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136

NEW AND INTERESTING PLANTS RECORDED BY W. A. DUTT (1870 - 1939) OF CARLTON COLYILLE AND LOWESTOFT. C O M P I L E D BY F .

W.

SIMPSON.

A rather worn copy of Hind & Babington's 1889 " Flora of SufFolk" recently came into my possession. This belonged originally to R. E. Leach, F.G.S., of Beccles, a subscriber to the Flora, and later to William Dutt, East Anglian author and naturalist.' Dutt inserted a number of most interesting notes and records of Suffolk plants during his residence at Lowestoft and Carlton Colville. These include many alien plants which had been found chiefly by Mrs. F. Baker and identified for her at the South Kensington Museum by Mr. Baker. The aliens nearly all occurred at Carlton Colville where cargoes of com from Levantine ports were landed from ships. The majority of them were found growing between Morse's Malthouse and an adjoining Yacht Builder's yard. Although, to my knowledge, no herbarium specimens exist, (enquiry at the Natural History Museum, South Kensington, has, so far, failed to locate herbarium specimens) I think we can accept the majority of the records as authentic, with the exception of a few critical species which I have queried or found necessary to omit. Dutt collaborated with a number of local botanists, including the late Mr. E. R. Long of Lowestoft who was a competent observer. Very few of these records have ever been published and therefore form a valuable addition to our knowledge of the Suffolk flora, especially in the neighbourhood of Lowestoft and that distnct of the county known as Lothingland. How many of the more interesting plants still survive must be decided by a thorough search by local botanists. Some I have already seen, and these appear to be holding their own or increasing. In many instances it has been necessary to revise the nomenclature of Dutt's original entries, and I have added other details, such as the distribution of aliens. I Dr and and

must thank Mr. H. R. Lingwood for his biographical note, S. M. Walters of the University Botany School, Cambridge, Miss M. M. Whiting, F.L.S., for help in checking the names distribution of several of the uncommon aliens.


NEW PLANTS RECORDED BY W. A. DUTT

137

(William A. D u t t died at Carlton Colville, at the age of 69, on September 18th, 1939. H e was something of a recluse. A native of Norfolk, b u t it would be best to record him as a native of East Anglia. Very quiet and modest, he lived in a cottage füll of books at Carlton Colville. A man füll of knowledge about East Anglia: a Walking encylopaedia. H e brought out an excellent book on the wild life of East Anglia, illustrated by Frank Southgate. Other books of nis were " Highways a n d Byways in East Anglia," 1901 ; " Suffolk," in the Little G u i d e series, 1901 ; " T h e Norfolk and Suffolk Coast," 1909 ; " Literary H a u n t s in East Anglia " ; " Kessingland," undated :—H. R. LINGWOOD).

*An asterisk before a record denotes that the species or variety is likely new to the county. Although the records are old they have not been published in any known list of Suffolk plants. RANUNCULACEAE.

Anemone ranunculoides L.—Alien. Europe and W . Asia. Naturalised, Oulton, 1898. Adonis annua L.—Alien. S. Europe and S.W. Asia. Ballast heap at Lowestoft, 1899. Myosurus minimus L.—Carlton Colville, near Pakefield boundary, May, 1908. Ranunculus peltatus Schrank—Leathes's Harn, Lowestoft, 1898. Ranunculus circinatus Sibth.—Flixton, Oulton, 1898. Ranunculus hederaceous L.—Kirkley, 1898. Ranunculus sceleratus L.—Kirkley, Lowestoft, Leathes's Harn,, 1898. Ranunculus lingua L.—Oulton, 1897. Ranunculus auricomus L.—Oulton, 1898. South E l m h a m St. Cross. Ranunculus sardous Crantz.—Around Lowestoft, 1897. Ranunculus arzensis L—Kessingland, 1897. Delphinium ajacis L., sec. J. Gay.—Introduced. Mediterranean region. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. PAPAVERACEAE.

