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Department Of Architecture Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar Batch 2013-2018

Architectural Documentation on

Baijnath Temple & Masroor Rock-cut Temple Kangra

Documented By: Anshula Prehar (2013ARA042) Prateek Bhagat (2013ARA064) Pritpal Singh (2013ARA065) Sukhchain Singh (2013ARA076) Sukhmani Kaur (2013ARA077)


Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Contents TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE

5

ELEMENTS OF HINDU TEMPLES

5

EVOLUTION OF ARCHITECTURE STYLE

7

TEMPLE CONSTRUCTION

7

Baijnath Temple

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals and organizations. We would like to extend our sincere thanks to all of them. We are highly indebted to Dr. Karamjit Singh Chahal and Ar. Pinto Emerson for their guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing necessary information regarding the project & also for their support in completing the project. We would like to express my gratitude towards Archaeological Survey of India(ASI) & authorities of both the temples, for their kind co-operation and encouragement which helped us in completion of this project.

INTRODUCTION

11

GEOGRAPHY

12

ACCESS

12

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

13

SWOT ANALYSIS

14

STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE

15

-Site Plan

19

-Plans

20

-Plans

21

-Elevations

22

-Elevations

23

-Sections

24

-Shrines

25

-Shrines

26

-Shrines

27

-Site Section

28

SITE ZONING

29

SPACES

30

ORNAMENTATION

31

CONSERVATION PROOFS

32

Masroor Rock Cut Temples 35

GEOGRAPHY :

37

ACCESS :

37

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INTRODUCTION

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Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

38

TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE

SWOT ANALYSIS

39

Hindu (or Bralimanical) Architecture varies in its three special styles. All three have the small shrine-cell

ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES

40

-Introduction

45

-Site Plan

46

-Plans

47

-Elevation and Section

48

-Site Section

49

-Elevation and Section

50

SITE ZONING

51

CONSTRUCTION

52

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL & ITS PROPERTY

53

ORNAMENTATION

53

CONSERVATION PROVISIONS

54

CHEMICAL TREATMENT

54

INFERENCES :

55

and preceding porches, the same excessive carving and sculpture, which are impressive by this evident tribute of labour to the gods. The principal Brahmanical Temples, show progressive additions of sanctuaries and inclosures, grouped around or attached to the original shrine. Beyond this, the grandeur of their imposing mass produces an impression of majestic beauty. The effect depends almost wholly on richness of surface and outline, rather than on abstract beauty of form.

ELEMENTS OF HINDU TEMPLES It was the later half of the 7th century that the Hindu temple structures of India began to acquire a definite form (Fletcher,1952). Similar to terminology used to distinguish the basic components of a Gothic Church (for example nave, aisles, chancel, spire, etc), the common elements of a Hindu temple which are known in their original sanskrit words are as follows: The sanctuary as whole is known as the Vimana that consists of two parts. The upper part of the Vimana is called as the Sikhara and the lower portion inside the Vimana is called as the Garbhagriha (cella or inner chamber). 1. ‘Sikhara’ meaning the tower or the spire. It is the pyramidal or tapering portion of the temple which represents the mythological ‘Meru’ or the highest mountain peak. The shape and the size of the tower vary from region to region. [Source: History of Architecture ; Author: B. Fletcher]

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

EVOLUTION OF ARCHITECTURE STYLE 2. ‘Garbhagriha’ meaning the womb chamber. It is nucleus and the innermost chamber of the temple

(a.) The Northern style

where the image or idol of the deity is placed. The chamber is mostly square in plan and is entered by a

In comparison with the Dravidian style, has a curved py-

doorway on its eastern side. The visitors are not allowed inside the garbhagriha in most of the temples,

ramidal roof to the “vimana” instead of a storied one, and

only the priests perform the rituals and worship.

is without columns to the preceding porch.

3. ‘Pradakshina patha’ meaning the ambulatory passageway for circumambulation. It consists of en-

(b.) The Chalukyan style

closed corridor carried around the outside of garbhagriha. The devotees walk around the deity in clockwise direction as a worship ritual and symbol of respect to the temple god or goddess.

It is affected by its northern and southern rivals, taking features from each without losing its special character.

4. ‘Mandapa’, is the pillared hall in front of the garbhagriha, for the assembly of the devotees. It is used by the devotees to sit, pray, chant, meditate and watch the priests performing the rituals. It is also known as ‘Natamandira’ meaning temple hall of dancing, where in olden days ritual of music and dance was performed. In some of the earlier temples the mandapa was an isolated and separate structure from the sanctuary.

The starshaped plan and curved pyramidal tower are in contrast with the storied towers of the Dravidian style. (c.) The Dravidian style has the “ vimana” or cell crowned by a horizontal system of stoned towers, each story ornamented with cells. The “ gopuras “ or gateways to the

5. ‘Antarala’ meaning the vestibule or the intermediate chamber. It unites the main sanctuary and the pillared hall of the temple.

inclosures recall the pylons of Egyptian facades, and the “choultries” or halls of a thousand columns, are characteristic and akin to the hypostyle halls.

6. ‘Ardhamandapa’ meaning the front porch or the main entrance of the temple leading to the mandapa. TEMPLE CONSTRUCTION

Some other essential elements found in the Hindu temples are:

Construction of a temple was always considered a sacred

7. ‘Gopurams’ meaning the monumental and ornate tower at the entrance of the temple complex, specially found in south India.

activity. The timely completion of these Abodes, along with attention to the minutest details, required strict hierarchy of commands. On top of the hierarchy was the person who dreamt of a temple for his isht. He was Yajmana

8. ‘Pitha’ , the plinth or the platform of the temple.

(Karta) or the Patron. Most of the time, Yajmana was a king, a queen or a rich businessman and used to choose

9. ‘Toranas’, the typical gateway of the temple mostly found in north Indian temple.

Mukhya Sthapatyapati (The Chief architect) Sutra Grahini (The Chief engineer)

the Mukhya Sthapatyapati or the Chief Architect. Mukhya Sthapatyapati was expected to be the master of Shilpa

10. The Amalaka the fluted disc like stone placed at the apex of the sikhara.

Shastra, Vaastu Shastra, Dharma Shastra, Agnipurana

[Source: History of Architecture ; Author: B. Fletcher]

Murtikar (The Sculptor)

Sangatarash (The Mason)

Painter

and all mathematical calculations. He was the person responsible for converting Karta’s dream into an architectural draft.

