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Flipping the Traditional Classroom: Using Lecture Capture to Get More In-Class Participation Roger Freedman University of California, Santa Barbara airboy@physics.ucsb.edu Source: Flickr user tanya_little


University of California, Santa Barbara

• 17,726 undergraduates


University of California, Santa Barbara

• 17,726 undergraduates • 5 Nobel laureates


University of California, Santa Barbara

• 17,726 undergraduates • 5 Nobel laureates • #1 physics department in the world as measured by citations per paper 1995-2005


University of California, Santa Barbara

• 17,726 undergraduates • 5 Nobel laureates • #1 physics department in the world as measured by citations per paper 1995-2005 • #10 party school in the nation per Playboy


Traditional course structure 1. Instructor interacts with students primarily by giving a lecture.

Source: Futurama


Traditional course structure 1. Instructor interacts with students primarily by giving a lecture.

Source: Futurama

Source: Flickr user Earls37a

2. There is limited time during the lecture for interactive exercises.


Clicker use and learning gains post-test% ! pre-test% Class learning gain: g = 100 ! pre-test% Richard Hake, Indiana U., American Journal of Physics 1998 66, 64


Clicker use and learning gains post-test% ! pre-test% Class learning gain: g = 100 ! pre-test% Richard Hake, Indiana U., American Journal of Physics 1998 66, 64

i>clickers* i>clickers + tutorials*

* U. of Colorado (Stephanie Chasteen et al.)


Traditional course structure 1. Instructor interacts with students primarily by giving a lecture.

Source: Futurama

Source: Flickr user Earls37a

2. There is limited time during the lecture for interactive exercises.

3. Students can’t go back in time to replay the lecture or review portions that they missed. Source: Grand Comics Database


Traditional course structure 1. During the lecture, students think they understand the material.

Source: UCSB Photographic Services


Traditional course structure 1. During the lecture, students think they understand the material.

Source: UCSB Photographic Services

2. They then go home to try to do the homework‌ Source: Microsoft/iStockphoto


Traditional course structure 1. During the lecture, students think they understand the material.

Source: UCSB Photographic Services

2. They then go home to try to do the homework… Source: Microsoft/iStockphoto

3. …where they discover that they don’t really understand the material after all. Source: Microsoft/iStockphoto


“Flipped” course structure Solution: Use the power of video!

Source: Grand Comics Database


“Flipped” course structure Solution: Use the power of video! Have students view the lecture before coming to class — a video podcast Source: Grand Comics Database


“Flipped” course structure Solution: Use the power of video! Have students view the lecture before coming to class — a video podcast Jonathan Bergmann and Aaron Sams, Woodland Park H.S., CO

Source: Grand Comics Database


“Flipped” course structure Solution: Use the power of video! Have students view the lecture before coming to class — a video podcast Jonathan Bergmann and Aaron Sams, Woodland Park H.S., CO

Source: Grand Comics Database

Instructor can then devote class time to: • interactive exercises • student work • demonstrations (for science classes) • providing guidance to students Source: Microsoft/iStockphoto


Note: This is not a “telecourse” NBC’s Continental Classroom (1958-1963) 6:00-7:00 a.m. Peabody Award, 1958

Prof. Harvey White, UC Berkeley


Note: This is not a “telecourse” NBC’s Continental Classroom (1958-1963) 6:00-7:00 a.m. Peabody Award, 1958

Prof. Harvey White, UC Berkeley

Source: Smithsonian Institution

MPATI: Midwest Program on Airborne Television Instruction (1961-1968) Stratovision by Westinghouse


“Flipped” course structure 1. Instructor records a lecture using a webcam, then publishes it on the Web.

Source: Microsoft/iStockphoto


“Flipped” course structure 1. Instructor records a lecture using a webcam, then publishes it on the Web.

Source: Microsoft/iStockphoto


A Panopto lecture


“Flipped� course structure 1. Instructor records a lecture using a webcam, then publishes it on the Web.

2. Before coming to class, Source: Microsoft/iStockphoto students view the online Source: Microsoft/iStockphoto lecture and pose questions to the instructor.


Actual student questions


“Flipped” course structure 1. Instructor records a lecture using a webcam, then publishes it on the Web.

2. Before coming to class, Source: Microsoft/iStockphoto students view the online Source: Microsoft/iStockphoto lecture and pose questions to the instructor. 3. In class, instructor clarifies points raised by the students…

Source: Flickr user sarahjanenyc1


“Flipped” course structure 1. Instructor records a lecture using a webcam, then publishes it on the Web.

2. Before coming to class, Source: Microsoft/iStockphoto students view the online Source: Microsoft/iStockphoto lecture and pose questions to the instructor. 3. In class, instructor clarifies points raised by the students… 4. …and has students spend Source: Flickr user sarahjanenyc1 class time on exercises and clicker questions. Source: Flickr user sarahjanenyc1


A problem for you A monatomic ideal gas (CV = 3R/2, Cp = 5R/2) is taken around a cycle as shown. Process b → c is isothermal. (a) Find ∆U, Q, and W for each of the processes a → b, b → c, and c → a. (b) Find the efficiency of the cycle a → b → c → a.

2p0

p0 V0

2V0

Enter the result to part (b) with your i>clicker2.


More ways to “flip” the course Create short online “lectures” based on student questions posed outside of class (e.g. during office hours).

Source: Microsoft/iStockphoto


More ways to “flip” the course Create short online “lectures” based on student questions posed outside of class (e.g. during office hours).

Source: Microsoft/iStockphoto

If there’s a common error that students make on their exams or homework, create a short online “lecture” to address this.

Source: Microsoft/iStockphoto


Your classes will be different • You will lecture less (and save your voice). Students will think more!

Source: Flickr user Olivander


Your classes will be different • You will lecture less (and save your voice). Students will think more! • “Just because I’m not talking, that doesn’t mean my students aren’t thinking.” —Ed Prather, University of Arizona

Source: Flickr user Olivander


Student responses Premed physics class, Winter 2011 Panopto lectures vs. traditional lectures: Much prefer Panopto Prefer Panopto slightly Panopto = traditional Prefer traditional slightly Much prefer traditional


Student responses Premed physics class, Winter 2011 Panopto lectures vs. traditional lectures: Much prefer Panopto Prefer Panopto slightly Views per lecture:

Panopto = traditional Prefer traditional slightly

Much prefer traditional All more than once Some more than once None more than once


Try flipping YOUR class!

Source: Grand Comics Database


Flipped classroom by Roger Freedman