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Planning PADDINGTON and Design • • • IF YOU ARE AND DESIGN FOR BUSINESSES PLANNING • refitting your shop front • putting in new signage • building an extension installing a security system • PLAIN A ENGLISH GUIDE TO YOUR PLANNING AND DESIGN DECISIONS • repainting ARE YOU your shop front? GUIDE putting in new signage? external lighting refittingA • adding PLAIN ENGLISH TO YOUR PLANNING redesigning inside your property AND DESIGN DECISIONS IN PADDINGTON building an extension? installing a security system? repainting? •

• adding some new external lighting?

• redesigning inside your property?

IF YOU ARE • refitting your shop front • putting in new signage • building an extension • installing a security system • repainting • adding external lighting • redesigning inside your property


MAKING AN APPLICATION FOR PERMISSION TO CARRY OUT WORK If you want to apply for planning permission, listed building consent or conservation area consent you will need to supply Westminster City Council with the following information: • Completed application forms with fees • Two copies of 1:1250 Ordnance Survey map showing location of property • •

outlined in red Four copies of a detailed plan of site at 1:100 scale showing proposals with all dimensions in metres and centimetres Photographs of premises and surroundings that would also be useful for

your application • Four sets of architects drawings showing proposals. They need this number of copies, as they have to consult with other City Council departments, local societies and your neighbours to get their view on your proposals. This is a general guide only and is not fully comprehensive. It is not a substitute for obtaining detailed professional advice. No liability is accepted for any errors or omissions.


About this guide, an introduction About the Paddington BID area Map of Paddington BID area How Westminster City Council can help The Bayswater conservation area and unlisted buildings Making changes to listed buildings Extending a listed building Work to the inside of a listed building Shop fronts Blinds and awnings Signs on shop fronts Hotel signs Painting and repairing stucco Flag poles Security shutters Security devices Restoration and repairs • Missing decorations • Railings and ironwork • Brickwork • Rainwater goods • Doors and windows Plant, machinery and other attachments Access Extensions and alterations to roofs

05 05 08 10 12 14 18 19 20 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 38 39 40 40 40 42 44 46

Satellite dishes Short term lets of residential properties Planning enforcement Remember – a checklist


The main planning policies and regulations Contacts Further information from Westminster City Council


48 49 50

53 55




Introduction The guide is intended to help businesses carry out minor changes to their premises by describing the sorts of proposals that Westminster City Council would support.

The guide has been produced jointly by Paddington BID and the City Council to help businesses primarily in the BID area. The City Council will grant permission much more readily and quickly if businesses submit proposals that conform with this guide. Proposals that are contrary to this guide will be refused permission. The Paddington Business Improvement District was set up in 2005 to help businesses in this part of Westminster. Its main aims are to improve the appearance of the area, make the area safer, promote the area to potential customers and tourists and to get local businesses involved in making it a success. The guide is part of that process. It sets out to show the correct way of carrying out alterations to your property so that the valuable architecture is not spoilt and the special historic character of the area is improved. Although primarily for premises in the Paddington BID area the advice in the booklet is also relevant to the rest of the Bayswater conservation area.

About the Paddington BID area The area became a fashionable place to live when in 1827 the Church Top: The BID’s dedicated Police Community Safety Team. Above: The BID organises events in Norfolk Square.

Commissioners started developing the area between Praed Street, Edgware Road and Bayswater Road. It was a grand scheme of mainly classically 5


Clarence Wing of St Mary’s Hospital, one of the 200 listed buildings in the Paddington BID Area.

designed terraces, with wide streets, crescents and squares within the two

into flats, mansion blocks, hotels and offices; there are local shops, pubs

main boulevards of Westbourne

and restaurants, commercial

Terrace and Sussex Gardens. A small area north of Sussex Gardens was built to a more compact

premises, small scale mews and streets, two formal garden squares,

and modest design and layout, the district acting as the service quarter for its grander neighbours to the south and west. It has survived almost intact. Today, the Paddington BID area is a unique enclave with its own special village atmosphere and identity. The larger houses have been converted

Mary’s Hospital and many fine trees, all contributing to its special townscape and character.


the boulevard Sussex Gardens, St

The Paddington BID area has the potential to be a great success story, like other parts of Westminster. There have been huge changes to the area around Paddington Waterside, with new offices, flats, shops and other

Introduction businesses springing up. There are the commuters and tourists that use Paddington Station and the Heathrow Express together with St Mary’s Hospital, its staff and visitors. The area’s history and its buildings that survive today are Paddington BID’s greatest treasure. We just need to care for them and improve Paddington’s appearance and charm to attract more customers to boost business. Over the years some of this special character has been spoilt by alterations and additions to premises that have been poorly designed and badly built. Some shops have suffered

from unnecessary modernisation while others are scruffy and run down. What Paddington needs is a bit of tender loving care and respect for its architectural heritage. Restoring your property to its original appearance will make it attractive to customers and increase its value, while helping to preserve the historic character and value of the Paddington BID area. Carrying out alterations in the wrong way would be letting down other businesses and organisations that are working hard to make these improvements happen.