Papaver argemone L.—Lowestoft, Kirkley, Carlton, Oulton, 1898. Papaver hybridum L . — H o p t o n , 1904. Papaver somniferum L.—Oulton, Mrs. Baker. Glaucium flavum C r a n t z — E a s t o n , 1907 and 1932. *Glaucium corniculatum (L.), C u r t i s — Alien. S. Europe. Oulton Broad, M r s . Baker. *Roemeria hybrida (L.), De.—Casual f r o m C. and S. Europe, formerly naturalised in E. Anglia. Oulton Broad, M r s . Baker.


138

NEW PLANTS RECORD ED BY W. A. DUTT

CRUCIFERAE.

*Matthiola bicornis (Sibth. & Sm.). De.—Casual from Greece and Asia Minor. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Rorippa islandica (Oeder), Borbas.—Oulton, 1898. Barbarea verna (Mill.), Aschers.—Escape from cultivation, Carlton, 1898. Sisymbrium altissimum L.—Alien. E. Europe. Now establishe in waste places. Oulton, Mrs. Baker, 1898. Sisymbrium Orientale L.—Alien. S. and S.E. Europe, N. Africa. Established on waste ground. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Descurainia sophia (L.), Prantl.—Oulton, 1897. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.), Heynh.—Common around Lowestoft 1898. Erysimum cheiranthoides L.—Lowestoft, Oulton, 1898. *Erysimum repandum L.—Alien. Europe. Oulton Broad, Mrs Conringia orientalis (L.), Dum.—Frequent casual. Oulton Broad, June 1899, Mrs. Baker. Lowestoft, 1918, E. R. Long. *Brassica elongata Ehrh.—Alien. S.E. Europe. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.), De.—Burgh Castle, 1899. Waste land at Lowestoft, 1899. Diplotaxis muralis (L.), De—Frequent on railroads, etc. Waste ground around Lowestoft, 1898. Alyssum alyssoides (L.), L.—Introduced. Europe. Plentifu by side of railway by Carl ton, 1898. Alyssum hirsutum Bieb.—Alien. Oriens. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. *Lobularia maritima (L.). Desv.—Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Berteroa incana (L.), De—Introduced. Naturalised or casual. Europe and W. Asia. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Cochlearia officinalis L—Lake Lothing and Oulton Broad, 18 Camelina sativa (L.)—Lowestoft, 1897. Rare, Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Teesdalia nudicaulis (L.), Br.—Lowestoft Denes, 1898. Benacr Denes, 1909. *Iberis umbellata L.—Garden escape or allen. S. Europe. Oulton Broad, 1899. Identified by Mr. Baker. Cßrdaria draba (L.), Desv.—Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Carlton, 1898. Pakefield, rare, 1936. Lepidium campestre (L.), R. Br.—Carlton and Lowestoft, 189 Lepidium sativum L—Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. * Lepidium perfoliatum L.—Alien. Casual from E. Europe an W. Asia. Oulton Broad, 1899. Identified by Mr. Baker, British Museum. Coronopus didymus (L.), Sm.—" Mr. E. R. Long showed m speeimens just found on waste ground near Lowestoft Harbour, 1926."


NEW PLANTS RECORDED BY W . A. DUTT

139

*Malcolmia africana (L.), R. Br.—Casual. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. *Myagrumperfoliatum L.—Introduced. Casual. Mediterranean region. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. *Eruca sativa Lam.—Casual. Mediterranean region and E. Asia. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. *Euclidium syriacum (L.), R. Br.—Casual. E. Europe and W. Asia. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. CARYOPHYLLACEAE.

Saponaria vaccaria L.—Ballast heap at Lowestoft, 1899. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Silene anglica L.—Kirkley, 1897. Hopton, 1904. *Silene dichotoma Ehrh.—Casual. E. and S.E. Europe and W. Asia. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Silene conica L.—Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. *Silene conoides L.—Mediterranean region. Casual. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Melandrium noctiflorum (L.), Fr.—Carlton Colville, 1899. Agrostemma githago L.—Frequent in cornfields around Lowestoft, 1897. Sagina aliata Fr.—Lowestoft, 1926. Sagina nodosa (L.), Frenzl.—Bog at Kirkley, 1897. Moehringia trinervia (L.), Clairv.—Common in woods around Lowestoft, 1898. Arenaria leptoclados (Rchb.), Guss.—Frequent around Lowestoft, 1901. Stellaria palustris Retz.—Frequent on Oulton Marshes, 1897. Myosoton aquaticum (L.), Moench.—Carlton, 1897. Cerastium tetrandrum Curt.—Lowestoft, 1898. Cerastium arvense L.—Upland pasture at Somerleyton, 1898. Moenchia erecta (L.), Gaertn.—Lowestoft Denes, 1898. Gypsophila porrigens Boiss.—Alien. Near East. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. MALVACEAE.

