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Thelypteris palustris Schott—Oulton, 1897. Dryopteris spinulosa (Mull.), Watt.—Somerleyton, 1898. Asplenium ruta-muraria L.—Lowestoft Church, 1898. OPHIOGLOSSACEAE.

Botrychium lunaria (L.), Sw.—Lowestoft, 1898. Ophioglossumvulgatum L.—Oulton marshes, 1897. 1909, W. G. Clarke.



Pilularia globulifera

L.—Flixton, 1898.


Bentham, G . , and Hooker, Sir J . D . — " Handbook of the British F l o r a . " Butcher, R . W . , and Strudwick, F . E . , 1 9 4 4 — " F u r t h e r Illustrations o f British P l a n t s . " Clapham, A . R., 1 9 4 6 — " Check List of British Vascular Plants," '* Journal of E c o l o g y , " vol. 33, N o . 2, pp. 308 - 347. Clapham, A. R . , T u t i n , T . G . , and Warburg, E . F . , 1 9 5 2 — " Flora of t h e British Isles." Druce, G . C., 1 9 3 0 — Hayward's Botanist's Pocket-Book.

Hind, W . M . , and Babington, C., 1 8 8 9 — " T h e Flora of Suffolk." Index Kewensis—housed at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. K e n t , D . H „ and Louslev, J . E . , 1951 - 5 3 — " A Hand List of the Planta of the London Area," parts I , I I and I I I ; Supplement to " T h e London Naturalist."

SALT TOLERANT FLORA ON THE SUFFOLK MARSHES THE great sea floods of January 31 st, 1953, inundated 16,000 acres of grassland and 4,4Ä0 acres of arable on the marsh levels in Suffolk. Over much of the area, it is now difficult to distinguish the grassland from the arable. Over a small area, the flood remained for a few hours or days, but over the greater part the water lay for a fortnight and in some places for five weeks. In consequence, winter sown crops were badly affected or destroyed and only the more salt tolerant grasses survived where the flood lay for about ten days. Since early June the marshes have produced an ever increasing crop of salt tolerant weeds. On higher well-drained positions, some perennial ryegrass has survived ; bents (Agrostis spp.) are found as isolated plants where the flood was prolonged. Barley grass has not only survived but exploited the opportunity of space.




The commonest weeds found are the common and the shore orache, the herbaceous seablite, the sea aster and species of the marsh samphire. Of the latter, four species have been identified, together with some hybrids. The sea beet is found on most marshes but has not freely colonized. In September small plants pcssibly a month old were in Company with large plants going to seed. The sea milkwort and the sea spurry are not numerous, and this is obviously due to the dense ground cover of the Atriplex spp. Both of the former plants are small and almost prostrate in growth. The milkwort which is normally found behind the high tide line can withstand the competition of red fescue, strawberry clover and bird's foot trefoil; whilst the sea spurry, which is highly sah tolerant, likes an isolated patch of its own. The common orache is prostrate in growth with its stems radiating in a circle often six feet in diameter. The shore orache, more frequently erect but sometimes partially prostrate, also creates difficult conditions for smaller plants to grow. The sea purslane is not common to all areas in the county and where it is found, there are only a few plants. Red goosefoot distribution is interesting. There is some at Aldeburgh but little in other places, except on either side of the mouth of the Deben at Bawdsey and Felixstowe where it has freely colonized. The marsh arrow grass is not yet common and is mainly confined to low places such as small " fleets " which have never been ditched ; it is only seen on grassland. There is a little at Gedgrave and plenty at Aldeburgh. The mud rush which is tolerant to both fresh and sah water has survived in low places. The common reed is exploiting conditions and is growing out from the ditch bank. The following plants have been identified in 1953. Sea aster, Aster tripolium, Aster tripolium var. discoideus; Sea spurry, Spergularia salina, Spergularia marginata ; Herbaceous seablite, Suaeda maritima ; Common orache, Atriplex patula, A. hastata ; Shore orache, A. littoralis, Atriplex littoralis var. dentata ; Sea beet, Beta vulgaris var. maritima ; Fathen, Chenopodium album ; Red goosefoot, C. communis ; Common reed, Phragmites communis ; Marsh samphires, Salicornia stricta, S. prostrata, S. ramossissima, S. dolichostachya ; Sea club rush, Scirpus maritimus ; Wood club rush, S. sylvaticus; Mud rush, Juncus gerardi; Sea purslane, Halimione portulacoides ; Sea milkwort, Glaux maritima ; Bristly Ox-Tongue, Picris echioides ; Silver weed, Anserina potentilla ; Bird's foot trefoil, Lotus corniculatus ; Marsh arrow grass, Triglochin maritima ; Strawberry clover, Trifolium fragiferum ; Couch grass, Agropyron repens ; Sea couch grass, A. pungens ; Sea poa grass, Puccinellia maritima ; Marsh foxtail, Alopecurus geniculatus ; Barley grass, Hordeum marinum; Bents, Agrostis spp. ; Swine cress, Coronopus squamatus, Festuta arundinacea. P J Q . TRIST,

Salt-tolerant Flora  
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