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world toliet day special

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RNI No. DELENG/2016/71561

Good News Weekly for Rising India

12

interview

Dr Bindeshwar pathak

“I am of the view that it should be possible for Swachh Bharat Abhiyan to be a great success”

28

trump village

Mewat Gone Global After Sulabh triggered a toilet revolution, Marora was renamed “Trump Village”

Talking Toilets: Down History While sitting toilets were there as early as in Harappan civilisation, an authentic history of toilets is rare to come by. Here we carry a brilliant paper read out at an international symposium

Vol-1 | Issue - 48 | November 13 - 19, 2017 | Price ` 5/-

32

different

toilets

Toilets, once taboo in discussions, are going extremely fashionable

Quick Glance The issue of toilets was left out of public discourse due to the sheer obnoxiousness Some who wrote on it was derided as ‘erotic’, since defecating and sexual organs were proximal Despite this, there is a rich treasure of poetry on it and even ballets were performed

Dr Bindeshwar Pathak

U

nlike body functions like dance, drama and songs, defecation is considered very lowly. As a result, very few scholars documented precisely the toilet habits of our predecessors. The Nobel Prize winner for Medicine (1913) Charles Richet attributes this silence to the disgust that arises from noxiousness and lack of usefulness of human waste. Others point out that as sex organs are the same or nearer to the organs of defecation, those who dared to write on toilet habits were dubbed either as erotic or as vulgar and, thus, despised in academic and social circles. It was true for example of Urdu poets in India, English poets in Britain and French poets in France. However, as the need to defecate is irrepressible, so were some writers who despite social as well as academic stigma wrote on the subject and gave us at least an idea in regard to toilet habits of human beings. Based on this rudimentary information, one can say that development in civilization and sanitation have been co-terminus. The more developed was the society, the more sanitized it became and vice versa. The Toilet is part of the history of human hygiene which is a critical chapter in the history of human civilization and which cannot be isolated to be accorded unimportant position in history. The Toilet is a critical link between order and disorder and between good and bad environment. In my own country i.e. India, how can anyone ignore the subject of the toilet


02 Cover Story

November 13 - 19, 2017

The Indus Valley people had an elaborate system of dealing with defecation, as seen above

“Water and sanitation

has not had the same kind of champion that global health, and even education, have had� mahatma gandhi

when the society is faced with human excretions of the order of 900 million liters of urine and 135 million kilograms of faecal matter per day with a totally inadequate system of its collection and disposal. The society, thus, has a constant threat of health hazards and epidemics. As many as 600 out of 900 million people do open defecation. Sewerage facilities are available to no more than 30 per cent of the population in urban areas and only 3 per cent of the rural population has access to pour flush latrines. Seeing this challenge, I think the subject of the toilet is as important if not more than other social challenges like literacy, poverty, education and employment. Rather subject to toilet is more important because lack of excremental hygiene is a national health hazard while in other problems the implications are relatively closer to only those who suffer from unemployment, illiteracy and poverty. I thus view a study of the history of toilet an important subject matter. Established Abode As long as man did not have an established abode, he did not have a toilet. He excreted wherever he felt like doing so. When he learnt to have a fixed house, he moved the toilet to the courtyard and then within his home. Once this was done, it became a challenge to deal with the smell and the need was felt to have a toilet, which can intake human wastes and dispose these of out of the house instantly and, thus, help maintain cleanliness. Man tried various ways to do so i.e. chamber pots, which were cleaned manually by the servants or slaves, toilets protruding out of the top floor of the house or the castle and disposal of wastes in the river below, or common toilets

with holes on the top and flowing river or stream underneath or just enter the river or stream and dispose of the waste of the human body. While the rich used luxurious toilet chairs or close stools the poor defecated on the roads, in the jungle or straight into the river. It was only in the 16th century that a technological breakthrough came about and which helped the human beings to have clean toilets in houses. This breakthrough did not come about easily and the human race had to live in unsanitary conditions for thousands of years. For all to know the history of toilet we have established in New Delhi the Sulabh International Museum of Toilets with the help of curators like Dr. Fritz Lischka from Austria and 80 to 90 other professionals around the world. The museum traces the history of the toilet for the last 4500 years.

the finest form of sanitary engineering. But with the decline of Indus valley civilization, the science of sanitary engineering disappeared from India. From then on, the toilets in India remained primitive and open defecation became rampant. Archaeological excavations confirm the the existence of sitting type toilets in Egypt (2100 BC) also. Though we have been able to mechanize the working of these toilets, the form and basic format of the toilet system remains the same. In Rome, public bath-cum-toilets were also well developed. There were holes in the floor and beneath was a flowing water. When the Romans travelled they constructed the toilets for their use. The stools were keyhole type so that these could be used for defecation as well as urination. Excavations in Sri Lanka and Thailand too have brought out a contraption in which urine was separated and allowed to flow while the other portion was used at the same time for defecation. Historical evidence exists that Greeks relieved themselves out of the houses. There was no shyness in use of the toilet. It was frequent to see at dinner parties in Rome slaves bringing in urine pots made of silver; while members of the royalty used it but continued the play at the same time. Whatever little information is available about the history of toilets in India, it was quite primitive. This practice of covering waste with earth continued till the Mughal era, where in the forts of Delhi and Agra one can see remnants of such methodologies to dispose of human

Sitting type toilets

in human history appeared quite early. They were there in the Harappan civilisation in India

Historical Evolution The perusal of literature brings home the fact that we have only fragmentary information on the subject of the toilet as a private secluded place to help the body relieve its waste. Sitting type toilets in human history appeared quite early. In the remains of Harappa civilization in India, at a place called Lothal 62 kilometers from the city of Ahmedabad in Western India) and in the year 2500 BC, the people had water borne toilets in each house and which was linked with drains covered with burnt clay bricks. To facilitate operations and maintenance, it had manhole covers, chambers etc. It was


November 13 - 19, 2017

Cover Story

03

Ballets were performed with basket of night soil in the form of hood, on the head or a tin plate commode

waste. It was also popular in those days to emphasize on the medicinal values of human waste. Urine was supposed to have many therapeutic values. Some quacks even claimed that by the study of urine they could confidently say whether a young girl was virgin or not. Hiroshi Umino reports that a Pharaoh got his eye cured by the use of urine of a woman, whom he later married. It was also widely believed that the dung of a donkey mixed with night soil removes black pustules or urine of a eunuch can help make women fertile. For oral care, it was advised to relieve oneself on one’s feet because the divine liquid gives the required cure. In the Indian scriptures there are stories about the strength of wrestlers. If a wrestler defecates too much, he is relatively weak because he cannot digest all that he eats. Similarly, a perfect saint has no need to defecate, for he eats as much as he can digest or he is able to digest all that he eats. So not to defecate was considered saintly while in other societies not to defecate was considered manly. Blown Bettelheim states that men of Chaga tribe blocked their anus during the ceremony of attaining of manhood and pretended as if they did not defecate at all. This was also one way of establishing superiority over women. The ancient Greeks it is reported had similar beliefs. Swallowing something and not taking them out was considered a source of power and authority. In Middle Ages, people used to throw excreta from their houses on the roads below. Between the period 500 to 1500 AD

was a dark age from the point of view of human hygiene. It was an era of cesspools and human excreta all around. Rich man’s housing and forts in India had protrusions in which defecation was done and the excrements fell into the open ground or the river below. The forts of Jaisalmer in India and big houses on the banks of rivers bear testimony to this fact. In Europe, it was an era of chamber pots, cesspools and close stools. So were the toilets protruding out of the castles and the excrements from which fell into the river. It was also an era of “liberty to pee” French poet Claude le Petit described Paris as ‘Ridiculous Paris’ and in the following words: “My shoes my stockings, my overcoat My collar, my glove, my hat Have all been soiled by the same substance I would mistake myself rubbish” There was a lot of jest and humour relating to toilet habits and toilet appurtenances. Ballets were performed with a basket of night soil in the form of hood, on the head or a tin plate commode moving around with toilet sounds. The clothes were spotted with accessories from the toilet. The actors were etronice (night soil) Sultan Prime of Foirince (i.e. diarrhoea) etc. There are stories given by Guerrand, which depict the mood of Europe at that time. A lady of noble birth requested a young man to hold his hand. The young man suddenly feels the urge to urinate. Forgetting that he is holding the hand of a lady of noble birth he relieves himself. At the end he says “excuse me Madam, there was lot of urine in my body

and was causing great inconvenience”, Similarly Maid of honour Anne of Austria owing to excessive laughter, urinated in the bed of the queen. Joseph Pujol (hero extraordinary of French scatology) in his shows demonstrated many types of farts i.e. young girl, mother-in-law, bride. He could even extinguish a candle 30 centimeters away through his farting.

Early bathroom suites, like this 1885 JL Mott example, were designed to look luxurious

Night Soil Poetry Irrepressible poets in many countries despite the social stigma attached to their professional work were writing poetry on defecation habits, farting, and heavenly qualities of night soil. Chakrian in India, Euslrog de Beaulieo Gilles Corrozal and Piron in France, Swift in England were all enjoying themselves at the technological impasse which human beings were faced with in disposing of what they excreted. Gilles Corrozel, for example, described the toilet in the following vein i.e. “Recess of great comfort Whether it is situated in the fields or in the city Recess in which no one dare enter Except for cleaning his stomach Recess of great dignity” Or take the erotic French Poet Eustrog de beaulieu and I dare to translate as follows: “When the cherries become ripe Many black soils of strange shapes Will breed for many days and urgents Then will mature and become products of various colors and breaths” French poet Piron called the faeces as ‘Royal Nightsoil. Though ostracised by the academic community he wrote: European Toilet initially was a community affair, which allowed for people to discuss issues

“Swachhata is a Puja

for me. Cleanliness is a way to serve the poor of India. It will rid the poor of my country of various diseases, and the economic burden due to those diseases that result from dirty surroundings” NARENDRA MODI


04 Cover Story

November 13 - 19, 2017

“What am I seeing oh! God It is night soil What a wonderful substance it is excreted by the greatest of all Kings Its odour speaks of majesty”

Sir John Harrington discovered the first flushing toilet during the reign of Queen Elizabeth 1

English poet called night soil as an object of contemplation for the sage. According to him, midwives predicted the future of the child from examining the first excrement. In the province of Punjab in India and before independence Grandmothers ate the first excrement of the male child if he was born after a long period of marriage or after number of female births in the family. The Urdu poet Chirkin in India was not well recognised by his poet fraternity. Out of vengeance and to create embarrassment he wrote on human waste and farting. I venture to share with you the following English version translated from Urdu - his language: “The asset which I will earn now will all be invested in Toilet. This time when I visit your home, I will never ‘pee’ there.”

“You will never solve

poverty without solving water and sanitation” kofi anaan

Public Habits and Attitude In the absence of proper toilet facilities, people perforce had to defecate and urinate wherever they could. Defecating on the road, open spaces, or just easing themselves in the river was very common. While the authorities were educating people to have private places for defecating, and getting it cleaned, in actual practice there was total disorder. Squalor and filth abounded in cities. The social reformers advised people where to defecate, how to defecate in privacy and the need to control themselves when in company. Children were taught not to touch human waste. At the same time, there was no hesitation in letting loose pigs to eat human excreta. A number of enactments, however, could not prevent people to defecate in the open. A delegation led by master weaver protested in front of the French Municipal Building and said” our fathers have defecated at the place where you prevent us to do. We have defecated here and now our children will defecate there”. The rich used wool or hemp for ablution while the poor used grass, stone or sand or water depending upon the country and weather conditions or social customs. Use of newspaper was also common. In Russia to the utter dislike of all, the subordinates even stamped the toilet paper with imperial arms for use of the Czar. But it was termed as sacrilege. The final solution to the problem of ablution was found when in 1857, Joseph Cayetty invented the toilet paper in USA. This invention has enabled human beings to have a tissue paper, which is convenient

to use, is absorbent, as well as compact and within reach while defecating. In India it is very common to use water for ablution. However, the hand one uses varies in various parts of India. While in South India, people use the right hand for eating food, it is considered disgusting to use the same hand for ablution with water. So left hand is used for sanitary purposes. In most parts of the North India, however, no such sharp distinction exists. Household hygiene habits of ordinary people left much to be desired. The dry latrines using bucket was cleaned by menials. These workers came to be known as ‘Bucket Brigades’. According to Hiroshi Umino, European culture blossomed forth after contact with Crusaders from the East. Washing hands for example before food also became popular. The social reformers admonished the people by saying “suck your fingers beast, do not wipe them on the wall”. In colonial times in India, the British called big cities a “vast mass privy” due to defecation by people at all times and at all places. There were also no separate toilets for men and women, till a restaurant in Paris put up ‘Men Toilet’ and ‘Women Toilet’ at a dance party in 1739 AD. It is also around this time that the urinal pot was introduced to enable men to relieve themselves. The facilities for women were niggardly and they were taught virtues of control. Despite technological breakthrough a lot needed to be accomplished to educate people to use the new technology, to ensure that the toilet drainage system is not misused by disposal of other household wastes. However, at city level the disposal of human waste still remained a problem. Public Toilets and People In each society from time to time the

government felt the need to provide public toilet facilities to those who could not afford to have individual toilets. The public toilets have a long history in number of countries and most of which were constructed and managed by municipalities. But there was all around disgust with their poor maintenance, vandalism and lack of basic facilities. The Mughal King Jehangir built a public toilet at Alwar, 120 kms away from Delhi for use of 100 families at a time in 1556 AD. Not much documentary evidence exists on the quality of its maintenance but one can well visualize that with rudimentary technology and with government to manage the O&M functions, it like others must be in very unsatisfactory condition. As hygienic conditions in public toilets were bad, people preferred to do open defecation. This was true in most of the countries. It was in 1872 that the municipalities in France asked the private companies to manage public toilets for a lease period of 20 years. The private companies were also offering even amounts to government as they felt confident to recover the same through user charges. Ground floor owners were also being requested to construct latrines for use of the passersby. Previously known as Palais Royal Hotel in Paris, the owners started charging monthly fee Sir J Gayetty and his toilet papers