[Source: Building Science of Indian Temple Architecture -Master’s Thesis]

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Karta (The Patron)

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Figure9.1

1.Foundation

Figure9.2

A square or a rectangular pit was dug in the centre of the selected plot for the foundation. The depth of this pit was one third of the height and its length and breadth were sufficiently broader than the diameter of the proposed temple. The pit was eventually filled with sand and large pieces of stone and then pressed down by elephants to provide strong foundations. A square or a rectangular slab of stone engraved with Ashtadala Padma Chakra (eight-petaled lotus flower with equal geometric proportion) was placed over the foundation. The petals of this flower indicated the directions and were aligned to North, North-East, East, South-East, South, South-West, West and North-West. An imaginary perpendicular line passes through the centre of this flower that determined the axis or meru of the temple. The main idol inside the girbha-griha, or the sanctum-sanctorum, and the temple dhwaja was aligned to this axis. Figure9.1 The base with mouldings in the north Indian temple . Figure9.2 The base with mouldings in the south Indian temple

3.Sikhara The sikhara is the pyramidical structure built on the garbhagriha of the temple. Corbelling construction system is used for the construction of the sikhara. The horizontal courses one above the other are stepped inwards and progressive forward to cover the space. The sikhara is usually hollow from inside or in some cases filled with rubble. The apex of the superstructure is mounted by a single piece of stone called as amlaka in the north and sikhara in the south.

2.Base or Pitha The base of the Hindu temple consists of series of mouldings. These mouldings are horizontal bands corresponding to the courses of masonry supporting the walls and super structure of the Hindu temple. In Hindu temple architecture mouldings exists not as edgings or modulations to other elements, but as elements with larger elements. These are more similar to the architrave, frieze and cornice in a classical pediment than to mouldings within these. In the plinth or the parapet or in the superstructure each course of masonry can be defined as a single moulding. Sometimes these single moulding are subdivided and treated as two separate courses are carved out from one course. The moulded base is called as vedibandha in the North and adisthana in the South. The floor level is at the foot of this element in the North and above the element in the South. These have elaborate carvings and have sub-bases and pedestals.

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

INTRODUCTION The Baijnath temple has been continuously under worship ever since its construction in 1204 A.D. by two local merchants named Ahuka and Manyuka. The two long inscriptions in the porch of the temple indicate that a temple of Siva existed on the spot even before the present one was constructed.

Baijnath Temple

The present temple is a beautiful example of the early medieval north Indian temple architecture known as Nagara style of temples. The Svayambhu form of Sivalinga is enshrined in the sanctum of the temple that has ďŹ ve projections on each side and is surmounted with a tall

Priests conducting worship inside the Baijnath temple [Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/]

curvilinear Shikhara. The entrance to sanctum is through a vestibule that has a large square Mandapa in front with two massive balconies one each in north and south. There is a small porch in front of the mandapa hall that rests on four pillars in the front preceded by an idol of Nandi, the bull, in a small pillared shrine. The whole temple is enclosed by a high wall with entrances in the south and north. The outer walls of the temple have several niches with images of gods and goddesses. Numerous images are also ďŹ xed or carved in the walls. The outer doorway in the porch as also the inner doorway leading to the sanctum of the temple are also studded with a large number of images of great beauty and iconographic importance. Some of them are very rare to be found elsewhere.

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Garba-griha Mandapa Ardh-Mandapa Balconies Antarala

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

India Himachal Pradesh

GEOGRAPHY

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

Baijnath is located at 32.05°N 76.65°E. It has an aver-

Establishment of The Baijnath temple in kangra is linked

age elevation of 1,314 metres (4,311 feet). It is a small

with many stories. Some say that it was where Ravana

township in the Dhauladhar range of western Himalayas,

had rested while taking the shivling to Lanka in the Treta

16 km from Palampur in the Kangra District of Himachal

yug. He had acquired this shivling as a reward from his

Pradesh ACCESS

worship of lord shiva. Another story is that this temple was eatablished by the pandavas during Agyatvas in the

[Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/]

dwapara yug.

Himachal Pradesh Kangra

-Air Route : The nearest Airport is at Gaggal, 50 Kms from

There are two long inscriptions in the temple which bears

Baijnath and 8 Kms from Kangra Town.

no mythological linkage but bear the information regarding the people who built it.

-Rail Route : The nearest railway station is at Kangra, 17 KMs from Dharamshala connected to Pathankot through

[Source: http://baijnathtemple.com/]

In 1204 A.D, there were two merchants names Ahuk

narrow gauge line. And the nearest broad gauge railway

and Manuk in the village of Kiragram (Baijnath now),

station is Pathankot which about 88 Km from Dharamshala.

who worshiped lord shiva. They had property and wealth

[Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/]

Kangra District Baijnath Tehsil

There is also available a toy train from Pathankot to Pa-

which they choose to invest in the temple construction.

prola-Baijnath which runs on narrow gauge from Pathan-

In 950A.D Raja Jaya Chandra of Jallandhar renovated

kot to Jogidernagar. Baijnath is very well connected by all

the temple, in 1905, there was a massive earthquoake in

weather roads to Delhi via Chandigarh and to Manali via

the Kangra region which affected the entire region, the

Mandi.

structure of the temple was shaken but was protected by

-Road Route : Baijnath lies on the Pathankot-Chak-

installing steel members.

[Source: http://www.mapsofindia.com/]

The architects involved in the contruction of the temple

ki-Manali National Highway No. 20, half way between

are Nayaka and Thoduka who came from Susarmapura

Kangra and Mandi. It is about 130 Km from Pathankot, the

(the modern Kangra)

[Source: http://baijnathtemple.com/]

nearest broad gauge rail head and airport. Kangra airport at Gaggal near Dharamshala from where small aircraft

KHIR GANGA GHAT- There is a story that Pandavas

flies on alternate days to Delhi is 60 Km from Baijnath.

wanted to bring the Holy Ganga to this region but bcause they were on an exile, they had to hide on the break of

Timimgs to Visit :4 am to 8pm

the sun, so they left it as it is. It is said that this is why it is

Entry Fee : None

named aa-khir(last) ganga ghat.

