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(Cont. from page 65). FAMILY xxiii: EMPIDAE. (sec. Verrall, List Diptera 1901 ; J. E. Collin in EMM, 1926, 146 et seqq.—Brit. spp. 330.) Hybos culiciformis, Fab.—Numerous everywhere, 20 June-24 Sept. : Assington Thicks, Foxhall, Ipswich, Letheringham, Monks Soham orchard, Blythbro Wood, Corton sea-denes, Wade marshes in N. Cove ; Bamham (Nurse), in cop. on pine at Tuddenham on 28 Aug. 1902 ; Eriswell, Brandon Road Heath and staunch. H.femoratus, Müll.—No scarcer than the last though less observed, 3 July-23 Sept. : Assington Thicks, Eyke, Southwold, Henstead marshes ; Ampton (Nurse), Tuddenham Fen, common at Brandon staunch in late Aug. 1906. Rhamphomyia dissimilis, Zett.—Newmarket garden (Collin). R. nigripes, Fab.—Generally distributed and quite common in buttercup-flowers in spring, 29 April-12 June : Raydon Wood, Foxhall, Staverton, in cop. at Brandeston 9-23 May ; Ampton (Nurse), Tuddenham Fen, Barton Mills, Brandon. R. sulcata, Fln.—Earlier than the last but equally numerous, 3 April-28 May : Suffolk (Curtis) ; Lavenham, Assington (Harwood), Belstead, Bentley Woods, Bramford, Monks Soham windows in late May ; Aspall, Braiseworth ; Herringfleet woods ; Ampton, Timworth (Nurse), common in Tuddenham Fen. R. subcinerascetts, Coli, (cinerascens, Suff. List.)—Always profuse in such broad marshes as those bordering Butley ferry and Oulton Broad, where it has been common only during 2-20 May 1898-1931 ; Tuddenham Fen in late April (Mly.) and May (Nurse, Collin). R. spinipes, Fln.—Rarely noticed : a pair taken in the Breck at Mildenhall and Brandon in Sept. 1896-1907. R. dentipes, Zett.—Common at Ampton about 1910 (Colonel Nurse). R. conformis, Kow.—Common in Newmarket garden April 1895 (Collin). R. tarsata, Mg.—By no means infrequent from 17 May to early July : Bentley Woods 1898 ; common about Timworth (Nurse) and Barton Mills (Collin). R. simplex, Zett.—In the utmost profusion upon maritime grasses in our salt-marshes, 14-29 May : Bourne Bridge in Wherstead, Slaughden salts, Buss-creek at Southwold, &c. R. plumipes, Mg.—Only British example is a $ swept at Foxhall, 30 May 1896 (Mly., EMM. 1926, 233).



R. geniculata, Meij. (plumipes, Suff. List.)—Beaten from young birches in Assington Thicks, 17 May 1901 (Mly.). R. gibba, Fln. et cethiops, Zett.—Both found about Orford in 1908 by Mr. King of Glasgow. R. pennata, Mcq.—An abundant spring species in Buttercupflowers, 18 May-4 J u n e : Reydon marshes of the River Blyth ; Barnby, and always in Oulton Broad 1905-26. R. variabilis, Fln.-—In utmost profusion on Heather and Angelicaflowers, Bracken and Pines on heaths, 20 Aug.-30 Sept. : Foxhall, Ipswich heaths, Staverton, Dunwich, Sizewell seadenes, Blythbro Wood 1912-28, S. Cove heath; Barton Mills, Eriswell. R. umbripennis, Mg.—Staverton Thicks on 4 June 1931, doubtless common (Mly.). R. flava, Fln.—Profuse on tables of umbelliferous flowers, 9 June-23 July: Glemsford; Orford (King), Brandeston, common on Monks Soham windows, in Easton Bavents woods ; Timworth (Nurse). R. longipes, auct.—Rarely observed : Assington Thicks and Bentley Woods in early and mid-May 1900-1, and at Monks Soham on 8 July 1923 (Mly.). R. albihirta, (Verr.) Collin.—A q taken at Wherstead on 10 May 1900 (Mly.). Doubtless common. R. albitarsis et caliginosa, Collin.—Barton Mills in late May (EMM. 1926). R. tibiella, Zett. et nigripennis, Fab.—Both were captured at Ampton about 1910 (Colonel Nurse). R. scarina, Fln. (hybrida, Suff. List.)—Orford, July-Aug. (EMM. 1913, 106) : a $ in Wangford Wood near Southwold, 13 Sept. 1912. Empis tessellata, Fab.—Too numerous to need localising, 17 May-mid-June : abundant all round Lavenham, Sudbury (Harwood), in woods round Ipswich on Chaerophyllum and Euonymus flowers at Bentley, preying on Chilosia variabilis, Wherstead, &c. ; Framlingham and at Monks Soham preying upon Tipula vernalis, 6 June, and Bibio Marci, 24 May 1909 ; Bury district (Tuck), Timworth (Nurse). E. livida, Linn.—As widespread and common as last, longer lived 21 May-14 Aug. ; in cop. 10 June 1940 ; preying upon Tortrix viridana on 12 July 1910, &c. : Sudbury, Wherstead, Bentley, Ipswich, Blakenham, Letheringham, Monks Soham windows and garden, Mariesford, Farnham, Westhall preying on Bibio Sotherton, Corton sea-cliff, Bungay, Thrandeston, Tostock, Timworth, Tuddenham Fen. E. opaca, Fab.—Not rare : Cornard Parva (Harwood), Bury district in June 1897 (Tuck), Ixworth and Ampton (Nurse).



