Page 1

28

THE ASCOMYCETES OF SUFFOLK

C. pini (A. & S.) Karst. On pine needles, Fritton (EAE). Colpoma quercinum (Pers.) Wallr. Common on young oak branches. Phacidium multivalve (D. C.) K. & S. On dead holly leaves. Rhytisma acerinum (Pers.) Fr. Common on sycamore leaves. R. salicinum Pers. Common on willow leaves. Stegia ilicis Fr. Common on dead holly leaves. Trochila craterium (D. & C.) Fr. On dead ivy leaves. T. laurocerasi (Desm.) Fr. On dead leaves of cherry-laurel. GYMNOASCE/E.

Exoascus deformans (Berk.) Fkl. On living leaves of Almond, Thwaite. E. turgidus Sadeb. Causes " witches' broom " on Birch trees, Foxhall.

THE BRITISH DISTRIBUTION OF PHYGADEUON, WITH SOME SPECIES NEW TO SCIENCE. B Y CLAUDE M O R L E Y , F . E . S . ,

F.G.S.,

F.Z.S.

THE known ränge of probably no genus among our Parasitic Flies has been so fully extended, since the publication forty years ago of my ' Ichneumonologia Britannica,' as Phygadeuon which IS one of the more typical Cryptid groups. Collectors are still sparse, but several correspondents have most kindly sent me matenal of varying extent ; and I myself have worked a majority of the English counties, with certain districts of Wales, Scotland and Ireland. T h e result demonstrates these beneficial little Hymenoptera to be practically omnipresent, in degree of frequency according to their species ; and this is just what would be expected, since they are well known to prey upon and slay (at least an uncertain proportion of) the noxious 4775 kinds of two-winged Dipterous Flies that have been actually recorded as existing in Britain. The specimens in my collection were discovered at the attached localities, here arranged as radiating from Suffolk SW. to Wales and NW. to Scotland and Ireland. Where no captor's name has been affixed, the record is my own. 1 Phygadeuon bitinctus, G m e l . - O n the wing 24 v-2 x. SUFFOLK (new to Suffolk, cf. Trans, iii, p. 148): Swilland, Monks Soham, Brandon staunch (Ernest A. Elliott) ; SURREY : many at Shere (in coli. Dr. Edw. Capron); H A N T S : New Forest; DEVON : Bickleigh & Exeter (ex coli. C. G. Bigneil) ; L I N C S : Louth. 2 P. rufulus, Gmel. (for synonymy of Medophron mger, ct. Pfankuch, Abh. Nat. Verh. Bremen 1904, p. 140).—7 vi-4 ix.


THE BRITISH DISTRIBUTION OF PHYGADEUON

29

: Ipswich, Monks Soham ( $ ? very retiring, once taken running at roots of long grass in paddock, 17 vi 1941), Badingham, Tostock & Bungay ( W . H. T u c k ) ; SURREY : Chobham (Alfred Beaumont), Woking (Edward Saunders); H A N T S : Southampton (Rev. H. S . Gorham), Lyndhurst; W I L T S : Nunton near Salisbury (Rev. T . A. Marshall*); D E V O N : Devonport, one in April SUFFOLK

1 8 9 5 ( P h i l i p d e l a G a r d e ) ; MONMOUTH : G o v i l o n a n d NORTHANTS :

Bugbrook and L E I C E S T E R (Marshall) ; SCOTLAND : Nethy Bridge (Col.Yerbury); IRELAND : Poyntzpass, Armagh (Rev.W. F. Johnson). 3. P. nycthemerus, Gr.—24 vi-20 ix. S U F F O L K : singly, sitting on dead ash-bark at Ashfield-Thorp and attracted to moth-light at night beside Fritton Lake ; S U R R E Y : Shere (Capron); W I L T S : swept from hedge-bottom near Salisbury. 4. P. Londinensis, sp. nov.f—One $ Aying in light rain up and down, and settling upon, the bark of an oak, tenanted by Sesia asiliformis, in Hyde Park on 7 July 1908 (Dr. Cockayne). 5. P. speculator, Gr.—8 iv-19 x. S U F F O L K : Ipswich, Monks Soham Aying about Aphis crataegi to very likely attack Syrphuslarvae, Southwold, Tostock (Tuck), Tuddenham Fen, Barton Mills on pine, Brandon heath ; LONDON : Acton (Dr. Stanley Kemp) ; SOMERSET : Redland near Bristol (J. H. Charbonnier). In sun and NW. breeze, I took running on Gorleston sea-cliA on 19 iv 1936 an unrecorded micropterous form (distinct from all those at Ent. Record 1908, p. 35, in having its terebra distinctly a little longer than half abdomen) of undoubtedly this species, from the macropterous one of which it diAers in nothing but the stouter Ave basal Aagellar joints and narrower wings, which extend only to centre of second abdominal segment (cf. Trans, supra iii, 187). 6. P. sodalis, Tasch.—4 vi is my only date. S U F F O L K : swept from herbage at Brandon staunch on 4 vi 1903 (G. H. Verrall); H E R T S : Felden (Albert PiAard)'; SURREY : Shere (Capron); GLAM : St. Fagans, circa 1940 (G. S. Kloet). 6a. P. procerus, Gr.—Omit from British list; no data sincel907. 7. P. Heinemanni, F s t . — $ still unassociated. 8 vi-vii. NORFOLK : Stalham Broad (E. A. Newbery); H E R T S : Felden (PiAard) ; SURREY : a dozen at Shere (Capron); H A N T S : Hursthill in New Forest; N O T T S : Sherwood Forest (Willoughby Ellis). * He wrote his localities under each specimen in an abbreviated form, which cryptic form is exactly printed by Prof. Kieffer in his European Proctotrypida; and, though fully explained by me (Entomologist 1915, p. 23), foolishly persists in the Entomological Society's T r a n s . 1945, pp. 3 5 - 2 2 6 . — C . ' M . t A P.nycethemero differt : Head posteriorly less buccate, with face and clypeus and cheeks black. Notauli longer ; metanotum finer punctured, shining, with apophyses strong and areola as broad as long. 2nd and 3rd Segments basally rufescent. Hind femora with infuscate discal striga. Areolet m u c h smaller ; nervellus intercepted higher. 2 mcog.—C.M.