Early morning view of Khir ganga ghat

[Source: Google Earth Pro]

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

SWOT ANALYSIS

STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE

-Strength

Standing in its pristine glory, facing west, on the northern

Baijnath temple is a very well functioning temple. It is now

side of the mountain with the river Binduka flowing about

maintained by the ASI (Archaeological survey of India). It

one hundred meters below, the temple, with its unique

lies on a major highway, which enables the tourist travel-

architecture in the area, preceded by a Nandi-shrine,

ing through Pathankot-Mandi highway to visit the struc-

catches the attention of not only visitors, devotees and

ture. On a city level, the location is such that it is on the

critics but even of a casual passer by.

way of local people, which lets them easily worship on daily basis. The mesmerizing location of the temple has

1.Site

made it a public space. Therefore people come to this

The entire complex surrounded by a wall measures 36.5

place not only to worship but also to relax.

mt. in length from east to west, 21.10 mt. in width in

-Weakness In the terms of architecture, structure is quite well maintained and is also functioning very well. ASI has restored the temple quite well, but they could not restore the carvings as they were designed on the original temple which disturbs the basic design elements of the building

Baijnath Complex Khir Ganga Ghat Parking Public Toilets Bus Stand Other(Residential/Commercial/ Educational/ etc.) Mandi-Pathankot Highway

the east and 19.55 mt. in the west. The main entrance, through stairs, is on the southern side with two shrines having the images of Ganapati and Kartika on either side. There is another entrance in the western corner of the northern side. A doorway in the northern corner of the eastern wall, that may have been a later addition, is kept

-Opportunities

locked at present. Besides the main building of the tem-

Temple is quite famous for mythological reasons, even

ple there are some smaller shrines in the courtyard. A

though there are not enough proofs of the stories. Every

very conspicuous figure is that of a standing Nandi, some

year, on special occasions temple witnesses immense

distance behind the Nandi shrine, that was placed at a

footfall. Serenity of the temple is reflected in the whole

later period.

Carvings of the idols

Shrines and Open spaces

town. 2.Nandi Mandapa

-Threat

The Nandi-mandapa in front of the entrance porch has a

Due to very rapid climate changes, the temple is being

seven tiered pyramidal roof topped by an amalaka and a

affected. The stone is weathering and so are the sculp-

kalasa supported by four pillars and brackets of the same

tures of the temple carving. On the terms of a urban level,

style as those of the entrance porch. It measures 116 cm.

Baijnath is not a tourist place hence being a very small

x 120cm. With the pedestal of the Nandi measuring 36

town there are no tourist accommodations which affects

cm. x 100 cm. The image of Nandi enshrined in it appears

the popularity of the structure.

to be the original one of the 13 th century.

Unable to replicate or achieve the same level of architectural detail ducring its conservation.

Nandi

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Front Elevation of the Temple

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

3.Mukha-Mandapa Next to it is the entrance porch (mukha-mandapa) mea-

Figure15.1

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

6.Roof

Figure15.2

Figure16.1

Figure16.2

Figure16.3

Figure16.4

Figure16.5

Figure16.6

The roof of the mandapa (Fig.16.1) has six horizontal re-

suring 3.10 x 2.31 mt. having beautiful pillars(Figure 15.2)

ceding tiers, giving it a pyramidal shape and is topped

of classical order in front with a square base on which is

with an amalaka and a kalasa. At the entrance of the

cushion like circular mouldings above which are the slen-

mandapa are two pillars each with a square base having

der plain circular shafts crowned by ghatapallava motifs

each side 42 cm. topped by circular shafts and purnagha-

and square abaci and ornamental sridhara brackets. The

ta with foliage capitals. Four massive pillars support the

roof supported on lintels above the brackets has receding

lantern type ceiling (Fig.16.3) of the mandapa, measur-

three tiers with an amalaka and a kalasa on the top.

ing 5.40 x 5.10 mt with their square bases measuring 53 cm. across.. The round shafts are topped by octagonal

4.Mandapa

bands and purnaghata capitals (Fig.16.2). The archi-

The mandapa, almost a square, measuring 8.50 x 8.30

traves on these pillars divide the ceiling of the mandapa

mt. has the three usual limbs bhadra, pratibhadra and

into nine square and oblong sections. The center of the

karna. It is joined to the entrance porch through a door-

ceiling (Fig.16.4) is reduced to a quarter of the original

way and has two massive balconies on the north and

and beautifully decorated by swirling foliage by way of

south respectively.

concentric circles.

5.Plinth

7.Balconies

The The plinth and the vedibandha have the same char-

The most important part in the mandapa is the two bal-

acteristics as those of the garbhagriha (sanctum sancto-

conies (Fig.16.5). With their different type of sculptures

rum) viz. , the pitha (plinth) consisting of a bhitta (plinth

and mouldings that do not go with those of the rest of the

moulding) and jadyakumbha (inverted cyma recta) and

mandapa and the garbhagriha. However, the balconies

the vedibandha with mouldings – khura, kumbha, pur-

are not a new addition but only renovated at a later date.

naratna, kalasa, pattika and kapotali. The jangha has

(Fig.16.6) Column Capital in the balcony.

bhadrikas (niches on the bhadras) supporting images (in-

(Fig.16.7) View from the balcony.

Figure16.7

Figure16.8

fra). In the four corners are buttresses with niches in the shape of shrines with sikhara rising to almost two third of

8.Antarala

the mandapa’s height.

Next to the mandapa is the antarala or vestibule (Fig.16.8). It has two pillars at the entrance with a square base, 28 cm. above floor, each side measuring 32 cm. The ceiling [Source: https://www.quora.com/]

of the antarala has three round lotus motifs carved on it. The highly ornate doorway to the garbhagriha attracts the visitors. Semester 8 (2013-2018)

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Figure17.1

9.Garbagriha

Site Plan

The garbhagriha (Fig.17.1) forms the most important feature of the temple and is intact in its original form. Pancharatha (five gems) in plan, it measures 5.00 mt across and rises to the height of 14.20 mt. from the base to the finial. The bhadra niches on its outer walls have circular columns on both sides resting on plinth and topped with capitals and abaci. Besides the niches (rathikas), the LVL -1580

walls have various motifs for decoration (Fig.17.2). The sikhara (Fig.17.3) above the jangha consists of nine sto-

Figure17.2

Figure17.3

35855

SHRINE B

the center depicting three faces of Siva.Inside the gar-

LVL + 450

17370

the front of the sikhara is a beautiful round medallion in

N

amalaka and kalasa above that is finial with a trident. In

SHRINE E

SHRINE D

orated with intertwined gavaksha arches. On the top are

SHRINE C

SHRINE A

reys each marked by a karnandaka and artistically dec-

bhagriha measures 2.30 mt. across. The ceiling of the sanctum is also of lantern pattern with a lotus rosette in

18110

the center. Figure17.5

SHRINE F

5625

Figure17.4

10.Diety

Space

1500

TOTAL SITE AREA TEMPLE GROUND COVERAGE PATHWAY/PAVED GREEN SPACE

Area (sqm) Precentage 9770

100.00%

396

4.05%

1452 7922

14.86% 81.09%

It has a svayambhu Sivalinga (Fig.17.5) in the center,

LVL + 3450

beautiful image of snake, made of silver, with raised hood is placed around the Lingam. 1680

SCALE :- 1:75

GURU NANAK DEV UNIVERSITY, AMRITSAR

LVL -1400

SITE PLAN

1680

(Fig.17.4) Shivlinga during Mahashivratri.

