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LIFE AND HABITS OF SILVER SPRING DIGGER WASP

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on leaving she resealed the nest by scraping the sand with the forefeet, this passing under the body back towards the nest. No particular effort appeared to be made in doing this, and occasionally the task was left incomplete. A small ledge formed part of the entrance to the nest situated in the shallow hole ; upon this the vvasp alighted and carried out the foregoing work quite easily. REMARKS : This species of Oxybelus is referred to by A. H. Hamm and O. W. Richards (Trans, Ent. Soc. Lond., 78 Part 1. Pages 117 and 126, June 30th, 1930) in their paper on " T h e Biology of the British Fossorial W a s p s " as an inhabitant of the sandhills of the west coast of England and at Porthcawl, and its only prey appears to be the equally silvery fly Thereva annulata F. Occasionally a male and female of this silvery species T. annulata have been taken on West Stow Heath and on three occasions females were observed depositing ova in the hot sand, quite near the nests of O. argentatus which passed over them without regard. Specimens of Thereva plebeia Linn were identified by Dr. C. D. Day.

HENRY J.

BOREHAM.

UNCOMMON FLORA OF SUFFOLK By F. W .

SIMPSON

This article (continued from page 43) enumerates some of the more interesting plants of the County which have become rare or are now presumed extinct. There is a number of very doubtful Suffolk plants, and where no herbarium specimens have been traced it is probable that the old records are incorrect. Inula crithmoides L.—Golden Samphire. A doubtful Suffolk plant of muddy salt marshes. No herbarium specimens. It occurs, however, a few miles south of Felixstowe in Essex ; sparingly in the extensive marshes between Dovercourt and Walton, and there is the possibility that it may extend its ränge into Suffolk. Pulicaria vulgaris Gaertn.—Small Fleabane. Very rare and probably extinct. Old records for Framlingham and Bramford. A plant of moist sandy heaths and places flooded during winter, decreasing species everywhere. Pulicaria dysenterica (L.) Berhn.—Fleabane—is very frequent all over the County in suitable moist and fairly open habitats. [ Antennaria dioica (L.) Gaertn.—Cat's-foot. Formerly on heaths at Cavenham, Culford and Newmarket. Almost certainly extinct in Suffolk and now gone from many localities in the south of Britain.


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UNCOMMON FLORA OF SUFFOLK

Otanthus maritima (L.) Hoffmgg. and Link. (Diotis maritima (L.) Coss.—Cotton-weed. Now extinct. A rare plant of of the sandy sea-shore. Recorded for a number of places between Felixstowe and Lowestoft but all the records are very old. The Cotton-weed is an attractive plant, disliking human interference. It is extinct in England, and more recently in Jersey where it used to be abundant in one bay. Senecio paludosus L.—Fen or Marsh Ragwort. Extinct in Britain ? Very old records for Lakenheath and Wangford. Serratula tinctoria L.—Saw-wort. This attractive plant I have so far been unable to find in Suffolk. Old records for Coney Weston, Barton Park, Bury, Icklingham and Hemingstone. It is probably extinct. Saw-wort favours rough commons, especially those with a sub-soil of chalk or limestone, wide hedgebanks and field verges. It is nowhere a common plant and is decreasing. Arnoseris minima (L.) Schweigg. and Koerte. (Arnoseris pusilla Gaertn.).—Lamb's or Dwarf Swine's Succory. A small annual of sandy arable fields of West Suffolk Breckland and coastal area between Woodbridge and Southwold. Probably extinct in many of its old localities and decreasing in others where it has not been seen in recent years. Hypochaeris maculata L.—Spotted Cat's Ear. Very rare and probably now extinct. Last seen in 1932. Formerly at Cavenham, Risby, Icklingham and Newmarket. Crepis foetida L — Stinking or Fetid Hawksbeard. - A rare or now extinct annual or biennial of wayside and waste places on a chalky soil. Old records for Great Saxham, Brandon, Claydon and Coddenham. Oxycoccus palustris Pers. (Vaccinium oxycoccos L.)—Cranberry. A small trailing shrub of bogs and wet heaths, fruit usually bright red, globose, edible. Extinct in Suffolk. Very old records for Wangford, West Suffolk and Worlingham Common, near Beccles. Decreasing everywhere due to drainage and cultivation. Pyrola rotundifolia L.—Larger Winter-green. No recent records and almost certainly extinct in Suffolk due to the changes which have taken place in its former habitats. We find that the Winter-greens favour old mossy and shady woods, glens, wayside banks and sometimes dune-slacks. Monotropa hypopithys agg.—Yellow Bird's-nest. Woods and parks, usually under beech or pine. Not seen recently and thought to be extinct. Old records for Ickworth, Bamham, Lidgate, Bungay and Redgrave Park. The Suffolk forms are unknown.


