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personal Bordshaw's.—Swine Sus scrofa, L., were everywhere : and their sow is shown in Ufford manor of Sugano, AS. suganho, sow's hill-spur, of which a second was in Alderton.—We hear little of the Horse, Equus caballus, L., in a Crowfield manor and the hamlet of Horsecroft in Horningsheath, considering that the AS. Chronicle says the Norse army was ' horsed' during 865 in EAnglia. Dies infaustus ; 26 June 1947.

THE DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK. (Cont. from p. 8.) F A M I L Y vii: C H I R O N O M I D / E . (sec. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1929, 2 8 6 . - 3 7 3 Brit. spp.) Subfamily t a n y p o d i n ^ . Pentaneura carnea, Fab. & melanops, Mg.—Both found in Newmarket garden (Collin). P. barbitarsis, Zett.—Mildenhall, taken by Edwards (Tr. Ent. Soc. 1929, 293). P. pygmaa, Wulp. (? cingulata, Wik.).—Sept. in Newmarket garden (Collin). P. brevitibialis, Gcet.— Orford (King) ; MS. (i.e. Monks* Soham) garden in May 1908. Anatopynia nebulosa, Mg.—Bentley Woods, Bawdsey, Bramford, MS. windows frequent, at light beside Fritton Lake ; Barton Mills, Lakenheath. A. notata, Mg.—Uncommon on MS. walls and windows, v-vi; Sizevvell ' gap ' on wall, 9 ix 38. A. punctata, Fab.—One on MS. window, 28 ix 1940. A. nugax, Walk.—MS. window, 21 v 1943 ; Heveningham Park on car, 6 ix 1944. A. varia, Fab.—Ipswich, W'hitton, MS. windows and on 10 ix 1945 dancing in small band six feet high in open paddock at one hour before dusk, Pakenham Fen ; sometimes noted in frost & snow. Procladius choreus, Mg.—In Newmarket garden (Collin). P. culicifurmis, L.—Southwold salts on Reeds, 20 iv 1910 ; Brandon staunch, 25 viii 06. P. lugens, Kief.—One ? taken at Timworth, circa 1913 (Col. Nurse). Diamesa obscurimana, Mg.—Manv busily Aying over stream in Bentley Woods, 3 May 1902; Easton Broad. Newmarket garden (Collin).



Subfamily ORTHOCLADIINJE. Metriocnemus longitarsus, Gcet.—A pair, not in cop., on golden Sallow-blossom at noon in sun, Bentley Woods 28 March 1940. M. fuscipes, Mg.—Ipswich, a single ? at light 22 April 1895, another swept Reeds there on 16th ; a third at M S . window 19 April 1932. Cricotopus tricinctus, Mg.—Ipswich in 1895, Southwold, Uggeshall 1938 ; Mildenhall (Edwards), abundant in Brandon marshes. C. bicincius, Mg.—MS. garden ; profuse in Southwold salts, and at Brandon staunch in v 1929 & vi 1914, T u d d e n h a m Fen ; Newmarket garden (Collin). C. motitator, L. & C. annulipcs, Mg.—Both species in Newmarket garden (Collin). C. obtexens, Walk.—Newmarket in March or April (Verrall). Spaniotoma nitidicollis, Walk.—May-June : Ipswich in 1893, Monks Soham garden and on 20 April 1929 S S dancing in a cloud, along with C. Aprilinus, beside the moat there ; South wold, Frostenden ; always abundant at Brandon staunch in June. S. obvia, Walk.—Aldeburgh by Mr. F. Jenkinson (Edwards). S. perennix, Mg. (novatus, Walk).—A pair in cop. on Monks Soham lawn at 7 p.m. on 18 April 1913. S. pigra, Gcet.—Monks Soham in Feb. 1938-1942 in clouds of a dozen (Trans, iv, 124). S. aterrima, Mg.—Several at Monks Soham house-windows on 24 Feb. 1939 (I.e.). S. variabilis, Stg. & minima, Mg.—Both in Newmarket garden, latter in April and Sept. (Collin). S. triplicata, Edw.—Suffolk (Edwards), presumably at Mildenhall. S. truncorum, Goet.—Taken at Mildenhall (Edwards). S. stercoraria, DeG. (byssinus, Sehr.)—Swept from herbage at Ipswich, and Bentley Woods in July 1897 ; often profuse at Monks Soham house-light; in cop. on herbage at Frostenden in 1937. Newmarket garden (under both names, Collin). Corynoneura majuscula, Edw. & coronata, Edw.—The androtypes of both species were captured, with females, at Mildenhall on 25 Sept. 1916 ( E M M . 1924, 183). Subfamily CLUNIONIN.'E. Thalassomyia Frauenfeldi, Schin.—' Coasts of Cornwall, Devon, Somerset and Suffolk ' only, in Britain—singular distribution ! : since our detailed account at Dunwich and Gorleston (Trans. S N S . i, 212), it-has occurred also at Easton Broad & as far south as Bawdsey. Subfamily CHIRONOMIN^E. Pentapedilum flavipes, Mg.—Doubtless abundant : Fen Sept. 1915, Brandon July 1927.