1680

LVL + 450

water outlet (pranala ) going out in the northern wall. A

DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE

4120

with a design of a serpent around it. It leads to the sacred

5850

is made a white marble yonipitha around the Sivalinga

18780

probably the only lingam known as such. At the floor level

LVL ± 00

8400

which is believed to be an Ardhanarisvara form of Siva,

SUBJECT :ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

TOPIC :DOCUMENTATION

4000

Baijnath Temple Kangra, Himachal pradesh

2013ARA041 2013ARA064 2013ARA065 2013ARA076 2013ARA077

NOTES :-ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN FEETS. -SCALE AS MENTIONED.

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Plans

Plans

BUILTUP AREA :- 107 sqm.

DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE

DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE

GURU NANAK DEV UNIVERSITY, AMRITSAR

GURU NANAK DEV UNIVERSITY, AMRITSAR

SUBJECT :ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

SUBJECT :ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

TOPIC :DOCUMENTATION

Baijnath Temple Kangra, Himachal pradesh

SUBMITTED BY:Anshula Prehar Prateek Bhagat Pritpal Singh Sukhchain Singh Sukhmani Kaur

2013ARA041 2013ARA064 2013ARA065 2013ARA076 2013ARA077

TOPIC :DOCUMENTATION

NOTES :-ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN FEETS. -SCALE AS MENTIONED.

Baijnath Temple Kangra, Himachal pradesh

2013ARA041 2013ARA064 2013ARA065 2013ARA076 2013ARA077

NOTES :-ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN FEETS. -SCALE AS MENTIONED.

Semester 8 (2013-2018)

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Elevations

Elevations

DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE

DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE

GURU NANAK DEV UNIVERSITY, AMRITSAR

GURU NANAK DEV UNIVERSITY, AMRITSAR

SUBJECT :ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

SUBJECT :ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

TOPIC :DOCUMENTATION

Baijnath Temple Kangra, Himachal pradesh

SUBMITTED BY:Anshula Prehar Prateek Bhagat Pritpal Singh Sukhchain Singh Sukhmani Kaur

2013ARA041 2013ARA064 2013ARA065 2013ARA076 2013ARA077

TOPIC :DOCUMENTATION

NOTES :-ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN FEETS. -SCALE AS MENTIONED.

Baijnath Temple Kangra, Himachal pradesh

2013ARA041 2013ARA064 2013ARA065 2013ARA076 2013ARA077

NOTES :-ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN FEETS. -SCALE AS MENTIONED.

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Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Sections

Shrines

140

4670

1410

+3200 Shikhara Level

+3200 Shikhara Level

+3200 Shikhara Level

+3200 Shikhara Level

+1800 Shikhara Ceiling Level

+1800 Shikhara Ceiling Level

600

560

140

5580

1240

1280

1680

300

680

480

290

200

200

300

640

500

140

180

300

235

Plinth Level

+300

±0.00

Ground Level

±0.00

Plinth Level Ground Level

FRONT ELEVATION OF SHRINE 'A' Scale 1:20

1000

1700

400

+300

720

1150

720

580

480

300 1040

1420

100

400

SIDE ELEVATION OF SHRINE 'A' Scale 1:20

1040

100

PLAN OF SHRINE 'A' Scale 1:20

480

425

620

620

DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE

300

600

580

195 80

Plinth Level

100

GURU NANAK DEV UNIVERSITY, AMRITSAR

680

PLAN OF SHRINE 'B' Scale 1:20

SUBJECT :ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

±0.00 Ground Level

TOPIC :DOCUMENTATION

Baijnath Temple Kangra, Himachal pradesh

SUBMITTED BY:Anshula Prehar Prateek Bhagat Pritpal Singh Sukhchain Singh Sukhmani Kaur

2013ARA041 2013ARA064 2013ARA065 2013ARA076 2013ARA077

FRONT ELEVATION OF SHRINE 'B' Scale 1:20

NOTES :-ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN FEETS. -SCALE AS MENTIONED.

TOPIC :DOCUMENTATION

SIDE ELEVATION OF SHRINE 'B' Scale 1:20

Baijnath Temple Kangra, Himachal pradesh

SUBMITTED BY:Anshula Prehar Prateek Bhagat Pritpal Singh Sukhchain Singh Sukhmani Kaur

2013ARA041 2013ARA064 2013ARA065 2013ARA076 2013ARA077

NOTES :-ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN FEETS. -SCALE AS MENTIONED.

Semester 8 (2013-2018)

Semester 8 (2013-2018)

Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

280

495

+495

120

400

SUBJECT :ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

450

IDOL

290

680

325

1510

GURU NANAK DEV UNIVERSITY, AMRITSAR

1200

300

1500

60 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 240 300

300

1100

+2000 Shikhara Ceiling Level

DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE

1720

450

+3400 Shikhara Level

24

Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

25


Shrines

Shrines +3385 Shikhara Level

2400

+3540 Shikhra Level

230

215

B'

780

2400

1335

1200

890

230

120

1400

120

140

155

390

1400 780

Plinth Level

160 100

+700

125

+700

+980 Balcony Level Plinth Level

100

ELEVATION OF SHRINE 'E' Scale 1:20

+3030 Shikhara Level

SECTION OF SHRINE 'C' Scale 1:20

+2040 Ceiling Level

100

+2040 Ceiling Level

720

350

230

1440

100 100 100 100 100 100 100

+3030 Shikhara Level

±0.00 Ground Level

SECTION OF SHRINE 'E' Scale 1:20

190

Plinth Level

700

SECTION OF SHRINE 'B' Scale 1:20

+100

±0.00 Ground Level

290

280

PLAN OF SHRINE 'C' Scale 1:20

300

1210

490

±0.00 Ground Level

105 80

400 495

600

170

170

±0.00 Ground Level

490

390

700

390

Plinth Level

+495

PLAN OF SHRINE 'E' Scale 1:20

310

425

600

325

1510

80

300

195

1580

1200

+980 Balcony Level +1720 Shikhara Ceiling Level

115

1100

60 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

390

300

300

1580

1580

+2000 Shikhara Ceiling Level

+2525 Ceiling Level

205

230

+2525 Ceiling Level

240

+3400 Shikhara Level

+3385 Shikhara Level

90 100 100 100 100 100

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

270

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

960

1460

720

1440

230

+3540 Shikhra Level

±0.00 Ground Level

+580

±0.00 Ground Level

ELEVATION OF SHRINE 'F' Scale 1:20

Plinth Level

TOPIC :DOCUMENTATION

Kangra, Himachal pradesh

SUBMITTED BY:Anshula Prehar Prateek Bhagat Pritpal Singh Sukhchain Singh Sukhmani Kaur

