. All this while I had been disturbed by the trash on the streets and the fact that no one was doing anything about it. However, I decided to stop brooding, take up a shovel and clean the streets myself,” he remembers. Narayan kick-started cleaning activities in various schools around Triplicane with a team of 25 people. This initiative soon expanded to cleaning streets near public places and hostels. They even cleaned the streets and premises at a government hospital. They soon started receiving calls from different institutions for their services. The group doesn’t ask for and accept whatever people give them. The team cleared over a year’s worth of waste spread over 150 feet that had accumulated between the blocks of resident apartments. This was done in collaboration with corporation workers, who helped them by carrying the garbage on tricycles.

RNI No. DELENG/2016/71561, Joint Commissioner of Police (Licensing) Delhi No. F. 2 (S-45) Press/ 2016 Volume - 2, Issue - 08 Printed by Monika Jain, Published by Monika Jain on behalf of SULABH SANITATION MISSION FOUNDATION and Printed at The Indian Express Ltd., A-8, Sector-7, NOIDA (U.P.) and Published from RZ 83, Mahavir Enclave, Palam-Dabri Road, New Delhi – 110 045. Editor Monika Jain

Sulabh Swachh Bharat - Vol-2 - (Issue 08)  
Sulabh Swachh Bharat - Vol-2 - (Issue 08)