Chironomus tentans, Fab.—Newmarket garden (Collin), and abundant there (Verrall). C. plumosus, Linn.—Ubiquitous f r o m Sudbury (Harwood) to Beiton Heath (Trans, ii, p. xxxii), 10 April-6 June & 7-16 Sept. : dance in clouds six feet f r o m ground an hour before dusk, singly pairing off with as at 6 p.m. on 18 April 1914: Ipswich, Bramford, Monks Soham, Oulton Broad, Fritton, W o r t h a m ; Tostock (Tuck), &c. Larva; in Fritton marsh (Trans, iv, p. cvi). C. inermifrons, Gcet.—This seems the species abounding in Norfolk Broads in early June : Fritton Lake at moth-light on 30 May 1937, many on Gorleston pales 24 May 1936. C. Aprilinus, Mg.—Profuse, 11-20 A p r i l : Claydon, Blakenham, Monks Soham windows, on brackish reeds round Southwold and Gorleston palings. C. riparius, Mg.—Commonly on brackish water-weeds at W h e r stead in March, Whitton ; Southwold in Sept. Causes G n a t ' s Glue at Oulton (Trans, iii, 187). C. dorsalis, M g . — M o s t of the year ; it causes ' H u m m i n g in the Air ' ( E M M . 1912, 2 6 1 ) : Sudbury (Harwood), dancing like above C. plumosus over Monks Soham moat, e.g. on 11 May 1916 when, of one pair kept alive, the was dead on 12th morning but the $ then so füll of vitality as to resist the f u m e s of streng cyanide-bottle for ^-hour ; Fritton and one $ on Gorleston pales as late as 29 Nov. 1932. C. paganus, M g . — O n Monks Soham window 2~May 1944. C. pseudotener, Gcet.—This is the Gnat whose rf are recorded as ' h u m m i n g in the air ' a n d pairing in their columnar dance at 7.30 p.m. on 22 v 1913 ( E M M . 1912, 259). C. nigriviridis, W u l p . — N u m e r o u s , with the above C. Aprilinus, on Southwold brackish-reeds on 20 April 1910. C. amiularius, D e G . — T h i s is probably the white-cincture-bodied species always so prevalent at Southwold, Reydon, Buss Creek, Easton Broad, &c, April-Sept. : on 17 April 1937 it was sitting on beach-huts and dancing at dusk there numerously. C. supplicans, Mg.—Aldeburgh by Mr. F. Jenkinson (Edwards). C. incertus, W a l k . — H u m m i n g in columnar aerial dance and pairing before dusk, e.g. at Monks Soham on 22 May 1913 : Staverton Thicks, Southwold, Reydon, Walberswick, Frostenden ; by the Waveney at Diss. C. cingulatus, M g . — T h i s seems the species occurring commonly on coast sand-hills at Kessingland in early May, in Monks Soham garden, and Aying before dusk in Walberswick salts. C. crystallina, D e G . — L a r v a ; in Fritton Marsh (Trans, iv, p. cvi). C.vulneratus, Zett.—Green, with black anus, June-July : Ipswich, on Whitton pales, dancing commonly over Monks Soham moat on 5 June 1919 ; Brandon staunch. C. Bungayensis, Verr.—Taken by its author at this Suffolk town (? M S . name).



