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AN OLD SUFFOLK NATURALIST

Torquay. At one time he trawled Coelenterata Jel'yfish off Harwich (Vict. Hist. 1911, 89) & he collected Mollusca, mainly pliocene specimens from the Red Crag of Felixtow. Unfortunately I am unaware that he ever published anything relating to Natural Science.

SUFFOLK MOULD- AND B Y ARTHUR M A Y F I E L D ,

SMUT-FUNGI. F.L.S.

THE Hyphomycetes are imperfect fungi, being for the most part the conidial stages of the Ascomycetes. They bear their spores on septate hyphaj, exterior to the host-plants and not in pycnidia or pustules as in the Ccelomycetes (see Trans., vol. iv, p. 101). The Phycomycetes are parasitic or saprophytic moulds with nonseptate mycelium. They are remarkable for being the group of fungi in which sexual fertilisation was earßest recognised. Several of the species are the cause of diseases destructive to garden crops. T h e Ustilaginales are parasitic in the tissues of flowering plants, especially those of cereals and other grasses, producing the masses of dark-coloured spores which form the well-known ' s m u t ' of wheat, oats, etc.—For their determination I have tapped (1) M C. Cooke's 1871 Handbook of British Fungi, and (2) 1878 Microscopic F u n g i ; (3) G. Massee's 1893-5 British Fungus Flora ; (4) E. M. Wakefield & G. R. Bisby's 1941 List of Hyphomycetes Recorded for Britain, in Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc., vol. xxv ; &c. Except where otherwise indicated, the fungi listed hereunder were collected in the parish of Mendlesham. A few localities (initialled H. & S.) have been quoted from Henslow and Skepper's ' Flora of Suffolk ' 1860, and I have again gratefully to acknowledge the valuable assistance of Messrs. E. A. Elbs (E.A.E.) and R Burn. The following list of 245 species, of which 203 are NEW records for Suffolk, is far from being exhaustive ; further research will undoubtedly reveal many other species, especially of the Phycomycetes. HYPHOMYCETES.

Acremonium verticillatum Link. On rotten wood. Acrospeira asperospora (Cooke & Mass.) Wilt. On straw. Acrostalagmus cinnabarinus Corda. On potato haulm and old cabbage stalks. Acrothecium simplex B. & Br. On an old nettle stem. A. xylogenum Grove. On an old cabbage stalk. JEgerita Candida Pers. On rotten wood. Alternaria brassicce (Berk.) Sacc. On kale. A. Cheiranthi (Lib.) Boll. On Cheiranthus. A. Dianthi Stev. & Hall. On Dianthus barbatus. A. tenuis Nees. On decaying herbaceous stems and leaves.


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Aspergillus Candidus Link. On dead leaves. A. glaucus Link. Common blue mould. On various decaying substances. A. griseus Link. On window panes. A. roseus Link. On damp paper, Bury (H. & S.), on cardboard, Mendlesham. Atractium flaviviride Sacc. On wood, Worlingham (E.A.E.). Bactrydium flavum Kunze. On rotten wood, Whatfield (R. Burn). Beauvaria Bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. On dead inรถect&. Bispora monilioides Corda. On wood. Botryosporium diffusum (All. & Sehr.) Corda. On potatoes and decaying garden refuse. B. pulchrum Corda. On dead herbaeeous stems. Botrytis argillacea Corda. On dead hazel wood, Brockford. B. cana Kunze & Schm. On fading Ononis. B. cinerea Pers. Springing from sclerotia on angelica and other herbaeeous stems. B. fascicularis (Corda) Sacc. On dead angelica. B. vulgaris Fr. Common on dead herbaeeous matter. Brachycladium curtum (B. & Br.) A. L. Sm. On nettle stems. Brachysporium oosporum (Corda) Sacc. East Bergholt (Cooke). Briarea elegans Corda. On dead grass. Cephalosporium acremonium Corda. On Periconia pyenospora on nettle stems. Ceratosporium digitatum (Cooke) Sacc. On holly, Corton & Staverton (EAE). Cercospora mercurialis Pass. On Dog's Mercury. Cercosporella Brassica (Faut. & Roum.) v. Hohn. On cabbage stalks. Cladosporium epiphyllum Nees. On dead ivy leaves. C. herbarum Link. Very common on decaying plants. Cladotriehum triseptatum B. & Br. On rotten willow wood. Clasterosporium fungorum (Fr.) Sacc. On Corticium on elm. C. vermiculatum Cooke. On wood. Coniothecium amentacearum Corda. On wood of Crack Willow. C. betulinum Corda. On birch branches, Stowmarket and Foxhall. C. effusum Corda. Common on old wood. Cylindrium cylindricum (Corda) Lind. On dead leaves of willow and sycamore. C. flavovirens (Ditm) Bon. On dead oak leaves. C. griseum Bon. On dead oak leaves. Cylindrocarpon Ehrenbergii Wollenw. On cabbage. C. heteronemum (B. & Br.) Woll. On decaying pears. C. Mali (Allesch) Woll. On rotten apples. Cylindrocolla urticce (Pers.) Bon. On old nettle stems. Dactylium dendroides Fr. On decaying Agarics, Bury (H & S). Dematium hispidulum Fr. On grass. Dendryphium comosum Wallr. On old nettle stems.