UNCOMMON FLORA OF SUFFOLK

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Centaurium littorale (Turner) Gilmour. (Erythraea littoralis Fries)—Dwarf-tufted Centaury. Recorded in Hind's Flora for Brandon, between Wangford and Lakenheath, Lowestoft Denes, Gorleston and Sizewell. However Hind's specimens from Brandon, Wangford and Lakenheath are narrow-leaved forms of Centaurium minus Moench—Common Centaury. I have seen no authentic specimens of C. littorale from the Suffolk coast. It is a western and northern species and I therefore very much doubt its occurrence in the County. Centaurium pulchellum (Sw.) E. H. L. Krause—Dwarf-branched or Slender Centaury is a very scarce plant of grassy places, edge of saltings at Snape and Sutton. Gentianella campestris (L.) H. Sm.—(Gentiana campestris L.) Eield Gentian. Mainly a northern and western species. All records in Hind's Flora are probably incorrect. No herbarium specimens available. Localities and habitats point to forms of Gentianella amarella (L.) H. Sm—Feiwort. Gentiana pneumonanthe L.—Marsh Gentian. An attractive perennial species of wet heaths. Extinct in Suffolk. Formerly in several parts of Lothingland, on heaths at Beiton, Carlton, Corton, Hopton, and Herringfleet. The heaths at Carlton, Corton and Hopton were enclosed during the first half of the 19th Century. Scrophularia umbrosa Dum.—Shady Figwort. A rare species of damp shady wet places. Doubtful Suffolk species. Hind's specimen from Hinderclay is not typical and appears a form of S. aquatica L. Limosella aquatica L.—Mudwort. Probably extinct. Grows on mud at the edge of ponds. Formerly at Mildenhall and Lowestoft, but both records are very old. Veronica spicata L.—Spiked Speedwell. A Breckland plant of dry chalky banks and chalky grassland. Now extinct in all but one ? of its few recorded localities. Veronica verna L.—Spring Speedwell. A rapidly decreasing annual of the open sandy heaths of Breckland due to the afforestation of its habitats. It has always been rather scarce and is likely to become very rare in the near future. Recorded from East Suffolk at Thorpe and Cookley (likely an error). It may still occur in East Suffolk as suitable areas exist. Veronica triphyllos L.—Fingered Speedwell. A small annual species of sandy arable fallow fields. It is rare or overlooked, but has been found in recent years in a few localities in Breckland. There are some old records for East Suffolk : Snape, Shottisham, Aldeburgh and Bamham and it probably still occurs in the coastal area.


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UNCOMMON FLORA OF SUFFOLK

Salvia pratensis L.—Meadow Clary. At one time thought to be a doubtful Suffolk plant. Recorded for Pakenham, Hadleigh and Woodbridge but may have been mistaken for forms of Salvia horminoides Pourr. However S. pratensis does occur on one bank in East Suffolk and formerly occurred at Rushmere, near Ipswich. Calamintha nepeta (L.) Savi.—Lesser Calamint. Rare or overlooked. On dry banks in West Suffolk. Recorded for Bury, Dalham, between Worlingham and Herringswell, and Stokeby-Nayland (probably an error). Calamintha ascendens Jord. (C. officinalis) Common Calamint, is a frequent species on dry banks in both East and West Suffolk. Some confusion exists in the identification of both species and I should be pleased to examine any specimens. Scutellaria minor L.—Lesser Skull-cap. Not found recently and probably extinct. A plant of moist heaths. Old records for Tuddenham, W. Suffolk and Friston, E. Suffolk. Galeopsis dubia Leers.—Cream-coloured or Downy Hemp Nettle. Recorded for St. Olaves in 1862. This is a somewhat doubtful Suffolk plant, but may occur as an alien. Teucrium scordium L.—Water Germander. Now extinct. Formerly at Lakenheath, very rare—Henslow & Skepper, Flora of Suffolk, 1860. The original authority is not known. Although no herbarium specimens have been located, I believe this record correct. Teucrium scordium occurs in Cambridgeshire about six miles outside the County boundary. Utricularia neglecta Lehm.—Neglected Bladderwort. I have seen no Suffolk specimens. Recorded for Lakenheath, Kessingland and Beiton. However Hind's specimens from Kessingland and Beiton were incorrectly identified, and are Utricularia vulgaris L. Centunculus minimus L.—Chaffweed. A small annual of damp sandy open places on heaths, favouring old tracks. Now very rare or overlooked. Formerly at Wangford, Tuddenham Heath, 1939, (Mrs. Southwell reported it as destroyed about 1940 when track was made up by the Army), Oulton, Lowestoft, Beiton and Herringfleet. Littorella uniflora (L.) Aschers. (L. lacustris L.) Shoreweed. Aquatic, perennial. Usually partly submerged, along the margins of lakes and forming extensive carpets. Recorded for Gt. Livermere, Ampton Lake, Tuddenham, Cavenham, Mildenhall, Oulton Broad, by Lowestoft (plentifully—150 years ago !), Beiton Common, salt waters at Benacre and Easton Broad. Not found recently, and probably very scarce or extinct, due to various changes and pollution of the waters.

Uncommon Flora of Suffolk  
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