Malva moschata L.—Ellough, 1907. Margaret's.

By Hulver Bridge, St.

HYPERICACEAE.

Hypericum calycinum L — Lowestoft, 1918 - 1925, beside railway near engine shed. Hypericum dubium Lecrs.—Lowestoft, 1926. Hypericum humifusum L — Lowestoft Denes, 1897. Carlton Colville, 1932. Hypericum elodes L.—Flixton marshes, 1897.


140

NEW PLANTS RECORDED BY W . A. DUTT

GERANIACEAE.

Geranium phaeum L.—Lound, 1899. Geranium striatum L.—Introduced. Lound. Geranium columbinum L.—Around Lowestoft, 1897. LINACEAE.

Linum usitatissimum L.—Carlton Colville, 1897. PAPILIONACEAE

(Leguminosae). Genista tinctoria L.—Ilkeshall St. John, 1904. Medicago falcata L.—Pakefield, 1926. Medicago arabica (L.), All.—Abundant near Mutford Bridge, 1898. Gravel pit, Pope's Farm, Lowestoft. Medicago hispida Gaertn., var. Denticulata (Willd.), Burnat. Alien. Europe. Carlton Colville, 1899. Lowestoft on bailast, 1909. *Medicago hispida Gaertn, var. Apiculata (Willd.), Burnat.— Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker, 1900. * Medicago hispida Gaertn., var Lappacea (Desr.), Burnat.—Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker, 1900. Melilotus officinalis (L.), Lam.—Lowestoft, 1899. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Melilotus alba Desr.—Lowestoft, near Harbour, 1903. Trifolium medium Huds.—Lowestoft, 1926. Trifolium incarnatum L.—One stray, Oulton ; Pakefield, 1897. Trifolium stellatum L.—Oulton, 1900. Identified by Mr. Baker of the British Museum. Trifolium arvense L.—In gravel pit at Oulton and on banks of railway cuttings around Lowestoft, 1897. Pakefield Beach, 1935. Trifolium striatum L.—Lowestoft Denes, 1897. Maconochie's Estate, Kirkley, 1898. Pope's Farm Gravel pit. Trifolium subterraneum L.—Heath above Lowestoft Denes, 1897. Lowestoft Denes opposite Sparrow's Nest. Gravel pit, Pope's Farm, Lowestoft. Trifolium resupinatum L.—Casual. Asia. Oulton, 1900, Mrs. Baker. * Trifolium lappaceum L.—Alien. Mediterranean Region. Oulton, Mrs. Baker. Ulex minor Roth.—Maconochie's Estate, Kirkley, 1898. *Trigonella caerulea De.—Alien. E. Europe. Oulton Broad, 1899, Mrs. Baker. *Trigonella hamosa L.—Alien. Mediterranean Region. Oulton Broad, 1899. Mrs. Baker. Anthyllis vulneraria L.—Near Warren House, Lowestoft, 1897. Carlton Colville, 1926. Coronilla varia L.—Alien. Europe. Waste ground. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker, 1900.


N E W PLANTS RECORD ED BY W . A. DUTT

141

*Vicia narbonensis L.—Alien. Europe, Mediterranean Region. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Vicia bithynica L.—Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Vicia lutea L.—Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Vicia lathyroides L — C o m m o n on Lowestoft Denes, 1898. *Arthrolobium scorpoides De. (Coronilla scorpioides Koch ).— Alien Mediterranean Region. Found on bailast heap at Lowestoft, 1899, W.A.D. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Lathyrus palustris L — Oulton marshes, 1897. ' *Cicer arietinum L.—Alien. E u r o p e ; Oriens. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. ROSACEAE.