C. dispar, Mg.—Common, 25 March-16 April: Bentley Woods, Washbrook, Wherstead, Ipswich at light in 1895, Bramford ; dancing six feet over Monks Soham lawn on 15 April 1933'. C. rufipes, Linn.—Sparse, swept marsh-herbage, sometimes on pales, June-Aug. : Sudbury (Harwood), Sproughton, Blakenham, Claydon, Monks Soham. [Found numerously only in Trowse bog near Norwich on 6-7 Aug. 1931 & in Cotswolds.] C. Jasciipennis, Zett.—Newmarket by Collin (Edwards). C. albimanus, Mg.—Monks Soham in June 1914; multitudinous at moth-lights by Fritton Lake in May and Aug. 1939 ; Newmarket garden in May (Collin). C. pedellus, DeG.—Abdomen white in life ; frequent doubtless : Orford (King), Monks Soham, Southwold on 9 Sept. 1921 • Brandon on 30 Aug. 1931. C. Chloris, Mg.—Abundant on reeds in Ipswich marshes, 8 April6 May 1898-1904 ; Newmarket garden, in May (Collin). C. nigrimanus, Stg.—Flying commonly over MS. moat 5 vi 1919. C. viridis, Mcq.—Totally pale apple-green ; extremely abundant in May-June on Monks Soham windows and dancing in garden, at 7 p.m. on 1 June 1934 ; a ? at light on 15 June 1931. C. spp.—I possess just twelve unnamed kinds of this genus from Suffolk : many more remain to be discovered. It has never been adequately worked here.—C.M. Tanytarsus inopertus, Walk.—Captured at Mildenhall (Edwards, Tr. Ent. Soc. 1929, 410). F A M I L Y viii: C E R A T O P O G O N I D / E . (sec. Edwards, T r . Ent. Soc. 1926, p. 392.—120 Brit. spp.) Forcipomyia ciliata, Winn.—Wherever a specimen of these 1 biting' Midges appears, its species is invariably present in hundreds, so gregariously do they breed : hence relative frequency is superfluous to indicate in this Family.—Running on housewindows at Monks Soham and Southwold from 20 April to 19 Sept. ; sometimes on ash-trees at former in August Newmarket garden (Collin). F. bipunctata, Linn.—On Monks Soham house-windows 15 May21 Aug., sometimes in paddock fly-trap, and on 18 Aug. 1917 beaten in cop. from ash in garden. F. tcnuisquama, Kff.—Half-smothering the light of a Monks Soham second storey bedroom window at 6 p.m. on 14 July 1924. F. nigra, Winn.—Newmarket garden in June (Collin). F. brevipennis, Mcq.—Taken at Ipswich in 1897 (in coli. Mly). [Louth, Lines. 9 June 1912.] F. regulus, Winn.—On Monks Soham house-window 17 Aue. s 1929. F. myrmecophila, Egg.—Bentley Woods (EMM. 1897, 49 & 50); larvje at Foxhall-, 3 April 1904 (Tr. Norf. Soc. 1915, Suppl. 19). [Puparia numerous under felled Scots pine bark in Matley Bog, New Forest, on 22 June 1934 ; imagines



emerged 25th (Treasurer Elliott). Again similarly there on 10 June 1936 ; alone emerged at 1.0 p.m. on 20th.] F. picea, Winn.—Newmarket garden (Collin). F. radicicola, Edw.—On Monks Soham house-window 16 Aug. 1928 ; in cop. on willow in garden there at sundown on 24 May 1928. Dasyhelea polita, Edw.—On Monks Soham house-window 9 Sept. 1920. [Shapwick peat-moor in Somerset, July 1933.] D. versicolor, W i n n — O f f i c e Wood in Eyke on 20 Aug. 1917 ; Newmarket garden in July 1901 (Verrall). [A $ at top of Croagh Patrick in Ireland, 14 July 1910.] Culicoides chiopterus, Mg.