This guide has been produced to promote good planning and design practice, to help you make the right choices when carrying out alterations or work to properties in the Paddington BID area. The area covered is shown on the map over the page. 7


Map of Paddington BID area

9 Map of Paddington BID area

How Westminster City Council can help

How we can help you

Permission will be required from the City Council for the majority of work to buildings in the BID area under planning regulations. In the BID area these regulations are quite complicated because: • most of Paddington BID is in the Bayswater conservation area which means that the City Council has a duty to protect it from unsuitable developments that will spoil its character; • the majority of buildings in Paddington BID are listed buildings which means they are given special protection because of the quality of their architecture or their historic connections.

The Planning and City Development Department at Westminster City Council is there to help you with this by offering businesses in the Paddington BID area a special service. You can contact them before you make a formal application by sending a completed pre-application enquiry form, a copy of which can be found at the back of this guide. This will ensure you get the correct advice so that when you make an application for planning permission etc. you will have a much better idea of what is required by the City Council. It could save you time and money.

This is how it works: •

Read through this guide first,

you with your plans. Decide what work you want to

carry out, what materials and sizes are involved. Complete the pre-application

there is useful advice to help

enquiry form found at the rear of this guide and post or fax it to the address shown on the form together with any supporting material such as photos, drawings or Left: Pre-Application Enquiry Form.


The City Council will aim to process your application within eight weeks and you will receive a decision on your application. If permission is granted, which will probably come with various requirements (known as conditions) that you will have to comply with, then you are ready to carry out your proposals.

Using this Guide The following sections deal with the types of development that are common in the Paddington BID area. It describes some of the current problems and provides design

initial enquiry. You can then complete the

advice for alterations and repairs. But most importantly

necessary Planning Permission, Listed Building consent or Conservation Area consent forms (which you can request or download from the City Council’s website) and submit them to the City Council with the appropriate fees and other paperwork required (see page 2 for the full list).

when you wish to carry out work, make use of the preapplication enquiry service to check if your proposals will need planning permission, listed building or conservation consents and that your plans will meet the City Council’s required standards.


How we can help you

manufacturers brochures, which will give the City Council a better idea of what your plans are. You can also request copies of all the other guides mentioned in this publication, at the same time. An electronic version of the form for downloading is available on The City Council’s guides are available at The City Council will normally respond within 21 days to tell you which permissions, if any, are required. In some cases, where there might be major or complex development implications, some advice would be chargeable but you would be advised of this when you submit the form. If you have any further queries you can contact the Planning Officer who responded to your

The Bayswater conservation area and unlisted buildings

The Bayswater conservation area & unlisted buildings

Most of the Paddington BID area’s 19th century development from Praed Street southwards is in the Bayswater conservation area. The City Council has a duty to protect all its conservation areas against unsuitable development that will harm their special character and to take action to preserve and enhance their appearance. You should check with the City Council using the pre-application enquiry form at the rear of this guide before carrying out any work. In the conservation area the majority of the unlisted buildings make a positive contribution to the character of the area and complement the settings of the listed buildings. They are, however, vulnerable to poorly designed alterations that will damage their appearance. In conservation areas most new building work (including alterations) and changes of use will require

wall or railing over 1 metre high where it is next to a highway, or public open space or 2m high in other locations. For any alterations or extensions to unlisted buildings you should: • Use traditional materials. • Take the opportunity to reinstate missing architectural features such as doors, windows, shop fronts, porches, detailing and decoration. • Ensure you use roofing, paving materials and paint colours for elevations and windows that

planning permission even if outside the conservation area planning

permission would not be needed. The City Council will expect a high standard of design, materials and detailing in any proposals for development. You will need Conservation Area consent to demolish or partially demolish an unlisted building with a volume of more than 115 cubic metres or to demolish a gate, fence, 12

are characteristic of the area. Follow where applicable, guidelines laid down for listed buildings.

Opposite: Spring blooms in Norfolk Square.

The Bayswater conservation area & unlisted buildings

Trees are also protected. If you want to cut a tree down, take off branches or cut back roots you will need to tell the City Council six weeks before you carry out the work so they can decide if it will spoil the conservation area. If you carry out the work without letting the City Council know in time, you could be fined.

The City Council has published a booklet “Conservation Areas, A Guide for Property Owners�.


Making changes to listed buildings Nearly all work to a listed building, whether internal or external, will require listed building consent. Planning permission is also likely to be required for any external work as this could affect its character as a building of special architectural or historic interest. You may also need listed building consent for any work to a building within the grounds of a listed building.

Making changes to listed buildings

You should check with the City Council using the enclosed pre-application enquiry form before carrying out any work. There are over 200 listed buildings in the Paddington BID area which are protected under listed building laws. To benefit the area it is important that their historic character and appearance is maintained and improved and these guidelines are followed. It is a criminal offence to carry out work which needs listed building consent before listed building consent is approved. These works will also require planning permission. You will for instance need listed building consent and planning permission to add an extension, to take down an inside wall, to change a shop front, to add a sign or to change the roof, windows or doors. You may even be required to get listed building consent to paint the outside of the property if this affects its special character.