30

THE BRITISH DISTRIBUTION OF PHYGADEUON

8. P. Gravenhorsti, Fst.—16 vii-29 viii. S U F F O L K : Tostock, in nest of Bombus hortorum, L. (Tuck), Tuddenham Fen ; SURREY : 5 at Shere (Capron); S C O T L A N D : swept at Gretna (in coli. James Murray, now Carlisle Mus. (teste C. M.). 9 P vagans, Gr.—22 v-5 x ; not rare on Heracleum & Carrot flowers' S U F F O L K : Bentley Woods, Wherstead, Westleton, Wenhaston, Southwold (Tuck), Benacre Park, Sotterley Wood, Depden, Tuddenham Fen (Arthur J. Chitty), Mildenhall; K E N T : Blean Woods ; S U R R E Y : Greenings near E. Gnnstead in 1871 (Wilson Saunders), Shere (Capron), Abinger Hammer (E. A. Butler); H A N T S : Matley Bog in NF. ; SOMERSET : Bristol (Charbonnier) ; G L O S : Gloucester (coli. Peter Cameron, t. C.M.); L I N C S : Scotton near Gainsborough (Rev. A. Thornley); N O T T S : Sherwood Forest in viii 1914; C U M B E R L : Ullswater (Elliott); S C O T L A N D : Glasgow district (A. A. Dalglish), Cadder Wilderness (Cameron, t. C.M.). 10 P rusticellce, Bridg.—Hibernates, 7 vui-29 v. S U F F O L K (new to Suffolk) : Baylham 4 ix 17 & on Heracleum flower at Monks Soham 7 viii 28 ; SURREY : five at Shere (Capron); H A N T S : in garden fly-trap at Lyndhurst (Fred. C. Adams) ; W O R C S : Malvern (Gorham); Y O R K S : a pair floating on water with - Clothes Moths ' in Leeds on 25 March 1914 (Demson Roebuck). 11. P. nigulosus, Gr.—Frequent on country-house windows, 11 v-11 viii. S U F F O L K : Monks Soham seen nowhere but windows, Southwold, on Mildenhall heath ; SUSSEX : Hastings (W W . Esam); H A N T S : Ryde, Lyndhurst & Aying at Cossus-oak in Denny Wood, NF. on 2 3 vi 3 4 ; W I L T S : Bodenham downs near Salisbury 2 1 vii 3 8 ; SOMERSET : Redland (Charbonnier); D E V O N : O ? investigating Wormwood near Plymouth (Bigneil); C O R N W : with Crabro Wesmaeli at St. Issey ( C . H. Davies); IRELAND : Dalkey near Dublin on 2 vii 1 3 . JERSEY (coli. Cameron). 12 P. Scoticus, M s h . — S U F F O L K : Bentley Woods (androtype) 16 vi. 02 ; S U R R E Y : Greenings in May 1872 (Saunders), Shere circa 1 8 8 5 (Capron); N O R T H A N T S : Helpstone Heath near Peterbro on 13 vi 08. 13. F. leucostigmus, Gr.—26 viii-6 ix. S U F F O L K : Walberswick, at roots of Statice limonium on coast; four $ 2 on coast reeds at Southwold 3-6 ix 07 ; W O R C S : Mathon 29 viii 1896 (Beaumont). 13a. P. occisor, Haberm., Konowia 1923, p. 35 ; described from a Single British ?.—STAFFS : Lichfield (coli. Lance A. Carr). Unknown to me. 14 P. nanus, Grav.—6 vi-9 viii. S U F F O L K (new to Suffolk): at moth-light beside Fritton Lake at night 9 viii 3 4 ; SURREY : Greenings (Saunders), Shere (Capron); H A N T S : Brockenhurst & Matley Bog in NF., I. W i g h t ; W I L T S : Nunton (Marshall); D E V O N : Plymouth (Bigneil); IRELAND : swept at dusk, Waterford 6 vi 13.