E. stercorea, Linn.—Very numerous everywhere, 8 May-21 June : Bentley, Foxhall, Ipswich, Reydon, Fritton ; Tostock, Ixworth; Tuddenham, preying upon a Limnobiid at Mildenhall on 8 May 1910, profuse at Brandon staunch. E. trigramma, Mg.—Very numerous everywhere, 7 May-6 June : Lavenham, Bentley, Belstead, common at Ipswich 7 May 1895 ; Monks Soham garden, on 24 May 1921 on Chaerophyllumflowereating a Sciara Thomce ; Oulton Broad, Bungay Common, Tostock, Timworth. E. punctata, Mg.—Tuddenham on 27 June 1880 (Verrall, in Mus. Brit.), Tuddenham about 1910 (Nurse). E. digramma, Mg. (bilineata, Suff. List.)—Somewhat less frequent than the last three but very general, 15 May-21 June : Belstead, Brandeston, in cop. on Chaerophyllumflowerin Monks Soham garden 30 May 1914; Oulton Broad, Timworth, Tuddenham Fen in 1909, Brandon staunch. E. lutea, Mg.—Profuse and ubiquitous, often common on Heracleum flowers in July ; 29 May-16 Aug. : Sudbury, Barham Oak Wood, Orford ; many dancing together in the air at Otley on 29 May 1931 ; Letheringham Wood, on Monks Soham windows especialy numerous 17-29 July. E. nigritarsis, Mg.—Very general and frequent but little observed, 26 May-20 June: Assington Thicks in 1916 (Harwood) and 1928 ; in cop. Belstead lane 31 May 1902, and often in cop. at Wherstead in afternoon sunshine about that date ; Ipswich (Bennett), not rare in Monks Soham garden, often on Chaerophyllumflowers,a $ carrying a very minute Spaniotoma $ there on 5 June 1919, in cop. on lime-leaf there with small Spaniotoma rj as prey four days before ; Timworth and W. Stow (Nurse). E. pennipes, Linn.—Generally distributed, often profuse in flowers of marsh-thistles, sometimes Aying to those of gorse, 29 April-6 June : Bentley Woods, Belstead, Staverton Thicks, Blythbro Wood, Brampton Wood; Timworth (Nurse), common at Brandon staunch. F.. rufiventris, Collin.—One at Timworth 3 June 1906 (Nurse : new to Britain, EMM. 1913, 106). E. pennaria, Fln.—Multitudinous but little observed, 1 May-5 June : Bentley Woods, Belstead ; Monks Soham garden, several pairs in cop. on lime-leaves each with small $ Cricotopus prey on 24 May 1908, numerous pairs in cop. on ash-leaves all 9? with Chironomid prey on 25 May 1916, one $ Aying solum in sun over lawn at 4 p.m. with Cricotopus prey ; Oulton Broad in 1898 ; Timworth (Nurse). E. nuntia, Meij. (vernalis, Suff. List.)—Newmarket in mid-May (Collin). E. melcena, Bez. (albipennis, Suff. List.)—Newmarket garden (Collin).