—Often on Monks Soham housewindows, as 23 May 1916 ; and on 15 June 1923 masses of • them were dancing together in the air in the garden there. C. obsoletus, Mg. (varius, W 7 inn.)—Semi-torpid 2 $ bumped against me in Monks Soham study on 1 & 19 Nov. 1922 ; Newmarket garden (Collin). C. vexans, Staig.—Masses on ground-storey windows, e.g. on 14 Aug. 1924 at 6 p.m., at Monks Soham. C. minutissimus, Zett.—Masses on second-storey windows, 27 May-3 Oct., at Monks Soham. This and the three last species are those terrific puncturing Midges that render a peaceful summer evening's siesta beside stagnant water unendurable : though nearly invisible to the lay eye. T h e virulence of their wound is in ratio to the condition of the subject's blood. C. circumscriptus, K f f — F e m a l e s flew to moth-light beside Fritton Lake on 9 Aug. 1934. C. nubeculosus, Mg.—Abundant at Aldeburgh on 6 Sept. 1907 (Verrall). C. pictipennis, Staeg.—Newmarket garden (Collin). C. arcuatus, W i n n — T h e worst puncturer—they have no teeth, so cannot bite—on Monks Soham lawns, also on windows there 3 May-9 S e p t . ; Southwold salts and Blythbro Wood in mid-Sept. ; ? ? flew to moth-light in Wangford Wood on 12 May 1938. C. pulicaris, Linn.—Common in SufTolk (Collin) ; swept in Oulton Broad, Sept. 1913. [Cromer, Norfolk, Sept. 1926.] Ceratopogon crassinervis, Edw. & lacteipennis, Zett.—Both sexes on Monks Soham house-windows, the former in Aug.-Sept. ^nd latter on 10 Oct. 1929. C. frutetorum, Winn.—Newmarket garden (Collin). Serromyia femorata, Fab.—Everywhere in swamps, 18 May-21 June Bramford, Staverton, Monks Soham in cop. on a bullace leaf on 27 May 1930, and only once at ground-floor window on 26 July 1915 ; Oulton Broad. T u d d e n h a m Fen, Eriswell marshes, and always galore at Brandon staunch ; Newmarket garden (Collin). [W. Leake in Notts, Wicken Fen in Cambs, Wood Fidley in New Forest, Shalfleet in I.W. ; Aberystwyth in Wales ; Killarney.]



Palpomyia luteifemora, Edw.—Monks Soham, rarely noticed on ground-floor windows, 4 May-26 July. P. armipes, Mg.—Certainly.occurs in our Broads : I have taken it at Horning (Tr. Ent. Soc. 1926, 421). P. serripes, Mg.—On Monks Soham house-windows, usually at 3 p.m., 18 July-6 Oct. [Horning, Norfolk.] P. ephippium, Zett.—Staverton Thicks 26 vi 1923 ; always profuse in Brandon marshes in June. Bezsia calceata, Hai.—' Aldborough (Collin)'—Tf. Ent. Soc. 1926, 423. B. ornata, Mg.—Swept from aquatic plants at Easton Broad, 20 Sept. 1928 : doubtless general. [W. Matlock in Derby; Windermere Lake.] [This Family and the preceding one have never yet been adequately identified here ; we need some astute young Dipterist to accord them particular attention : material is Legion ! Hence we have no more than the very poor totals of 71 species out of 373 British Chironomidas ; & 29 out of 120 Ceratopogonidse.—C.M.,. Aug. 1947.] FAMILY ix: SIMULIID^. (sec. Smart, Freshwater Biol. Assoc. 1944, p. 1.—19 Brit. spp.) Simulium equinum, Linn.—Timworth, W. Stow, Ampton, Icklingham and Bamham (Nurse : Edwards in Bul. Ent. Research 1915, 37). S. latipes, Mg.