DOORS AND WINDOWS Over the years many poor replacements and alterations have been carried out which are unsuitable and out of character. There are some examples of windows in aluminium or plastic (below) which would not be permitted. Double glazing is unlikely to be acceptable but secondary glazing to the inside of the window frame which is not visible from the outside is likely to be permitted.

ORIGINAL DOORS AND WINDOWS and the decorations around them should be repaired to their original condition. If this is not possible they should be replaced by exact copies. These should be in the original type of wood, matching the original size DECORATION There are many examples where decoration and mouldings have fallen off or been removed but have not been replaced. SMALL FIXTURES such as burglar alarms, meter boxes, security cameras, satellite dishes and light

door or window openings complete with the original mouldings and decorations. When the opportunity presents itself MISSING ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES such as porches, balconies, pediments, friezes and other decoration should be replaced. 15

Making changes to listed buildings

fittings should be as small as possible (see above), painted to match the wall colour and fixed where they will not damage or obscure historic decoration or detailing.

IRONWORK such as railings, cill guards and boot scrapers should be kept in good condition (as these shown opposite) and repaired where possible. The City Council will encourage the replacement of missing ironwork. Any replacement pieces must be an exact copy using the right metal and paint finish.

Making changes to listed buildings

VALUABLE ITEMS such as original fireplaces can be damaged or stolen during work so take photographs before work starts, take proper security precautions and make sure you are fully covered by insurance. ROOFS AND CHIMNEYS The original historic roof shape should be kept where possible. Roof extensions will only be allowed if they follow the City Council’s advice (see section on roof extensions). The original roofing materials such as Welsh slate and lead must always be kept or repaired using exactly the same materials. Chimney stacks and chimney pots are also important features and must be kept even if not in use. Chimney pots should be repaired or replaced if missing.


Making changes to listed buildings

Extending a listed building Any proposals to extend a listed building will need to relate to the architecture, scale and detailing of the original building so that its historic character and those of adjacent properties is not damaged. There may be amenity effects on neighbours such as loss of daylight and increased sense of enclosure to be considered. You will be advised on this when you make your pre-application enquiry.

Extending a listed building

The setting of a listed building forms part of its character, whether it is within an overall design or townscape or stands in its own grounds. The City Council will want to preserve this setting when it considers an application.


The layout of rooms in listed buildings is key evidence of its original use and the position of original walls will be important in supporting the whole structure. Specialist advice is required if you are considering removing some walls as extreme care must be taken to avoid any collapse. All works, even minor changes, will require listed building consent.

Not all listed buildings have interesting interiors but any alterations that may destroy some historic material or decoration such as staircases or plasterwork will not be permitted.

Hotels need to provide up to date

Unification of buildings: To protect the integrity of the listed building it is not usually possible to provide linkages through party walls. In exceptional cases (and the applicant would need to make a strong case to support this) the City Council may give permission for a link across at upper floor levels. Any original joinery, fixtures and fittings must be kept. All panelling, shutters, window and door architraves, skirting boards,

facilities for their guests, and the

dado and picture rails should be

City Council has to balance the need for regeneration in the area

kept and replaced where they are missing. Original door handles and

with conserving historic buildings. In particular, the introduction of lifts and the unification of buildings are complex issues: • Lifts: These can often be accommodated by being located in the least sensitive area of the building, although this may not be the most favoured position for guests and hotel staff.

window catches, doorbells,

Suspended ceilings alter the proportions of rooms and subdivisions of rooms can damage historic features and room layouts. You should contact the City Council before making any internal alterations.

• •

fireplaces and decorative ceilings etc. are all part of the listed building and must not be removed.

The City Council booklet “Repairs and Alterations to Listed Buildings” contains detailed information. Another useful booklet “Architectural Theft, Westminster’s Architectural Heritage at Risk” is also available from the City Council.


Work to the inside of a listed building

Work to the inside of a listed building

Shop fronts

Shop fronts Praed Street, Craven Road and Spring Street are the main shopping streets in the Paddington BID area. They are occupied by shops, offices, restaurants and financial services. It is important when altering or replacing a shop front that the correct design and materials are used. You should not install a modern looking shop front in a 19th century building or use modern types of signs and materials. This spoils the character of the street and the appearance of the building above the shop as their styles will not match. When considering fitting a replacement shop front it is important to recognise the features that are common in the street.

A traditional shop front is made up of four main parts, the stallriser below the shop window, the two pilasters at either end of the shop and the fascia board on which the shop name is written.

When replacing or changing a shop front you should make sure these

that you can copy, there may be some in your street. You may even find that

items are the correct design and material for the age of the building. There are some good examples of 19th century shop fronts in the area

behind your modern shop front the original mouldings and woodwork are still there to be repaired.