November 13 - 19, 2017

from diners. Incidentally, condoms were also sold as part of the facilities.In India, when I founded Sulabh International in 1970 in a small village in Patna, people laughed at me when I proposed to introduce the pay-and-use toilets. But my approach has succeeded and today 10 million people use Sulabh facilities every day. Most of the public toilets are being given to us to construct and maintain a 30 years base period at no charge to the State. At the beginning of the century most of the public toilets have gone underground in Europe, but in India there are still over the ground. Much more attention is being given to construct these toilets on pay and use basis in slum areas where men pay half a rupee per use, the females and children avail of these facilities free. The facilities available include toilet, bathing or washing of clothes and to change clothes. We are also setting up primary health care center at these places. However, a lot of effort is required to get people’s participation in efficient operation and maintenance of public toilets. This remains a big challenge to be met by NGOs. Based on my experience of the last 25 years, I am also convinced that only cooperation between Government and NGOs can make the sanitation programme a success. Neither NGOs nor the government can create an impact if they work in isolation. Law and Citizens In order to improve sanitary conditions, Governments in various countries also resorted to legal measures. Dirt by definition was considered as disorder, because it disrupts the order of maintaining the environment. In 1519 the provincial government of Normandy in France made provision of toilets compulsory in each house. The French government also passed a parliamentary decree to make cesspools in each house compulsory. Again a similar attempt was made in 1539. In Bordeaux in France, the government made the construction of cesspools compulsory. It was tried again in 1668 when the Lieutenant of Police made construction of toilets compulsory. In England, the first sanitation law was passed in 1848. In India, the first sanitation bill was introduced in 1878. It tried to make construction of toilets compulsory even in huts of Calcutta - the capital of India at that time. The Bill even proposed the construction of public toilets at the cost of neighboring houses. The government of India enacted another Sanitation Act in 1993. Under this Sanitation Act construction of dry latrine and its manual cleaning was made an offence. But despite these enactments open defecation is rampant, proving that unless adequate social awareness is created in a developing country where instruments of state are weak and family income is low, it is a hard task to make significant progress

in this area. Toilet Technologies The Eighteenth century was a century of toilets. Despite the invention of water closet by John Harrington in 1596, which was, costing only 6 shillings and 8 pence this was not adopted on a large scale for almost 182 years. The delays in actual use of invention is common in human history, which Toffler calls as “Cultural Gap”. It was true for railway train, ballpoint pen and innumerable other inventions. During this period people used earth closet. In these toilets instead of water earth was used. So the problem of cleaning remained. The world also saw development of Pan closets - which like cigarette ashtray threw the material at the bottom. This too required manual cleaning. At the same time chamber pots, close stools, open defecation remained. In comparison to this, Harrington’s toilet under the name Angrez was being used in France, though not introduced on a large scale in England. In 1738 JF Brondel introduced the valve type flush toilet. Alexander Cummings further improved the technology and gave a better device in 1775. In Cumming’s design water was perennially there in the toilet so it suppressed odors. Still the working of the valve and foolproof inlet of water needed further improvements. In 1777; Joseph Preiser provided the required improvement. Then Joseph Bramah in 1778, substituted the slide valve with crank valve, It seemed then that the technology of pour flush was now perfected. No the world was yet to witness further technological developments. In 1870, SS Helior invented the flush type toilet, called optims. From 1880 onwards, however, the emphasis has been more on aesthetics to make cisterns and bowls decorative. The bowls were so colorful that some suggested using these as soup bowls. It was in 1880 that the toilet curtains made their appearance. The trend was called the age of “Belleepoque” in France and

Edwardian England. During 1890 we had the first cantilever type of toilet. Since then the world has not witnessed any significant technical change except some change in shape of toilets and reduction in quantity of water per use. the Mughal Creation It was around 1900 that the institution of bathroom came in vogue in Europe. In India, the institution of Gushalkhana (bathroom) was established by the Mughal Kings in 1556. Oppressed by the heat and dust the Kings constructed luxurious bathing and massage facilities. But this was only for the rich. The ordinary citizens however lived in unsanitary conditions. Unlike in the past when latrines were

The Sulabh

technology is well established and has been successfully functioning for the last 25 years

tucked away in attics to keep it away from the nose and eye of the family and the society. In contrast the twentieth century has given a pride of place to toilet in the home-rather these are more opulent, more spacious than anytime in the past. While the provision of toilet in the house solved household problem of cleanliness but the challenge remained as to how to dispose of human waste at city level. This was also solved when the sewerage system was introduced. Haussmann in 1858, describes beautifully the sewerage system. He said that “the underground galleries which are the organs of the big city will work in the same way as organs of the body, without being revealed. The pure and fresh water, the heat and light will circulate like the various fluids whose movement and maintenance are necessary to ensure life. The secretions will not mysteriously like place there and maintain public health without disturbing

Cover Story

05

the order of the city and spoiling its outer beauty”. Around the same time the sewerage system was introduced at Calcutta - capital of colonial India. However its extension in the country was and remains slow as it is capital intensive and beyond the resource capacity of the economy even today. In 1970, realizing that sewerage facilities will remain out of the reach of the society at large, Sulabh International introduced a pioneer technology twin pourflush latrines and human excreta based Biogas plants. We have constructed in the last 25 years over 650,000 toilet cum bath complexes and 62 human excreta based biogas plants and are maintaining them. I believe this gives an appropriate solution to dispose of and recycle human waste into fertiliser, electricity and working gas. Summing up As sewerage based toilet remains and will remain out of the reach of the majority of

population in India, the challenge is to propagate and ensure installation of toilets, which are affordable, upgradeable and easy to maintain. The Sulabh experiment is a success story and the technology is well established and has been successfully functioning for the last 25 years and is financially sustainable. At household level TPPF latrine based on Sulabh Model has also been a success and is in use in 650,000 households. It is however, now necessary in India to replicate it on a mass scale with public pay and use toilets with Biogas plants at neighborhood level and Sulabh TPPF latrine at household level. Though the challenge to provide the toilet facilities has been totally overcome in rich countries, it has still to be met in developing countries like India. The journey of toilet has ended in Europe and NorthAmerica but continues in the developing countries.


06 History of Toilets The Historic Voyage Of Evolving Toilets November 13 - 19, 2017

Toilets and sanitation have a history that is as rich as the history of mankind itself. This is the story of the evolution of toilets through time mihir paul

T

oilets have been vital to the development of the plethora of cultures and traditions we see in the world today. Toilets and sanitation have a history that is as rich as the history of mankind itself. Toilets have developed and evolved along with entire civilizations. Here, we take a historical voyage from toilets and sanitation in the Stone Age to the Iron Age and beyond. The Stone Age The Stone Age was figuratively, humanity’s first milestone (pun intended) in this long journey through time. Did the prehistoric humans have the luxury of toilets? As it turns out, some of them actually did use toilets. Archaeologists have uncovered indoor plumbing structures from the Neolithic era or later stone age. The earliest examples of indoor toilets were found at the Skara Brae settlements in Orkney

Islands just off the coast of modern day Scotland. The Skara Brae is a Neolithic settlement on the Bay of Skaill where humans occupied clusters of dwellings around 3100-2500 BC. Europe’s most complete Neolithic village, the Skara Brae (Scotland) was discovered in 1850. Till its discovery, it had remained well preserved and excavations were carried out with extreme care. The Skara Brae settlement was built onto and inside the remains of a previous settlement. A kind of old garbage dump that contained material that provided insulation against harsh climates at the high altitude it was in. Skara Brae inhabitants built stone structures and furnishings. Toilets in the Stone Age The dwellings would contain small chambers commonly referred to as “cell” at the Skara Brae site. According to the interpretation of some researchers, the material and design at Skara Brae point towards the

Stone Age toilets

the various eras Years

Origin of man, development of stone tools, Homo sapians neanderthalensis appeared in Europe 600,000 to 350,000 years ago and disappeared by 30,000 BC

Neolithic

The Neolithic era marked an advancement of human tools and technology. Farming started in the Neolithic era and many settlements started appearing on the maps. The Skara Brae settlements were the most complete Neolithic villages of their time. These settlements were the first ones to have had indoor toilets in the form of small secretive chambers called “cells”. Commonly located behind cabinets in dwellings, the indoor toilets of Skara Brae were effectively the first “toilets” of mankind. Archaeologists even discovered drainage systems in these indoor cells that were connected to drains outside the houses

2100 — 700 BC

Bronze Age

The Bronze Age saw the advent of metals. Metals were used in the creation of tools. The Indus Valley Civilzation’s cities of Mohenjodaro and Harappa were the first ones to have had sitting indoor toilets

700 BC — 450 AD

Iron Age

Period when the main technology was based on iron. Toilets were increasingly common. While the elites enjoyed luxurious private toilets, the common public had access to large communal latrines that had intricate sewer and plumbing systems

10,000 — 2100 BC

Dr APJ Abdul Kalam

Events

Paleolithic

2,500,000 — 10,000 BC

“Sanitation is a noble mission for the nation”

Eras


November 13 - 19, 2017

Quick Glance The Indus Valley Civilization was the first one to have had sitting toilets with designated spaces Sir John Harrington invented the first modern flush system which became a revolution Thomas Crapper, an English plumber was instrumental in popularizing the flush system

History of Toilets

07

Highlights in the Evolution of Toilet Systems – (3100 BC to 1980 AD) BC 3100: In the Neolithic era, the Skara Brae was settlements from Scotland had secret cells as toilets

BC 2500: In Mohenjodaro, there existed highly developed drainage system where

fact that these hidden ‘cells’ were, in fact, toilets. These cells would be like a “secret compartment”, a small storage area located behind the cabinets in the dwellings. Bronze Age Indus Valley The Indus Valley Civilizations is one of the first ones to have developed sanitation and toilet systems. A Bronze Age civilization, the Indus Valley Civilization/Harappan Civilization thrived from 3300 – 1900 BCE mostly in the northwestern regions of South Asia extending from present day Afghanistan, through Pakistan, to Northwest India. The Indus Valley Civilisation, along with Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt made up the earliest cradles of civilizations in the Old World. Flourishing near the basins of the Indus River, the northwestern region was aridified during the 3rd millennium BCE which is believed to be the initial spur of urbanization associated with this era. The first toilets in India were in the Indus Valley Civilization, which had evolved around Harappa and Mohenjodaro. The excavated archaeological remains bear evidence to the widespread use and presence of water-borne toilets used by the Harappan people living in Lothal, only 62 km from Ahmedabad. Harappa houses had private toilets linked to covered outdoor drains. The architects who planned the city were well versed in the science and engineering of sanitation and drainage systems. During the Mohenjodaro era, only the affluent had access to toilets. While most people would squat over plots on the ground or over open pits to defecate, the people living in other parts of the Indus Valley Civilization, near modern day Pakistan, were using primitive water-cleaning toilets which utilized flowing water. These primitive toilets were present in each house and linked to covered drains outside. The drains would be created using burnt clay bricks. This was the first known incidence of the use of flowing water for cleaning after defecation. The primitive toilets in use were essentially, brick structures that had

waste water from each house flowed into the main drain.

BC 1000: In the Bahrain Island in the Persian Gulf, flush type toilet was discovered.

AD 69: Vespasianus, for the first time

Mohenjodaro Toilets

levied Tax on Toilets/urinals in Rome.

1214 AD: Construction for the first time of public toilets manned by scavengers in Europe.

1596 AD: John Harrington invents Western commode 1668 AD: Edict issued by Police Commissioner Paris for construction of toilets in all houses

1728 AD: Architect JF Brondel argues that attached toilet is ideal for homes

1739 AD: First separate toilet for men and women appear at a ball in Paris

1824 AD: First Public Toilet in Paris 1859 AD: Toilet of Queen Victoria is decorated with gold.

1883 AD: First ceramic toilet by Thomas Twyford for Queen Victoria.

1889 AD: Sewage treatment for the first time in the world.

1959 AD: All surface toilets abandoned in Paris. 1970 AD: Sulabh International is established by Dr. Bindeshwar Pathak, as a non-profit NGO in Bihar, India.

1980 AD: Installation of auto–control public toilet

holes that would pass the waste down to the drains outside. For urination, the Mohenjodaro people would use small pits dug on the ground that were directly linked to the drain running underneath. The toilets used during this era were drastically different than those present in the Greek and Roman civilizations. Unfortunately, with the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization, these drainage systems and toilets were forgotten and the practice of open defecation made a comeback to the land.

