Page 1

COI.LECTING MACRO-LEPIDOPTERA

IN N . E . SUFFOLK

15

,a bevy of Leptomeris immutata, L., in the afternoon ; and there at dusk saw Ophiusa pastinum, Tr., further L. immutata, many Phragmatobia fuliginosa, L., Nudaria senex, Hb., and, careeringover Reeds, numerous Leucania impura, Hb. I returned home the following day with a bag of over eighty Macro-lepidoptera ; and must express my indebtedness to Mr. Burton for introducing me to new and interesting localities containing several choice and loeal species. 20 August 1946.

THE ASCOMYCETES OF SUFFOLK. BY ARTHUR MAYFIELD,

F.L.S.

THE Ascomycetes are a large and important group of Fungi, distinguished by producing their spores within globular or clubshaped cells, called Asci. In most cases the ascospores number eight in each ascus. Some of the. species, such as the Morels and Cup Fungi, attain a fair size but the majority are very minute. T h e Ascomycetes are divided into two sub-groups :—(a) T h e PYRENOMYCETES, whose asci are developed inside a spherical or flask-shaped Perithecium which, when mature, opens to relcase the ascospores ; and (ß) T h e DISCOMYCETES, in which the asci are produced on the surface of a disc-like or cup-shaped fructification called an Apothecium.—Many of the more conspicuous species are recorded in Henslow and Skepper's ' Flora of Suffolk ' ; and several of these were re-published, with additional localities, by the late Revd. E. N. Bloomfield in Trans. Norfolk & Norwich Naturalists' Soc., vol. viii, pp. 263-4 [1906 ; & Vict. Hist. Suffolk 1911, i, 84.—Ed.]. Quotations from these sources are here indicated by the initials (H. & S.) and (ENB) respectively. T h e records initialled (EAE) were kindly sent to me by Mr. Edward A. Ellis of Norwich Castle Museum ; and to him and Mr. Ronald Burn, who also gave me some interesting specimens, I tender my sincere thanks. My own gatherings were made chiefly in Mendlesham ; and it should be understood that, in every case where no locality is assigned, the fungus was found in that parish. Of the 438 species here listed, 312 have not hitherto been recorded from Suffolk. PYRENOMYCETES. GYMNOASCALES.

Ctenomyces serratus Eidam.

On rotting leaves of reeds.

PERISPORIALES. EUROTIACE/E.

Eurotium herbariorum Fr.

On dried plants in herbarium.


16

THE ASCOMYCETES OF SUFFOLK

ERYSIPHACE^E (mildews). Erysiphe Cichoracearum D.C. On leaves of burdock, dandelion, great plantain, Mendlesham. On mugwort, Thurston and Creeting. On bur-marigold, Stuston. E. Galeopsidis D.C. On hedge woundwort. E. Graminis D.C. On leaves and culms of grasses and cereals. E. Polygoni D.C. On leaves of pea, hogweed, buttercup and persicaria. E. tortilis D.C. On leaves of dogwood. Micrusphara grossularice (Wallr.) Lev. On gooseberry and red currant, Hintlesham. Phyllactinia corylea (Pers.) Karst. On hazel; Common (H & S> Mendlesham. Podosphara Oxyacantha (D.C.) de Bary. On hawthorn. Sphaerotheca Humuli (D.C.) Burreil. On hops. S. pannosa (Wallr.) Lev On leaves and stems of rose. Uncinula Aceris (D.C.) Sacc. On maple leaves; Common (H & S) Mendlesham. PERISPORIACEIE.

Perisporium

vulgare

Corda.

On rotten sacking.

SPHAERIALES. SPH/ERIACEIE—ALLANTOSPORIE.

Cryptospharia eunomia (Fr.) Fkl. On ash twigs. C.'ocellata (Fr.) Ces. & de Not. On ash branches. Diatrype bullata Fr. On willows, Worlingham (EAE) Mendlesham. _ D. disciformis Fr. On dead branches of beech, Bury (H & b) Fritton (EAE) Mendlesham. D. stigma Fr. On dead sticks, everywhere. Diatrypella aspera (Fr.) Nits. Common on oak and beech. D. favacea (Fr.) Ces. & de Not. On birch, Fritton and Blythburgh (EAE) Stowmarket, Knettishall. D. nigro-annulata (Grev.) Nits. On beech, Fritton and Blythburgh (EAE). On lime, Mendlesham. D. quercina (Fr.) Cooke. On oak branches, Fritton & Beccles (EAE) Mendlesham. D. Tocciaeana de Not. On alder, Fritton and Blythburgh (EAE). D. verruciformis (Fr.) Nits. On hazel, Nowton (H & S), Mendlesham. Eutypa Acharii Tul. On sycamore and hazel, Bury (H & b), Mendlesham. E. flavo-virens (Fr.) Tul. On sloe and sycamore. E. lata (Fr.) Tul. Bury (H & S) Mendlesham. E. Rhodi (Nits) Fkl. On dogrose stems. E. scabrosa (Fr.) Fkl. On dead maple branches. E. spinosa (Fr.) Tul. On decorticated oak. E. Ulicis (Fr.) Sacc. On dead gorse stems.