108

SUFFOLK MOULD AND SMUT-FUNGI

Dictyosporium elegans Corda. On beech and ash branches. D. toruloides (Corda) Guig. On Salix cinerea. Didymaria didyma (Ung.) Sehr. On creeping buttercup. Diplocladium penicilloides Sacc. On Hypomyces aurantius. Epicoccum diversisporum Preuss. On dead reedgrass. E. effusum Frei. On maize. E. granulatum Penz. On dead elm wood. E purpurascens Ehrh. On dead carnations, Ipswich. Exosporium hysterioides (Corda) v. Hohn. On decorticated sallow. E.Tilice Link. On lime twigs. Fumago vagans Pers. On leaves of Quercus Ilex, Mendlesham; on lime leaves, Ipswich. Fusarium argillaceum (Fr.) Sacc. On potatoes. F. Dianthi Prill & Delacr. On Dianthus barbatus, Mendlesham ; on D. caryophyllus, Ipswich. F. graminearum Schw. On wheat. F. merismoides Corda. On sugar beet. F. oxysporum Schi. var. aurantiacum (Link.) Woll. On rottmg vegetable marrow. F. sambucinum Fkl. On eider. F. spheerioe Fkl. On Leptosphaeria doliolum on nettle stems Fusidium griseum Link. On dead leaves. Fusicladium dendriticum (Walk.) Fkl. On apple leaves. F. depressum (B. & Br.) Sacc. On angelica leaves. Gibellula aranearum (Schw.) Syd. On Spiders, Redgrave Fen Gßodadwm roseum (Link.) Bain. On old cabbage stalks and potato haulm. Gonatobotrys flava Bon. On dead burdock. G. simplex Corda. On black-bryony berries. Gcnytrichum ceesium Nees. On dead wood. G. fuscutn Corda. On dead beech wood. Graphium Ulmi Schwartz. The conidial stage of the Dutch Elm disease (cf. Trans, i 219 ; ii, 279 ; v. 30). G. stilboideum Corda. On an old cabbage stalk. Gyroceras plantaginis (Corda) Sacc. On leaves of Plantago media. Haplaria grisea Link. On goatsbeard and dead gorse. Helicomyces roseus Link. On wood, Semer (R. Burn). Helicosporium pulvinatum Nees. On wood. Helminthosporium avencs Eid. On oats. H. fusiforme Corda. On ash and beech wood. H. gramineum Raben. On bärley. H. nanum Nees. On wood, Bury (H & S). H. scolecoides Corda. On rotten bramble stem. H. velutinum Link. Common on dead wood. Heterosporium echinulatum (Berk.) Cooke. On Dianthus barbatus, Corton (EAE) & on Dianthus caryophyllus, Hintlesham.


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H. epimyces Cooke and Mass. On Lycoperdon giganteum. H. gracile Sacc. Oh yellow iris. H. Ornithogali Kl. On lily-of-the-valley leaves. Hirsuteila subulata Petch. On a Caterpillar. Hormiscium stilbosporum (Corda) Sacc. On Sallow. Hymenula Berkeleyi Sacc. On fir wood, Foxhall. H. rubella Fr. On stems and leaves of Phalaris. Illosporium roseum Fr. On Xanthoria, Hardwick (H & S). Isaria farinosa Fr. On buried pupae. I. umbrina Pers. On wood with Hypoxylon Howeianum. Macrosporium heteronemum Desm. On Sagittaria, Bungay (Cooke). M. nobile Vize. On Dianthus caryophyllus, Ipswich. Mastigosporium album Riess. On Foxtail grass. Menispora ciliata Corda. On dead bramble in ditch. Monilia aurea Gmelin.—On rotten beech wood. M. fructigena Pers. On rotten apples, pears and plums Mystrosporium stemphylium Corda. On wood, Bury (H & S.) Napicladium arundinaceum (Corda) Sacc. On reeds. Nematogenum aurantiacum Desm. On rotten wood, Debenham. Oidium alphitioides Griff & Maub. On leaves of young oaks. O. erysiphoides Fr. A collective name for the conidial stage of the various species of Erysiphe (see Trans, vi, 16). O. euonymi-japonica Are. On Euonymus japonica, Holywells Park in Ipswich, and Stowmarket. O. leueonium Desm. On wild and cultivated roses. O. monilioides Link. On grasses and cereals. Oospora abortifaciens (Quek.) Sacc. & Vogl. On the Sclerotium ol Claviceps on Glyceria. O. fulva Kze. On rotten beech wood. Ovularia Bistortee (Fkl.) Sacc. On Polygonum bistorta, Creeting. O. deeipiens Sacc. On Ranunculus repens and R. acris. O. Lamii (Fkl.) Sacc. On white dead nettle. O. obliqua (Cooke) Oud. On dock leaves. O. Veronica (Fkl.) Sacc. On field speedwell. Pachybasium Tilletii (Desm.) Oud. On dead willow leaves. Papularia spheerosperma (Pers.) v. Hohn. On reeds, Creeting & Thorpness. Penicillium candidum Link. On bread, fruit, etc. P. crustaceum Fr. On various decaying substances. Var. coremum Sacc. on starch paste. P. sparsum Grev. On putrid nettle stems. Periconia pyenospora Fresen. On old nettle stems. Polythrincium Trifolii Kze. On Trifolium repens. Ramularia acris Lind. On Ranunculus acris. R. Adoxce (Raben.) Karst. On Adoxa, Barham. R. Ajugce (Niess.) Sacc. On Ajuga. R. Alismatis Fautr. On Alisma. R. Armoratice Fkl. On horse-radish.