2013ARA041 2013ARA064 2013ARA065 2013ARA076 2013ARA077

SUBJECT :ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

230 +415

FRONT ELEVATION OF SHRINE 'C' Scale 1:20

GURU NANAK DEV UNIVERSITY, AMRITSAR

+1485 Dome Base Level

1070

SUBJECT :ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

Baijnath Temple

PLAN OF SHRINE 'D' Scale 1:20

NOTES :-ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN FEETS. -SCALE AS MENTIONED.

Plinth Level

+415

Plinth Level

±0.00 Ground Level

ELEVATION OF SHRINE 'D' Scale 1:20

TOPIC :DOCUMENTATION

±0.00 Ground Level

SECTION OF SHRINE 'D' Scale 1:20

Baijnath Temple Kangra, Himachal pradesh

SUBMITTED BY:Anshula Prehar Prateek Bhagat Pritpal Singh Sukhchain Singh Sukhmani Kaur

2013ARA041 2013ARA064 2013ARA065 2013ARA076 2013ARA077

NOTES :-ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN FEETS. -SCALE AS MENTIONED.

Semester 8 (2013-2018)

Semester 8 (2013-2018)

Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

+1485 Dome Base Level

130

SIDE ELEVATION OF SHRINE 'C' Scale 1:20

DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE

1740

230

90 135

GURU NANAK DEV UNIVERSITY, AMRITSAR

±0.00 Ground Level

±0.00 Ground Level

+2335 Dome Top Level

535

1740 540

310

115 1210 105 80

115 1210 105 80

+100

DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE

310

Plinth Level

310

+100

+1720 Shikhara Ceiling Level

SECTION OF SHRINE 'F' Scale 1:20

90

+2335 Dome Top Level +1720 Shikhara Ceiling Level

Plinth Level

150 60 90 65 65 150

280 300

155

PLAN OF SHRINE 'F' Scale 1:20

Plinth Level

150

230

+580

1335

1335

155

230

+3540 Shikhra Level

26

Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Site Section

SITE ZONING

Entry Green Area Peripheral pathway Built up Inside circulations DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE GURU NANAK DEV UNIVERSITY, AMRITSAR SUBJECT :ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

TOPIC :DOCUMENTATION

Baijnath Temple Kangra, Himachal pradesh

SUBMITTED BY:Anshula Prehar Prateek Bhagat Pritpal Singh Sukhchain Singh Sukhmani Kaur

2013ARA041 2013ARA064 2013ARA065 2013ARA076 2013ARA077

NOTES :-ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN FEETS. -SCALE AS MENTIONED.

Semester 8 (2013-2018)

Semester 8 (2013-2018)

Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

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Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

SPACES

ORNAMENTATION

Peripherial pathway

Carved Balcony

Detailed sculptures of hindu deities

Open Area

Mandapa

Sculptures on boundary wall

Nagara Style of Architecture

Storage Room

Landcape around complex Dhauladhar Range Main Shrine Boundary wall

A

C B

F

Entry Carved column capitals

Semester 8 (2013-2018)

Semester 8 (2013-2018)

Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

Nandi and Shrines

Panoramic View

30

Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

CONSERVATION PROOFS

Steel support to beams

Steel on reaction with water

Chemical Treatment

Electrical connections

Strengthning

Major Cracks

Dierent material for facade

Semester 8 (2013-2018)

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Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

INTRODUCTION The Masroor Rock Cut Temples, also known as Himalayan Pyramid, is a complex of 15 temples located in Masroor. It is carved out of a single rock (mountain). In North India, rock-cut architecture is not commonly found. Masroor temples are the only example of monolithic rockcut temples in the sub-Himalayan region. More signiďŹ -

Masroor Rock Cut Temples

cantly, they are the only example of Nagara style temple built as the rock-cut construction. The Nagara style is distinct from the Cave temples and Dravidian style with respect to the spatial layout, form and construction.

Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Masroor

[Source : http://wikimapia.org/1703257/Masrur-Temple-Rock-cut]

Traditionally, temple architecture in the Himachal region is Pagoda type, which is derived from Kashmir and constructed by the masonry of stone and timber, they have a square plan with a Pagoda roof. On the other hand, Masroor temples are distinct specimen of the Nagara style which came in the region after 10th century CE.

Angkor Wat, Cambodia

[Source : http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/destinations/asia/cambodia]

Masroor temple also seeks its striking similarity with the temple of Angkor Wat in Cambodia. Angkor Wat is built in 12th century CE, much later than the assumed date of Masroor temples. Although, it is much larger in scale and evolved in its plan layout, the similarity in the forms of the two temple structure is prominent. Interlinking these facts, there can be some regional interdependencies or cultural exchange as a catalyst in the construction of both the temple complexes. Further evidence to substantiate

Ajanta and Ellora Caves, Maharashtra

[Source : https://www.tourtravelworld.com/blog/let-s-explore-ajanta]

Examples of Rock-Cut Architecture

this dating is that the Elephant temples (600–800) near Mumbai in Maharashtra depict similar architectural features as the rock-cut temples.

Badami Caves, Karnataka Semester 8 (2013-2018)

Semester 8 (2013-2018)

Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

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Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

[Source : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oT4Lf807_P0]

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P) India Himachal Pradesh

GEOGRAPHY : The Masroor Rock Cut Temples are located in the Dehra Gopipur Tehsil, Kangra Valley, which is 40 kilometers from Knagra city in Kangra district of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. It is located in the Dhauladhar range of lower Himalayan region. Geographical Co-ordinates : 30.00 N 76.16 E Elevation : 733 m (2,405 ft)

[Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/]

Plan of the main temple complex Garba-Griha

ACCESS :

Himachal Pradesh Kangra

Air Route : Gaggal has the nearest airport in the region. It is locat-

Antarala

ed at a distance of 48km from Masroor.