Iron Age Ancient Greece The Greek civilization flourished for a period of over two millennia from 1600 BC until 395 AD. A city northwest of Athens, Delphi, was a major religious centre for the Greeks. Dedicated to the spirit of Mother Earth, Gaia, Delphi saw a change in deities with the advent of Greek mythology. Now dedicated to the Greek gods, Poseidon and Apollo, Delphi was visited by devotees who would go through purification rituals

“Sanitation issues in

the developing world affect women more than they affect men” Matt Damon


08 History of Toilets

November 13 - 19, 2017

Drainage in Indus Valley Civilisation

“Social justice is what faces you in the morning. It is awakening in a house with adequate water supply, cooking facilities and sanitation.” Melinda Gates

Greek toilets of hoary antiquity

before stepping foot inside the holy site that boasted various springs, baths, and fountains. With the development in toilet technologies around the world, the Greeks also started developing toilets for the population. While the private flushing toilets were a luxury only accessible to the elites, the public had access to large public restrooms that were designed by the architects. The wealthy elite used flush based toilets that used water to wash off waste into the drain systems. Especially, the Hellenistic system was the first one to have to have implemented large-scale public latrines. These were large rooms connected to the drains underneath effectively bringing access to toilets to the middle-class albeit without the privacy enjoyed by the elites. Another peculiarity in the ancient Greek era was the use of stones for cleaning after defecation whenever water was scarce. Since there was no toilet paper back then, the ancient Greeks resorted to using small stones called πεσσοι orpessoi. Rome The Roman Empire thrived after the post-Roman Republic period. This was characterized with the introduction of governments headed by emperors. Rome was the largest city in the world from 100 BCE to 400 BCE. Romans wholeheartedly adopted the concept of toilets. Public latrines were established around 1st century BCE as they became essential features of Roman architecture. The city dwellers also had access to private toilets in residences. While archaeologists weren’t able to determine the sanitation mechanisms

used by the Romans, it was commonplace to see latrines in every house. The private toilets in residences were different from the ones in public latrines. The commodes in residences were usually located near the kitchens which allowed for easy disposal of food scraps as well. People would flush the toilets with buckets of water and the waste would be collected in pits. When the pits would fill up, they would be emptied either onto gardens or field outside the towns. The public toilets, on the other hand, resembled the ones used by the Greeks – large rooms with wooden benches positioned above a sewer. The toilet holes would be round shaped on top of the wooden benches. They even had narrow slits that would extend forwards and downwards in a keyhole shape. These slits would be used for inserting sponge-tipped sticks for cleaning after defecation. While these public toilets lacked the privacy of the residence toilets, thanks to long garments and limited windows, the people using public toilets enjoyed some degree of privacy. Biblical Era In human history, the A.D. period marks the beginning of our modern date system and the start of the biblical era. Since there were no recorded texts during that time other than the Bible,

historians looked towards biblical stories to figure out how toilets were used. In order to analyze the differences in the toilets used by people during the time period, historians studied the different locations mentioned in the Bible. Ephesus Ephesus was a Greek city that’s part of modern day Turkey today. It sported large communal latrines with marbletopped furnishing. The long benches in public latrines would have one horseshoe shaped hole per “station”. Below the bench was a channel for carrying away wastes. The channel varies widely in depth from one site to the next. In front of benches were the shallow channels carrying clean flowing water. Corinthos These toilets were made of rougher marble. They were placed near the harbor gate, in the city of Corinthos near modern day Greece. Corinthos was destroyed by the Romans in 146 BC and re-founded in 44 BC. It was destroyed by earthquakes in 375 AD and again in 551. King Arthur Era King Arthur, the legendary leader of early Britain. Many documents mentioned his rule dating from late 5th

The public toilets resembled the ones used by Greeks - large rooms with wooden benches positioned above a sewer


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Ancient Roman public toilets

century to early 6th century. This was the time of medieval toilets. The inferences made about the toilets during the time period were after historians studied the Historia Regum Britanniae or the History of the Kings of Britain written in the 1130s by Geoffrey of Monmouth. These stories immediately became popular and were commonly known as “Arthurian” stories. Arthurian Toilets In medieval Britain, the famous Abbey church sported a plumbing contraption with the sign “REREDORTER”. This term specifically meant latrine associated with the monastic traditions. Egyptian toilets

History of Toilets

09

Tibetian toilet

These were located behind the “Dorters” or sleeping quarters. Typically built on the east side of the Churches, the monastic dormitory was called necessarium. These monastic latrines were highly developed for their time sporting intricate pipes. toilets of tibet On the way to Mount Kailash and Lake Manasarovar stand several pit toilets in the land of Tibet. Tibet is a deserted place. The local Ali people built toilets. The inner condition is very basic. Although lights and waters are not available here, the starry sky over head compensated! First Western Commode

Thomas Crapper

Flush Toilet Advent of “The Flush” Toilets have been around at least since 3,500 BC. For example, see the Stone Age toilets of Skara Brae in Orkney, off the northern coast of Scotland. There was a drainage system to remove waste, although there are no clear signs of active water flushing. While toilets have been around since 3,500 BCE, none of them had flushing systems. There were drainage pipes and people would pour water using buckets but there was no automated flushing system. The toilets in the cities of Harappa and Mohenjodaro were the world’s first flush system toilets even before the invention of the modern flush system that we see in homes today. The Minoans on Crete and Thera had flushing toilets starting around 1800 BC. The Hittite Empire’s capital of Hatuşaş had public waste disposal plumbing around 1200700 BC. The Greeks on the sacred island of Delos had large-scale public plumbing in addition to private latrines flushed by running water in the period from 900 BC to 100 AD.The state of the art in plumbing technology entered a decline in Europe after the collapse of the Roman Empire. When the Spanish explorers reached the American continent, they were bamboozled to find large cities with efficient waste disposal systems and well built latrines, both private and public. This was in sharp contrast to what the Europeans

had back home, where there were open sewers. John Harrington The biggest advance in toilet technology occurred in England in the late 1500s. Sir John Harrington invented the first modern indoor flushing system. He eventually perfected his flushing device and gifted the first prototype to his godmother, Queen Elizabeth I of England. Sewage and waste disposal systems also improved around the world all through the 18th, 19th, and 20th century. Urban centres of the world, especially western states like those in Europe and Americans sported improved sewage systems and waste treatment systems that allowed for the use of indoor and flushing toilets. By now, indoor toilets with automated flushing were increasingly common.

The toilets of

Mohenjodaro and Harappa (circa 2500 BC) were the world’s first flush toilet systems

Thomas Crapper A highly successful and famous English plumber, Thomas Crapper specialized in providing up to date plumbing fixtures. He started a plumbing firm that installed and maintained modern plumbing systems like flushing toilets, bathtubs, and modern piping. His firm was instrumental in popularizing the acceptance of the modern flushing toilet. No wonder the name Crapper became synonymous with toilets and sees continued use even today.


10 Profile

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Dr Bindeshwar Pathak

A Million Toilets, Millions Liberated In a world with a daunting sanitation crisis to tackle, the efforts of the ‘Million Toilet Man, Dr Bindeshwar Pathak, has drawn massive accolades across the world

He joined the Bhangi

Mukti Cell that worked to eliminate the social stigma attached to them and bring them into the mainstream

“Dr Pathak embodies

the spirit of Gandhi, Ambedkar and Shastri” Ram nath kovind President of India

ssb bureau

Quick Glance The practice of manual scavenging is at an all time low Open defecation, although prevalent, has decreased Millions of toilets have been constructed throughout India

O

pen defecation is still prevalent in many parts of the world. Whilst numbers have improved in the last two decades, due to population growth, there are still over 2 billion people who practice open defecation. There are many organizations around the world working to end this practice, but none has worked

for as long as Sulabh. Founder of Sulabh Sanitation and Social Reform Movement, Dr Bindeshwar Pathak began his work in 1970 when he invented the two-pit pour-flush toilet and hasn’t stopped ever since. The two-pit model that he invented has been not only been implemented in India but also China, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Vietnam and Cambodia. It has helped over 100 million people end the practice of open defecation.

While this sounds nothing short of extraordinary, the man behind the scenes, Dr Bindeshwar Pathak is the reason this has been possible in the first place. Growing up in India, Dr Pathak, since an early age, wanted to help others. Raised in an upper caste Brahmin family, however, he had many childhood experiences with people from lower castes who were called “untouchables” or scavengers, which radically changed his perspectives on them (Despite his family trying to keep him away from them). After graduating from college, he worked and lived in a scavenger colony. He eventually joined the Bhangi-Mukti (Scavenger’s Liberation) cell, that worked to eliminate the social stigma attached to the scavengers and to bring them to the mainstream of society. He was tremendously successful in his efforts. The reason behind this was that in a casteist society, the ones on the bottom rungs are the ones to clean up after others, but there was a lot that he could do to make their lives better and he succeeded in doing so. Dr Pathak was tasked with finding a way to eliminate manual scavenging back in 1968. This was the impetus that led to the social revolution that followed in the forthcoming decades. At that time, people used bucket latrines for defecation. This practice was extremely unhygienic, especially for the scavengers that had to clean these buckets. An


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He challenged the Brahamanical hierarchy by carrying nightsoil on his head

inventor by nature, Dr Pathak came up with the idea of the two-pit pour-flush composting toilet, now popularly known as the Sulabh Shauchalaya System. The name follows the name of his NGO, Sulabh Sanitation and Social Reform Movement. The two-pit system consists of two pits dug into the ground that is used alternatively. Once a pit is filled, the waste channel is switched to the other pit while the waste in the first pit sits to convert into safe compost manure. Appropriate, convenient, simple, and affordable, the two-pit pourflush system not only made toilets accessible to all but also liberated the scavengers from having to manually remove waste. The aftermath of this was that people started to look at scavengers in a different light. Now they have been integrated and accepted into the society and are finally living the lives they deserve. Dr Bindeshwar Pathak has helped construct more than 8,500 public toilets throughout India that use the pay-and-use system for maintenance. His work is responsible for the perspective shift towards sanitation in India that transformed a taboo topic into something that is part of a

Dr Pathak has

constructed more than 8,500 toilets across India, which uses the ‘pay-and-use’ system for their maintenance

normal and healthy life. Establishing the Sulabh International Institute of Health and Hygiene (SIIHH), Dr Pathak worked to help combat the ongoing problems in the sanitation-sphere of the country. Sulabh has established small health care centres all over the country. The organization has not only developed educational tools for students and teachers but also provides training for volunteer instructors so that they can go out into communities to impart the education about sanitation, hygiene, and health. This is imperative for motivating people to switch from defecating in the open to using a toilet. He has not only invented the renowned two-pit pour-flush system but also developed ways to generate biogas and compost from human waste as a means to recycle. The

Profile

11

The world renowned two-pit pour-flush model invented by Dr Bindeshwar Pathak

biogas digesters contain waste that is converted to biogas by the anaerobic digestion of bacteria. Over 200 biogas plants have been installed all over the country because of Dr Pathak. Biogas is a source of clean energy and is perfect Former railways minister declaring Dr Pathak as the carrier’s ambassador

for recycling waste into useful biogas and manure. Dr Pathak hasn’t stopped working towards improving sanitation in India. When more citizens of a country have 4G data access than toilets, with millions practising open defecation, it is imperative to look towards solutions. Open defecation is highly unhygienic and can exacerbate the spread of diarrheal diseases like dysentery and cholera. Stunted growth is associated with exposure to germs in faecal matter. This affects 61 million children in India. The chronic illnesses that come with open defecation are not only a nuisance from a health standpoint but also the reason entire families get sick and are unable to go to work or school. The sicker people are, the less they can work. The less they can work, the poorer they get. The poorer they are, they don’t get toilets. This is a vicious cycle that needs serious intervention. A host of other problems arises when waste is left untreated and eventually pollutes groundwater. If the groundwater happens to be used for drinking/bathing, the contaminated groundwater can lead to a plethora of illnesses. With the continued efforts of exemplary citizens like Dr Bindeshwar Pathak and the support of the government with initiatives like the Swachh Bharat Mission and Swachhta Hi Seva, these problems might soon be a thing of the past. Since the inception of SBM, millions of toilets have been created across India. Thousands of cities have been declared Open Defecation Free (ODF), and the practice of scavenging has sharply declined.