THE BRITISH DISTRIBUTION OF PHYGADEUON

31

14a. P. Britannicus, Haberm., Konowia 1923, p. 42 ; described from a single British $ . — S T A F F S : Lichfield (coli. Carr). Unknown to me. 15. P. brachyurus, Thoms.—At roots of Reeds & Statice limonium in coast salt-marshes, probably parasitic upon such Diptera as Ceroxys pictus, Mg. ; 1 viii-29 ix. SUFFOLK : gregarious in salterns at Southwold 1904-14 & at Blythbrugh by theBlvthe 18981937 ; S U R R E Y : Greenings (Wilson Saunders). 16. P. cephalotes, Gr.—I now intimately know both sexes from Austria, but have never seen an indigenous example. Grav.'s var. transfuga, from S A L O P , alone retains it as British. 17. P.flavimanus, Gr.—27v-28viii. S U F F O L K : Bentley Woods 16 vi 02 ; H A N T S : Lyndhurst 1901 & several in fly-trap there vi-vii 07 (Adams), swept Denny Heath & Brockenhurst 1895 ; C O R N W : Botusfleming (Marshall). I have seen the S C O T S <$ (Ent. 1882, 276), reared from Emphytus serotibus Cin coli. Cam.). 18. P. variabilis, Gr.—3 v-24 ix. SUFFOLK : Bentley Woods, Foxhall, Shrubland Park, Parham Wood, North Cove, Depden, Clare-Stoke, Tuddenham Fen, Barton Mills, Brandon heath on bracken, Lakenheath ; L O N D O N : Hendon (Newbery) ; K E N T : Ripple near Dover (F. W. Sladen); SURREY : Greenings (Saunders) ; H A N T S : Shalfleet & Ryde in I . Wight, Burley in NF. ; W I L T S : Nunton (Marshall); SOMERSET : Bristol (Charbonnier) ; G L O S : Gloucester (in coli. Cameron) ; L I N C S : Spalding, Mkt Rasen & Louth ; SCOTLAND : Glen Lyon, Cadder, Kingussie & Rannoch (in coli. Cameron ; teste C. M . ) ; IRELAND : Killarney & Killaloe 6-16 vi 13. 1 9 . P. assimilis, Gr.—23 v - 1 6 x. SUFFOLK : Bentley Woods, Foxhall, Ipswich, Farnham, Bedfield, Eye on Angelica flower, Barton Mills, two bred at Freckenham 1 iv 1921, with Pocadius ferrugineus & nothing eise, from Puff-balls gathered ix 20 (Horace Donisthorpe), Brandon; K E N T : Kingsdown coast (Sladen), Deal (W. Saunders) ; S U R R E Y : Shere (Capron); H A N T S : Lyndhurst 1897 (Beaumont) & 1907 (Adams), Matley Bog in NF. 1927-34; DEVON : Bickleigh (Bignell); W O R C S : Malvern (Gorham); D E R B Y : Peak Forest on umbel-flowers at 1 5 0 0 ft. 1 9 3 5 ; Y O R K S : Scarborough (Elliott); C U M B : Carlisle (Tomlin). 20. P. dumetorum, Gr.—Probably hibernates ; sylvan places, 5 v-9 ix. SUFFOLK : Bentley Woods, Felixstow, Ipswich, beaten from sallow in Parham Wood 28 iv 1934 (Chester G. Doughty), Finborough Park, Tuddenham Fen, Brandon ; H E R T S : Felden (Piffard); K E N T : Blean Woods ; SURREY : Abinger Hammer (Butler), Shere (Capron) ; H A N T S : Shalfleet & Godshill in I. Wight, Denny Heath on heather 1936 ; W I L T S : Nunton (Marshall), Groveley Wood near Salisbury ; SOMERSET : Bristol (Charbonnier) ; DEVON : Devonport (DelaGarde); C O R N W : Botusfleming and M O N : Govilon (both Marshall); Y O R K S : Hayburn Wyke and S C O T L : Banchory (Elliott), Glengarriff (Dalglish).


32

THE BRITISH DISTRIBUTION OF PHYGADEUON

21. P. exiguus, Gr.—Sy Ivan places ; 20 v-24 ix. S U F F O L K : Monks Soham garden, Aldeburgh & Tostock (Tuck), Tuddenham Fen, Brandon marshes & staunch ; ESSEX : Gosfield ; SURREY : Greenings 1871 (Saunders), Abinger Hammer (Butler) ; H A N T S : Lyndhurst fly-trap (Adams), Matley Heath 1940, Minstead woods 1934 & Wood Fidley 1936 in N F . ; W I L T S : Salisbury ; L I N C S : Spalding and Market Rasen ; N O T T S : Widmerpool & Cuckney Hay wood 1914. 21a. P. antennae scapo toto nigro (? exiguus, var. d))-—Usually in marshes; 1 v-13 ix. SUFFOLK : Bentley Woods, Ipswich, Barnby Broad, Glemsford, Tuddenham Fen, Barton Mills, Mildenhall, Brandon staunch ; CAMBS : Wicken Fen ; SURREY : Greenings (Saunders) ; H A N T S : Ryde in I . Wight, Brockenhurst, Burket Wood and on 13 vii 1932 at moth-light in Denny Wood in N F . ; W I L T S : Salisbury & Bodenham downs ; D E V O N : Clearbrook (Bigneil); M O N : Govilon (Marshall); NORFOLK : under Statice limonium on Holme shore 19 viii 0 6 ; L I N C S : Louth ; SCOTLAND : Skene (Elliott) ; IRELAND : Stradbally (H. W. Andrews)» 22. P. mixtus, Bridg.—On carrot flower in autumn ; 6 vi-29 ix. SUFFOLK : Westleton, Monks Soham lanes, Brandon marshes ; SURREY : Shere (3 metatypes ex coli. Capron); H A N T S : Lyndhurst fly-trap (Adams), Wilverley & Matley Bog in N F . ; D E V O N : Bickleigh 16 ix 84 (Bigneil) ; NORTHANTS : Bugbrook (Marshall); L I N C S : Boston ; SCOTLAND : Stirling (Cameron). 2 3 . P. ambiguus, Gr.—3 vi-11 viii. SUFFOLK : Felixstow, Foxhall and confirmed as British at Timworth (Entom.. 1910, p. 172) ; SURREY : Abinger Hammer (Butler), Shere (Capron); H A N T S : I. Wight (Marshall); W I L T S : Bodenham downs 21 vii 38 ; G L O S : Selsley (Clutterbuck); NORFOLK : Horsford 5 viii 31 ; L I N C S : a $ at light in Lincoln 31 viii 0 2 (J. F. Musham). 23a. P. areola thoracis transversa ; a $ form with head less buccate & antennae shorter than in ambiguus.—1 vi-26 viii. SUFFOLK : Ipswich, D u n w i c h ; K E N T : Deal, May 1871 (W. Saunders); SURREY Shere (Capron); H A N T S : at moth-light in Denny Wood N F . 7 vii 38 ; L I N C S : Market Rasen; IRELAND : Courten 26 viii 1893 (Beaumont). 2 4 . P. Marshalli, Bridg.—12-25 vi only. SUFFOLK : Tuddenham Fen 12 vi 1908 ; L O N D O N : Enfield, captured among Ants (Jennings); SURREY : Shere (Capron); H A N T S : Wilverley Inclosure in N F . & Marvel Copse in I. Wight, both vi 1907. 25. P. Hercynicus, Gr.—Mainly on marsh flowers ; 25 vii -1 x, probably hibernates. SUFFOLK : Ipswich, Monks Soham, Southwold, Henham, Henstead, Lowestoft, Barnby Broad, Thorndon Fen, Finborough Park ; C A M B S : Wicken Fen (Tuck); ESSEX : Plumstead marshes (Beaumont); SURREY : Shere (Capron); H A N T S : Ryde in I . W i g h t ; G L O S : Painswick (C. J . Watkins); NORFOLK : Horsham St. Faith & Burnham Thorp.