Poterium sanguisorba L.—Carlton, 1898. Potentilla norvegica L.—Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Potentilla palustris (L.), Scop.—Flixton Marshes, 1897. Rosa spinosissima L —Gunton, 1897. , ,••„„,, Rosa rubiginosa L —Carlton ; Oulton, 1898 ; Ashby, Lound, 1899. Sorbus aueuparia L — Frequent around Lowestoft, 1898. TAMARICACEAE.

Tamarix anglica W e b b — Kirkley Cliffs, 1898. ONAGRACEAE.

Chamaenerion (Epilobium) angustifolium (L.), Scop.—Lowestoft Denes, rare, 1898. Shipyard and quay by Lake Lothing, 1926, W.A.D. Epilobium adnatum Gris.—Oulton, 1898. Epilobium obscurum Schreb.—Carlton Colville, 1908. (Enothera biennis L —Railway cutting at Carlton, 1898. HALORAGACEAE.

Myriophyllum spicatum L — Frequent in marsh dykes at Oulton and Flixton, 1898. HIPPURIDACEAE.

Hippuris vulgaris L.—Carlton Marshes, 1897. CUCURBITACEAE.

Bryonia dioica Jacq.—Frequent around Laundry Lane, Lowestoft, 1926.

Lowestoft,

1898.

CRASSULACEAE.

Sedum anglicum Huds.—Lowestoft, 1898. 1935. Sempervivum

Kessingland Beach,

tectorum L.—Around Lowestoft, 1898.

SAXIFRAGACEAE.

Saxifraga tridactylites L.—Burgh Castle Walls, 1899. Saxifraga granulata L.—Gisleham, Barsham, 1898. Parnassia palustris L — Flixton Marshes, 1897.


142

NEW PLANTS RECORDED BY W . A. DUTT

UMBELLIFERAE.

Eryngium maritimum L.—Kessingland and Benacre, 1897. Extinct at Lowestoft and Kessingland Beaches, 1935. Petroselinum segetum (L.), Koch.—Carlton Colville, 1898. Sison amomum L.—Carlton Colville, 1926. Carum carvi L.—On waste heap at Lowestoft, 1898. Sium latifolium L.—Dyke among Carlton marshes, 1897. Bupleurum tenuissimum L.—Lowestoft, 1903. Bupleurum rotundifolium L.—Ballast heap at Lowestoft, 1899. Waste ground, Oulton Broad, 1899, Mrs. Baker. (Enanthe fistulosa L.—Frequent in dykes at Carlton, Kirkley and Oulton, 1898. (Enanthe lachenalii C. C. Gmel.—Kirkley, 1897 ; south of Lake Lothing, 1898. Silaus silaus (L.), Schinz. and Thell.—Carlton Colville, 1907. Caucalis lappula (Weber), Grande—Oulton, 1898, Mrs. Baker. Caucalis latifolia L.—Found at Oulton in June, 1899, by Mrs. Baker. *Caucalis leptophylla L.—Casual. S. Europe. Oulton, 1900, Mrs. Baker. Toriiis arvensis (Huds.), Link.—Carlton Colville, 1907-. Toriiis nodosa (L.), Gaertn.—Oulton, 1898. Scandix pecten-veneris L.—Frequent around Lowestoft, 1898. *Scandix australis L.—Mediterranean Region, Oriens. Alien. Oulton. Broad, Mrs. Baker. *Scandix pinnatifida Vent., Jrod., Cels.—Alien. Mediterranean Region; Oriens. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Coriandrum sativum L.—Near Lake Lothing and Oulton Broad, 1898. *Bifora radialis Mb.—Alien. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. S. Europe. RUBIACEAE.

*Asperula arvensis L.—Cornfield casual from Central Europe. Ballast heap at Lowestoft, 1899. Oulton Broad, 1899. VALERIANACEAE.

Valeriana dioica L.—Oulton ; Flixton ; Blundeston, 1898. Valerianella rimosa Bast.—Kirkley, 1901. DIPSACACEAE.