12 Interview

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interview with Dr Bindeshwar Pathak

“I am of the view that it should be possible for Swachh Bharat Abhiyan to be a great success”

H

ssb bureau

e is one of the most influential people in the country when it comes to sanitation. His work has not only liberated thousands of scavengers but has also reduced the practice of open defecation in the country. A great humanist and social reformer, Dr Bindeshwar Pathak is the founder of Sulabh Sanitation and Social Reform Movement. The organization has been working under his leadership, promoting human rights, environmental sanitation, non-conventional sources of energy, waste management, and social reforms via education. He has been honoured with the Padma Bhushan – the highest civilian honour awarded to a citizen for exemplary service. He was also been awarded the Stockholm Water Prize in 2009. Since then, there have been many more award ceremonies that have recognized him and felicitated him for his work towards improving sanitation in the country and abroad. Here are excerpts from in Interview granted Water Network: We are honoured to have you with us Dr Pathak. How did you develop an interest in sanitation? In the year 1968 by coincidence I joined the Bihar Gandhi Centenary Celebration Committee as a social worker. There I read the autobiography of Mahatma Gandhi as well as other books related to him which had a profound influence and

effect on me. The Gandhi Centenary Committee was formed in 1967 to celebrate the birth centenary of Mahatma Gandhi which fell in the year 1969. This Committee had taken up numerous programmes one of which was to restore the human rights and dignity of untouchables who used to clean human excreta manually

carrying it as headload for disposal and who were also referred to as human scavengers. One day, the General Secretary of the Committee asked me and said: “I would advise you to engage yourself fully to fulfill the dreams of Mahatma Gandhi – his unfinished agenda to restore the human rights and dignity of untouchable scavengers. This will

be the best tribute by the Centenary Committee to Mahatma Gandhi.” I replied: “How can I work with untouchables, because I belong to the Brahmin caste.” I then narrated an incident of my childhood days. I told him, “A lady untouchable, at that time referred to as “dom”, used to come to our house to deliver utensils made from bamboos and when she used to return my grandmother used to sprinkle water up to the area which belonged to us in order to cleanse it. People used to tell me that she was an untouchable and whoever touches her will be polluted. Being a curious child, when my grandmother was not around, I used to touch her to see whether I became polluted and was there any change of complexion of my body as a result of touching her. One day, I touched the untouchable lady which my grandmother saw. She made a hue and cry and forced me to swallow cow dung and cow urine. Then she gave me Ganges water to drink in order to purify me. It was a trauma in my childhood which I have never forgotten to this day. So how can I work with these untouchable human scavengers.” Secondly, I told him, “Sir, I am a sociologist by background and furthermore I am not an engineer. Unless I give an alternative to the bucket or dry toilets which are cleaned by human scavengers how can I ask people not to use these toilets.” The General Secretary heard me patiently but said “I do not know your caste or whether you are an engineer or not but by seeing your performance, your dedication as well as commitment in this short period that you have worked with us, I see light in you and strongly feel that you can fulfill the dreams of Mahatma Gandhi to bring the untouchables in the mainstream of the society on a par with others.” To this, I had no answer. I became sombre and quietly I left the place. It was taught to us that if somebody wants to work for the cause of a


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community then first and foremost one has to build a rapport with the community to know in detail their attitudes, their lifestyle. For this, I went and lived with them for three months in a colony of untouchable human scavengers in Bettiah, Champaran, a small town in the State of Bihar, coincidently the same place from where Mahatma Gandhi had started his freedom movement. My father was both upset and sad. The Brahmin community turned against me and my father-in-law was very angry with me. I told him that my entire life has undergone a sea change and I have now started turning over the pages of history of India so far as untouchability is concerned. Either I will be successful or I will get lost but I cannot just sit and watch. While I was in the colony of the untouchable I was in two minds about whether to continue or not to continue this work because of the opposition from my family and the Brahmin community and their combined concentrated rage aimed at me and my mission. After few days I was going to Bettiah town in the afternoon to have a cup of tea with some friends from the colony. We saw that a boy wearing a red shirt was attacked by a bull. People rushed to save him but somebody from the back of the crowd shouted that the boy belonged to the untouchable colony. On hearing this everybody left him in that injured state. With the help of friends while taking him to the local hospital the boy died on the way. That day, there and then I forgot my family, my caste, my community and I took a solemn vow to fulfill the dreams of Mahatma Gandhi to rescue the untouchables from the shackles of slavery which had chained them for the past 5000 years. What has changed for the scavengers in India? How can one eradicate this practice? An idea about how the scenario of manual scavenging has changed in India by now can be had by giving the dimension of the problem which may be gleaned from surveys conducted from time to time about the number of persons engaged in scavenging in the country. In the earlier censuses, no attempt was made to collect information regarding the number of scavengers engaged in manual scavenging on an all India basis. Some scanty information was, however, available in respect of some States as can be seen from the statement below: Number of scavengers as given in

earlier Censuses based on ethnographic notes The first all-India census to collect this information was held in 1931 under J.H. Hutton, Census Commissioner, according to which the number of scavengers was 19,57,460 (male: 10,38,678 and female 9,18,782). This also covered the areas which are now in Pakistan. In 1961 census the number of sweepers and scavengers was recorded as 35.32 lakh of whom 802,400 persons (505,404 male and 297,396 female) were recorded as engaged in scavenging. The number of sweepers and scavengers as recorded in 1971 census was 50.28 lakhs but no information was collected regarding the number of scavengers. During the subsequent censuses, information regarding a number of scavengers was not collected. However, in July 1989, the Planning Commission constructed a Task Force for suggesting measures to abolish scavenging with particular emphasis on rehabilitation of scavengers. The Task Force estimated the number of scavengers as 4 lakhs (3.34 in urban areas and 67,220 in the rural areas) in the country in 1989. The information regarding the number of scavengers in the country was not collected during the 2001 and 2011 censuses.

The Ministry of Welfare (now Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment) collected the number of scavengers in the country, based on a rapid survey in March 1992 by the State Govts. which was reported as 7.70 lakhs, of whom about 4.23 lakh manual scavengers and their dependents were assisted for rehabilitation during 1992 to 2005. The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment under their scheme ‘Self Employment Scheme for Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers’ (SRMS) in 2007, identified 1.18 lakh manual scavengers, of whom 78,941 were provided financial assistance. The Ministry undertook a survey of manual scavengers in 2013 and could identify 5141 manual scavengers in the urban areas and 7612 in rural areas – totalling 12,753. Can you please explain the technologies developed at Sulabh? In India though sewerage was introduced in Calcutta in 1870, by now according to Central Pollution Control Board, of 7,935 towns/cities only 929 have sewerage system and that too with partial coverage and again that too with Sewage Treatment plants in only 150 towns. The septic tank system was/and is also costly to construct, requires cleaning which is expensive and the wet sludge is taken out is health hazardous. Use of bucket

“An idea about how the scenario of manual scavenging has changed in India by now can be had by giving the dimension of the problem which may be gleaned from surveys conducted from time to time about the number of persons engaged in scavenging in the country”

Interview

13

States - Census Figures 1. Bihar, Orissa and Bengal (1881) - 5,31,732 2. Marwar (1894) - 1242 3. United Provinces of Agra and Ondh (1891) - 4,14,532 4. Punjab, North-West Frontier Provinces (1891) - 11,58,979 5. Bombay Presidency (1901) 81094 6. Central Provinces (1911) 30,000 toilets too requires services of scavengers. On the other hand the option of defecation in the open was and is, easily available and was/is therefore widely practiced. The situation therefore demanded a novel approach and a practical solution. To find a suitable technology I started studying relevant literature and while doing so came across a WHO publication viz “Excreta Disposal for Rural Areas and Small Communities” by Edmund G. Wagner and J.N. Lanoix, where inter alia it is said “Suffice it to say here that, out of the heterogeneous mass of latrine designs produced over the world, the sanitary pit privy emerges as the most practical and universally applicable type.” About the practicability of adoption of the technology in urban areas, in particular, I thought that if the technology was applicable in rural areas then there was no reason why it could not be adopted in urban areas as well, provided conditions remained similar mutatis mutandis. Being of the view that imagination and application of mind is as important as knowledge of the basics of technology itself, I made improvements and innovated the design of the pan as also the trap with water seal making use of toilet malodour proof and leading to conserving water required for flushing purpose; this was done by fixing the pan with a steep slope of 250-280 and an especially designed trap with 20mm water seal, both allowing smooth flow-out of excreta. And, above all introduced alternate use of two pits where one is used at a time and when, after the excreta fills up the first pit, it is diverted to the second pit. In a household of 4-5 persons it takes approximately 2-3 years for a pit, a metre wide and approximately 2 metres deep, to get filled up. By the time the second pit gets filled up, excreta in the first pit dries up. The process of alternate use can continue


14 Interview

November 13 - 19, 2017

as it is repeatable. The inner lining of the pit is done by fixing bricks in a honeycomb pattern leaving the soil in the intervening space to face the inside of the pit. This enables absorption of gases, leading to dispensing with attachment of a vent pipe, making the functioning environmental friendly too by preventing release of harmful greenhouse gases and simultaneously keeping up the temperature allowing the toilet to function in deep-winter as it did in Srinagar even when the temperature went down to minus 140 C or at Kabul where temperature went down to minus 300 C. The whole mechanism turned out to be an invention of mine of two-pit ecologically compatible compost toilet. The pits are generally designed for 3-year desludging intervals, but if desired, they can be designed for longer periods or reducible even to two years. Its maintenance is easy, simple and costs very little; only one litre of water for flushing is required as against need, in conventional flush toilet, of 10 to 12 litres of water; needs space less than that is necessary for installation of a septic tank toilet system. It does not need scavengers for cleaning the pits or disposal of sludge, thus eliminating scavenging and after being relieved not being treated as untouchables when trained and becoming economically selfreliant. This (pit cleaning) can be done by the householder. It makes available rich fertilizer and soil conditioner; can be easily connected to sewer when introduced in the area. A low volume flushing cistern can be attached to avoid pour flushing. Human excreta based biogas technology had remained unnoticed for long due to the fact that the available technology was not socially acceptable, as it required manual handling of human excreta. The design developed by Sulabh does not require manual handling of human excreta and there is recycling and resource recovery from the wastes. The Digester is built underground into which excreta from a public toilet flows under gravity. Inside the digester, biogas is produced due to anaerobic fermentation by the help of methanogenic bacteria. The biogas, thus produced is stored in inbuilt liquid displacement chamber. One cubic foot biogas is produced from the human excreta per person per day. Human excreta based biogas contains 65-66% methane, 32-34% carbon dioxide and, the rest is hydrogen sulphide and other gases in

traces. Biogas produced from human excreta can be and is being used for different purposes e.g. cooking, lighting, electricity generation and to warm oneself during winter. Besides, the effluent emanating from the biogas plant can be used as fertilizer, which contains a good percentage of nitrogen, potassium and phosphate. But simultaneously its (effluent) unpleasant bad colour, odour and presence of pathogens, and high BOD content, limit its use for agricultural/horticultural purposes or for direct discharge into a water body. Since Sulabh is maintaining 8,500 public toilet complexes spread all over the country, of which 200 are linked with biogas plants, it was an important task for the organization to make the effluent free from odour, colour and most of the pathogens, to use it safely for agricultural purposes. After a series of experiments, the

organization has developed a new and convenient technology by which the effluent of human excreta based biogas plant turns into a colourless, odourless and almost pathogen-free liquid manure. The technology is based on filtration of effluent by being subjected to sedimentation, then passed through sand and aeration tanks and then through activated charcoal followed by exposure under ultraviolet rays. These processes make the effluent colourless, odourless and free from organic particles with the UV eliminating the bacteria. It reduces BOD and COD of the waste water drastically. Since such wastewater is from human wastes, its BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) which is around 200 mg/l, comes down to less than 10mg/l after treatment – safe for aquaculture, agriculture and gardening or discharge into any water body

two-pit toilet diagram

without causing pollution. It can also be used for floor cleaning. In developing the design of the biogas plant a choice had to be made between constructing the plant with a flexible dome or a fixed dome. Experience of working flexible dome revealed that sufficient temperature does not develop because of which in winter the quantity produced of biogas decreased. Also, at times gases escaped which led to spread of foul smell. But when I tried working the plant with a fixed dome the said disadvantages stood removed. Sulabhnow therefore follows construction of plant with a fixed dome. Based on the ‘Sulabh Model’ design, 200 biogas plants of 35 to 60 cum capacity have been constructed by Sulabh in different States of the country so far. After touching briefly upon the decentralized system of human waste treatment, based on functioning of the biogas plant with SET technology, mentioned below are some of the advantages attached with it:1. The cost of collection of sewage and operation & maintenance of the system are very low. 2. No manual handling of human excreta is required. 3. It is aesthetically and socially accepted. 4. Biogas can be used for different purposes. 5. Treated effluent is safe for reuse in agriculture, gardening, or for discharge into any water body. 6. In drought-prone areas treated effluent can be used for cleaning floors of public toilets. 7. If discharged into the sewer, pollution load on STP is much lower. Thus, the decentralized system of sewage treatment through biogas technology is more effective for minimizing financial burden to combat pollution. And, has multiple benefits – sanitation, bioenergy and manure. The design has been approved by the Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources, Govt. of India, for its implementation through the State nodal agencies. Are you happy with the progress of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan? What are some sanitation reforms that you propose? I am of the view that it should be possible for Swachh Bharat Abhiyan to be a great success. The reasons why I say so is that the Andolan has been initiated in the country at the highest level that is at the level of the Hon’ble Prime Minister himself. The


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second reason is that a target has been set within a given time framework. It should be possible to achieve the target. The question that arises is how will finances for the purpose be found. The way out could be to involve institutions/individuals of high net worth in addition to the budgetary resource of the Government. On the basis of what has been said above a rough and ready estimate of cost involved would be as follows:If the cost of a toilet is taken to be Rs. 30,000 to ensure quality construction including escalation cost in three years, then the requirement of fund works out to Rs. 3,60,000 crore to accomplish this mammoth task. In the aforementioned scenario the role that Sulabh can play needs consideration. It will be useful to remember that the target of SBM is to cover both urban and rural areas. Whereas it is not difficult to find agency/ies for construction of toilets in urban areas, the difficulty is faced when such a huge number has to be built in rural areas. Secondly, the time frame stands reduced from 5 to now only 3½ years since the target has to be achieved by mid 2019. Thirdly, one has to think of agencies other than of the government and commercial banks where prescribed rules and regulations involve time consuming fulfillment of procedural formalities. This is and will be so even if funds will be available considering that the Government has taken the step of imposition of cess (tax) of 5%. Another way therefore is to take the route of roping in business houses under the implementation of CSR programme. Government fortunately has already mandated that 2% of net profit should be spent by a corporate house to discharge its social