Shop fronts

Description In the Paddington BID area, these shops traditionally formed the ground floor of long residential terraces and harmonized with the rest of the building above. Common features such as height of stallriser, window widths and fascia board depth set up a rhythm that runs through the terrace. Many local shops have been spoilt or are in a poor condition with an untidy mixture of modern add-ons of all shapes and sizes, some very tatty and unappealing to customers. There are many examples where materials, positioning, detailing, colours, size and style are inappropriate for the age and character of the street. However several new shop fronts completed in a traditional design have made a dramatic and positive contribution to the area. That historic character can still be recaptured. By unifying the main structural features while varying the detailing and design of the shop front, window pattern, lettering and paint colours used, shops can still look individual without upsetting the character of the street. This will add a richness, vitality and interest to the street that attracts shoppers and browsers.

Problems •

Much of the original detailing has been obscured or removed

through modern additions •

and alterations. Some modern shop front inserts relate badly to the rest of the facade. Many fascia signs belonging to company chains are over-large and garish and unsuitable for the age and character of the building.

There are many examples where advertising is excessive, overpowering and uncoordinated.

Tube lighting above the fascia board is inappropriate for listed buildings. There are examples of advertisements behind shop windows. You should check using the pre-application enquiry form if Advertisement Consent would be required. 21

Shop fronts

Advice •

Any original ornamentation, detailing and joinery should be retained intact and restored where possible. New shop fronts should relate to the proportions of the whole facade and terrace setting. Retail and restaurant chains must adjust their corporate signing to fit the original shop front proportions and the historic character and appearance of the street. The shop front fascia board is a very important architectural element in the terrace. It is essential that the original depth of fascia board is maintained or reinstated throughout the terrace otherwise the architectural rhythm of the street is badly disrupted. This applies whatever

the age of the building. All signing must be contained within this fascia board line.

The fascia board should show the name of the shop together with the street number and perhaps

The fascia board should be lit with sensitively placed spotlights finished to blend with the shop front. Avoid excessive numbers. Security equipment must be of a suitable size and colour and be positioned so that it does not spoil the appearance of the property. To complete the overall effect it is important that the entrance door to the upstairs property should also be restored to its original design. All traditional shop fronts on listed buildings must be preserved and repaired. Replacing with a modern design or adding modern attachments will require listed building consent. If you wish to replace an existing modern or damaged shop front with a more historic style you should discuss your proposals with the City Council so that the correct design can be discussed and agreed before you submit your plans.

the type of business.

Opposite: Some shop fronts that have already been restored in the Paddington BID area.


Shop fronts

Timber shop fronts in a variety of traditional designs, colours and fascia signs, add interest and vitality to the street.


Blinds and awnings

Blinds and awnings Canvas roller or apron blinds and awnings can add colour and interest to the street but can also disrupt the appearance of the street scene. They should be restricted to those shops where some protection from the sun is required.

Description Traditional canvas roller or apron blinds were a common feature on 19th century shop fronts. They would have retracted into a slot at the top of the shop front opening or into the cornice or ledge above the fascia board. Awnings should be straight, open at each end and made of canvas. Blinds of this sort can make a significant contribution to the restoration of a shopping street.

Problems •

Some blind boxes have been fixed to the surface of the shop front obscuring architectural detail.

Inappropriate plastic curved blinds have been used on some premises.

To ensure that the blind does not interfere with vehicles in

Advice •


Wherever possible the original slots should be used to house the blind and mechanism. Otherwise the blind box must be carefully incorporated into the shop front design. Curved, rigid framed and plastic blinds should not be used in the conservation area or on listed buildings.

the road or passers-by, highway regulations require that there is at least a 1 metre gap between the front edge of the blind and the edge of the kerb. The front edge of the blind should be at least 2.14 metres above the pavement or 2.6 metres for a fixed blind.

Blinds and awnings Traditional and modern blinds can add colour and interest to the street.


Signs on shop fronts A co-ordinated scheme of well designed hanging shop signs avoids visual clutter and attracts attention to each individual shop. Description Hanging shop signs are a traditional feature of 19th century shops. They can improve the appearance of a shop front and add interest and sophistication to the street.

Problems Modern projecting signs of different sizes and materials and at varying heights above the pavement all competing for attention make the street look cluttered and unattractive.

Signs on shop fronts

There are a large number of internally illuminated box signs that are not suitable for historic streets. Some current modern designs of hanging signs are unsuitable for listed buildings.

Advice •

Signs should be of the hanging

Lighting units above fascia

type attached to the shop by a

boards or fixed to hanging signs

traditional wrought iron bracket. Any original brackets and signs

are often unsightly; it is better to leave them un-illuminated.

should be kept and repaired. •

New signs should be fixed in close proximity to the face of the building, placed centrally on a pilaster at fascia board level unless it will damage any decorative mouldings in which case it should be fixed above or on the fascia board.


See City Council booklets “Shopfronts Blinds and Signs, A Guide to their Design” and “Advertisement Design Guidelines” for more details.