THE BRITISH DISTRIBUTION OF PHYGADEUON

27. P. nitidus, Grav.—Mainly in marshes ; hibernates ; on the wing 17 v-20 ix. SUFFOLK : Foxhall, Wenhaston, Blythburgh Wood 17 v 44, Monks Soham occasionally 1908-14, Eye on angelica flowers, Tuddenham Fen ; SUSSEX 0 hibernating in Aira ceespitosa tuft 26 iii; HANTS : Lyndhurst (Adams), Matley Bog N.F. ; W I L T S : Salisbury ; CORNW : Botusfleming (Marshall); LINCS : Spalding & Boston ; SCOTLAND : swept by the Tay at Burnam in Perth (Elliott). 26. P. brevitarsis, Thoms.—At angelica flowers, &c ; hibernates ; on the wing 16 iv-3 x. SUFFOLK : Assington Thicks, Ipswich, Claydon bridge, Coddenham, Monks Soham windows, Kenton, Eye, Tuddenham Fen and hibernating in moss and roots of Aira csespitosa at Bedfield in ii 1921, Bentley Woods on 30 xi and in SUSSEX commonly near Hastings ; SURREY : Shere (Capron); HANTS : Lyndhurst (Adams), Wilverley in NF. ; W I L T S : Nunton and DEVON : Bishops Tawton and M O N : Govilon (all three Marshall) ; IRELAND : swept on bank of the Shannon at Limerick 15 vi 13. 28. P. notaulius, sp. nov.—Type $ beaten from Scots pine in Bentley Woods 2 iv 1899 ; Dr. Sigismund Brauns, who saw this specimen at the time, recognised it as new and labelled i t ' Phygadeuon spec. brevitarsi Thoms. affinis'. Androtypes in my collection are from DEVON : Exeter 2 ix 1882 (Bignell) and SUFFOLK: on Monks Soham House window 1 vii 1905. 29. P. Ragensis, sp. noV.—Type $ captured at LEICESTER circa 1865 and the co-type at Bishops Tawton in DEVON, both by the late Revd. T . A. Marshall. 30. P. ovatus, Gr.—The sole example I can ascribe to this species is a $ captured by me in IRELAND : at Waterford on 6 vi 1 9 1 3 . 31. P. inflatus, Thoms.—SUFFOLK : $$ on Monks Soham window 1 ix 42 ; on ash-leaf at Reydon 17 ix 10 ; and angelicaflower in open marsh at Barnby Broad 24 viii 1898. 32. P. compactus, sp. nov.—Type $ captured on angelica-flower at Claydon bridge 22 viii 1899. Co-types—SUFFOLK : Brandon staunch 20 vi 14 ; CAMBS : Wicken & Burwell fens ; H E R T S : Felden (Piffard); SURREY : Shere (Capron); HANTS : I. W i g h t & Wilverley N F . ; W I L T S : Nunton (Marshall); SOMERSET : Redland (Charbonnier), Shapwick peat-moor vi 33 ; DEVON : Bishops Tawton & M O N : Govilon (both Marshall); IRELAND : Terenure near Dublin (Stanley Kemp). 33. P. Lincolnice, sp. nov.—Type $ captured among ten ^ ? in L I N C S : Boston 6 vi 12, with others at Louth on 9th ; SUFFOLK : Bawdsey, Ipswich, Southwold, Henham Park, Kenton, Thomdon Fen on Angelica flower in x, Bury (Tuck), Brandon heath in vi;, HERTS in Felden ; LONDON : Blackheath (Beaumont); SURREY : Tatsfield vi 15 (Elliott); SUSSEX : Crowhurst near Hastings in Aira-tuft 3 iv 0 0 : HANTS : Lyndhurst (Adams); W I L T S : Nunton & Devon : Cornworthy & CORNW : Botusfleming & M O N : Govilon (all Marshall); NORFOLK : Hemsby (Newbery); YORKS :