Circular Columns Mandapa

Rail Route : The closest railway station is situated at Una which

Staircases leading to the the roof of the temple

is connected via a narrow gauge line with Ranital. This narrow gauge railway line from Pathankot passes through many smaller stations before reaching Joginder Nagar.

[Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/] Kangra District Kangra Tehsil

Road Route : The bus services stop at Lunj Bus stand. Further taxis and auto services are avaialble till Masroor, a dist of 7 km from Lunj. CLIMATE : Average high temperature : 23.1 degree celsius Pedestrian leading to the temple

Temple complex

Average low temperature : 15.1 degree celsius Average precipitation

[Source: http://www.mapsofindia.com/]

: 1800 to 3,000 mm

Demography Status : 450 people, in the Masroor village Timimgs to Visit : 6 am to 6 pm Entry Fee : Rs 15.

Entrance gate leading into the complex of the temple, showing Masroor lake at the back.

View from north showing temple with shikhara and adjoining water tank

Semester 8 (2013-2018)

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Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

[Source: Google Earth Pro]

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

SWOT ANALYSIS

The temple complex was not discovered until 1875 CE. The complex suffered major damage during

Strength

the earthquake of 1905 CE. Further in 1914 CE, Masroor temples were taken up by the Archaeolog-

- It is a monolithic Rock-Cut Temple built at the top of the

ical Survey of India (ASI) for its conservation.

hill, a very inique in its nature in the Northern region of India. Further all the other rock-cut temples in India in the west and

Masroor temple is a riddle for historians and archaeologists as its date of construction

south have either been in the pit or on surface, namely the

cannot be established from any credible source. There is no historical account as to when this tem-

the monolithic temples of Mahabalipuram, Ellora and Dham-

ple was constructed. There is no inscriptional mention of the patronage or period of the construction

nar caves.

on the temple itself. As per local legend, the temple was constructed by Pandavas during their exile.

- Hindu temples (Nagara Style) usually follow a square

Over the years the temple has witnessed a transition from being a Shaivite temple to a Vaishnavite

shaped plan and symmetry. However Masroor follows a cru-

temple. The temple was originally a Shiva temple as evident from the figure of Shiva on the lintel of

ciform shaped plan.

the main door and other parts of the structure. The transition was due to the change in the religious

- It is now maintained by the ASI (Archaeological survey of

beliefs during the middle ages. The temple complex is now also known as Thakurwada, a term for

India).

Vaishnavite temples. In the current state, the idols of Rama, Lakshmana and Sita are placed inside main sanctum-sanctorum.

Weakness - Location : Tourism has still not grown here. The approach is

The imposing scale of the Masroor temples doesn’t leave any doubt that the construction was en-

not much activated in terms of tourism. Usually people come

joying the patronage of some imperial ruler. Presence of caves and ruins in the surrounding also

on their own vehicles.

suggest an inhabited settlement of significance around the temple. The scholars in history however

- Material : The material used for the construction then,

attribute this temple to some unknown rulers of ancient Jalandhara kingdom in the plains of modern

namely sandstone from the mountain, is very soft in nature.

Punjab.

This wasn’t fit for carving during construction and has suffered immense loss during the 1905 Kangra Earthquake, and

Although the Nagara style was certainly brought to hills

is suffering great amounts of weathering in the present day

from plains, still the association with the Jalandhara king-

conditionss.

dom is deficient of credible information.There is some similarity existing in terms of architectural style with some of

Opportunity

the early structures in the Kangra Fort located some 50

It can be a great opportunity for the researchers, scholars,

km. However, this similarity is inadequate to establish any

govt. has sited this temple in UNESCO World Heritage list.

kingdom.

Threat

Stylistically, the temple is considered to belong to the peri-

The construction material is very weak, and may suffer fur-

od of Gupta classicism placed in the 8th century CE. Deities on an altar in the sanctum sanctorum

Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

Threat : The only carvings on the stone are eroding due to weathering.

historians and archaeologists to unpuzzle its history. Further

historical account or indicate the regional expanse of the

Semester 8 (2013-2018)

Old Stone Carving supported by new construction of stone masonary, however it has been unable to achieve the same level of architectural details with the new construction.

[Source : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Masroor_Rock_ Cut_Temple#/media]

38

ther damage. The new materials used for conservation do not comply with the old construction material. Semester 8 (2013-2018)

Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

Temple complex becomes an important space for discussion by the local vilage people

39


Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES

a decorated amalaka, which at present is seen separated

The style of Architecture is majorly Rock Cut. Rock-Cut

from the shikhara (following the earthquake of 1905). The

Architecture is a testimony of human persistence in con-

Thakurdwara has a huge door which leads to the garbha-

structing magnificent structures by sculpting and cutting

griha which has elaborate carvings. The chambers which

entire hills. The temple complex is located on the highest

follow from the entry door are the antarala, mandapa and

point of a local hill signifying its erstwhile importance.

mukha mandapa (28 by 26.5 feet (8.5 m × 8.1 m) supported on huge pillars.The intricate sculptural detailing on the doors,

1. Site

jambs, lintels, walls, shikharas, and column capitals on the

The temple complex is situated on a ridge of sandstone

of gods and goddesses such as Shiva, Parvati, Laksmi and

The complex appears to be part of a settlement as evident

Saraswati, and floral designs. In particular, the temple was

from the caves and ruins of other structures on the south

conceptualized as a tribute to Shiva. There are many lintels

eastern slopes of the hill suggesting a settlement around

which depict scenes of festivals to celebrate the crowning of

the temple. The middle portion of this rocky ridge, which is

Shiva, not seen anywhere else in the country. The lintel on

at the highest elevation and is prominent, is demarcated by

the garbagriha of the main shrine shows Shiva’s coronation

“two transverse and more or less parallel cuttings.” In this

in a “benign posture” with eyes closed like Buddha. The lin-

portion of the rocky ridge an array of monolithic temples

tel carvings also show many divinities including Shiva in the

have been carved (facing an East of NE direction). Overall,

central portion flanked by his sons Ganesha and Kartikeya.

Figure 39.1)

(Figure 40.1 and Figure 40.2)

temples carved on the rock ridge over a ridge of 159 feet (48 m) length and width of 105 feet (32 m), with the central

3. Mukh Mandapa and Mandapa

of Thakurdwara flanked by seven temples on either side

The approach to the entrance door of the temple (prominent-

which have carvings only on the outer surfaces. (Figure

The chambers which follow from the entry door of the main

and complex “cruciform plan”. Overall there are only nine

temple complex are the antarala, mandapa and mukha man-

Figure 39.2)

dapa 28 by 26.5 feet (8.5 m × 8.1 m) supported on huge

archical scale”. (Figure 39.2)

pillars. There is open space on either side of mandapa. This open space must be used for ritualistic gathering.