*Cephalaria syriaca Schrad—Alien. Mediterranean S. France. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. COMPOSITAE.

Solidago virgaurea L.—Around Lowestoft, 1897. Inula helenium L.—Gisleham, 1935, E. R. Long. Filago minima (Sm.), Pers.—Oulton, 1897.

Region,


NEW PLANTS RECORD ED BY W . A. DUTT

143

Achillea millefolium L.—Henstead, 1898 and 1912. Anthemis tinctoria L.—Lowestoft, 1897. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. * Anthemis mixta L.—Alien. Mediterranean Region. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Matricaria chamomilla L.—Frequent around Lowestoft, 1897. * Chrysanthemum coronarium L.—Mediterranean Region. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Artemisia maritima L.—Lake Lothing, 1898; plentiful at Southwold, 1898. Doronicum pardalianches L.—Barsham, 1898. Senecio squalidus L.—Lowestoft, 1918. On bailast heaps beside railway near bottom of Denmark Road, 1926. Carlina vulgaris L.—Lowestoft, 1926. Arctium lappa L.—Lowestoft, 1926. Arctium vulgare (Hill), A. H. Evans.—Carlton and Oulton, 1897. Centaurea cyanus L.—Oulton, 1898. *Centaurea depressa Bieb.—Caucausus ; Iberia. Alien. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Centaurea solstitialis L.—Rishangles and Occold, August, 1915. Cirsium arvense (L.), Scop., sub sp. setosum, C. A. Mey.—Everett's Yard, Carlton Colville, 1898. Silybum marianum Gaertn.—Walpole, 1901. Leontodon leysseri (Wallr.), Beck.—Lowestoft and Kirkley, 1898. Picrü echioides L — Kirkley Cliffs, 1897 - 1907 ; Carlton Colville, 1907. Sonchus palustris L —Near Burgh St. Peter Staithe, 1898 - 99. Flixton Marshes, 1901, by the riverside. Oulton Broad, 1904 and 1924. Herringfleet, 1907, in good quantity. *Pyrethrum decipiens F. and M — Alien. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Hieracium murorum L—Railway bank at Carlton, 1898. Hieracium boreale Fries.—Carlton Colville, 1908. * Ambrosia maritima L.—Alien. Europe ; Oriens, etc. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. * Ambrosia trifida L.—Alien. America. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. CAMPANULACEAE.

*Specularia speculum De—Alien. Mrs. Baker.

S. Europe.

Oulton Broad,

ERICACEAE.

Erica tetralix L.—Kirkley;

Flixton, 1897.

POLEMONIACEAE.

*Gilia capitata Sims.—Alien.

America.

Oulton Broad.


144

NEW PLANTS RECORD ED BY W. A. DUTT

CONVOLVULACEAE.

Cuscuta epithymum

(L.), M u r r — L o w e s t o f t , 1901.

BORAGINACEAE.

Asperugo procumbens L.—Lowestoft. Casual from Europe, W . Asia, N . Africa. Waste ground near Harbour, 1899. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Cynoglossum germanicum Jacq—Carlton Colville, 1899. Borago officinalis L . - K i r k l e y Cliffs, 1899. Pakefield Cliffs, 1903. Anchusa officinalis L.—Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Pentaglottis sempervirens (L.), Tausch.—Gisleham, 1890 and 1933. Echinospermum lappula Lehm.—Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Alien. Europe (except Britain). Amsinckia lycopsoides Lehmann.—North America. Alien. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. SOLANACEAE.

Atropa belladonna L.—Somerleyton Woods, 1900, Mrs. Baker. Hyoscyamus niger L . — N e a r Mutford Bridge, 1898. SCROPHULARIACEAE.

*Veronica chamiaepitys Griseb.—Oulton Alien. Asia Minor.

Broad,

Mrs.

Baker.

LABIATAE.