34

THE BRITISH DISTRIBUTION OF PHYGADEUON

Whitby (Beaumont); S C O T L : Banchory ix 1910 (Elliott); IRELAND : Killarney. 34. P. rubricaudus, sp. nov.—Type & co-type $ $ S U R R E Y : Shere (Capron). 35. P. Sudvoldensis, sp. nov.—On mud and reeds in marshes, often saline. Type $ on S U F F O L K coast at Southwold ix 1914, and a half-dozen $ $ there on 1 vi 1905. Also 4 v-16 ix at Assington Thicks, Bramford, Gisleham sand-pit and Frostenden; H E R T S : Felden (Piflfard) ; S U R R E Y : Shere (Capron) ; N O R F O L K : Horning Fen and Kings Lynn ; S C O T L : Gretna vi 36 (Murray); IRELAND : Waterford, Killaloe, Limerick by Shannon and Dalkey near Dublin, all vi-vii 1913. 36. P. fumator, Gr.—Frequent on flowers of Heracleum, &c, 16 iv-24 ix ; never in winter. S U F F O L K : Ipswich, Claydon, Monks Soham, Henham, Southwold, Easton Broad, Bungay (Tuck), Finborough, Depden, Lackford, Tuddenham Fen, Barton Mills, Mildenhall, Brandon ; C A M B S : Burwell Fen ; H E R T S : Felden (Piffard) ; K E N T : Huntingfield (Chitty); S U R R E Y : Greenings near E. Grinstead (Saunders), Shere (Capron), Abinger Hammer (Butler) ; H A N T S : Lyndhrust (Adams), Wilverley, Brockenhurst ; D E V O N : Cornworthy, B. Tawton & Barnstaple, and C O R N W : Botusfleming, and M O N : Govilon, and N O R T H A N T S : Bugbrook (all Marshall) ; N O R F O L K : Winterton ; L I N C S : Spalding, Louth ; C U M B E R L : Carlisle (Brockton Tomlin) ; S C O T L : Ballater in viii (Elliott) ; IRELAND : Killarney, Tralee. 37. P. oppositus, Thoms.—Recorded as British (Johnson, Irish Nat. 1920, 19). Apparently rare ; 16 vi-28 ix ; S U F F O L K (new to SufFolk) : $ at Southwold in 1900 & 07 ; H A N T S : ? Marvell Copse at Newport in I. Wight and $ Brockenhurst. 38. P. flavicans, Thoms. nec subtilis, Gr.—New to Britain. S U F F O L K : $ at Brandon 10 vi 08 ; S U R R E Y : six $$ at Shere (Capron) ; H A N T S : S IN New Forest 11 vii 09. Cp. Hemiteles pullator, Grav., 1. B ii, 132 & Pfank Deut. Ent. Zeit. 1925, p. 270, ? . 39. P. Surriensis, sp. nov.—Two 2 ? from S U R R E Y in Dr. Edward Capron's collection (supposed to be exclusively from Shere, though the presence of two 2$ of the alpine Oresbius castaneus in it renders such moot !). 40. P. cubiceps, Thoms.—Not uncommon, late v-11 viii. SUFFOLK : Monk's Soham on Heracleum flowers, Brandon; S U R R E Y : Shere (Capron) ; H A N T S : Ryde in I. Wight; W I L T S : Nunton, and C O R N W : Botusfleming (Marshall); SOMERSET : Freshford near Bath (Charbonnier); N O T T S : Sherwood Forest 10 viii 14. 41. P. scaposus, Thoms.—Infrequent; 7 vi-17 viii. S U F F O L K : Tostock (Tuck), Brandon ; C A M B S : Wicken Fen ; S U R R E Y : Oxshott (Beaumont), Shere (Capron) ; H A N T S : Rookley at Newport in I. Wight; D E V O N : <$ bred by Keys (as in I.B. fumator sie) ; Exeter (Bignell).


35

THE BRITISH DISTRIBUTION OF PHYGADEUON

42. P. punctipleuris, Thoms.—New to Britain. F r e q u e n t ; 21 v-30 ix. Letheringham, Staverton Thicks, Bedfield in moss ii 1921, Blythburgh Heath, Easton Broad, Lackford, Brandon ; HERTS :

Felden ;

SURREY : S h e r e ( C a p r o n ) ;

HANTS :

Wilverley

in New F o r e s t ; DEVON : Torcross (Bigneil) ; MON : Govilon (Marshall) ; SCOTL : Braemar vii 1907 & Banchory ix 1910 (Elliott). 43. P. Gallevensis, sp. nov.—SURREY : a half-dozen <$ $ types bred at Godalming from the accompanying puparia of Acidia heraclei, L . , on 29 vii 1921 (Oswald H. Latter) ; two from Shere (in coli. Capron). 44. P. s ibmuticus, Thoms.—New to Britain. Apparently scarce ; 26

vi-9

x.