E. albinervis, Mg.—Numerous, little noticed, 18 May-19 Aug. : Bentley Woods ; Orford (King) ; both sexes frequent on Monks Soham windows in July-Aug. E. vitripennis, Mg. et prodromus, Lw.—Noticed only by Col. Nurse, the former at Tuddenham about 1910 ; of the latter several at Ampton, June 1913. E. caudatula, Lw.—Multitudinous, often on Hieracium flowers, 1-10 June : Blakenham Magna, Monks Soham garden ; myriads on Newmarket garden lawn, 1904 (Collin). [Several attracted to moth-light at Frame Wood in New Forest in 1938.] E. chioptera, Fln.—Several in Assington Thicks on 16 May 1902 ; common at Ampton (Nurse). E. <estiva, Lw. et grisea, Fln.—Taken respectively at Newmarket (Verrall) and Ampton (Nurse). E. piceipes, Mg. (brevicornis, Suff. List.)—Doubtless quite frequent, 17 May-8 Sept. : Bentley Woods and on 1 June 1897 at Hogs Highland by the Orwell in Ipswich ; Ampton (Nurse), Tuddenham (Collin) and first taken in Britain at Barton Mills in 1879 (Verrall). Pachymeria femorata, Fab.—Constantly hovering in small clouds under lowest branches of tall trees ; sometimes at pineblossom ; 28 April-8 July : Suffolk (Curtis) ; in cop. at Bentley Woods 4 June 1901, 25 May 1921, &c. ; Wherstead, Foxhall, Ipswich ; on 25 May 1935 $9 were hovering abundantly in a chalk-pit at Bramford, where on 8 July 1904 $$ were taken Aying numerously, low over grass in the hottest sunshine and carrying in their front legs Thereva bipunctata $ and plebeia Myiospila meditabunda and Spilogaster duplicata as prey; hovering under oak-boughs at Butley Priory, in Reydon marshes, in cop, at Stuston Common so early as 28 April 1923 ; Tostock, Timworth; Brandon staunch, Newmarket. P. tumida, Mg. (Erberi, Suff. List.)—Hardly less general than last, 15 May-11 Aug.: Ipswich (Bennett); numerous in Butley decoy wood 11 July 1908 when $$ were carrying large Muscids as prey (Verrall) ; Needham Market; hovering abundantly in cop. under oak-boughs bordering Letheringham Wood 4 May 1940 ; Frostenden, Barnby Broad ; Tuddenham (Nurse). Rhagas unica, Walk.—Taken at Ampton on 8 May 1913 (Nurse). Hilara Curtisi, Collin (cilipes, Suff. List.)—Not noticed in Suffolk since it was " common at Lound " (Pagets 1834). H. pilosa, Zett.—Multitudinous : Assington Thicks about 1916 (Harwood) and so numerous, hovering in sun in glades of Bentley Woods 6 July 1895, as to attract no later attention. H. interstincta, Fln.—Nearly equally prevalent, in cop. 16 June-6 July : on Monks Soham windows 29 May 1928, &c.