110

SUFFOLK MOULD AND

SMUT-FUNGI

R. beticola Fautr. & Lamb. On leaves of sugar beet. R. calcea (Desm.) Ces. On Nepeta Glechoma, Wangford (EAE), Sudbourne. R. Centaurece Lindr. On Centaurea nigra. R. Cirsii Allesch. On Cirsium arvense. R. Ă&#x;laris Fr. var. Lappce Bres. On burdock. R. Gerami (West.) Fkl. On Geranium molle, Bradwell (EAE) & on G. pusillum, Ipswich. R. Hypochceridis Magnus. On Hypochseris. R. Knautia (Mass.) Dubak. On leaves of Knautia. R. lactea (Desm.) Sacc. On leaves of Viola odorata. R. Lampsancs (Desm.) Sacc. On leaves of nipplewort. R. lychnicola Cooke. On Lychnis dioica. R. menthicola Sacc. On Mentha hirsuta. R. plantaginea Sacc. & Berk. On Plantago lanceolata. R. Plantaginis Ellis & Martin. On P. major. R. pratensis Sacc. On Rumex acetosa. R. Primulce Thum. On primrose leaves, Corton (EAE), Sudbourne. R. sambucina Sacc. On eider leaves. R. Taraxaci Karst. On dandelion leaves. R. Ulmarice Cooke. On meadowsweet. R. Urtica Ces. On Urtica dioica. R. Winteri Thum. On fading Ononis. Rhacodium cellare Pers. In cellars, Bury (H&S) Rhinotrichum Bloxami B. & Br. On rotten willow branches. R. lanosum Cooke. On damp wall-paper. R. Thwaitsii B. & Br. On bare earth. Scolecoirichum sticticum (B. & Br.) Sacc. On grass leaves. Sepedonium chrysospermum Fr. On decaying Boleti. Septocylindrium elongatisporum (Preus.) Sacc. On Urtica dioica. S. septatum (Bon.) Link. On rotten willow sticks. Sphacelia segetum Lev. On Glyceria fluitans. S. typhina Sacc. On grass culms. Sporendonema casei Desm. On cheese, Bury (H & S). Sporocybe brassicicola (B. & Br.) Sacc. On old cabbage stalks. S. calicioides Fr. On dead Anthriscus. Sporodesmium melanopum (Ach.) B. & Br. On eider and apple wood. S. myrianum Desm. On marram grass, Southwold. Sporotrichum laxum Nees. On dead vegetable matter. S. sulphureum Grev. On damp linoleum and rotten matting. Stilbella aurantiaca Bub. On elms. S. erythrocephala Ditm. On rabbits' dung, Barking. S. fasciculata Berk. On fallen elm branch in a ditch. S. fimetaria (Pers.) B. & Br. On horse dung. Stysanus stemonitis (Pers.) Corda. On dead twigs. Tetraploa aristata B. & Br. On grass culms.


