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OBSERVATIONS.—Many more Large Tortoiseshells (Nymphalis polychloros L.) have been seen in, and around Ipswich this spring than for several years past. A few fully grown larvae were found crawling on the elms at the entrance to Belstead Woods in June ; the remnants of the larval web were discovered a few feet away. A decaying carcase of a hedgehog, besides attracting a male Purple Emperor (the purpose for which the carcase had been hung up), was visited and fed from at regulär intervals throughout the whole of one day by a Red Admiral (Vanessa atalanta L.), and also, occasionally, by a Comma (Polygonia c-album L.). The other butterflies in the neighbourhood, some of the Whites and Browns and also many Silverwashed Fritillaries, took no notice of the smell and flew straight past. It would be interesting to experiment to determine which species are attracted to Carrion. When I visited the Bury St. Edmund's district on 27th June, with Mr. H. E. Chipperfield, a few larvae were beaten from Barberry. One of these pupated and produced a Barberry Carpet (Coenotephria berberata Schiff.) on 3rd August. On 27th June, too, a Viper's Bugloss (Anepia irregularis Huf.) was found at rest near Icklingham, at a spot where grows the Spanish Catchfly, the foodplant of the larva. At Claydon chalk pit, on 29th June, a pair of damselflies (Enallagma cyathigerum Charp.) were watched during oviposition. The pair were Aying " in tandem," the male holding the back of the head of the female with his tail appendages. They came to rest on a stem a few inches above the water, and crawled backwards and downwards until the female reached the surface of the water. The male then released her and she continued to descend into the water to a depth of at least four inches below the surface. The muddy State of the water prevented further visibility, but the total depth of water was about ten inches. The female stayed below for not less than ten minutes, the male meanwhile keeping close at hand and driving off any other male that came near. When the female came to the surface she was immediately seized once more by the male, and the pair then flew away.—S. BEAUFOY. SUFFOLK N O T E S FOR 1953.—On April 8th, 22nd and 25th, Panolis piniperda Panz = (flammea Schiff) emerged from larvae found at Icklingham in 1952. This does not appear to be a very common moth in Suffolk.

On April 26th, several webs of Euproctis chrysorrhaea Hbn., larvae were seen on hawthorn at Orford. I am very pleased to be able to report that the typical insects of the Breck District, Anepia irregularis Huf., Emmelia trabealis



Scop. andLithostege griseata Schiff, are maintaining their numbers in their respective haunts. It is to be hoped that the Society will be able to prevent the destruction of one area where the foodplant of A. irregularis H u f n . grows. In view of the doubts expressed in the last Transactions as to the continued existence of Coenotephria berberata Schiff., in the Bury St. Edmunds area, I can confirm that both this species and Calocalpe cerzinalis Scop. (=certata Hbn.) still continue to survive there, though the foodplant Berberis vulgaris does not appear to be as plentiful as formerly. On June 5th, a Hyloicus pinastri L. emerged from a pupa formed by a larva found at Great Finborough in 1952. This indicates a further spread westwards from its main headquarters. A male Stauropus fagi L. was found in Stowmarket Place on July 7th and a Cosmia pyralina View, there on July 19th. On September 5th I saw a single Colias croceus Fourc. at Bradley, the only specimen I have seen this y e a r — H . E. CHIPPERFIELD, Stowmarket. NOTES

ON E N T O M O L O G Y . — T o w a r d s






a specimen of the Death's Head Hawk Moth (Acherontia atropos Linn.) was brought to me. It was found in a house in Rotterdam Road, Lowestoft, and was in very good condition in spite of having been pushed into a cigarette packet—P. J . BURTON. I was anxious to see if the serious sea floods early this year, 1953, had had a very adverse effect on the insects of the coastal marshes, but various circumstances have prevented me from doing much field work this year. I did, however, visit some reed beds near Southwold one day in early June and saw welcome evidence of larval activity. On July lOth, Mr. G. Baker and I tried our lamps in the Walberswick marshes. Insects were not numerous, but among other species we saw a few Leucania pallens Linn., and L. straminea Treits., Arenostala phragmitidis Hbn., Chilodes maritima Tausch., one of which proved to be f. wismariensis, also Zando-gnathos cribrumalis Hbn., and Scopular emutaria H b n . T h e most welcome capture was a single example of Nonagria neurica Hbn., which Mr. Baker found at rest on a grass stalk. This is the earliest date when I have seen this species. It seems that although the marshes were submerged by the sea, the insect population at any rate survived the ordeal. Probably the submergence was of too short a duration to be lethal, even to the hibernating larvae.—P. J. BURTON.

Suffolk Notes on Entomology  
Suffolk Notes on Entomology