Signs on shop fronts Above: Examples of good quality hanging signs suitable for traditional shop fronts. Below: Modern signs fixed at varying heights give the street a cluttered, untidy appearance.


Hotel signs Many of the large residential properties in the Paddington BID area have been converted into hotels, which are now one of the area’s main business sectors. Signs should respect the historic character of the street. They must be carefully and simply designed in a traditional style and incorporated into the building so they look as if they are part of the original architecture. Avoid the use of modern materials and fixtures. Advice •

Hotel signs

Avoid placing signs where they will hide architectural mouldings or detailing. Where space allows individual letters can be fixed or painted on the building above the porch entrance or on the ground floor frontage to make up the hotel name, rather than using block signs. Or you can use a hanging sign under the porch or a lantern

Another alternative is to have the name of the hotel sign written on the fanlight over the front door. For your sign choose a traditional style of lettering suitable for the age of the building. Use small spotlights, painted to match the colour of the building to light the signs. Do not forget to include your street number at the entrance.

with the hotel name. Below: Do not use modern materials such as plastic and ensure the letters are appropriately scaled to the location.


Hotel signs

Above: An example of a suitable hotel sign in a traditional lettering style. Below: Avoid using large lighting units like these, keep them small and discreet and paint them to match the background.


Painting and repairing stucco Stucco is a type of exterior rendering of the brickwork, common on 19th century buildings, which was made to look like stone blocks. It was originally left unpainted or colour-washed to look like Bath Stone. Decoration was added in the form of mouldings, friezes and balustrades. Description The grand stuccoed houses in Bayswater formed part of an overall design of squares and terraces and the stucco was later painted to enhance the overall effect. Repainting stucco of a listed building will require listed building consent unless it is repainted in exactly the same colour.

Problems • •

Stucco deteriorates quickly. There are many examples where missing stucco decoration has not been replaced. It is important for the character

Painting and repairing stucco

of the street and unity of the


terrace that all properties in the street are painted the same colour. There are many different types of stucco and some of the decorations are difficult to restore.

Above: It is important that stucco is kept well maintained as it deteriorates quickly. Left: Unlike the example shown here, stucco should be painted in the predominant shade in use in the terrace and decorative mouldings should not be picked out in a different colour.


Whenever possible missing details should be replaced. The recommended colours for stucco (under British Standards No BS 4800) are: BS10B15, BSO8B17 or BSO8B15, the shade you select will depend on the colour that has been used previously in the terrace.

Do not pick out details such as mouldings, friezes, pediments or balcony supports in different colours. It is important that a specialist contractor is used to repair stucco.

The City Council booklet “Stucco, A guide to care and maintenance” contains detailed information.


Painting and repairing stucco

Flag poles

Flag poles Erecting a f lag pole is not normally acceptable as flags and banners can have an adverse impact on the appearance of buildings, by obscuring the facade of buildings and contributing to visual clutter.


Exceptions may be made in the case of large buildings, for example on hotels (see opposite) and department stores and for embassies and diplomatic properties (see below) as a reflection of London’s role as the UK’s capital city.

Flag poles

Security shutters

Security shutters

Well presented shopping streets attract visitors even when closed, but providing the right type of security that does not spoil the appearance of the building is important. Description Traditional shop fronts, which have smaller panes of glass and the additional strength of the mullions

and stallrisers, are more difficult to break into than large areas of modern glazing.

Problems •

There are examples of roller shutters on some shops. These are industrial looking, ugly and unattractive, spoil the appearance of the building, encourage graffiti and make the street less welcoming. External grilles or shutters are not normally acceptable in conservation areas.

Advice •


Traditional shop fronts can be further strengthened with toughened glass and t-bar reinforcements. These are also invisible.

The City Council recommends the use of a lattice or brick bond grille type of shutter fixed to the inside of the shop window. In that way passers-by can still see your goods.

Security shutters Left and above: Industrial roller shutters damage the appearance of the building and the street. Below: Lattice shutters of this type provide the required security yet allow goods to be viewed even when closed.


Security devices

Security devices

Security has in recent times become an important issue, which has led to the attachment of various types of hardware on buildings. These need to be mounted where they can be seen and operated usefully but unfortunately badly sited equipment can affect the appearance of historic buildings and the area in general. You will nearly always require planning permission and listed building consent for this equipment and should seek advice from the City Council using the pre-application enquiry form giving full details of the proposed equipment. Description The most common examples are security cameras and alarm boxes which are normally insurance requirements. It is often possible to reduce their impact by selecting a

Problems •

Some older camera equipment still in use is too large for the scale of the property and is placed where it obscures some of the architectural detail.

Right: The latest security cameras are small and when painted to match the background their impact is greatly reduced.


suitable design and by using a reasonably discreet location where it will do the least damage to the appearance of the building.

• •

When the opportunity arises you should ask your service provider to upgrade your CCTV systems with the latest equipment which is smaller in size and which can be more sensitively located (see bottom left). Redundant equipment and cables should be removed. Equipment and brackets should be painted to match the background colour and arrange cabling where it will not be seen. Avoid mounting equipment on fascia boards of shops. Some types of equipment can be mounted in basements. To avoid the fixing of excessive amounts of hardware to a property just one alarm box is normally permitted.