Interview

15

“Have a Sulabh toilet in your home at the earliest -- with or without government assistance. This will make you and your family healthy, happy, and prosperous. Goddess Laxmi will reside in your home. It will also fulfill the dream of Mahatma Gandhi and Prime Minister of India” responsibility. Though, the spend can be on and for various purposes like construction of a school or a dispensary or on housing or sanitation if the target set under Swachh Bharat Mission of the Prime Minister is to be attained then the endeavor should be that most of the mandated fund amount is spent on sanitation. The usefulness of the spend will enhance manifold if it is done in areas which still stand unserved, that is as far as India is concerned it will be the rural areas from the point of view of sanitation. The amount of fund requirement will depend upon whether the area to be covered will be a village or a panchayat or a block or even a district. All this, will though need advocacy and persuasion calling for personal involvement of top management of the business houses. I am however happy to say that Sulabh has been able to persuade some business houses and public sector undertakings to undertake construction of toilets in some rural areas to discharge their Corporate Social Responsibility. Thus, in Ludhiana, Bharti Foundation has taken up the task of covering the entire Ludhiana district with the aim of construction of toilets especially in rural areas. Some of the other prominent public sector undertakings which have come up with finance for construction of toilets by Sulabh are as follow:1. Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited (ONGC) 2. Steel Authority of India Limited (SAIL)

3. Tehri Hydro Development Corporation India Limited (THDCIL) 4. Maruti Suzuki 5. Sterlite Industries Ltd. 6. Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd. 7. Cholamandalam Investment & Finance Company Ltd. 8. Odisha Power Generation Corporation (OPGC) Your songs on the River Ganga are beautiful. How do you think it will motivate people to take action and get the river cleaned? The reasons which have led to pollution of Ganga are as follows:Reduction in the volume that flows through Ganga because of melting of the glaciers primary cause of which is climate change. The government is engaged in this task and has already communicated to the world body concerned with climate change proposals linked with a reduction in carbon footprint. Moreover, there is the fact that today Ganga bears the brunt of pollution caused by increasing population living on its banks through its course. Again, the government is seized of this problem. Thirdly there have been encroachments which are increasing with the passage of time involving human waste finding its way into the river and further increasing pollution. Besides, some culture related factors also have led to pollution of the river. For example disposal of dead bodies in the river Ganga is considered holy and an act of piety. Here again Government have stepped

in by increasing the number of electric crematoriums which gradually are gaining in popularity. There is the factor of immersion of idols after the end of the relevant. An awareness campaign has been conducted in this direction. I thank you for appreciating the Ganga song penned by me. It was a humble effort of mine which I am sure will have its own impact in creating and enhancing awareness. Though running the risk of sounding vain-glorious, I may be permitted to say that my song is only a link in the long tradition of other well-known songs, poems and paeans having being composed and sung celebrating or descriptions written about motherGanga viz Ganga Lahiri or Nehru’s Will etc. etc. For cleaning the Ganga, I believe this is an individual social responsibility. The people should not throw flowers, flowers petals, diyas, etc. inside the Ganga river who visit the ghats of the Holy Ganga. What message would you like to deliver to the readers of Sulabh Swachh Bharat? My message is that however big the contribution of government, NGOs and Corporate bodies may be, success in the ultimate analysis depends upon people’s participation. Therefore, let there be more power to the people. I am also of the view that NGO, Government and the Corporate sector and other agencies if cooperate will gradually help in the success of clean Ganga mission and also Swachh Bharat Abhiyan.


16

November 13 - 19, 2017

“A lavatory must be as clean as a drawing-room”

kumkum yadav The author is a professor at SGTB Khalsa College

VIEWPOINT

mahatma gandhi

Gandhi and the Sanitation Mission Mahatma Gandhi had the vision all along that a country simply politically free means little unless it is free of its own filth

bapu

Great Sanitation Visionary Sanitation was at the core of his holistic thinking, and even Kumbh Mela did not impress because of its filth and squalor

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hat exactly did Mahatma Gandhi understand as a clean country? Two quotes exemplify this. After returning from Kumbh Mela in in 1915, he wrote: “I had gone there full of hope and reverence. But while I realised the grandeur of the holy Ganga and the holier Himalayas, I saw little to inspire me in what man was doing in this holy place.To my great grief, I discovered insanitation, both moral and physical.” “Thoughtless ignorant men and women use for natural functions the sacred banks of the river where they are supposed to sit in quiet contemplation and find God. They violate religion, science and the laws of sanitation.” In 1937, Gandhi received a letter, asking him how he perceived an “ideal village” and what problems he thought plagued Indian villages. “An ideal village will be so constructed as to lend itself to perfect sanitation…The very first problem the village worker will solve is its sanitation,” he wrote. “If the worker became a voluntary scavenger, he would begin by collecting night soil and turning it into manure and sweeping village streets. He will tell people how and where they should perform daily functions and speak to them on the value of sanitation and the great injury caused by its neglect. The worker will continue to do the work whether the villagers listen to him or not.”

Editor-in-Chief

Kumar Dilip Edited, Printed and Published by: Monika Jain on behalf of Sulabh Sanitation Mission Foundation, owned by Sulabh Sanitation Mission Foundation Printed at: The Indian Express Limited A - 8, Sector -7, NOIDA (UP) Published at: RZ - 83, Mahavir Enclave, Palam - Dabri Road, New Delhi - 110045 (India) Corporate Office: 819, Wave Silver Tower, Sector - 18, NOIDA (UP) Phone: +91-120-6500425 Email: editor@sulabhswachhbharat.com, ssbweekly@gmail.com

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ll through his life and work, Mahatma Gandhi insisted on the cleanliness of conduct as well as of the mind. Just as violence for him meant both action and also thought. The idea of sanitation for him was not merely theoretical. For Gandhi, purity was also a physical reality. It meant revolutionary ideas like asking the ‘higher’ castes to clean up their own latrines. If Gandhi ever touched Uka, the scavenger at their home, his mother, Putlibai, made him take a bath. But Gandhi would argue with his mother: “Uka serves us by cleaning dirt and filth, how can his touch pollute me?” The plight of the people who cleaned people’s houses but were subjected to harsh discrimination in society disturbed him to no end. He quoted the religious texts to explain how Lord Rama had embraced Guhaka, a ‘chandal’ who was considered a ‘low’ caste. In the first issue of ‘Harijan’ Gandhi had published a poem by Tagore titled ‘Scavenger’. But the people who were in the habit of viewing sanitation merely as daily bath and cleaning their house ‘at the cost of littering up the neighbour’s’, would take a long, long time to understand him. The irony of the Indian mind-set was, and probably still is to some extent, that to clean-up is not their job. Much before he became an iconic figure in India, Gandhi had continued to voice his childhood concern as to why should someone else be responsible for our filth. In South Africa, Gandhi had set an example by doing the scavenging work himself. He tried convincing the Indians there that one lesson

to be learnt from the West was to keep our surroundings, particularly our toilets clean. In contrast to the Western counterparts, the Indian people’s living quarters were smelly, littered with rubbish and filth. In Johannesburg, Gandhi spoke to other Indians about the need to clean their own toilets regularly to prevent disease and bad health. During his visit to Tolstoy Farm, he found that the inmates were themselves responsible for cleaning jobs. Later in India, Gandhi pointed out that the homes of the so-called ‘untouchables’ were much cleaner because of this very practice of taking responsibility. Many homes of the rich and the educated were cluttered, dusty and full of unseen bacteria, leading to various diseases simply because the inhabitants were not bothered. After his return to India, during the Congress sessions in Calcutta and the other cities, Gandhi continued to place weight on the subject of sanitation even as he discussed the national and the political issues. For a country that prides itself on spirituality, the temples and pilgrimage sites were found shockingly filthy. Gandhi pointed out the irony in ignoring the smelly, slippery streets outside temples in Benaras, Calcutta and Hardwar. While visiting universities like Benaras Hindu University and Tibbi College in Delhi, Gandhi spoke to students about the need to keep our famous cities clean. Many times Gandhi’s morning prayer- meetings included a ‘sermon’ on the need to clean up one’s latrines! The state of water bodies

On Gandhi’s 150th birth anniversary, Swachh Bharat Mission was launched by the Prime Minister, Narendra Modi


November 13 - 19, 2017 and sacred rivers too worried him. Although there was great respect in their hearts for rivers, temples and pilgrimage places, people rarely thought about keeping them clean. People used river banks for open defecation, bathed and washed, and drank the water from the same place. In towns and villages, it was commonly seen that drinking water was obtained from ponds in which the cattle were washed. The village well was good but required periodic cleaning to remain so. All such precautions were rarely taken by people. Gandhi’s close associates like Miraben and Sardar Patel among many others carried on his work wherever they went. At Segaon, Miraben spoke to the public telling them about the important link between sanitation and the meaning of dignity. At the All India Compost Conference in 1948, the leaflets that were distributed said that human waste if recycled well was like gold: “Compost is a matter well planned”. Nehru was one of those who cleaned toilets in Gandhi’s ashram. Gandhi’s respect for those who kept the surroundings clean was such that he dared the Brahmins to boycott him for welcoming an untouchable couple to live in the Sabarmati Ashram. In the Congress Party, there was a proud group that called itself the ‘Bhangi Squad’. God was not responsible for mankind’s diseases, said Gandhi. If the environment was kept clean, diseases would stay away. Instead of blaming their fate for illness and physical suffering, if they were cautious, they would stay healthy. Therefore, those who cleaned toilets were not outcaste but ’Purifiers’, Gandhi wrote. And he saw himself, he said with pride, first and foremost as a ‘sanitary inspector’! Typically bad ‘Indian’ habits of spitting on the streets annoyed him. He also criticized the routine way in which people urinated on the streets. Blowing the nose anywhere too is a habit that spreads diseases . Epidemics spread in villages and cities due to such practice which is seen as normal. In ‘Harijan’ he constantly published articles about such matters. On Gandhi’s 150th birth anniversary, Bharat Swachhta Abhiyan was launched by the Prime Minister, Narendra Modi. It was a tribute to the man who had recognized the value of sanitation a century and more before the world woke up to see it. Gandhi was the man who did not waive the subject aside as less important when the country was struggling for political independence. Today WHO and UNICEF and other organisations are repeatedly underlining the association between sanitation and economic progress. Gandhi, the visionary, had worked all his life not just for his country’s political independence but also its future. He had worked not only for constitutional freedom but also real social equality. He had insisted upon the cleansing of our actions, our minds, and also our toilet which, in an article published in Navjagran’ in 1925, he declared, was more important than our drawing room!

Oped

17

Why Cleanliness Is Next To Godliness

mihir paul

Mihir Paul is a graduate of Philosophy and Psychology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States

Cleanliness is not just about being clean from the outside but also from within

upfront

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lean surroundings along with a clean mind are the perfect ingredients for holistic spiritual salvation. Cleanliness isn’t limited to germs and the body but also one’s surroundings. Whatever we perceive, we become. Constantly perceiving filth can create the same filth within one’s consciousness as well. Since our perceptions and senses are so intricately connected to our experiences, it is imperative to evaluate what it is that we are perceiving and sensing on a daily basis. When one’s surroundings are filthy, one automatically makes a projection of the same in one’s mind, and this projection leads to the experience becoming unpleasant. Any kind of spiritual development or awakening is hindered by this unpleasantness. One can’t even meditate to achieve a clear mind if one’s perception and projections are that of filth and dirt. Since our experience of life is entirely determined by how we interpret our perceptions, it is essential for one to be conscious of what one perceives. Since our perception is so closely tied to our experience of life, it is important to

make sure that we don’t perceive things that cause the same unpleasantness. Everything in the Universe carries a certain frequency, a vibration. This is where the popular term “Good Vibes” comes from. While clean things have higher (positive frequency) vibrations, filth always carries lower (negative frequency) vibrations with it. When we leave our surroundings and body unclean, the lower vibrations spread all over our being thus making everything we perceive, unpleasant. Since even our surrounding objects carry their own positive and negative vibrations, it is important to see if there are objects in our surroundings that are causing us to experience life negatively. It is important to stay

vigilant about clutter. Clutter carries the energy of confusion and leads to that confusion affecting our state of mind. While it is important to be mindful of one’s surroundings, a “clean” mind goes a long way towards making life peaceful, happy, and spiritual. A clean mind is a clear mind. A mind without racing thoughts. An “unclean” mind is the one that is constantly engaged in chatter, random thoughts, planning, and thinking about the future. In order to achieve a clean mind, all one needs to do is -- Meditate. Meditation is a means to quieten the mind and achieve clarity of thought. Meditation isn’t an elaborate activity that requires years of practice in isolation. It simply requires one to be aware of one’s breath throughout the day. As long as one is aware of one’s breath, one’s mind cannot get cluttered with irrelevant thoughts. Thus cleanliness is not just about being clean from the outside but also from within. When you can achieve a clean mind and clean surroundings, it becomes very easy to align yourself with the Supreme Power which is ultimately next to Godliness.