112 THE DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK H. maura, Fab.—More numerous than two last, 11 May-15 June : Bentley Woods, Belstead, Wherstead, Pin Mill on house-windows, Foxhall; in cop. abundantly at GJevering 11 May 1923 ; on Monks Soham windows and in garden every year ; Tostock, Timworth, Tuddenham Fen. H. nitidula, Zett. et lurida, Fln.—Captured respectively at Ampton (Nurse) and Orford (King). H. brevistyla, Collin (pinetorum, Suff. List.)—May, probably not scarce : Needham Market on 15th 1901 and Tuddenham Fen on 20th 1904 (Mly.). H. clypeata, Mg.—Abundant in Bentley Woods on gorse in May 1903 and Aying gregariously, close over muddy water of a small and fast-drying stream on 12 April 1938 (Mly.). H. 4-vittata, Mg.—Taken at Orford (King) ; always frequent on Monks Soham windows in June. H. litorea, Fln. et lurida, Fln.—Both were captured at Orford in 1908 (King). The former is common, 11 May-22 July at Bentley Woods, in a Butley cattle-shed in 1932, Staverton Thicks, abundant on sallow in Fritton marshes and at Brandon staunch. H. thoracica, Mcq.—Orford (King) ; sometimes in profusion on Monks Soham windows often at 3 p.m., sitting in outhouse and under lime-leaves in garden, never seen in cop., 14 June-1 Aug. only, annually 1910-31. H. primula, Collin.—A $ at Foxhall on 24 April 1897 (Mly.). H. b(rev)ivittata, Mcq.—H. bivittata, as named by Edwards, seems quite general, 15 May-25 July : Sutton Heath hovering at rose-flower in Monks Soham garden at dusk on 21 June 1915 ; Frostenden, at blackberry-flower at Brandon 14 July 1939. H. quadrifaria, Collin.—A pair, thus named by Collin, in cop. at Blakenham 12 July 1902 ; apparently cospecific examples abound annually on Monks Soham windows and in garden, 5 June-8 Sept. H. fuscipes, Fab. (Carinthiaca, Suff. List.)—A with the last, on Monks Soham window 6 July 1919, and £ at Southwold 9 July 1900 (Mly.). H. hirtella, Collin (hirtula, Suff. List.)—Single $ swept from a dry ditch at Mildenhall at dusk 25 Sept. 1907 (Elliott). H. tenuipes, Collin.—Profuse in marshy heaths in Sept., 25 Aug.24 Sept. only : Staverton Thicks, Blythbro Wood 1912-28, Wangford Wood, Potters-bridge and common on S. Cove heather ; Brandon staunch 1906-15. H. cingiilata, Dahlb—Orford (Verrall), Timworth (Nurse). H. subpollinosa, (Verr.) Collin et fulvibarba, Strbl.—Taken resp ively at Timworth about 1910 (Nurse) ; and at Aldeburgh (Verrall, EMM. 1913, 106).

113 H. monedula, Collin.—This is tlie " Hilara " whose curious dances are described at Entom, 1914, p. 216-7. It abounds both thus over the moat and upon house-windows at Monks Soham, 23 May-17 Aug. 1914-40, being commonest in mid-June but never seen in cop. or with prey here ; but one in Blythbro Wood on 30 May 1937 was carrying a $ Sciara carbonaria, Mg. H. rejecta, Collin.—Suffolk (EMM. 1927, pp. 26, 66). H. eumera, Lw. et discoidalis, Lund.—Both recorded from " Suffolk " (I.e. 1927, 28). H. Lundbecki, Frey.—Purely a sea-coast species : Orford (I.e. 1927, 29). Bicellaria (Cyrtoma) sulcata, Zett.—Taken at Ampton about 1910 (Nurse). B. Cyrtoma, Suff. List) pilosa, Lund.—Doubtless common : Bentley Woods, 26 April 1897 ; Ampton (Nurse). S. (C.) spuria, Fln.—First half of July : Orford in 1908 (King), Parham Wood, Barnby Broad, &c. B. (C.) nigra, Mg.—Not uncommon in Staverton Thicks in June 1923 and on Monks Soham windows in May 1924-40 ; also taken in Brampton Wood, preyed upon by Empis pennipes, in Thelnetham Fen and in 1929 at Mildenhall (Mly.). Trichina clavipes, Mg.—Little observed : found at Brandon on 20 June 1914. T. (Oreogeton)flavipes,Mg.—Generally distributed, confined to September with us : Dodnash Wood 1903, Blythbro Wood always abundant on birch-bushes, Walberswick, Covehithe, &c. T. elongata, Hai.—Noticed only in Newmarket garden (Collin) and at Tuddenham (Nurse). T. opaca, Lw.—Ampton (Nurse), Mildenhall 14 May 1909 (Col. Yerbury). (Edalea Holmgreni, Zett. et stigmatella, Zett.—Noticed with us only at Ampton, and the former also at Timworth (Nurse). Euthyneura Halidaii, Collin.—Col. C. G. Nurse found an example at Timworth (EMM. 1926, 214). Microphorus crassipes, Mcq.—Always common on Monks Soham windows and infly-trap,8 June-28 Aug., and on 1 June 1919 many were hovering six feet from ground in garden ; Brandon staunch 31 May 1929. M. holosericeus, Mg. (vetulinus, Mcq.)—As numerous as last: Orford (King), Monks Soham windows and sucking Cricotopus tricinctus in Spiders-web in garden (Trans, iv, 271); Ampton (Nurse), Newmarket garden (Collin). Ocydromia glabricula, Fln.—Common everywhere from 8 May to 25 Sept. : Bentley Woods on birch, Claydon, Needham; Monks Soham on windows and Heracleumflowers,once THE DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK





being sucked from neck-nape on window by the above M. holosericeus in June ; Bedfield, Thorndon, Blythbro Wood, Hulver ; Barton Mills, Mildenhall. Leptopeza flavipes, Mg.—Little noticed, 12 June-5 Oct. : Letheringham Wood, Monks Soham windows ; Barton Mills in 1899, Brandon. L. ruficollis, Mg.—'Taken at Orford in 1908 (King). Drapetis curiipes, Mg. (aterrima, Suff. List.)—Rarely noticed on Monks Soham windows in June ; once on pine at Potters Bridge, Sept. D. nigritella, Zett. (nervosa, Lw.)—In sand-pit at Bentley Woods 9 April 1897 ; Orford (King), Southwold Buss-creek 1920, Lound 1925, &c. D. humilis, Frey.—Common on Newmarket stable-windows in summer (Collin). D. assimilis, Lw.—Suffolk (Collin) ; Orford (King : not known at Bentley). D. arcuata, Lw.—A $ on young-oak leaves, Bentley Woods, 17 May 1898 (Mly.). D. exilis, Mg. (pusilla, Lw.)—Recorded from Orford, under both names (King). D. convergens, Collin.—Only known specimen is a 9 caught at Orford 26 Aug. 1907 (Collin). D. (Elaphropeza) ephippiata, Fln.—Orford (King), very frequent on Monks Soham windows 1916-40, sometimes at 9 a.m., 19 June-6 Aug. and in cop. in sun on lime-leaves in garden there on 10 July 1916 and 22 July 1941 ; on Newmarket garden wall in July 1886 (Collin). Stilpon lunata, Walk.—Profuse and doubtless general but little noticed; 11-25 Sept. and (? hibernated) 17 April-21 M a y : common in Foxhall marshes, abundant on reeds round Southwold at Buss-creek, Pottersbridge, &c., sometimes under Ononis on bare sea-denes ; Tuddenham, Mildenhall, Brandon in May and (Chitty) August. Chersodromia difficilis, Lund.—In utmost profusion on painted corrugated iron paling on Aldeburgh beach and many in cop. 25 July 1899. Tuddenham, June 1906 (Nurse). C. speculifera, Walk.—Tuddenham early May (Collin). Tachypeza nubila, Mg.—Frequent and often gregarious on beech, pine and usually willow trunks or sawn stools, rarely with prey, often in cop. usually about 8 June ; noticed constantly 3 May-25 Nov. : indoors at night light in Ipswich 4 June 1904 ; in Eyke and Tangham Forest; on Monks Soham indoor windows, doors, trunks and once with prey in stable, usually in shade ; Blythbro Wood ; Oulton Broad (Tuck), one 9 o n moth-sugar at Fritton after dark 30 Sept. 1932 ; Ampton (Nurse), Barton mills, Brandon on heath and pales and once $ $ abundant on decayed willow trunk in May ; Newmarket indoors 1893 (Collin).