Alarm boxes should be sited so that their visual impact on the building is lessened (see right and top).


Security devices


Restoration and repairs It is good economic sense to restore a building to its original condition as it increases its value and benefits the whole community. The City Council is willing to help you with advice. Repairs and reinstatement of missing decorations

Restoration and repairs

Features such as porches, parapets, balustrades, railings, window cill guards, pediments, decorative friezes and mouldings give the Bayswater conservation area streets their special character. Over the years some of these pieces of decoration have become neglected, decayed beyond repair or removed. Whenever possible these items should be repaired, replaced where missing or reinstated where repairs have not been carried out correctly.

In the photograph above the balustrade above the porch has been replaced at some time with metal crossbars, which spoil the appearance of not just the building but also the whole terrace. To improve the historic character of the area it is important that missing architectural details are reinstated at every opportunity. Decorative ironwork is a particular characteristic of the Paddington BID area. Railings should be painted black only. Detailing picked out in other colours as illustrated in this photograph (above right) breaks up the unity of the terrace.


Railings and other ironwork The City Council would like to encourage all owners to repair or replace all missing railings and ironwork. You must make sure you use the right design for your property or street. You can check this by looking at neighbouring properties.

Description Railings and other ironwork are a prominent feature of the local area and have a high townscape value as part of the long terraces of 19th century properties in the Paddington BID area. They are made of cast iron. Railings were set into natural stone

plinths or coping and fixed into position using lead caulking. Some properties were originally designed with ironwork details such as balcony railings, window cill guards and boot scrapers (see below opposite).


There are sections of street, particularly in Sussex Gardens, where railings are missing or wire mesh has been used. Some stone plinths are in poor condition.

• •

A rendered brick dwarf wall has replaced some plinths. Some railing finials have been picked out in gold or silver (see left).

Advice •

Keep railings in good condition.

Wherever possible missing railings or other ironwork details should be replaced. On listed buildings new railings or any replacement parts must be made of cast iron, secured with lead caulking into a natural stone plinth.

On unlisted buildings mild steel replica railings set into artificial stone plinths especially shaped to match the original may be allowed. But check with the City Council first. All railings (including finials) must be painted black.

The City Council booklet “Railings in Westminster – a guide to their design, repair and maintenance” gives more detailed information.


Restoration and repairs

Brickwork repairs Do not paint any brickwork. If you wish to remove paint from brickwork it is important that you take on a specialist contractor who will use a system that will not damage the bricks. Much damage can be done to any brickwork if a hard cement mortar is used for pointing. It is essential that for historic 19th century buildings a traditional mortar containing lime is used. It is important that you contact the City Council for advice. The City Council’s booklet “Facade Cleaning – The removal of soiling and paint from brick and stone facades” provides more technical information.

Restoration and repairs

Left: Painting brickwork prevents the wall from breathing which can cause structural problems and spoils the overall uniformity of the terrace.

Rainwater goods and pipes For listed buildings, only replacement rainwater pipes, which must be in cast iron or aluminium, are acceptable on front elevations. You should not normally fix any other pipes, ducting, air conditioning units or central heating flues to the front of the building as they will spoil the appearance of the property, the terrace and the street scene in general.

Replacing doors and windows Original existing windows and external doors should be retained and repaired if necessary to the original design and repainted. New replacement timber panelled doors and vertical sliding sash windows should be accurate copies of the original in pattern and detail. Timber sections, especially mouldings, should be to the original profile especially on glazing bars and meeting rails to horizontal sashes. There are likely to be surviving examples in your street that can be copied. 40

Residential windows should be painted using British Standards White No. 00E55, while to preserve the character of the conservation area suitably subtle colours such as black and dark primary colours or other historic colours approved by the City Council are required for the doors of historic buildings. However if there is a consistent approved colour running through the terrace this should be used. Even the right style of door can be spoilt by using modern designs for door handles and letter boxes. There are historic designs available in brass and cast iron that will suit your new Paddington door better, if the original door furniture has been lost. Modern plastic, aluminium or leaded light windows and doors are unacceptable in the conservation area as they will spoil the property’s historic character. Even on unlisted buildings it is unlikely that double glazing would be acceptable although in some situations individually double glazed panes may be permitted. You must not place security grilles over windows and doors as these are not traditional, damage the appearance of the building and street and create a fear of crime environment. 41

Restoration and repairs

Doors should be painted in historic or dark primary colours, complemented by a suitable set of brass or cast iron door furniture.

Plant, machinery and other attachments The upgrading of hotels, bars and restaurants often requires the installation of new equipment such as lifts, air conditioning, ventilation ducting etc. which will need planning consent. With applications of this sort the City Council will give careful consideration to the possible generation of machinery noise and the visual impact of the equipment on neighbouring properties. You will be required to provide an acoustic report prepared by a noise consultant to show that the equipment will operate at acceptable noise levels. All applications for plant and machinery will be thoroughly assessed to ensure the amenity and the appearance of the area is not adversely affected.