SUFFOLK :

Wherstead

in x

1914;

SUSSEX :

swept

Thvme at Devils Dyke near Brighton vii 99 ; SURREY : 6 S 9 Shere (Capron) ; HANTS : Lyndhurst vi 02 (Adams) & on window vi 40 ; DEVON : Bishops Tawton, and MON : Govilon (Marshall) : DERBY : swept at dusk Bakewell 26 vi 35. 45. P. Elliotti, sp. nov.—Type $ SCOTLAND ; swept on the bank of the T a y at Birnam opposite Dunkeid in Perth on 20 viii 1907 (the late Ernest Arthur Elliott) ; SURREY : six $ $ at Shere (Capron). 46. P. ocularis, Thoms.—Probably quite common ; 23 v-22 ix. SUFFOLK : Bentley Woods, Monks Soham windows, Bedfield, Barnby Broad, Tostock (Tuck), Tuddenham Fen, Brandon; CAMBS :

in w i n t e r ( E M M .

1925, 24 :

n e w t o B r i t a i n ; ) SURREY :

Shere (Capron) ; HANTS : Lyndhurst, Brockenhurst; WILTS : Groveley Wood near Salisbury ; NORTHANTS : Helpston Heath near Peterbro 1927. 47. P. dimidiatus, Thoms—SUFFOLK : Barnby Broad on Angelica flower 15 viii 1898 ; and Tostock 7 ix 02 ( T u c k ) ; SURREY; Shere (Capron) ; HANTS : Matley sand-pit 11 vii 29. 48. P. rotundipennis, Thoms.—Certainly a rare form ; 9 vi-11 viii. SUFFOLK: swept reeds in Barnby Broad 1898 (Elliott); NORFOLK : in gravel-pit on Mousehold Heath near Norwich ; SURREY : Shere (Capron); SCOTLAND : I have examined Cameron's three correct which bear an illegible locality before ' 6 Aug.' 49. P. ovalis, Thoms.—Rare ; 20 vii-15 ix. SUFFOLK : in Gisleham sand-pit, on Heracleum flower Burgh Castle marshes of the Waveney, on Carrot flower in Blythburgh village ; SURREY : 4 $ $ at Shere (Capron) ; NORTHANTS : Bugbrook (Marshall). 50. P. Devonensis, sp. nov.—Single ? DEVON : Bishops Tawton circa 1880 (Rev. T . A. Marshall) ; and <J SCOTLAND : Banchory in ix 1910 (E. A. Elliott). A T A B L E OF THE ' FUMATOR-GROUP ' .

Essential Characters : Clypeal apex with two central and always conspicuous teeth ; cheeks not or hardly longer thari mandibles ; ? flagellum with no white band but Ist joint usually shorter than 2nd, 4th very often abruptly smaller and its terebra not or hardly


36

THE BRITISH DISTRIBUTION OF PHYGADEUON

longer than basal s e g m e n t ; femora usually s t o u t ; wings hyaline or levelly subinfumate throughout, radius neither basally infumate (as it is in P. tenuicosta, Thoms.) nor its apical abscissa (as in P. exiguus & P. bidens) nearly thrice as long as the b a s a l ; size comparatively small. (48) 1. Abdomen elongate, rarely testaceous ; legs more or less densely pilose. (41) 2. Eyes glabrous ; postpetiole not or not always rimose. (10) 3. Notauli short but well distinct; scape black, flagellar base usually p a l e ; metathorax not rugose, all its costa; well elevated. (9) 4. Flagellum pilose and, towards base, infuscate-red; abdominal centre broadly, with whole femora and tibiae, red ; terebra slightly shorter than Ist segment. (8) 5. Stigma basally pale ; petiolar area trans-rugose ; postpetiole aciculate ; hind tibiae not explanate. 26. brevitarsis, T h . ÂŁ 2. (7) 6. S t o u t ; notauli punctiform ; head subcubical; all legs normal ; antennal joints 3-6 nigrescent, twice longer than broad ; areola transverse ; 3-5 mm. (6) 7. S l e n d e r ; notauli linear; head transverse; all legs slender ; antennal joints 3-6 pale, thrice longer than broad ; areola long ; 4 m m . 28. notaulius, m., (5) 8. Stigma not pale ; petiolar area & the excarinate postpetiole quite smooth ; hind tibiae explanate ; 4-5 m m . 29. Ragensis, m., $ only. (4) 9. Flagellum subnude, Ist 3 joints clear red ; segments 2-3 red ; terebra = Ist segment; $ abdomen all black & Ist joint = scape ; 3 mm. 30. ovatus, Grav. (3) 10. Notauli punctiform ; antennae all black, unless scape is pale ; hind femora densely and finely punctate. (26) 11. Postpetiole basally deplanate, broader than high, not apically rimose ; antennae black, or basal joints at most apically rufescent. (21) 12. Head distinctly cubical, occiput not emarginate. (14) 13. Hind femora & tibiae red, front tibiae inflated ; areola transverse; 3 basal flagellar joints not elongate ; 3-4 mm. 31. inflatus, T h . , $ 2. (13) 14. Hind tibiae & extremities of their tibiae nigrescent; front tibiae normal ; 3 basal flagellar joints elongate. (18) 15. Areola pentagonal, petiolar area rugose; anus black; hind tibiae red. (17) 16. Abdomen ovate, 2nd segment apically nigrescent; mesonotum finely punctate ; 3 mm. 32. compactus, m., $ only. (16) 17. Abdomen elongate-oval, 2nd segment all clear r e d ; mesonotum coarsely punctate ; 3ÂŁ m m . 33. Lincolnice, m., o ? -