—Innocuous, never approaches one's person; apparently local : several on Digitalis purpurea in Cutlers Wood at Freston, 2 vii 1S04 ; annually uncommon on MS. windows from at latest 18 iv to 10 vi, once Aying in cop. in sun on 25 iv 1914 in garden, where a dozen $$ were dancing together in the air on 9 v 1929. Orford (King); Timworth, W, Stow. Ampton, Livermere (Nurse); Brandon on only 23 iv 1S04. S. angustitarsis, Lnd.—Rare : several at Foxhall swept from ditches. on 4 iv 1896 & 31 iii 1898, ' near Ipswich ; Mildenhall' by Col. Yerbury (EMM. 1915, 203). S. aureum, Fries.—Barton Mills (loc. cit.). S. eryihrocephalum, DeG.—First Britishers were taken at Tuddenham ; later at Barton Mills, Newmarket and Bungay (Verrall). Ampton, W. Stow, Fakenham (Nurse) ; Brandon (Edwards). A $ on lime-leaf in Monks Soham garden, 24 May lc,03. S. variegatum, Mg.—Thirty or forty dancing in a thin cloud at six feet over marsh at Temple Bridge in Icklingham 7 vi 1947. S. ornatum, Mg.—Very rare in east Suffolk : one swept Reeds at Foxhall 31 iii 1CJ02 ; one Aying in Ash Bocking 10 iv 1934 ; one on MS. window 7 v 1936. In west: Ampton, W. Stow and Tuddenham (Nurse) ; Newmarket (Verrall, Bul. Ent. Research 1915, 29) ; and on Knettishall Heath puncturing me in thousands on 21 May 1941 (Mly).



S. morsitans, Edw.—Fakenham, ? ? only (EMM. 1915, 303). This genus is said to convey the skin-disease termed Pellagra (Nature 1910, 169). S. reptans, Linn.—Bamham and Fakenham (Col. Nurse). Needs confirmation. S. Nolleri, Frds.—Profuse in Staverton Thicks 18 viii 1931 ; $ in Thelnetham Fen 25 vi 1944. S. venustum, Say.—Always in myriads upon the aridest Breckheaths, yet larvae of this genus are aquatic (Tr. Ent. Soc. 1902, 701). Bamham (EMM. 1915, 308), Tuddenham Fen, Barton Mills, Brandon, &c, in the Breck. At the last it has been noted from 1896 to 1940 during 24 iv to 27 ix, attacking one most usually at the inner eye-corner with a puncture that becomes painful with bed-warmth the next night but varying much in intensity in different subjects : Treasurer Elliott was peculiarly susceptible. There several were attracted to moth-lamps at midnight on 22 vii 1937. [This shows 11 species to be indigenous, out of 19 in Britain of which several are exclusively attached to mountains or violent torrents utterly lacking in Suffolk.] F A M I L Y x : BIBIONID/E. (sec. Edwards, Annais Applied Biology 1925, p. 264.-19 Brit. spp.) Bibio pomona, Fab.—Vastly rarer, or overlooked, than in Hants and Cumberland ; always July : ' Woolpit in May (Razor ' : sie); Southwold on 20 July 1901. B. Marci, Linn.—Ubiquitous, abundant in May-early June only : Sudbury (Harwood), Assington Thicks, Ipswich ; MS. in cop. on 7 May ISO'9, 9 May 1940, &c ; Monk-park Wood, Word well, Beck-row in Mildenhall, Brandon. B. leueopterus, Mg.—April-May : Dodnash Wood, Belstead ; Ipswich (Bennett); common at Monks Soham in 1940 ; Ampton and W. Stow (Nurse), Mildenhall (Harwood), common in Newmarket garden (Verrall). B. hortulanus, Linn.