Problems There are examples of poorly designed ducting on listed and unlisted buildings that are oversized and where no effort has been made to conceal or camouflage them. These

area in general and badly affect the amenity of neighbouring residents. Some individual air conditioning units are attached to the front or sides of premises where they are

works damage the appearance of

highly visible and spoil the character

listed buildings and the conservation

of the street.


Plant, machinery and other attachments



Ducting and other equipment must be sited so that it does not spoil the appearance of the building and the amenity of

possible using the minimum size capable of doing the job. Avoid the use of untreated metal ducting, box it in and/or

other residents. Ducting routes should be kept as simple as

paint it to match its background.

Above: Examples of poorly sited plant, ducting and machinery.

Plant and machinery equipment should be placed within the existing roof area or possibly in a new roof extension that will need to be approved by the City

possible, be routed internally for instance using the chimney. Fixing to outside walls may be allowed where it can be hidden from sight and camouflaged to

Council, if room is not available in the basement area. If it has to be roof mounted, it will need to be screened and any approval

would be subject to its impact on views and on the building itself. It will need to be sensitively located and screened for noise and height so it is not visible from the street. The City Council will not accept ducting that is unsightly. Ducting, pipework and flues should, where

match the wall it is fixed to. •

Avoid the use of untreated stainless steel or galvanised steel ducting and keep ducting routes as simple as possible.

A new City Council guide “Plant and Machinery, a guide to applying for planning permission” will be published in 2006.


Plant, machinery and other attachments


Access All businesses and non-residential occupier organisations (i.e. those who provide services and goods to the public) must have completed their Access Policy and Plan under the Disability Discrimination Acts 1995 and 2004 and when there is the opportunity to improve access arrangements the City Council will expect this to be taken. When submitting an application for planning consent to carry out access works, your Access Statement must accompany it. Proposed works will always need to be a balance between access requirements and what is practically possible and the need to protect the appearance of the conservation area and the special character of the listed building. Use the pre-application enquiry form in this guide to obtain some initial advice from planning officers about your proposals. Below: Creating improved access through refurbishment.


Extensions and alterations to roofs

Extensions and alterations to roofs A mansard roof is the acceptable and traditional way of making use of the roof space on listed buildings and unlisted buildings in the Bayswater conservation area. Natural slates must be used for the new roof covering which match the colour of the existing slates, with use of lead to ensure weatherproofing. In some cases a roof extension may be unacceptable where it would interrupt a consistent original roof profile or result in the loss of an original roof structure. However in areas where a roof extension is acceptable the new roof must be set back behind the parapet on the front elevation. The height and size of the extension should be kept as low as possible. The windows should be in the shape of traditional projecting dormers; their alignment must follow the historic window pattern of the f loors below. Use wooden vertical sliding sash windows following the detailing of the main windows below. On no account should modern materials like plastic or aluminium be used. See the City Council’s booklet “Roofs, a Guide to Alterations and Extensions on Domestic Buildings” for further information. Left: Successful mansard roof extension.


Satellite dishes

Satellite dishes

Unless a satellite dish can be successfully tucked away out of sight from the street it is likely to require planning permission. Listed building consent is normally required for any satellite dish. There are also size restrictions. Use the pre-application enquiry form found in this guide to receive advice on your own particular situation.

Above: Poorly sited satellite dishes.


Short term lets of residential properties Short term lets of less than 90 days’ duration require planning permission. Without this they are illegal and can lead to fines of up to £20,000.

Short term lets

The City Council is determined to control short term lets as they affect the quality of life for permanent residents. They are often used as holiday accommodation with users creating noise at unsociable hours. The high turnover of occupants can be threatening when permanent occupiers regularly come across new and unfamiliar faces, generating an increased fear of crime. Short term lets also reduce the amount of housing available for permanent residents, which can have a damaging effect on the local community. Planning policies are used to control the use of residential buildings and enforcement action will be taken against illegal short term lets. If an enforcement notice is served it will be registered as a legal charge and make the property difficult to sell in the future. If you suspect properties in your street or block are being let out on a short term basis (less than 90 days) report it to the City Council for investigation. You can help by keeping records of changes in tenants and informing your tenants’ association, head leaseholder or freeholder who may be able to enforce the terms of the lease of the particular flat.


Planning enforcement If work that needs listed building consent and planning permission is carried out without the property owner having obtained City Council approval beforehand, the City Council may take enforcement action to have the work changed or taken down and removed. If you see work being carried out which you believe to be unauthorised or substandard please tell the planning enforcement team at the City Council.

Planning enforcement

The City Council booklet “A Guide to Planning Enforcement� provides further information.



Remember – a checklist •

Alterations to your property are likely to require planning permission and also listed building consent if your property is a listed building.

For peace of mind please ask the City Council’s North Area Planning Team using the pre-application enquiry form at the back of this guide.