letters to the editor lifestyle? In today’s times, it is difficult to manage the growing population in the country and getting everyone eat just two meals a day. We are moving towards AI technology to convince the rich and developed nations about our success, but we are forgetting that with this we are reducing the labour force and jobs a huge crowd of people. Hope that we do not become too hasty and in the name of development we do not crush the poor and the needy. Jayant, Bareli ai lifestyle? The article ‘The Humanoid Robot gets Saudi Arabia ‘Citizenship’’ is an interesting topic to read. But it raises a question which is that are we moving towards a more AI

education issues The article ‘Education and True Learning’ talks about a valid point about how successful India’s education methodology is. A class 6th student doesn’t know the spelling of everyday

words even after going to a private school in India. After experiencing this how can one even think that the existing education system is working fine? Examples like this raise a question whether we are teaching the future generation of this nation properly or we are just producing machines to work as labour force which collects educational degrees but have not learnt anything in schools and colleges. Rani Kumari, Jammu getting classier I feel that this tabloid is becoming classier. The huge editions like the one on Mahatma Gandhi are colector’s items and I make it a point to store all such editions. So what comes next? Ranjan Das, Jhunjhunu

Please mail your opinion to - ssbweekly@gmail.com or Whatsapp at 9868807712


18 Photo Feature

November 13 - 19, 2017

Sulabh International

Museum of Toilets

The only thing it perhaps does not have is an example of Harappan toilets. Barring that, this is an amazing collection of toilets from across the world and across the ages Photographs: montu

The 1920s wo-tiered wooden toilet used in the US, the upper one for the masters and the bottom one is for workers

The flags of the countries whose dignitaries visited the museum

The toilet Pan of Vaishali with side footrests. This terracotta pan was used in 2nd century AD

A toilet model from the late 19th century A panoramic inside view of the Sulabh Toilet Museam in the Campus, New Delhi


A beautifully decorated toilet from the Victorian Era

A Victorian Era Chamber Pot Sulabh’s famed Two-Pit Pour-Flush toilet model invented by Dr Bindeshwar Pathak

A mobile toilet in the shape of a wooden chest

Throne-like chamberpot of French Emperor Louis XIV

A luxury toilet used by the elites that is shaped like a leather chair

This is a Book Shelf Type French Toilet

The electric incinerator toilet, the Incinolet is used by the American Naval Forces inside Submarines

A model of the mobile trailer public toilet that can be attached to trucks and semis

Portable Tent Toilets. It’s an earth friendly, convenient and portable solution to combat the problem of open defecation


20 Narendra Modi

November 13 - 19, 2017

Narendra Modi: Modern Sanitation Visionary The man who, after Mahatma Gandhi, had the vision of launching a comprehensive cleanliness drive across the country has made it a point to repeatedly talk about it. We serve a platter

SSB Bureau Excerpt from Mann Ki Baat Radio Talk:

“M

y dear countrymen, I call upon you to begin a campaign, Swachchata Hi Sewa, Cleanliness is Service, at least fifteen-twenty days prior to Gandhi Jayanti on 2nd October – on the lines of the age-old belief, Jal seva hi prabhu seva, Service to Water is Service to God. Let’s create an environment of cleanliness in the entire country. Whenever and wherever possible, let’s look for the opportunity. But we must all come together. We could look at this as preparations for Diwali, preparations for Navaratri, preparations for Durga Puja. Do Shramdan, donate through labor. Come together on Sundays and holidays. Go to settlements in your neighbourhood, go to nearby villages, but do this in the form of a movement. I urge all NGOs, schools, colleges, social, cultural and political leaders, people in the government, collectors and sarpanches, to begin creating an environment of cleanliness at least fifteen days ahead of Gandhi Jayanti on the 2nd of October so that it turns out to be the 2nd October of Gandhi’s dreams. The Ministry of Drinking Water and

“An embodiment of integrity and

probity, our Prime Minister Hon’ble Shri Narendra Modi is set to make India a clean and corruption-free country” – Dr Bindeshwar Pathak, Founder, Sulabh Sanitation and Social Reform Movement Sanitation has created a section on MyGov.in where after constructing a toilet you can register your name and the name of the beneficiary family, who you helped. My friends from the social media can run a few creative campaigns and thus become a source of inspiration in the virtual world, to see results in the real world. The Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation has organised, the Swachch Sankalp Se Swachcha Siddhi Pratiyogita, From the resolve of Cleanliness to attaining Cleanliness Competition comprising an essay competition, a short film making competition and a painting competition. You can write essays in various languages and there is no age limit. You can make a short film even with your mobile phone. It can be in any language; it could be silent too. The best

three participants – three at the district level, three at the state level will be given prizes. I invite one and all – come, join the Cleanliness Campaign in this manner as well.I would like to reiterate, let’s resolve to celebrate, 2nd October Gandhi Jayanti this year as Swachch Do Aktoobar, Clean 2nd October. And to this end beginning 15th September let us take the mantra, the message, Swachchata Hi Seva, Cleanliness is Service to each and every home. Take one or another step towards cleanliness. Make your effort to be a part of it. You will see how the Gandhi Jayanti of this 2nd October shines. You can imagine the inner bliss of paying homage to our revered Bapu, with 15 days of this campaign, Swachchata Hi Seva, when we celebrate Gandhi Jayanti on the 2nd of October.”

At the INDOSAN At the India Sanitation Conference, Modi held forth thus: He said that while no one likes dirt or dirty surroundings, the habit of cleanliness takes some effort to develop. He said children are increasingly conscious about issues regarding cleanliness. This shows that the Swachhta Abhiyan is touching people’s lives. He added that a healthy competition is now developing among cities and towns, for promoting cleanliness. Appreciating the media for its positive role, the Prime Minister said that if there is someone who has furthered the cause of cleanliness more than me, it is the media. The Prime Minister emphasised that cleanliness is not something to be achieved by budget allocations. It is rather, something that should become a mass movement. Recalling Mahatma Gandhi’s Satyagraha to free us from colonial rule, the Prime Minister said that there has to be Swachhagraha to make India free from dirt. The Prime Minister said re-use and recycling have been our habits for a long time. He added that these need to be made more technology-driven. The Prime Minister congratulated the award winners, and especially appreciated some of them for succeeding through Jan Bhagidaari.


November 13 - 19, 2017

Faith

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Faith, Sanitation & Toilets Toilets and sanitation are intricately connected to faith and throughout time, different faiths have had similar views on sanitation book called the Sad Dar. The book mentions a plethora of regulations on how to urinate and how to properly do ablutions with prayers along with how to maintain general hygiene. Ancient Roman Faith The Roman goddess of sewers, Cloacina was not only the goddess of filth but also the goddess of beauty in the ancient Roman Empire. The Cloacina Sacrum, a shrine on the Forum, has remnants that can be seen even today.

ssb bureau

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oilets have not only been an integral part of our collective development as a society, they have also been closely tied to traditions, religions, and belief systems. Ancient Greek Toilets The ancient Greek culture saw a resurgence after the Greek Dark Ages where the island of Delos became a holy site in the ancient Greek culture. The famous lion statues on the Terrace of the Lions were dedicated to Apollo, the Greek deity of the Sun. Sanitation systems saw tremendous development during this time period. The island of Delos had intricate plumbing systems, sewer channels, aqueducts, and public toilets. The large latrines of the House of the Trident along with the latrine of the Lake House were used exclusively by the priests of the Greek temples. Regulations of Hindu Toilets The famous Hindu religious text – the

Sikhs are sanitation

conscious, keeping themselves and their temples clean

Manusmriti/Manusmruti takes the form of a discourse by the sage Manu to a group of rishis. Created during the period 1500 BCE to 500 AD, the text directly cites toilet regulations as followed lay the Fourfold Dharma of the Brahmin. Beginning with restrictions, the text mentions the locations where a Brahman must not defecate or urinate. It further includes restrictions based on the time of the day, direction one must face, head coverings etc. Manu is considered the progenitor of mankind who saved humanity from an apocalyptic flood. Zoroastrian Toilet Rituals The Zoroastrian faith has a sacred

Sikhism and hygiene Sikhism is one of the most hygiene conscious religions globally. The holy lake at the Golden Temple in Amritsar symbolises this, though this is not a mere symbolism. Sikhs have to wash their hands and feet before entering any temple, and keeping the temple precincts is equally important for the Sikhs. This is done through ‘kar seva’ or voluntary work, never using any paid cleaners. Islamic Toilet Etiquette While the Quran itself doesn’t mention toilet etiquette, it does specify the importance of maintaining hygiene before prayer or after using a toilet. The etiquettes of using toilets and their regulations are mentioned in the hādīth, a collation of sayings attributed to the prophet.

The one verse that mentions something about toilets is the verse 5:6 in the Quran. “O you who believe, when you rise up for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands up to the elbows, and wipe your heads, and (wash) your feet up to the ankles. And if you are under an obligation, then wash (yourselves). And if you are sick or on a journey, or one of you comes from the privy, or you have had to contact with women and you cannot find water, betake yourselves to pure earth and wipe your faces and your hands therewith. Allah desires not to place a burden on you but He wishes to purify you, and that He may complete His favour on you, so that you may give thanks” Scottish Necessariums The Church of Saint Andrews was built in the 1100s in modern day Scotland. These Churches would include “necessariums”. These were communal toilets used by the priests and visitors at the Church. The necessariums were usually located near the monastic dormitories in the Church. The town was known as Saint Andrews by the 1100s, when work began on the new Cathedral of Saint Toilets in Buddhism In Buddhism, The Vinaya Pitaka, a rulebook for Buddhist monks, describes proper toilet use in detail. As just a small sampling, proper Buddhist monks should defecate in the toilet in the order of arrival rather than that of seniority; should cough loudly when arriving at the toilet (and anyone already there should cough in response); should not chew toothcleaning wood while defecating, should not grunt while defecating, and should not wipe himself with a rough stick. The rulebook for monks, the Vinaya Pitaka cites detailed regulations on proper toilet use. For example – one of the regulations mentioned in the Vinaya Pitaka says that proper Buddhist monks should defecate in toilets in the order of arrival rather than in order of seniority. It mentions how one should cough loudly when arriving at the toilet; not to chew tooth-cleaning wood whilst defecating, not to wipe with a rough stick, and not to grunt while defecating.


22 Tales Of Toilets Thrilling Tales Of Toilets Through Time November 13 - 19, 2017

With an ever-growing population, toilets have become more relevant than ever and it is important to understand why they are crucial for our collective salvation as a species

Quick Glance The World Toilet Organisation was founded by Jack Sim in 2001 The World Toilet Day advocates for access to clean and safe toilets Under the SBM, millions of Indian households have had toilets constructed

manner. People couldn’t use toilets because there were no toilets back then and would dig holes or find foliage to relieve themselves on. People would even go up to rivers to relieve themselves, given the availability of running water for cleaning afterwards. And at night? People wouldn’t want to venture out in the dark outside so they would use a bucket that was used throughout the evenings and emptied in the mornings. People would empty these buckets onto rivers, open pits, and even trees.

Mihir Paul

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“Sanitation has been

Sulabh’s religion for the last 50 years. Sanitation is the basic mantra of Sulabh. Without sanitation, there is nothing worthwhile” Dr bindeshwar pathak

he modern toilet is one of the most significant inventions of the collective history of mankind. What we are accustomed to using in our daily lives and maybe even take for granted at sometimes, started with inadequate albeit humble beginnings. When early humans needed to defecate/urinate, they would simply relieve themselves wherever most convenient. The impromptu action of defecating in the open had a plethora of negative ramifications. Since there were no civilizations and people would relieve themselves out in the open, the act of open defecation posed abounding issues. Problems of privacy, comfort, cleanliness, bacterial infections, social stigmatism, and morality were associated with open defecation in the prehistoric times. Interestingly, open defecation – an act astoundingly prevalent in the modern world, is associated with similar issues faced by our ancestors.