—Copious in May and late April: Sudbury (Harwood), Ipswich (Bennett) where it abounds on Charophyllum flowers and is often in cop., e.g. 20 May 1896 ; Blythbro Wood ; Tostock (Tuck), Timworth (Nurse), Mildenhall, Brandon. B. Anglicus, Verr.—Commoner yet, late April-early June : Sudbury garden (Harwood), about Ipswich, Melton, Wickham Market, Monks Soham in cop. at 8 a.m. on 6 June 1937 and frequent in Sisymbrium flowers ; Timworth (Nurse), Icklingham in cop. on 28 May 1929, Brandon. B. ferruginatus, Gmel.—Taken near Ipswich in 1908 (Bennett). Needs confirmation. B. reticulatus, Lw.—Confined to wood-glades, mid-April to late May : Raydon woods in 1941, always common in Bentley



woods ; Ampton and W. Stow (Nurse), Mildenhall (Harwood). B. nigriventris, Hai.—Uncommon, May : Felixstow, Belstead, Ipswich, Barking Wood in 1941, Framlingham; Timworth, Ampton, Fakenham (Nurse), Mildenhall (Harwood). B. variipes, Mg.—May, apparently rare : Ipswich in 1899 (Platten), Orford (King), Ampton (Nurse). Monk-park Wood, &c. B. laniger, Mg.—In woods, common late-April to early June : Raydon, Dodnash, Bentley, Wherstead ; Ipswich (Bennett), Parham Wood, Thelnetham, Monk-park Wood in 1901, W. Stow in 1936 ; Timworth (Nurse), Tuddenham Fen. B. Johannis, Linn.—Ubiquitous, much our commonest species, often in cop. about 20 April. Captured by Formica fusca at Foxhall, and Spider on Sizewell denes. B. lacteipennis, Zett.—Doubtless overlooked : noted only in Tuddenham Fen 1916. B. lepidus, Lw.—Latest species, 23 Sept.-2 Nov. : Bentley Woods, where were dancing 5 feet high in sun in marsh on 13 Oct. 1940; Ipswich by Orwell on 24 Oct. 1895 ; rarely on Monks Soham windows; Blythbro Wood, abundant at Easton Bavents bridge 1920 ; a $ Aying 6 feet high (Trans, iii, p. lxv). B. clavipes, Mg.—Normally an August species, locally common : Foxhall, Bentley Woods in 1895, Ipswich, many at Fridaystreet in Eyke 1917, Lowestoft; Tuddenham (Nurse). Dilophus febrilis, Linn.—Profuse onflowers,said to be doublebrooded : abundant at Sudbury (Harwood), Bentley Woods in cop. 13 May, Foxhall, Ipswich, Monks Soham on Angelica fl. and in Aug. in cop. on Acacia, Saxstead several in cop. on 2 Sept., Easton cliff, Pakefield commonly in cop. in Aug., Corton ; Tostock & Bury (Tuck), Ampton (Nurse) ; Brandon staunch in cop. on 8 Aug. On 27 Aug. a $ was being sucked by Spilogaster sp. (t. Austin) at MS. ; on 22 Aug. Stenton took a fj carrying the beetle Cercyon analis, Mk. D. femoratus, Mg.—No less numerous and general, in May-June : Sudbury (Harwood), Bentley Woods, on Foxhall flowers, common in those of buttercups at Monks Soham, in cop. at Wortham Ling on 9 June 1900, rarely on Pakefield cliff, Bungay; Tostock (Tuck), Ampton (Nurse); Lackford. D. humeralis, Zett.—Felixstow on 19 May 1897, apparently rare \ Ampton (Nurse), Southwold, Tangham Forest and by the River Deben (Edwards 1925). D. bispinosus, Lund.—I took the first British example, misnamed ternatus, Lw., in Norfolk in 1903 (EMM. 1904, 60); others on hazel in Wangford Wood near Southwold on 13 Sept. 1912, and on bracken in Staverton Thicks on 20 Aug. 1917 (Morley). Edwards in 1925 knew two indigenous specimens, taken at Boyton and Tangham Forest on 27-29 Aug. 1907.