THE BRITISH DISTRIBUTION OF PHYGADEUON

37

(15) 18. Areola strongly transverse, petiolar area nitidulous; anus often red ; hind tibiae not red ; 5 mm. (20) 19. Abdomen oval, apically red ; hind tibise testaceous, stout & at base abruptly constricted. 34. rubricaudus, m., $ only. (19) 20. Abdomen cylindrical, apically black ; hind tibiae white with external dark striga, slender & not constricted. 35. Sudvoldensis, m., Q $. (12) 21. Head plus-minus transverse, occiput emarginate ; tibiae normal. (25) 22. Nervellus not emitted from centre of Ist recurrent. (24) 23. Abdominal centre, all femora & tibiae, red ; terebra rather less than Ist s e g m e n t ; head buccate ; pronotum strongly punctate ; 3-4 mm. 36. fumator, Gr. (23) 24. Abdominal centre & part of legs red ; terebra \ the slender Ist segment; pronotum somewhat smooth ; 3 mm. NOT British. 36. tenuiscapus, T h . , $ only. (22) 25. Nervellus opposite ; terebra slightly shorter than Ist s e g m e n t ; pronotum nearly s m o o t h ; head transverse ; 2-3 mm. 37. oppositus, T h . , $ only. (11) 26. Postpetiole slender & narrow ; basal antennal joints all pale. (30) 27. Nervellus below centre; pale markings testaceous; petiolar area nitidulous. (29) 28. Antennse not incrassate ; areola strongly transverse, its apical carina curved ; mesonotum closely punctate ; 3^-5 m m . 38. flavicans, T h . , cJ (28) 29. Antennae centrally incrassate ; areola triangular, apical carina straight; mesonotum sparsely punctate ; 4 mm. 39. Surriensis, m., $ only. (27) 30. Nervellus emitted from about centre of Ist recurrent; markings red. (32) 31. Head subcubical; antennae J r e d ; terebra = Ist segment ; 3-4 m m . 40. cubiceps, T h . , only. (31) 32. Head cubical; terebra not length of first segment. (38) 33. Terebra about J length of basal segment. (35) 34. Terebra longer than ÂŁ Ist s e g m e n t ; antennae of $ short, of $ pale only at base ; scape cylindrical; 3-4 m m . 41. scaposus, T h . , $. (34) 35. Terebra shorter than | Ist segment; anus, all legs & at least anus pale. (37) 36. Pleurae coarsely punctate ; antennae ^-flavous ; 3-4 mm. 42. punctipleuris, T h . , $ $. (36) 37. Pleurae finely punctate, nitidulous ; antennae of $ all flavous to apices, of $ castaneous from 3rd j o i n t ; 3-3ÂŁ m m . 43. Gallevensis, m., $ $. (33) 38. Terebra slightly longer than Ist s e g m e n t ; 3 Ist flagellar joints flavous ; 3 mm.


38

THE BRITISH DISTRIBUTION OF PHYGADEUON

(40) 39. Postpetiole bicarinate ; basal flagellar joints elongate, cylindrical ; basal nervure continuous ; abdomen centrally & whole legs flavous. 44. submuticus, Th., $ only. (39) 40. Postpetiole srriooth ; 3 Ist flagellar joints subquadrate, nodose ; lower basal nervure postfurcal; abdomen centrally, hind coxae and femora, castaneous. 45. Elliotti, m., $ only. (2) 41. Eyes obviously pilose ; postpetiole always rimose ; head not cubical. (45) 42. Sternauli extending well beyond mesosternal centre ; wings normal. (44) 43. Legs s t o u t ; Ist segment slender, length of terebra ; antennas basally flavous ; 3 mm. (Opusc. Ent. 1889, p. 1405). 46. ociilaris, Th., Q. (43) 44. Legs normal; Ist segment deplanate, longer than terebra; antennae all black ; 2 \ mm. (? Brit. ; Lichfield, sec. L. A. Carr in lit. 22 vii 1921). trichops, Th., $ only. (42) 45. Sternauli extending hardly to mesosternal centre, or wings s h o r t ; 3 mm. (47) 46. Macropterous ; antennas of $ fully half red ; tei"ebra shorter. 47. dimidiatus, Th., $ ^ (46) 47. Hemipterous ; four basal antennal joints alone red. 48. rotundipennis, Th., $ only. (1) 48. Abdomen oval, testaceous with only the apically rimose Ist segment black ; legs not pilose, hind tibiae testaceous, basally constricted. (50) 49. S t o u t ; capital Vertex not broad nor antennas reaching abdomen, flagellar joints 2-5 quadrate ; hind tibiae thick ; 4 mm. 49. ovalis, Th., $ (49) 50. Slender ; capital Vertex broad ; antennae reaching 2nd segment, flagellar joints 2-5 elongate; hind tibise slender ; 3J mm. 50. Devonensis, m., $ only. Phygadeuones are now ascertainedtoprey,probably exclusivelv, upon larvae of Diptera. This had become hardly recognised in 1907, when I was most chary of placing too much reliance upon mere colour, variable in most Insecta. When one considers, however, that Britain possesses at least 365 species of Anthomyid Flies, to which these parasites are not entirely conflned, the recorded indigenous 105 kinds of Phygadeuonides become obviously inadequate, with the result that one has no hesitation in extending this Tribe. T h e structure of Ichneumonidae is well known to be modified in no way, but the size to vary considerably with, the diversitv of host-Insects upon which they prey. This I have been enabled