World Toilet Day was

declared by the UN in 2013 after Dr Pathak insisted that it should be celebrated on November 19, birthday of late Indian PM Indira Gandhi For thousands of years, sinks didn’t exist. No one had access to faucets or flushes, let alone geysers. The convenience of these inventions is sometimes taken for granted, considering how life must’ve been for those that didn’t have access to all these facilities. People would have to carry water in buckets or jugs with them to wherever they went to defecate. Even today, people in many parts of the world practice defecation in the same

The Turnaround There was no paper back then. The ancient Romans used scraps of sponges or wool atop a stick for cleaning. The people of France used lace. On farms, corncobs or handfuls of hay sufficed. In the deserts, sand was used for cleaning. In the summers, people used leaves while in the winters; people would turn to moss or snow. Only a few hundred years ago did we figure out how to mass produce paper cheaply and this eventually led to the first toilet paper roll being invented in 1877. Then came the automated flush. Sir John Harrington is credited with the invention of the modern flush system that we still use today. He gifted the first prototype to his Godmother, Queen Elizabeth I of England, effectively making her the first human to have ever used an automated flush toilet. The flush system was revolutionary because it eliminated the need to carry water in chamber pots or jugs. Around the 1860s, people started implementing intricate draining and sewage systems in cities. This was mostly in Europe and the North American continent. The world’s first water treatment plants were established


November 13 - 19, 2017 that made toilet water clean and usable again. These developments brought with them increased accessibility to toilets, on-demand water access, clean toilet water etc. We may not appreciate the fact that we are privileged enough to enjoy such facilities since birth, there are millions around the world that do not have these conveniences. Since the population keeps increasing at an exponential rate, it is important to consider how sanitation and sewage will be managed for the increasing population. More people means more toilets, more toilets means more sewage. All this needs to be taken into consideration for serious introspection. WHY ARE TOILETS IMPORTANT? One of most prosaic objects in life -the toilet, has an indispensable role in our society. Statistical analysis of our population predicts that it will increase to 11 billion by the year 2100. Toilets were important in the past, they are important now, and will be important in the future. Here’s why 1. Health When human waste is disposed of

improperly, one becomes susceptible to a plethora of illnesses. Open defecation near rivers that are sources of drinking water increases the chances of possible contamination. When water contaminated with faecal matter is consumed, chronic diarrheal diseases ensue. According to the World Health Organisation study, the river Ganges or Ganga gets dumped with 1.1 million litres of raw sewage every minute. Chronic diarrheal diseases also lead to malnutrition, mostly in children. Low birth weights, cognitive issues, and stunted growth are some of the aftereffects of prolonged malnutrition due to chronic diarrheal illnesses. Proper sanitation can prevent these issues effectively. 2.Preventing Chlamydia trachomatis Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterium that is carried by flies and breeds exclusively on human excreta. The bacteria can also cause the STD – Chlamydia. Trachoma can cause permanent albeit varying levels of blindness and/or visual impairment. Both eye discharge of an infected

WTO’S MISSION

As mentioned in the organisation’s website 1. Advocate to change policy on sanitation: Through its global advocacy efforts, WTO hopes to break the taboo associated with sanitation. Its advocacy events include the annual World Toilet Summit, World Toilet Day and Urgent Run. 2. Educate to change mind-sets on sanitation: WTO collaborates with grassroots organisations and schools to increase awareness of the importance of sanitation in local communities. It does this via public exhibition roadshows and school sanitation and hygiene promotion programs. 3. Build to develop sanitation infrastructure and capacity: WTO builds toilet infrastructure in various schools and communities in several developing countries. It does this directly, for example through the Rainbow Toilet Initiative in China or via its partners, for example in the Floating Community Toilet project in Cambodia. 4. Empower to bring about long term social change on sanitation: WTO takes a market-based approach that empowers communities to solve their own sanitation challenges. This is done via the World Toilet College training model which builds capacity for sanitation workers and professionals and also via its social enterprise model, SaniShop.

individual and flies can carry spread the disease. Trachoma is considered the primary and main cause of all the preventable eye blindness.

Tales Of Toilets

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and

3. Safety Women in many parts of the world are still forced to practice open defecation due to lack of toilets in their homes and/or communities. Open defecation carries the risk of sexual violence and thus having toilets at home eliminates that risk entirely.

What better opportunity to get conversations ‘flowing’ about the sanitation crisis than UN World Toilet Day?!

4. Attendance at School Girls in developing and underdeveloped countries around the world cannot attend schools if the schools lack toilets. This limits their access to education. Well maintained toilet facilities in schools ensure that at least improper sanitation isn’t the reason for decreased attendance. World Toilet Organisation In 2001, an international non-profit organisation was established by Jack Sim in Singapore with a commitment towards improving toilet and sanitation conditions worldwide. This was the World Toilet Organisation. Founded in 2001 with 15 members, it has now over 151 member organisations in 53 countries. The members are also committed to eliminating the taboo associated with toilets. The World Toilet Organisation works for delivering sustainable sanitation solutions worldwide. WTO is also the host of the World Toilet Summit. Bringing together governments, multilateral agencies, civil society, and the private sector, WTO has been instrumental in the development of innovations and sustainable solutions that have improved sanitation around the world. A global advocate for sanitation, WTO Founder, Jack Sim used to work in the construction industry before he established the WTO. He quit his job at the age of 40 and decided to devote his life to social service. Jack Sim was honoured with the Schwab Foundation Award for Social Entrepreneur of the year in 2001. Awarded for ‘creating goodwill and bringing the subject into the open’ and ‘mobilizing national support in providing on-the-ground expertise’, he is a key member of the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance.

“The obvious issue is

providing clean drinking water and sanitation to every single human being on earth at the cost of little more than one year of the Kyoto treaty” Michael Pollan


24 Tales Of Toilets

November 13 - 19, 2017

SBM – Urban

• 40,39,122 individual toilets constructed • 2,23,550 community and public toilets constructed • 1334 cities are now ODF (Open Defecation Free) • 44,650 wards have achieved 100% door to door waste collection • 88.4 Megawatts of clean energy is being produced from waste • 1,64,891.6 metric tons of compost has been generated from waste

SBM – Gramin

• 5,30,54,000 individual toilets constructed • 227 Districts declared ODF • 1,19,267 Gram Panchayats declared ODF • 2,71,346 Villages declared ODF

Fac t C h e c k

• The World Toilet Day is about

joining hands and tackling the global sanitation crisis together. Today, there are 4.5 billion people who live without a household toilet that disposes waste safely. Sanitation is imperative for eradicating global poverty. • 2.4 billion people live without improved sanitation (World Health Organization (WHO)/UNICEF 2015). • One in ten people has no choice but to defecate in the open (WHO/ UNICEF 2015). • Disease transmission at work mostly caused by poor sanitation and hygiene practices, causes 17% of all workplace deaths (International Labour Organization (ILO) 2003). Classified ad

World Toilet Day The World Toilet Day, on November 19th, is a day for introspection and action. Originally established by the WTO in 2001, the day advocates increased access to clean and safe toilets and focuses on spreading awareness about the importance of proper sanitation. The day is dedicated to drawing global attention towards the sanitation crisis faced by billions. The United Nations officially recognised the World Toilet Day as an official UN international day in 2013 after passing the resolution UN Resolution A/67/L.75 The World Toilet Day aims to draw public attention to how lack of proper sanitation affects livelihoods worldwide. There is an urgent need for increased sanitation facilities in various parts of the world in order to address the sanitation crisis effectively. Community life can be improved with toilets and clean restroom facilities. Incidences of diarrheal diseases like dysentery can be reduced with proper sanitation. Women and girls get increased access to education and work with having toilets at the school or workplace. Sanitation being a global development priority, led to the establishment of Sustainable Development Goals in 2015 – a target to ensure that everyone has access to toilets by 2030. Toilets not only improve health conditions and protect people’s safety and dignity but also play a vital role in creating a strong economy. India Outlook The Swachh Bharat Mission started by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2014 is exactly what India needs at the moment. With millions in the country getting increased access to sanitation, it is imperative to understand why our country needs so many toilets in the

first place. 1. Saving Lives – Open Defecation is one of the leading causes of infant deaths. Open defecation contaminates food and water and spreads diarrheal diseases. It also leads to cognitive impairments, possible blindness, and stunted growth. There is a host of illnesses that can result from improper sanitation. Illnesses like respiratory diseases, skin allergies, eye infections, scabies, intestinal parasites, tuberculosis and even anthrax are caused due to contact with contaminated food and water. 2. Safety and Literacy – One of the main reasons for decreased literacy among girls in India is the lack of safe, functional, and clean toilets in government schools. Close to 10 per cent of the 11 lakh schools in India do not have functional toilets for female students. This is the primary factor behind high drop-out rates in girls. Safety is another issue. Girls feel unsafe attending schools without toilets where they would have to go out in the open. 3. Economy – According to a Census in 2011, there are 11.3 crore households in India without access to toilets. The construction of a basic toilet costs anywhere between Rs 12,000 – Rs 20,000 per toilet. The cost includes the price of materials, plumbing, septic tank, and labour. The construction of toilets in the country will boost job creation. With increased demand for toilets, the Swachh Bharat Scheme is expected to make the industry grow by 15 per cent. Many companies have stepped up with their own corporate initiatives as part of their CSR activities.

Companies like Tata Consultancy Services and Bharti Enterprises have announced huge sums of investments to build toilets in the country. Hindustan Lever has planned to build 24,000 toilets in Maharashtra whereas the Aditya Birla Group has planned to build 10,000 in Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, and Gujarat. ITC has started the Mission Sunehra Kal for improving sanitation facilities in rural areas. 4. Eliminating Manual Scavenging – The degrading practice of manual scavenging has been officially banned in India since 1993 but it still continues to exist in some parts of the country where scavengers continue to clear excreta from toilets. With the efforts of exemplary citizens like the renowned social reformer, Dr Bindeshwar Pathak, the founder of Sulabh Sanitation and Social Reform Movement, the practice of scavenging has largely been eliminated successfully. Stating Statistics Since the launch of Swachh Bharat Mission in 2014, India has witnessed major progress in terms of sanitation coverage and access. The Swachh Bharat Mission is divided into two parts – SBM Urban and SBM – Gramin. Both wings of this initiative have been instrumental for the construction of millions of toilets in millions of households across the country since the inception of the movement. So the next time you use your toilet, take a moment to appreciate the fact that you have access to these facilities. It is time for all of us to work together towards bringing sanitation to all. With an increased awareness about proper sanitation and the right government policies, the sanitation crisis can be eliminated. Thankfully, the attitude of indifference and disgust towards toilets, in general, has undergone a major change in the recent years. What was merely seen as a personal or a family concern has become serious work for governments and ministries. Sanitation is discussed widely in the media, by the press, and the public. Initially, people weren’t sure whether initiatives like SBM would work or not. But the fact that SBM has made major progress in just three years has gradually been recognized by people in the country and around the world. In the race for progress throughout the world, concerns related to personal hygiene and cleanliness have become an equally pressing subject for international experts and groups working towards environmental issues.

India has witnessed

major progress in terms of sanitation coverage and access since the inception of the SBM


November 13 - 19, 2017

Unsung Heroes

25

The Unsung Heroes of Swachh Bharat

These stories show the bravery, courage, sacrifice, commitment, and responsibility that exemplary citizens have portrayed setting an example for the entire nation to follow

I

ndia is in an ongoing battle against open defecation. A battle that’s been going on for half a century. The Swachh Bharat Mission initiated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi is now spreading out across the country and reaching the farthest corners of the nation. This collective struggle to end the practice has turned into a national revolution of toilet construction in households. Witnessing active participation in rural India, there are some noteworthy incidents that inspire confidence and give assurance that Bharat will be Swachh indeed. These are the stories of the unsung heroes of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. These stories show the bravery, courage, sacrifice, commitment, and responsibility that exemplary citizens have portrayed setting an example for the entire nation to follow.

N o To ile t, N o M ar ri ag e

Priyanka Bharti’s actions have inspired young brides all over the country. Priyanka, a 19 year-old, new lyw ed from Uttar Pradesh, ran away from her in-laws’ house on the second day after her marriage after she saw that there was no toil et there. She didn’t want to defecate in the open like the mem ber s of her husband’s family. In a swift act of defiance to ope n def eca tion, she not only inspired a widespread movement but also cam e under the radar of Sulabh International, a non-pro fit organization working for sanitation and hygiene in India and Priyanka and constructed a toilet in abroad. Sulabh assisted awarded her with Rs 2 lakh for inspher in-laws’ house and also in the lives and livelihoods of brides iring revolutionary change all over India.

g G if t in d d e W s a made t e il To requested a readyra, an Indian bride

aharasht ge. Chaitali, a In 2015, in rural M nts for her marria re pa r he m fro ft gi ve a toilet toilet as a wedding ws’ house didn’t ha -la in r he at th ed iz kitchen er, real usual jeweler y or e daughter of a farm th of d ea st In . was fixed . She is the first after her marriage to get a toilet built s nt re pa r he d ke for her marriage. appliances, she as t as a wedding gift ile to a r fo d ke as Indian bride to have

th In dia n po op wi al de to m ea Dr n ica er Am e th up g Gi vin rning to India in t inspiring toilet stories across the nation. Retu

mos The story of this Indian-American is one of the r lack of sanitation facilities and the rampant open defecation in his shee the by lled appa was di dedicate his 2007, Swapnil Chaturve enient job and luxurious American lifestyle to community conv his leave to ded deci he ptly, Prom try. s in the own home coun habits and improving the existing public restroom life to educating his fellow citizens on hygiene long ago. Launching the Samagra Sanitation Programme in 2011, he which were deemed unsafe for women not too s Foundation Trusty and effectively become the ‘poop’ man of India. became a Gate


26 Unsung Heroes

November 13 - 19, 2017

Cr ow df un di ng a to ile t

ood N o T o il e t, NinotheFTumakuru district of

girl A 15-year-year old mand for a a hunger strike in de on t en Karnataka w t, Layanya not -hour hunger protes 48 a g in ag St t. ile to toilet but also rents to build her a pa r he d ce in nv co n that only achh Bharat Missio Sw r fo s tu pe im e th became gher trajectory launched it on a hi

G o a t fo r T o il e t The

Men have also joined in the Swachh students from the Nagapattinam Dista efforts. 4 young class 8th money to build a toilet at a friend’s trict of Tamil Nadu raised before. Approaching classmates for house where there was no toilet funding construction, they were able to gift their friend a toilet.

105-year-old Ku after becoming the firnwari BaiYadav joined the brigade of Bh PM Modi’s clarion ca st resident in her village to build a toile arat’s swachhta heroes that. Paying for the coll for a clean India and she immediately t. She was inspired by livelihood for her, sh nstruction by selling some of her goat set out to do exactly after a year, ever y ho e inspired all other households in the vis, the only source of people, is the first O usehold in the village had a toilet. Dam llage to get toilets and DF district in Chhatti tari, home to 8 lakh sgarh.

M or tg ag in g Je w el le ry fo r To ile t Kanti Lal Rot’s actions prove

that charity definitely begins at hom e. Kanti, a daily wager from Dungarpu proved himself to be a caring husbanr district of Rajasthan has his family to have a toilet rather tha d, son, and father. He wanted jewellery. Mortgaging both, he rais n keeping his cattle and wife’s toilet. Later, the municipality gave ed enough money to construct a him a Rs 8,000 grant to restore the mortgaged items.