Family x i : SCATOPSID/E. <sec. Edwards in Ann. App. Biol. 1925, p. 264.—30 Brit. spp.) Ecteetia clavipes, Lw.—Orford (King), Baylham, Aying as lively as Phorce on Monks Soham windows in June-Aug.; on limesbark in Newmarket garden (Collin). Aldrovandella halterata, Mg.—Thousands on dead grass-flowers, probably Zett.'s Alopecura geniculata, Foxhall marshes on 13 Aug. 1504-. A. coxendix, Verr.—Boyton, Orford and Barton Mills (Verrall). Psectrosciara Talpce, Verr.—Some numbers about willow-trunks at Barton Mills in June 1911 (Collin) ; hundreds there on 24 Aug. 1900, on Angelica flowers. P. soluta, Low.—Ubiquitous on windows and Heracleum flowers, May-Aug. : Easton cliff, in cop. and gregarious at 60 ft. on Monks Soham church tower-top on 5 Aug. 1917 ; Beccles. Swammerdamia brevicornis, Mg.—Common on Monks Soham windows in May & Aug. ; Southwold beach shelters and on Aster tripolium, Easton Broad and Buss Creek in Sept. Scatopse albitarsis, Zett.—Doubtless common : Newmarket garden (Collin). [Skegness, vi 1912.—CM.] S. bullata, Edw.—Many on a tree trunk near Thetford, 17 June 1880 (EMM. xii, 180). S. incompleta, Verr.—In the neighbourhood of Mildenhall, Suffolk (Edwards 1925, p. 274). S. nigripennis, Mg.—Single $$ on Monks Soham window at 8 a.m. on 18 May 1940 & in car at Earls Soham 19 Sept. 1942. S. notata, Linn.—Profuse and gregarious everywhere, March to May & Sept.-17 Nov. : Felixstow, Bawdsey, Ipswich, Claydon, Monks Soham at light, Framlingham on oak-trunks, Southwold, Ellough in cop. (cf. Trans, iv, 125), Lowestoft, in sun on sand at Hopton cliff, &c. S. flavicollis, Mg.—Rare and local: an ovipositing $ on Polyporus in Tattingstone Park, 16 Sept. 1903 ; occasionally swept and on Birch in Blythbro Wood in Sept.; Brandon staunch. S. picea, Mg. (scutellata, Lw.)—Common generally, especially on Monks Soham windows in Oct. and birch in Blythbro Wood. S. geniculata, Zett.—Noted at only Brandon staunch, where it abounded on 20-22 June 1914 & 10 Sept. 1915. Excepting a pair in cop. on MS. windows on 18 viii 1944. Unlike the majority of Insects, which are wont to ride pickaback while pairing, the Scatopsidae run about tail to tail at that time. Many Arachnids ' but few Insects' legs are formed to run backwards. In the present case S. geniculata will reverse with the greatest ease, as first the $ and then the q runs ahead with the other rapidly reversing behind.—CM. S. bifilata, Hai.—Taken on a Monks Soham window 5 xi 1944 (EMM. 1945, 99).



S. fuscipes, Mg.—Frequently on Monks Soham windows in Aug.Sept. ; Lowestoft. S. minutissima, Verr.—Apparently rare, a coast insect: in Gisleham sand-pit on 18 Sept. 1929. Anarete candidata, Hai.—A swarm in Mr. Verrall's Newmarket garden, July 1889 (Collin). Pertains to Cecidomyiidse. [Hence we possess all the 19 British Bibi'onidae, excepting B. venosus, Mg., which I found common in Ireland during 1913. And 17 of the 30 Scatopsidas.] FAMILY xii : P U L I C I D i F . — F L E A S . (sec. N. C. Rothschild in E M M . 1915, p. 49 ; 1935, p. 182. 46 Brit. spp.) Xenopsylla Cheopis, Roth.—Quite sure to occur on the Black Rats that live by Ipswich, Lowestoft and Southtown docks. Bearer of bubonic plague. Pulex irritans, Linn.—Suffolk (Strickland & Merriman, Parasitology vi, 1913, p. 13) ; only too common in houses everywhere. Once found in Ipswich on cart-horses, whence Mr. Platten took a dozen at Bramford in April. Archceopsylla Erinacei, Bche.—Ipswich (Bennett) ; numerous on a just-dead Hedgehog in Bentley Woods on 28 April 1895 (Ent. Ree. vii, 154) ; Martlesham (Parasit. I.e.). Ctenocephalus Canis, Curt.—Profuse here on both Cats and Dogs whence it does rarely attack Man ; Ipswich, Monks Soham, &c (Mly), Kesgrave, Tuddenham (Parasit. I.e., p. 14). Cf. Henslow, Gard. Chron. 1851, p. 749. Epilopsyllus Cuniculi, Dale (gonioeephalus, Tsch.),—On Rabbits, never seen on Hare : Newmarket (Collin), Brandon in June 1903 (Chitty), abundant in burrows on Breck there, on heaths at Staverton and rarely fallen into Red Crag pits at Foxhall and Pleistocene sand pit at Gisleham. Ceratophyllus Styx, Roth.—Two in a sand-pit at Foxhall on 17 April 1904. C. Hirundinis, Curt.—Felixstow', Levington, Ipswich, Thorndon, Westleton, Reydon, in Gisleham sand-pit, Corton, on 22 May 1932 hundreds were sitting at mouth of Sand Martins' holes in Red Crag pit at Butley mills ; it often clings to their nests long after desertion. C. Farreni, Roth.—Discovered, new to Science, in a WoodPigeon's nest at Mildenhall in 1905. C. Gallince, Sehr.—Abundant on domestic Fouls everywhere, especially noticed on my gardener's at Monks Soham in Oct. 1904 and later. C. fasciatus, Bosc.—Suffolk (Parasit. 1913, p. 8): once in an Ipswich house in Sept.