2. Deities: The central temple in this complex is called the Thakurdwara which has extensive well crafted carvings.

4. Stairway

This shrine, which faces east, is deified with idols of Rama,

There is also a stairway on either side of the main temple

Lakshman and Sita (made of black-stone). The central

(Figure 40.3) which leads to the highest part of the shikhara

shikhara is the largest and is built above the garbhagri-

(rises to a height of 80 feet (24 m) above the floor of the in-

ha (sanctum sanctorum), which has nine tiers topped by Semester 8 (2013-2018)

Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

Figure 40.3)

ly decorated), is through a steep flight of steps. (Figure 40.3).

39.3).The temple complex, as built, has a well proportioned shikharas (temple towers) arranged sequentially in a “hier-

(Figure 40.2)

main shrine and other smaller temples consist of figurines

rock exposure which runs in a northwest to south east axis.

the complex consists of 15 shikara (tower) (Figure 39.1)

Figure 40.1)

Figure 39.3)

Semester 8 (2013-2018)

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Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

Figure 40.3)

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

set of the temple complex which provides scenic views all round, particularly of the Dhauladar Range. 5. Garbagriha The central shikhara is the largest and is built above the garbhagriha (sanctum sanctorum), which has nine tiers topped by a decorated amalaka, which at present is seen separated from the shikhara (following the earthquake of 1905). The Thakurdwara has a huge door which leads to the garbhagriha which has elaborate carvings. The gar bhagriha, in a square plan (13 feet (4.0 m) each side), has an altar where the deities are deified, surrounded by the circumambulatory space around it. (Figure 41.1) 6 5 4 3 2 1

6. Masroor Pond: The pond in front of the temple facing Figure 41.1 : Entry to the Garba Griha through Mandapa east, reflects parts of the temple. The construction of the lake is dated to the early 8th century. Its rectangular di-

Entry to the main temple shrine

mensions are about 25 by 50 meters (82 ft × 164 ft) and around 12’ deep. The pond has a perennial source of supply (natural spring water) as it does not go dry even during the summer season. The water tank must have

1 2 3 4 6

ers of the settlement around the temple. (Figure 41.2)

5

been a ritualistic component along with serving the dwell-

Figure 41.2 : Masroor lake in front of the temple complex.

7. Shrines: There are two chambers located on the either side of the temple in the North and South directions. It is not clear whether these chambers were subsidiary sanc-

N

tum-sanctorum or other functional spaces. As these spaces were also treated with an entry vestibule in a similar fashion as that of primary garbhgriha, it is highly possible that these chambers were shrines for other deities. (Figure 41.3). Many of the fully carved, elegant and graceful statues have been moved out of the complex and are exFigure 41.3 : Detached shrine on the either side of the

hibited in the Shimla State Museum. These are 8 such mandapa

Semester 8 (2013-2018)

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Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

sculptures of Ganesha, Durga, Siva, Surya and Varuna. Apart

Introduction

from the main temple complex, there is a rest house built on the right side over the remaining part of the rocky ridge; this

MASROOR TEMPLE

was built by the Maharaja of Guler, a neighboring state.

KANGRA, HIMACHAL PRADESH

The rest house is built in a blend of Hindu and Mughal architectural styles with features of arcades and small dome

TO LUNJ

PARKING

shaped structures.The architecture of the complex, when HIMACHAL PRADESH

viewed during an evening hour, is an artistic visual treat of a

TO

GE

LA

VIL

TICKET COUNTER

“silhouetted” frozen form of a grief-stricken herd of standing elephants.However, during morning sun light the sculptures,

SMALL MUSUEM AND TOILET

the murals and carvings glow prominently.

N

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

LVL +600

SITE SURROUNDINGS

1900 LVL + 450

- A govt. school on the south eastern side.

UP

2245

LVL ± 00 LVL + 900

Incomplete carvings on the bands at the time of the construction

- Panchayat Ghar on the north eastern side.

OFFICE

- A small canteen, on the north eastern side, for small re-

SCHOOL BUILDING

freshments.

CANTEEN LVL + 900

- Provision of restrooms has been provided. - A few iron benches have also been incorporated in the site. - There’s no distinct provision of parking. - There’s a pakka road only till the site of this temple, and further to the village, the villagers have to use kachcha road. - There’s a boundary wall been constructed10 years ago on all the sides.

DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE

MASROOR

Incomplete carvings left at the time of the construction

INDIA

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND :-

KANGRA

GURU NANAK DEV UNIVERSITY, AMRITSAR

SITE PLAN SCALE :- 1:400

Masroor temple is a riddle for historians and archaeologists as its date of construction cannot be established from any credible source. There is no historical account as to when this temple was constructed. There is no inscriptional mention of the patronage or period of the construction on the temple itself. As per local legend, the temple was constructed by Pandavas during their exile. Over the years the temple has witnessed a transition from being a Shaivite temple to a Vaishnavite temple. The temple was originally a Shiva temple as evident from the fi gure of Shiva on the lintel of the main door and other parts of the structure. The temple complex was not discovered until 1875 CE. The complex suff ered major damage during the earthquake of 1905 CE. Further in 1914 CE, Masroor temples were taken up by the Archaeolog- ical Survey of India (ASI) for its conservation.

STATE- HIMACHAL PRADESH. DISTRICT- KANGRA. LOCALITY- BAIJNATH (32.07°N;76.13°E). APPROACH- AIRPORT : GAGGAL (31 KMs); RAILWAY STATION : KANGRA (32 KMs); BUS STAND : MASROOR (0.5 KMs). OWNERSHIP- Government of India. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL- Archaelogical Survey of India, Shimla.

SUBJECT :ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN

TOPIC :DOCUMENTATION

SUBMITTED BY:Anshula Prehar Prateek Bhagat Pritpal Singh Sukhchain Singh Sukhmani Kaur

2013ARA041 2013ARA064 2013ARA065 2013ARA076 2013ARA077

NOTES :-ALL DIMENSIONS ARE IN FEETS. -SCALE AS MENTIONED.