THE BRITISH DISTRIBUTION OF PHYGADEUON

39

to test by the above bred Phygadeuon Gallevensis*-and by a series of 47 P brevitarsis, associated with no males which hence doubtless do not hibernate, all taken at the roots of Aira c^spitosa plants at Battie, Beauport Park, Brede, Crowhurst, Darwell, Mountfield, Peppering, Sedlescombe and Westfield near Hastmgs. m March along with others from those roots in Bentley Woods on both 30 November and 1 April, as well as in moss at Bedfield during February in Suffolk : size varies 3-5* mm., but all are constant and agree ad amussim inter se to the smallest detail of both structure and colouration. So definite a fact gives one contidence to rely upon differences in allied forms, excepting in the case ot brachypterous dimorphism, frequent among Cryptinae. Some practise enables one to easily discriminate between the kinds with cubical, and those with transverse, head ; and when, in the course of working through this notonously difficult tumatorgroup' I was faced with 327 unnamed specimens acquired since 1907, I found them segregated into 140 of former and 187 ot latter Its structure and colour have been considered by the Continental authors as very generally instable ; but, regarding the multiplicity of Diptera they probably parasitise, I cannot concur. With adequate material, which those authors seem to lack, stability is abundantly apparent; colour of the hind femora, antennae, stigma and second to third segments, is distinctive and reliable. All specimens with the second segment black I find to fall quite naturally into no more than eight forms : two are slender and all males with thin legs, and would be Hemiteles-spp. if the areolet were not apically entire, pertaining to some abundant temales. Two groups of males, with 2nd segment black, are sufficiently stout • the one, with pale mouth, trochanters and under side ot scape' is obviously dark P. punctipleuris ; and the other, smaller with no more than the mandibles pale, must be melamc P. scaposus. Three forms are quite stout and referrable to mgrescent P. Lincolnice, P. compactus and P. fumator, including the last's var. troglodytes, Gr., cf. Pfankuch in Deut. Ent. Zeit. 1920, p. 44. The above Table will serve to differentiate my new species. I may add that the undescribed by Prof. Thomson S of his P. brevitarsis exactly resembles its female, especially in wing-nervures and basally pale stigma, sparse thoracic puncturation and pedal structure • but it has the ten cylindrical basal flagellar jomts ot its attenuate antenna: elongate, hind coxas black and third segment red except at apex. The undescribed by Mr. Bndgman ö of his P. mixtus differs from P. exiguus in its smallersize.slendererbuild, * Quite doubtless this is the species, from Cheshire and also bred out of

Acidia heraclei, that was mistaken by ] . T . W a d s w o r t h (Annais of Applied Bioloev ii 1915 p. 160) for Hemiteles crassicorms, Gr. (subzonatus, ( , r . l

wherefrom it materially d.ffers in the totally pale antennae, u n a d c u l a t e and slenderer first segmeni, laterally mfuscate second and th,rd segments its m u c h shorter terebra %vhich is but one-s.xth of abdommal length, strongh entire areolet and exactly opposite n e r v e l l u s . — C . M .


40

THE BRITISH DISTRIBUTION OF PHYGADEUON

immaculate black scape, centrally clear-red abdomen and centrally testaceous hind tibiae ; its transverse thoracic areola and thin antennse are characteristic. I find Phygadeuon fumator, Grav., to differ from all its allies by combining :—Head buccate but not cubical, with (as in all this group) that of J less cubical than $ ; antennse black, or in $ basal joints at most apically red ; pronotum strongly punctate ; abdomen centrally red, excepting in above melanic form ; postpetiole basally deplanate, broader than high, not apically rimose ; terebra shorter than first s e g m e n t ; legs with all femora and tibise red, latter not inflated (I consider, though not constant, both sexes with hind tibias black at both extremities to be invariably this species); the entirely-red-legged form differs from P. brevitarsis in buccate head, hexagonal areola and black hind coxae ; nervellus emitted below centre. 6 Jan., 1946.

NEWS FOR NATURALISTS. W e a l t h — M a m m o n ' s glittering image—is our god,

not knowledge or wisdom. Rider Haggard. Düring the last few years (a M e m b e r writes to us) I have been staying a good deal in High Suffolk and was much impressed by the local folks' utter lack of all appreciation of the countryside's Beauty : the men hated Trees, the children saw nothing to admire in Flowers, and the women detested Birds because they ate currants ! I greatly fear my native County, as elsewhere in this Our England, and my old favourite haunts are rapidly becoming hardly recognisable now. T h e farmers seem to be growing more and more greedy and money-minded. In quite a short time I have witnessed the destruction of innumerable Woods, Hedges, Trees and beautiful old farm-buildings. Where thatch was wont to be used is now vile corrugated iron ; ugly wires and martian pylons everywhere traverse the landscape. What it will become ere long, I shudder to anticipate—when cinematographs and fried-chip shops appear in picturesque villages. It seems so sad to me that the Squires, who really did, with all their faults, preserve and tree-plant the countryside, should be now taxed out of existence and reduced to a par with any vulgär self-made creature of the machine class f r o m industrial towns. T h o u g h Suffolk used to be remote f r o m the big centres of industry, their influence for ill is much more evident and always increasing ; one must be thankful that their everlasting din is confined in rural districts to the devastating farm-tractor. All who are capable of preserving

British Distribution of Phygadeuon (Ichneumonidae), with Description of Some Species New to Science  
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