C. Sciurorum, Sehr—Copdock in 1901 (Hocking); on fungus in Fir-wood and in sand-pit at Foxhall in 1896 ; sifted from Bracken debris in Bentley Woods* in May. C. penicilliger, Grb.—Frequent everywhere, e.g. Norfolk, on Field Mice ; but not yet actually identified from Suffolk. C. IValkeri, Roth, and C. Mustelce, Dale.—Found in both Suffolk and Essex (Strickland & Merriman in Parasit, vi, 1913, 12-13). Ctenophthalmus agyrtes, Hell.—Suffolk (I.e., p. 11) : beaten from Scots-fir in Bentley Woods 1899 (Platten), on House Mouse in Ipswich 1902 & several in Field Mouse's empty nest at Monks Soham 1905 (Mly), in Mole's nest at Icklingham in early May 1907 (Chitty). C. 16-dentatus, Kol.—One on a Rat in east Suffolk (Bloomfield) ; Bentley and Hollesley (Parasit. 1913, p. 14). Rhadinopsylla pentacanthus, Roth.—Boxford, Walton and Tuddenham (I.e. 1913, p. 13). Palaopsylla Sorecis, Dale (gracilis, Suff. List).—Once on a Rat at Sweffling (loc. cit. 1913, p. 15); two or three in deserted Field Mouse's nest in Bentley Woods on 30 Nov. 1901 ; on House Mouse in Ipswich. P. minor, Dale. Found only once on both Rat and Staat (Parasit. 1913, p. 15). Leptopsylla Musculi, Dug.—Common everywhere on House Mouse : Suffolk (1. c. 1913, p. 13). Hystrichopsylla Talpa, Curt.—Hollesley and, just over our south border, at Dedham (1. c., p. 14). In sand-pit at Ipswich on 25 April 1897 (Elliott); not rare in tufts of winter grass at Bentley Woods, once in deserted Field Mouse's nest at Ipswich, several on dead Rats and in Mole-runs at Monks Soham, and in Gisleham sand-pit. [Which shows only 21 species recorded hence, out of 46 in Britain.] " Where Chamber is sweeped and w o r m w o o d is strowne N o Flea, for his life, dare abide to be knowne." T u s s e r of Cattawade, 1573. * T h e r e on 4 M a r c h 1900 I found a drev of Sciurus vulgaris in a young oak-tree, whence M r . Platten pulled it down. Inside were two small Squirrels, hairless except on the muzzle with pink fleshy bodies and tails, their eyes not yet open. T h e y squealed as we picked f r o m their skin several of these Fleas (later named, with all others taken by me before 1915, by H o n . N . C. Rothschild some of whose traps I set in these woods), which ran about on it somewhat fast, but made no attempt to escape by leaping : m o r e would doubtless have been found by bringing the nest home, but we left her uninjured progeny for M o t h e r Squirrel to succour as best she might.—Claude Morley.

The Diptera of Suffolk: Families vii Chironomidae to xii Pulicidae  
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