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Tilachlidium tomentosum (Schrad.) Lind. On Trichia. Torula antennata Pers. On sticks, Bury (H & S) ; on ash sticks, Mendlesham. T. asperula Sacc. On Malva sylvestris at Hopton (EAE). T. graminis Desm. On Phalaris and other grasses. T. herbarum Link. On dead herbaceous stems. T. monilioides Corda. On ash, Mendlesham; Worlingham (EAE). T. ovalispora Berk. On wood, Bury (H&S). T. pulveracea Corda. On dead sticks. Trichoderma viride Pers. On dead wood, Worlingham (EAE), Baylham (R. Burn), on old Ganoderma, Mendlesham. Trichosporium fuscum (Link). Sacc. with Rosellinia aquila. On wood. T. murinum (Link) Sacc. On dead willow wood. Trichothecium roseum Link. On beech, ash and willow. Tubercularia vulgaris Tode. Common on dead sticks. Tuberculina persicina (Desm.) Sacc. O l a;cidia of Puccinia Orchidearum-Phalaridis, Hinderclay. T. Sbrozzii Curr. & Sacc. On Puccinia Vincae, Waldringfield. Verticillium agaricinum Corda. On Lactarius. V. Buxi (D.C.) B. & Br. On dead box leaves. V. distans, B. & Br. On stem of Anthriscus. V. terrestre (Pers.) Sacc. On the ground. Volutella arundinis (Desm.) Sacc. On Aira and Phalaris. V. Buxi (D. C.) B. & Br. On dead box leaves. V. ciliata Fr. Hardwick (H. & S.). V. gilva (Pers.) Sacc. On stems of Epilobium hirsutum. V. melaloma B. & Br. On sedges and grasses. V. setosa (Grev.) B. & Br. On cabbage stalks. Zygodesmus fuscus Corda. On dead beech wood. PHYCOMYCETES.

Albugo Candida (Pers.) Kze. Common on Shepherd's Purse and other crucifers. A. lepigoni de Bary. On Spergularia (Lepigonum) at Felixstowe. A. tragopogonis Pers. On Tragopogon. Bremia lactucce Reg. On lettuce and sowthistle. Empusa muscce Cohn. On dead flies. Hydrophora stercorea Tode. On horse dung, at Bury (H & S). Mucor caninus Pers. On dung of dogs and cats. M. mucedo L. Common on paste, fruit, jam, etc. M. racemosus Fresen. On decaying Agarics. Peronospora arborescens Berk. On corn-poppy. P. effusa Grev. O a Chenopodium album. P. parasitica Pers. On Shepherd's Purse. P. Schledenii Ung. On growing onions. P. vicice Berk. On leaves of pea. Phytophthora infestans Mont. Potato mould.


112

SUFFOLK MOULD AND SMUT-FUNGI

Pilobolns crystallina Tode. On cow dung, Bury (H & S) and Mendlesham. P. roridus Schum. On dung, Great Glemham (H & S). Plasmoopora nivea Ung. Parsnip mould. On various umbellifers. Pseudoperonospora Urtica Lib. On nettle leaves. Pythium de Baryanum Hesse, causing the ' damping o f f ' of seedlings. Spinellus fusiger Link. On decaying Mycena epipterygioides. Synchitrium aureum Schroet. On Plantago lanceolata and Apium nodiflorum. USTILAGINALES.

Entyloma ratiunculi (Bon.) Schrot. On RanĂźnculus Ficaria. Tilletia caries (D.C.) Tul. Bunt. On wheat. T. menieri Har. & Pat. On Phalaris arundinacea, Tuddenham Fen (R. Burn). Urocystis agropyri (Pruss.) Schrot. On Agropyron repens Brockford (EAE) and Mendlesham. U. anemones (Pers.) Wint. On Ranunculus repens at Mendlesham & Anemone nemorosa at Barking. U. occulta (Wallr.) Raben. On Agropyron junceum, Trimley (EAE). U. viola (Sav.) Fisch v. Wald. On cultivated violets, Ipswich. Ustilago grandis Fr. On reeds, Fritton (EAE) and Thorpness. U. hordei (Pers.) Lagerh. On Hordeum, Felixstowe. U. hypodytes (Schi.) Fr. On Agropyron junceum, Thorpness; on Agropyron repens & Lolium, Mendlesham. U. kuhneana Wolff. On Rumex acetosa, Freston. U. longissima (Sow.) Mey. On Glyceria fluitans, Mendlesham ; on G. aquatica, Bradwell (EAE). U. macrospora Desm. On Agropyron repens, Brockford (EAE). U. olivacea (D.C.) Tul. On Carex riparia, Oulton (H & S). U. perennans Rostr. Frequent on Arrhenatherum. U. striaformis (West.) Niessl. On Dactylis. U. tragopogi-pratensis (Pers.) Rous. On Tragopogon, Ipswich (R. Burn). U. tritici (Pers.) Rost. On wheat. U. utriculosa (Nees.) Tul. On Polygonum Hydropiper, Higham by Stratford (R. Burn). U. violacea (Pers.) Rous. On anthers of Stellaria Holostea, Freston.

Suffolk Mould- and Smut- Fungi  
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