Mentha spicata L., emend Huds. (M. viridis L.) Lane through Golf Links at Kirkley, 1930. Probably garden escape. Salvia horminoides Pourr.—One or two plants on waste ground near Lowestoft Harbour, 1897. Somerleyton, 1898. Southwold, 1932. Salvia pratensis L.—Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. *Calamintha graveolens Bth.—Mediterranean Region ; Asia Minor. Alien. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Nepeta cataria L.—Carlton Colville, 1898. *Stachys annua L . - C a s u a l . C. and S. Europe, Orient. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. *Marrubium alysson L.—Alien. Mediterranean Region. Found near Everett's Wharf, Carlton Colville in June, 1899, by Mrs. Baker. . *Sideritis montana L.—Alien. Mediterranean Region, Orient. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. PRIMULACEAE.

Anagallis arvensis L., sub sp.foemina (Mill.), Schinz and Thell.— Carlton Colville, 1899. Anagallis tenella (L.), Murr.—Kirkley, Flixton, 1897.


145

NEW PLANTS RECORDED BY W . A. D U T T PLANTAGINACEAE.

* Plant ago arenaria Waldst and Kit—Alien. Europe, Asia Minor. Oulton Broad and Lowestoft, 1899. *Plantago lagopus L.—Alien. Mediterranean Region, Orient. Oulton Broad, 1899. CHENOPODIACEAE.

Salsola kali L.—Lowestoft and Kessingland, 1897. Chenopodium vulvaria L.—Lowestoft, 1907. Chenopodium polyspermum L.—Carlton Colville, 1908. ELAEAGNACEAE.

Hippophae rhamnoides L.—Corton, probably planted,

1898.

ORCHIDACEAE.

Platanthera chlorantha (Cust.), Rchb.—Copse near Workhouse, Oulton, 1898. Ophrys apifera Huds.—Carlton, 1898 and 1926. Epipactis palustris (L.), Crantz.—Flixton, 1897. ALISMATACEAE.

Baldellia ranunculoides (L.), Pari.—Pakefield, 1926. JUNCAGINACEAE.

Triglochin maritimum L.—Around Lake Lothing, 1898. Triglochin palustris L.—Frequent around Lowestoft, 1898. LILIACEAE.

Asparagus officinalis L.—South side of Lake Lothing, 1898. Ruscus aculeatus L.—Flixton, Oulton, 1898. Somerleyton, 1899. SPARGANIACEAE.

Sparganium simplex Huds.—Frequent around Lowestoft, 1898. Sparganium minimum (Hartm.), Fr.—Carlton Colville, 1897. ARACEAE.

Acorus calamus L.—Near Burgh Staithe, 1898. ZOSTERACEAE.

Zostera marina L.—Lake Lothing, 1898. CYPERACEAE.

Scirpus maritimus L.—Lake Lothing, 1897. Eleogiton fluitans (L.), Link.—Ditches near Lake Lothing, 1898. Isolepis setacea (L.), R. Br.—Damp localities near Lake Lothing, 1898. Eriophorum angustifolium Monck.—Kirkley, Oulton, Flixton, 1898. Carex pulicaris L.—Kirkley, 1897.


146

NEW PLANTS RECORDED BY W . A. DUTT

Carex disticha Huds.—Blundeston, 1898. Carex paniciilata L.—Blundeston Lodge Lake, 1898. Carex panicea L.—Frequent around Lowestoft, 1898. Carex pilulifera L.—Heath between Lowestoft and Corton, 1898. Carex extensa Good.—Salt marshes, Lowestoft, 1898. Carex distans L.—Lake Lothing, 1898. Carex silvatica Huds.—Blundeston, Oulton, 1898. Carex pseudocyperus L.—Ditches of Lake Lothing, 1898. Carex hirta L.—Lowestoft and Blundeston, 1898. GRAMINEAE.