When applying for planning permission or listed building consent you must supply the necessary maps and drawings with the completed City Council application forms, along with any fee required, otherwise your application will be rejected.

You may be required to provide additional information before your application can be processed.

If your proposals are approved, the work must be carried out exactly as described in the City Council’s decision letter. There may be conditions attached.

You must never carry out any work until your application has been approved.

Carrying out work without permission could cost you a lot of money as you may be fined and required to remove the unauthorised work and to put the property back to its original condition/state.



2 1 Planning application form 2 Application for listed building consent 3 Application for conservation area consent


The main planning policies and regulations

Planning policies and regulations

The advice provided in this guide is based on the policies and regulations in the Town and Country Planning Acts, government advice and circulars, the Mayor’s London Plan and in the City of Westminster Unitary Development Plan.

Conservation areas Each local planning authority is required to designate areas of special architectural or historic interest as conservation areas, in order to protect their character. The City Council is then able to use additional legal powers to control alterations in the conservation area which include demolition, work to trees, the design of new developments, minor alterations and additions, satellite dishes and advertisements. Westminster has 53 conservation areas altogether which cover nearly 75% of the city’s total area.

Listed buildings The Government has a statutory duty to list buildings of special architectural or historic interest. This acts as a register and gives local authorities additional powers to protect these properties and impose special responsibilities upon their owners. There are about 200 buildings in the Paddington BID area that are listed. They are divided into grades to show their importance. Paddington Station for instance is a Grade 1 building while a small terraced house in Star Street may be a Grade 2. A listed building may not be demolished, extended or altered both internally and externally in any way that will affect its special architectural or historic interest without the owner having first been given listed building consent from the City Council. You will also still need planning permission.


Contacts For further copies of this guide, the pre-application enquiry form or any information about Paddington BID please contact:

Paddington Business Improvement District Room B108, Macmillan House Platform One, Paddington Station London W2 1FT Telephone: (020) 7313 1011 Fax: (020) 7313 1005 Email:


To find out if a building is in a conservation area or is listed contact: Planning Records (Customer Service Centre): Tel: (020) 7641 2513 or Fax: (020) 7641 2515 Email:

If you have any questions about applying for planning permission or need advice on design, listed buildings or conservation area matters you can speak to officers of the North Area Planning Team in Development Planning Services, who deal with your area: Tel: (020) 7641 2924 or Fax: (020) 7641 2338 Email:

If you require help or advice about planning enforcement or wish to report some illegal works that are spoiling the area please contact the Planning Enforcement Team, Development Planning Services: Tel: (020) 7641 2553 or Fax: (020) 7641 3230 Email:


For information on ducting, kitchen extraction, ventilation and noise control issues contact the Environmental Health Consultation Team, Community Protection Department on: Tel: (020) 7641 1188 or Fax: (020) 7641 1171 Email:


For information on Building Regulations contact the District Surveyors Service: Tel: (020) 7641 7240 or Fax: (020) 7641 7115 Email:

For advice on improving access for people with disabilities contact the City Council’s Access Officer: Tel: (020) 7641 2688

Westminster Archives Centre You may find some old photographs of your street or property in the Westminster Archives Centre to help you with the design of your alterations: Tel: (020) 7641 5180 or Fax: (020) 7641 5179 Email:


Westminster City Council Unitary Development Plan

Development and Demolition in Conservation Areas

Shop Fronts, Blinds and Signs

Advertisement Design Guidelines

Repairs and Alterations to Listed Buildings

Inclusive Design and Access (available from late 2006)

The Listing of Historic Buildings

Roofs: A guide to alterations and extensions on domestic buildings

A guide to Planning Enforcement in Westminster

Architectural Theft, Westminster’s Architectural Heritage at Risk

A Guide to the Siting of Security Cameras and other Security Equipment

A Planning Guide for Food and Drink Premises

Design Guidelines for Shop Front Security

Railings in Westminster, a guide to their design, repair and maintenance

Facade Cleaning, the removal of soiling and paint from brick and

Further information

Further Information from Westminster City Council

stone facades • •

Stucco: A Guide to Care and Maintenance Plant and Machinery, a guide to applying for planning permission (available from late 2006)



Paddington Business Improvement District Room B108, Macmillan House Platform One, Paddington Station London W2 1FT Telephone: (020) 7313 1011 Fax: (020) 7313 1005 Email:

Š PUBLISHED MARCH 2006 D E S I G N BY S U G A R F R E E D E S I G N L I M I T E D 0 2 0 7 2 4 3 2 1 0 0 W W W. S U G A R F R E E D E S I G N . C O . U K P H OTO G R A P H Y BY R I C H A R D L E W I S O H N A N D C H R I S S TA N TO N

Planning and Design for Businesses in Paddington  

A plain English guide to planning and design decisions in Paddington, West London. Sugarfree were commissioned to produce a suite of publica...

Planning and Design for Businesses in Paddington  

A plain English guide to planning and design decisions in Paddington, West London. Sugarfree were commissioned to produce a suite of publica...