Tachista arrogans, Linn.—Common everywhere on herbage and tree-leaves, rarely beech-trunks, 24 May-25 Nov. constantly : Bramford marshes ; Monks Soham windows and garden 1910-28, preying on lime-leaves on Sciarae at 3 p.m. ; in Gisleham sand-pit, Sept. ; on sea-cliffs at Hopton and, in cop. 21 Aug., Corton ; on open Breck-sands at Wangford and Brandon. Common on stones in Newmarket garden (Collin). T. connexa, Mg.—Very common about Ipswich, 28 May 1897 et seqq. ; Barton Mills (Collin). T. halterata, Collin et annulimana, Mg.—Recorded respectively from " S u f f o l k " (Collin) and Orford in 1908 (King). Tachydromia maculipes, Mg.—Doubtless very general : Foxhall swept on 30 May 1896 ; Staverton Thicks 7 Sept. 1917. T. agilis, Mg.—Common and general, 10 May-10 July : Ipswich, Bentley Woods, Needham; frequent on Monks Soham windows and in garden, preyed upon by $ Empis trigramma and a $ preying upon a Chironomus brevitibialis, Zett., 23-30 May 1908 ; Southwold ; Timworth (Nurse). T. longicornis, Mg. (pubicornis, Zett.)—Common and general, 10 May-25 Sept. : Belstead, Ipswich, Needham ; a $ preying upon Forcipomyia bipunctata, L., on Monks Soham window 8 July 1914 ; on Easton Broad and Henstead marshes reeds at dusk, and in cop. on sallow at Uggeshall, in mid-Sept. ; Ampton and Fakenham (Nurse) ; Mildenhall in cop. Sept., Brandon in June. T. incerta, Collin et pulicaria, Mg.—Recorded respectively from Kirtling and specimens from Suffolk (new to Britain, EMM. 1926, 152). T. aurantiaca, Collin.—The sole known two Q$ were captured at Orford on 20 June 1897 by Verrall, and at Timworth on 24 April 1912 by Col. C. G. Nurse. T. pallidipes, Fln.—Doubtless numerous ; noticed in only the Winston marshes on 14 Aug. 1918. T. albiseta, Panz.—Taken at Brandon in July (Verrall). T. minuta, Mg.—Common on reeds at Claydon bridge in Sept. 1901 ; and in Monks Soham garden, where a $ was preying upon a small Phora sp. and a £ on a Sciara carbonaria on 29 May 1908, a $ on lime-leaf on a Sciara sp. on 28 May 1914 and a on bramble-leaf on $ Cricotopus bicinctus, Mg., on 5 June next (cp. Entom. 1914, 216) ; Ampton (Nurse), Brandon staunch. T. montana, Verr.—Captured at Ampton about 1910 (Nurse). T. albifacies, Collin et praecincta, Collin.—The former is not uncommon in Suffolk, of the latter $ $ have been taken in Suffolk (Collin). T. annulata, Fln.—Timworth (Nurse); a $ devouring a Psychoda sp. on lilac-leaf in Tuddenham village 6 June 1910.



T. notata, Mg—Found at T. infecta, Collin et aristata, window 11 Aug. 1884, (EMM. 1926). T. tantula, Collin.—One $ (I.e.).

Tuddenham about 1910 (Nurse). Collin.—A of former on Newmarket and the latter at Barton Mills in Mav ' taken at West Stow on 6 June 192?

T. leueoeephala, Ros. et pictitarsis, Beck.—The latter occurs at Newmarket, where the former is not common from Mav 3 to July (I.e.). T. exilis, Mg. (lutea, Suff. List.)—In cop. in Bentley Woods 11 July 1904 et seqq., Cutlers Wood in Freston June ; frequent on Monks Soham windows ; a $ at moth-light at 10 p.m. on open Breck at Brandon 22 July 1939 (Mly.). T. fasciata, Mg.—General in marshes : Timworth (Nurse) ; several on osier-leaves at Kenny Hill in Mildenhall 6 July 1920. T. cursitans, Fab.—Doubtless abundant : one $ preying upon a small $ Phorid-fly, Conicera atra, Mg., on honeydew of Aphis crataegi in Monks Soham garden 7 Sept. 1908. T. pallidiventris, Mg.—Multitudinous everywhere, 6 June-17 Sept. : Brandeston, on Monks Soham windows in June usually and on lime-leaves where a $ was devouring a $ Phora on 31 June 1916 ; on reeds at Frostenden and Henstead ; in Aug. 1898 Mr. Bedwell bred one at Oulton Broad from the cocoon of a Braconid (? Meteorus sp.), through which 'it was evidently hyperparasitic on some Lepidopteron ; Tuddenham Fen and Brandon staunch in June. T. bicolor, Fab.—Frequent as last, of which it is often termed a var. ; 26 May-11 Aug., on low plants : Wherstead and on whitethorn-flower at Bentley Woods ; Monks Soham windows and, both with prey and in cop., on lime-leaves ; Timworth district (Nurse), Kentford. T. annulipes, Mg.—Rarely noticed : Monks Soham windows 1908-27 and on lime-leaves where a $ on 24 June was devouring a small Psychoda ; Mildenhall June 1915 (Elliott). T. Stigma, Collin.—Known solely by many swept from box-shrub in Newmarket garden 24 May 1914 (EMM. 1926). Hydrodromia (Heleodromia) stagnalis, Hai—Common by water from 28 March: Blakenham chalk-pits; Orford (King), Timworth, Ampton (Nurse), Tuddenham June 1880 (Verralli and 25 April 1904. Hemerodromia unilineata, Zett.—Taken at Brandon 10 July (Collin). Chelifera (Hemerodromia) angusta, Collin—Described from only Suffolk and Herefordshire (EMM. 1927, 95). C. (H.) precatoria, FIn.—Frequent and generai in marshes, usually 13 Sept.-29 Oct. : Dodnash and Bentley woods on