Phalaris canariensis L.—Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Lowestoft,. 1897 and 1909. *Phalaris paradoxa L.—Alien. Mediterranean Region, Orient. Ballast heap, Lowestoft, 1899. Oulton, Mrs. Baker. Phleum arenarium L.—Kirkley Cliffs, 1898. Lowestoft Denes, 1899. *Lagurus ovatus L.—Rare. Casual. Rubbish heap at Oulton, June 15th, 1899. Apera spica-venti (L.), Beauv.—Lowestoft, 1898. Aira caryophyllea L.—Carlton and Kirkley, 1898. Sieglingia decumbens (L.), Bernh.—Lowestoft Denes, 1898. Frequent. Poa bulbosa L.—Lowestoft Denes, 1899. Plentiful. Poa nemoralis L.—Sparrow's Nest, Lowestoft, 1898. Puccinellia maritima (Huds.), Pari.—Near Lake Lothing, 1898 and 1926. Puccinellia distans (L.), Pari.—Near Lake Lothing, 1898. Lowestoft Denes, 1898. Desmazeria rigida (L.), Tutin.—Lowestoft, 1898. Burgh Castle, 1899. Desmazeria marina (L.), Druce.—Lowestoft, 1898. Pakefield Cliff, 1918. Catabrosa aquatica L.—Oulton, 1898. *Echinaria capitata Desf.—Alien. Mediterranean Region. Oulton Broad, Mrs. Baker. Cynosurus echinatus L.—Oulton, 1900, Mrs. Baker. Lowestoft, 1926. Vulpia myuros (L.), C. C. Gmel. Lowestoft Denes, 1898. Zerna erecta (Huds.), Panz.—Pakefield Cliffs, 1898. Zerna ramosa (Huds.), Lindm.—Carlton Colville, 1907. Agropyron caninum (L.), Beauv.—Carlton Colville, 1907. Oulton, 1898. Agropyron pungens (Pers.), Roem. and Schult.—Lowestoft, 1898. Elymus arenarius L.—Lowestoft. Frequent around Lake Lothing, 1898. Lolium multiflorum Lam.—Ballast heap at Lowestoft, 1899. Lolium temulentum L.—Abundant in fields around Lowestoft, 1898.


147

NEW PLANTS RECORDED BY W. A. DUTT POLYPODIACEAE.

Thelypteris palustris Schott—Oulton, 1897. Dryopteris spinulosa (Mull.), Watt.—Somerleyton, 1898. Asplenium ruta-muraria L.—Lowestoft Church, 1898. OPHIOGLOSSACEAE.

Botrychium lunaria (L.), Sw.—Lowestoft, 1898. Ophioglossumvulgatum L.—Oulton marshes, 1897. 1909, W. G. Clarke.

Herringfleet,

MARSILEACEAE.

Pilularia globulifera

L.—Flixton, 1898.

REFERENCES.

Bentham, G . , and Hooker, Sir J . D . — " Handbook of the British F l o r a . " Butcher, R . W . , and Strudwick, F . E . , 1 9 4 4 — " F u r t h e r Illustrations o f British P l a n t s . " Clapham, A . R., 1 9 4 6 — " Check List of British Vascular Plants," '* Journal of E c o l o g y , " vol. 33, N o . 2, pp. 308 - 347. Clapham, A. R . , T u t i n , T . G . , and Warburg, E . F . , 1 9 5 2 — " Flora of t h e British Isles." Druce, G . C., 1 9 3 0 — Hayward's Botanist's Pocket-Book.

Hind, W . M . , and Babington, C., 1 8 8 9 — " T h e Flora of Suffolk." Index Kewensis—housed at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. K e n t , D . H „ and Louslev, J . E . , 1951 - 5 3 — " A Hand List of the Planta of the London Area," parts I , I I and I I I ; Supplement to " T h e London Naturalist."

SALT TOLERANT FLORA ON THE SUFFOLK MARSHES THE great sea floods of January 31 st, 1953, inundated 16,000 acres of grassland and 4,4Ä0 acres of arable on the marsh levels in Suffolk. Over much of the area, it is now difficult to distinguish the grassland from the arable. Over a small area, the flood remained for a few hours or days, but over the greater part the water lay for a fortnight and in some places for five weeks. In consequence, winter sown crops were badly affected or destroyed and only the more salt tolerant grasses survived where the flood lay for about ten days. Since early June the marshes have produced an ever increasing crop of salt tolerant weeds. On higher well-drained positions, some perennial ryegrass has survived ; bents (Agrostis spp.) are found as isolated plants where the flood was prolonged. Barley grass has not only survived but exploited the opportunity of space.

New plants in Suffolk recorded by W. A. Dutt (1870-1939)  
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