Masroor Temple Govt. school located on the northern side

Kangra, Himachal pradesh

Small canteen and Panchayat loacted on the south-eastern side. Semester 8 (2013-2018)

Semester 8 (2013-2018)

Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

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Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Site Plan

Plans

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Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

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Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Elevation and Section

Site Section

Semester 8 (2013-2018)

Semester 8 (2013-2018)

Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

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Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Elevation and Section

SITE ZONING

Built-Up Circulation inside temple complex Green Area Pedestrian Masroor Lake

SITE SECTION

Semester 8 (2013-2018)

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Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

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Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

CONSTRUCTION

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL & ITS PROPERTY

The construction of the temple is carried out by carving

The rock is sandstone type with varying grain density. Since

the monolithic rock forming the peak of the range.While

the compactness of the rock is not uniform, the strength var-

seven shikharas form monolithic part of the temple, two

ies causing weathering at certain places. The stratification of

shikharas are segregated from the main rock-cut struc-

the rock is not horizontal but diagonal, thus compromising the

ture and located on the shrines on the either side of the

structural strength of the temple. As a result during the earth-

mandapa.

quake portions with narrow sections could not withstand the forces and fell. A large portion of main shikhara is detached at

Another structural component which is not a part of the

the rock stratification and is lying on the terrace.

main monolithic temple is columns supporting the man-

Further, the heterogeneous structural compactness of the

dapa. These columns are distinctly circular in section.

sandstone rock mass, from which the temples have been

The shaft of the columns was made by sculpting a per-

carved out, has contributed to the damage. A particular struc-

fect cylinder about 60 cm in diameter and approximately 5 m in height. The base and capital of the column are

tural part of the temple which is not part of the main monolithic

Columns of Mandapa

temple complex suffered severe damage to most of its circular

decorated in floral patterns. Although none of the circu-

columns which resulted in collapse of the mandapa and the

lar columns are remaining in single piece. Since, these

roof (probably made of local timber) of the structure.

columns were not part of the monolithic mass, it seems that during the earthquake the columns fell and broke

ORNAMENTATION

into fragments. The damage to this part is such that no evidence of roofing system of mandapa is seen now.

The temple is adorned with detailed carvings of figures and

Base of the columns

floral patterns. Various Gods and Goddesses are carved on

Although, it could easily be ascertained from the size of

the walls and shikharas of the temple. Shiva and Parvati are

the columns, that the mandapa was a covered space.

shown prominently in various postures. Laksmi and Saraswati

It is also possible that the roofing system of mandapa

are also depicted in carvings. Ganga and Yamuna Godesses

comprised of timber which is locally available. Lintels

have been carved on either side of the door. Floral motifs are

and jambs of the main entrance of the garbhgriha are

used to decorate the base and capital of the columns. Jambs

constructed by using single piece stone slab.

and Lintels of the door of garbhgriha are adorned with dia-

New construction of door, incorporating a same carving as a ruin structural member outside

mond motif. Lotus motif is used elaborately on the ceiling of Flooring of the temple is done by sculpting a plain sur-

the garbhgriha. Shikhara are elaborately decorated with var-

face on the bed of the rock. This is however covered in

ious elements, prominent are amalaka and series of Chaitya

places with plaster during some recent restoration work.

motifs.

The new construction of teak wood door, with original stone carving and new stone masonary

Carving on the facade of the shrine Semester 8 (2013-2018)

Semester 8 (2013-2018)

Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

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Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

CONSERVATION PROVISIONS

INFERENCES :

The temple complex suffered huge damage during the earth-

- Foot fall : 40-60 people on a weekday, 150 to 180 people on a weekend. Also the footfall is more during

quake of 1905 CE. A major portion of the temple is in ruin state

the start of month and reduces towards the end.

with various fragments lying in the vicinity. The temple com-

- Structural Assumptions : The Pandavas could have planned for a 4-cardinal directioned access. 3 en-

plex is in much dilapidated state despite listed by ASI since

teries are defined from the East (Main entrance to the garba-griha), the North and the South (not com-

1914. The structural integrity of the temple is not sound and

pletely carved out). The fourth from the west direction would have yet to be started then, or that piece of

further damage is likely in due course of time. Some previous

rock could have slided off from the mountain.

restoration interventions have been done by using cement

- GOI has informed to not construct anything anew of a permanent nature in a radius of 100 m (very

plaster and stone masonry, which is not compatible material

strictly), and in a radius of 500 m in general. There still runs a government school within a radius of 100

for the historic structure. Also, cement patches should be re- Lightning Conductor is installed

m. And behind the school, there’s a residential building constructed as well. The school and the temple

moved and replaced with lime or other compatible mortar. The

have been in a conflict over some 5 years now.

fragments of fallen portions of the temple should be secured

- The GOI has been spending a lot of money over the maintenance of this structure but it hasn’t been

for future restoration work or for display in a site museum. The

able to refund back that well because of poor tourism.

fragments of the temple carry high antiquarian value. A new door is provided to the garbagriha, made of teak wood, main-

“Our Masroor temple is a remarkable specimen of architecture

taining the same carving as seen outside on a stone specimen

in the country. It is unfortunate that it not widely known among

ruin. After construction includes a slab casted on the roof, of

visitors or scholars. The temple complex becomes a history

concrete, which is 40-45 years old now.

puzzle but also throws new light on the architectural and archaeological knowledge of rock-cut temples in India.

CHEMICAL TREATMENT

There’s a huge consistent suport from the ASI in the main-

First acidic wash was done in 1992. The wash is done with Old detailed carving supported by new plain

tenance of the temple complex, however tourism is not well

chemical fumes, so that water doesn’t go inside the structure.

promoted in this lesser known area.”

construction

Some 50-60 laborers are involved in the cleaning process over a span of 2 months. Grass eater fishes were provided in the lake to keep the lake water clean. There were a large number of fishes provided earlier but a lot of them died over the period of time because of the increasing acidity of the lake water. This happens when the rain water runoff enters the lake

Mr. Ashok Koundal (left) and Mr. Kumar (right), head employees of the temple complex.

after reacting with the chemically treated building. There are different sectors of the GOI handling different aspects of the

There isn’t much provision of seating and dustbins

site, eg. Fishing Department handles the water and the fishes, Landscaping Dept. handles the gardens, etc. temple is not sound and further damage is likely in due course of time.

Semester 8 (2013-2018)

Semester 8 (2013-2018)

Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

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Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

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Architectural Documentation - Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra(H.P)

Semester 8 (2013-2018)

Dept. of Architecture, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar

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Profile for Sukhmani Kaur

Documentation report on Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra  

This report was a submission for B.Arch Semester 8. It is an effort by a team of 5. Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple are both sit...

Documentation report on Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple, Kangra  

This report was a submission for B.Arch Semester 8. It is an effort by a team of 5. Baijnath Temple and Masroor Rock Cut Temple are both sit...

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