Solanum and Urtica, at latter in May once ; rare on Monks Soham windows in June ; Blythbro Wood, Wangford, Henstead marsh ; Brandon staunch. Dolichocephala (Ardoptera) irrorata, Fln.—Tuddenham 27 June 1880, G. H. Verrall (in coli. Brit. Mus.). D. (A.) guttata, Hai. (exoleta, Hai.)—Swe-t from roadside hedges at Hulver in Henstead 22 Sept. 1913 ; Barton Mills 14 Sept. (Collin). Phyllodromia (Lepidomyia) melanocephala, Fab.—Abundant on bushes in woods and hedges, 12 June-16 July, commonly attracted to moth-lights in mid-July: Bentley Woods, Staverton Thicks, Henstead marshes ; Wangford on open breck and at Brandon staunch. Chelipoda (Thamnodromia) vocatoria, Fln.—Taken on wall of Newmarket garden in July 1886 (Collin). This shows Suffolk to possess at least 142 Empids.

GEOLOGICAL D I S C O V E R Y . — A hundred years ago in the old Kyson Brickfield which is one mile south of Woodbridge a fossiliferous deposit, referred to the Oldhaven Pebble Bed series and resting at the top of the Reading Sands, was known to Geologists. Prestwick found there the skeleton of a Monkey (Macacus coccenus,) (c.f. Q.J.G.S. vi, 1850, p. 273). Teeth of Serpent (cf. Trans, ii, 219) and Fish, small bones of Mammals, Shells, etc., were collected. The Kyson section is no longer to be observed. Recently at Harkstead by the Stour estuary, a somewhat similar deposit of about the same age was exposed at the base of the Eocene London Clay cliff. This consisted of a thin and discontinuous bed, some four to six inches in thickness composed of a mixture of brown, grey and greenish sand and clay, with clay pebbles partly hardened into a conglomerate by iron oxide and containing numerous fossils, especially casts of mollusca Modiola undulata, unidentified species of the genera Natica, Cyprina, Cytherea, Astarte, Aporrhais, Fish, Fishes' teeth (Odontaspis sp. Lamna sp.), fossil Wood and other plant remains, Encrinite stems, etc.—Cliff section showed the following deposits :—(1) Top soil, one foot;

(2) Glacial Drift, Gravel and disturbed London Clay, three feet; (3) London Clay, 1 \ feet; (4) Cement Stone Bed, one foot; (5) London Clay, five feet; (6) Sandy brown clay, hardening into blocks of sandstone, one foot (Oldhaven or Reading Beds) ; (7) Fossiliferous Bed, conglomerate of sand, clay, clay pebbles hardened by iron oxide, four to six inches ; (8) The above deposits resting on a grey sandy clay with much Mica, thickness unknown (? Thanet Beds). Exhibited at our Meeting in December 1950.— F. W .


The Diptera of Suffolk: Family xxiii  
The Diptera of Suffolk: Family xxiii