N o T oi le t, Se lls M an ga ls ut ra ionwide

Instrumental to the nat , campaign of toilet and sanitation ly dai are o wh n, the rural wome wagers have played a pivotal . role in the Swachhta movement s Phool Kumari’s inspiring action are noteworthy. She chose her ry dignity over ornamental jewelle symbolic of marriage, and this decision is awe-inspiring. Phool Kumari works as a cook at a primary school in Barakhanna village in Bihar. She sold her to mangalsutra to get the money She construct a toilet in her home.or was made the brand ambassad of the sanitation initiative in her district.


November 13 - 19, 2017

Loans for to ilets Going that ex

the safety andtra mile to ensure children, a gro health of their from rural Tamup of women out micro-finanil Nadu took the constructio ce loans to fund their village. O n of toilets in continues to b pen defecation health and safee a menace to the especially girls.ty of children, build a toilet, Determined to loan instead ofthey chose to get a raising funds.

Unsung Heroes

27

T o il e t Gnaifmtic between a mother-

e Usually, the dy -in-law is shaky at th in-law and a daughterir. Toilet actually became start. Not for this patween a daughter-in-law a means to bond be from Bollavaram village and a mother-in-lawIn a rare occurrence, the in Andhra Pradesh. toilet built in her house mother in-law got a hter in-law arrived. by the time her daug the gift, the generous Welcoming her with d the entire nation. mother in-law inspire

To ile ts as R ak sh ab an dh an G ift s

Ins pir ing ma ny sto ries of toi let Mo di’s Sw ach h Bha rat Ab hiy an suc ces ses in Ind ia, PM com mu nit y fro m Raj ast han . In ins pir ed yet ano the r a lau dab le mo ve, bro the rs in a vill age in rur al Raj ast han gift ed the occ asio n of Rak sha Ban dha toi lets to the ir sist ers on n. Th is mo ve ins pir ed sim ilar eve nts in Ud aip ur and Ajm er wh ere peo ple con stru cte d toi lets for the ir sist ers .

M is s io n t e il o T s ’ n o s a M e without would be incomplet

ic saga Swachh Bharat’s ep to the cause. The evi’s contribution D i at ab al K ng ni hastate to collect mentio ttar Pradesh didn’t U m fro on as M d r. She held 50-year-ol slums across Kanpu in r oo -d -to or do g raised funds funds by goin s and successfully er ad le ity un m m e meetings with co . She also spends tim ity un m m co r he in to construct toilets nitation. ellers on proper sa educating slum dw

D ub ai ’s To ile t Ti ta n

Known as the ‘Toilet Titan’, Dubaibased Siddeek Ahmed is the brilliant innovator behind India’s firs group has constructed 2,500 autom t electronic public toilets. His ated public toilets across the nation. He participated in Swachhath on 1.0 where he received an award for his inventions.


28 Trumph Village

November 13 - 19, 2017

Mewat Hamlet Gone Global After Sulabh International, under the humane guidance of Dr Bindeshwar Pathak, triggered a toilet revolution, and the tiny hamlet Marora was renamed “Trump Village, it has gained global attention

Quick Glance Dr Pathak changed the lifestyle of women with Sulabh’s technology Ninety-five toilets have been made in Trump Village by Sulabh The women are able to focus on acquiring vocational skills

for hours for defecation do not tire of thanking Dr Pathak and Sulabh today. There is a world beyond this village, probably the children here did not know, but today these children are looking forward to knowing the world, the credit goes to Dr Pathak. The workers of Sulabh have altered the ambience of this village on the strength of their hard work.

Priyanka Tiwari

“E

arlier, we had to face many problems, due to which our work was delayed and the children could not go to school on time. Not only this, in the rainy days we were scared of insects and had to think hundred times before going to the toilet because of the mud... But in our villagen ow, we got rid of these problems after the construction of Sulabh toilets. We are very grateful to Dr Pathak and Sulabh for this work. We did not know that because of the open defecation, we have to face so many diseases. Today most of the diseases have disappeared from our village, which was due to the open defecation only. Today all the people have come to know about our village. Before this, no one came to our village... But since Dr Pathak has stepped into our village, our fate has changed,” Mukesh Kumar of Trump village in Mewat says. Mukesh says that this village was formed by his grandfather after the partition of India-Pakistan. Due to the lack of education, the people here work hard for their sustenance. “At first toilets in our village were nominal, no one used them. One day Dr Pathak

“We are only aware that the changes that have taken place in our lives today are because of Dr Pathak” – villager Mukesh

came to our village like a Messiah. He told the villagers about the use of toilets and its benefit. Not only that, they have built a toilet in every house of our village, for which we are very thankful to them. He told that in such a short time Sulabh has constructed 95 toilets in our village and 15 toilets are still being made.” He said that today people know us and our village by the name of ‘Trump Village’. “There are many problems in our village, but our primary problem was that the women of our village had to wait for hours for the toilet and protect themselves from the insect and pest during rainy days and winter which was controlled by the Sulabh toilet. Dr Pathak and Sulabh bestowed respect to our daughters along with our village. He said that we do not have the words to express gratitude to Dr Pathak. We are less educated people, we don’t know how to talk ... We are only aware that the changes that have taken place in our

lives today are because of Dr Pathak.” Dr Pathak’s Midas Touch A few months ago no one knew this small village Marora of Mewat district of Haryana. The people of this village had never imagined that their days would change. They never thought that anyone will come to their village to know about their problems in everyday life apart from electricity, water, medicine and employment issue. Far from this changing world, this village was busy in its own tunes. But the situation here changed as soon as Dr Bindeswar Pathak Founder of Sulabh Sanitation stepped in this village. The women do not get tired of praising him for what he has done for the village. Dr Pathak has not only made Sulabh toilets in our village but has named this village after American President Donald Trump and made it global. Today, not only India but the world also knows this small village. Women who waited

Education Surge Today with the efforts of Sulabh, women are learning to read and write. The women of 50-plus age here have been trying to write and read through the help of a computer. They also want to be a part of an educated society. As it is said, there is no age limit to learn something and the women of Trump village are proving it. Due to the lack of education, the people here have been living their lives only by working hard in the field, but now they want to study. Even though there is no medium to get a high education in the village, children are going many miles away from their home to gain an education. Apart from this, these children are also making other people aware of the importance of education. “We have been benefited by the construction of Sulabh toilets and for that, we are very grateful to Dr Pathak. He made women of our village got rid of the problems faced due to the open defecation,” says Islam of the village. Islam said that there was a wide variety of diseases due to open defecation, children used to get late for the school and so on. Women had to wait for the night to go for defecation, due to which they had to face many problems like stomachache, vomiting and dizziness, diseases such as cholera, diarrhoea, but since Dr Pathak has built Sulabh toilet in our village many diseases got extinct from our village. Rubina said that going for open


November 13 - 19, 2017

Trumph Village

29

People always only talk about doing big things, but how a work is actually done is being proved by Dr Pathak

defecation was the biggest problem of the village which got solved after Sulabh toilets have been made. “Earlier, in rainy season we have to think hundred times to go to the toilet outside at night, but now it is not so. I am the daughter of this village and from my childhood, I have seen my village… earlier, we had to go far away from the house for the toilet. In the rainy season also we have to take the children outside for the toilet which was very painful. Because the forest was far away from the home so we have to take the children to the fields. The owners of the farms started to complain that food was grown there so you can’t use it for defecation, which became very embarrassing for us. Since Sulabh toilets have been constructed here we don’t have to face these problems anymore.” Technology Triumph Aarti teaches women and girls of the

village to read and write through the medium of the computer. Aarti says that she used to take children to Anganwadi, and then one day there she came to know about ‘Nai Disha’ and ‘People to People India Company’. Both these organisations are working together to make women educated in 21 districts of Haryana. Aarti says that in Anganwadi she had met the manager of this institution. He asked Aarti if she can educate the women of her village, on which Aarti, said yes, as she had studied up to class 10 and could teach them to read and write. Aarti said that he gave her the training of computer first. “After that, he gave me the responsibility of teaching 50 women. Since then, I have also decided that I will continue to make women of my village literate and also make them aware of injustices against them.” Abdul Jabbar, Sarpanch of Trump Village, says: “Sulabh has constructed

Dr Pathak brought Sulabh’s two-pit technology to construct toilets in Trump Village

Every household in Trump Village now has access to proper sanitation and is freed of the menace of open defecation, thanks to Dr Pathak and his Sulabh

95 toilets in our village, for which we are thankful to Sulabh and Dr Pathak.” Abdul points out that the Mewat district authorities are working to build toilets in Dhandhuka village. “When I came to know about it, I went there and contacted Madam Monica Jain. I requested Madame Monica for the construction of toilets in our village too, and she accepted my request happily. After that, the construction of toilets was also started in our village, and in just one and a half months, Sulabh built toilets here. More than half of our village’s problems have been overcome due to the construction of toilets. Earlier, the daughters of our village had to go out for the defecation, on their way people used to see them with evil eyes, teases them, and passes The women in Trump Village are receiving vocational training while also learning how to read and write

comments on them. Along with this, children also had many problems because of it. Often children met with an accident while crossing the road, but since the Sulabh toilets are made, all these troubles have ended from our village. Now women of our village do not have to face embarrassment. People talk about doing big things but how a work is actually is done is proven by the Sulabh. The work done by them in this small village of Haryana is commendable. This village which was unaware of what is going in the world is now writing a new chapter of development. Sulabh has made this village free from open defecation in a very short span of time. Although Sulabh had faced many problems during their work in the village. It was not so easy to explain to the people of the village who were unaware of the toilethygiene, but the workers of Sulabh have demonstrated it with their efficiency.


30 Creativity & Design

November 13 - 19, 2017

out of box design

Creativity and Play Taking a journey around the world into the plethora of creative toilets that have been designed by plumbers, engineers, architects, and artists

blue luxury If you enjoy admiring skillful design while relieving yourself, then you must look at this one. This entire bathroom and toilet has been designed using regular bathroom tiles with exquisite designs hand-painted by professional illustrators

Aquatic toilet If you like to look at your fish whenever you go to the bathroom, these toilets are here to help. Now when you flush, you can turn around and say hi to your pet goldfish

Vanishin vanity? We think not. Now not only can you sit down and do your make-up in this public bathroom but also invite your friends to join in. Now those last minute touch-ups are a thing of the past. Hello vanity!

artistic Why not enjoy a tastefully designed lobby on your way to the bathroom?


November 13 - 19, 2017

Creativity & Design

31

drink and dive One doesn’t need to stumble to bathrooms to relieve oneself after a night of heavy drinking. This is the perfect solution for those that don’t like breaks during their ‘play’ time.

Braille toilet These accessible toilets are...well.. accessible! With braille letters embossed on the gender plates, the visually impaired can avoid that awkward moment whilst walk into a bathroom of the opposite sex need for speed If you never like to leave your beloved vehicle behind then these urinals are for you. Now you can pretend to win that race with your buddies when you excuse yourself to the bathroom

Traditions Who wouldn’t want to go into such an exquisite bathroom? It’s a typical Indian truck full of illustrations, drawings, and the usual “Horn Okay Please” but its actually a toilet now.

pink n blue These toilets have huge imagery and color coding to make it absolutely clear which gender the toilet is used by. Now one doesn’t have an excuse to have not read the sign before entering

Pee and play If you get bored while using the urinals, this is for you. You can interact with the touch panel in front of you which is also voice activated and enjoy a fully interactive media experience

play or pee? Do not mistake these trumpets for the instruments. These repurposed musical trumpets are now -- urinals! These are for the musically inclined folks


32 Different Strokes

POSTAL REGISTRATION NO. DL(W)10/2240/2017-19

November 13 - 19, 2017

unusual toilets

DIFFEREnt strokes With specially themed bathrooms and toilets popping all over the sanitational radar, it is good to appreciate such oddities that leave your wondering

slipperly slide Even we don’t know what to say about this one. If this is for the kids to use like a slide, then what happens at the bottom of the slide? Where is the slide going?

luxury toilet This toilet gives you the feeling of sitting on a luxury sofa made of expensive Corinthean leather. This is perfect for those who want to feel luxury at every moment in life

toilet bowl

Tech toilet Designed by a techie, this toilet does and will always appeal to the hardcore techies who cannot leave their gadgets. This toilet is constructed entirely of computer parts if you were wondering

This is not your average toilet bowl because it holds your candy! A good way to impart proper toilet training to kids with the reward up front

Redefine royal This toilet probably costs more than an entire house or houses combined. If a throne is where one feels royal, then this definitely does its job

LED latrine This toilet has special programmable LEDs that you can change your ever-changing moods. Feeling happy? Change it to yellow, Feeling tired? Change it to red. Feeling sad? Change it to Blue

RNI No. DELENG/2016/71561, Joint Commissioner of Police (Licensing) Delhi No. F. 2 (S-45) Press/ 2016 Volume - 1, Issue - 48 Printed by Monika Jain, Published by Monika Jain on behalf of SULABH SANITATION MISSION FOUNDATION and Printed at The Indian Express Ltd., A-8, Sector-7, NOIDA (U.P.) and Published from RZ 83, Mahavir Enclave, Palam-Dabri Road, New Delhi – 110 045. Editor Monika Jain

Sulabh Swachh Bharat (Issue 48)  
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