THE ASCOMYCETES OF SUFFOLK

17

Eutypella stellata (Fr.) Sacc. Common on elm. E. prunastri (Fr.) Sacc. On dead blackthorn. Nitschkia cupularis (Fr.) Karst. On dead elm. Peroneutypa heteracantha (Sacc.) Berl. On elm. Quaternaria dissepta (Fr.) Tul. Common on elm. 0. quaternata (Fr.) Sehr. On beech branches. Valsa ambiens (Pers.) Fr. On bramble. V. concamerata (Curr.) B. & Br. On oak. V. coronata Fr. On birch, Foxhall. V. Laurocerasi Tul. On cherry-laurel. V. leueostoma (Pers.) Fr. On dead plum branches. V. microstoma Fr. On dead blackthorn. V. nivea Fr. On poplar, Brockford. V. rhodophila B. & Br. On dogrose stems. V. salicina (Pers.) Fr. Common on willows. SPH/ERIACEiE—I IYALOSPOR/E. Botryosphceria Dothidea (Fr.) Sacc. On rose stems. Ceratostomella cirrhosa (Pers.) Sacc. On rotten beechwood. Cryptosporella hypodermia (Fr.) Sacc. On elm. C. populina Sacc. On black poplar. Diaporthopsis Angelicce (Berk.) Wehm. On angelica. Ditopella ditopa (Fr.) Sehr. On alder, Creeting. D. fareta B. and Br. On elm twigs. Gnomoniella vulgaris (Ces. & de Not.) Sacc. On hazel leaves. Guignardia carpinea (Fr.) Sehr. On hornbeam leaves. G. punetoidea (Cooke) Sehr. On fallen oak leaves, Redgrave. Leestadia rhodorce (Cooke) Berl. & Vogl. On leaves of Rhododendron, Fritton (EAE). Ophiostoma Ulmi (Buis.) Mann. The Dutch elm disease. Too frequent. Trichospharia pilosa (Fr.) Fkl. Bury, (H&S) T. myriocarpa (Fr.) P. & S. On rotten wood, Bury, Frequent (H&S) Mendlesham. SPHiERIACEiE—PlI/EOSPOR/E. Anthostoma dryophilum (Curr.) Sacc. On oak, Blythburgh (EAE). A. gastrinum (Pers.) Nits. On elm. A. turgidum (Pers.) Nits. On dead beech. Chcetomium elatum Kunz. & Sm. On straw, rather common. On decaying stems of meadowsweet at Mendlesham. Coprolepa equorum Fkl. On horse dung. Daldinia concentrica (Bolt.) Ces. and de Not. Frequent on ash. trunks and occasionally on beech. Hypoxylon argillaceum (Pers.) Berk. On ash trunks. H. coccineum. Bull. On beech, Bury (H&S) Worlingham (EAE) Mendlesham. H. fuscum (Pers.) Fr. On hazel and hawthorn, Bury (H&S) Mendlesham.


18

THE ASCOMYCETES OF SUFFOLK

H. Howeianum Berk. On birch, Fritton (EAE) and Foxhall. On hawthorn, Mendlesham. H. multiforme Fr. On birch, Butley, Ampton, Bury (H&S). H. rubiginosum (Pers.) Fr. Fritton (EAE) Mendlesham. H. semi-immersum Nits. On hazel, Fritton (EAE). On willow, Mendlesham. H. serpens (Lev.) Sacc. Frequent on dead wood. Bury (H&S). Fritton and Worlingham (EAE) Mendlesham. Nummularia lutea (Alb. & Schw.) Nits. Found once on dead stump at Mendlesham. Podospora Brassica (Klotz.) Wint. On old cabbage stalks. Poronia punctata (L.) Fr. On horse and cow dung, Aldeburgh (ENB). Rosellinia aquila (Fr.) de Not. On dead sticks, Gorleston (EAE) and Mendlesham. R. mammiformis (Pers.) Ces. and de Not. Bury (H&S) Mendlesham. R. pulveracea Fkl. On dead wood, Bury (H&S), Mendlesham. Sordaria curvula de Bary. On cow dung. Ustulina vulgaris Tul. On dead wood, Fornham (H&S) Gt. Glemham (ENB) Worlingham (EAE) Mendlesham. Xylaria carpophila (Fr.) Onbeechmast, Bury (H&S), Mendlesham. X. digitata (L.) Grev. On decaying wood, Bury (H&S). X. hypoxylon (L.) Grev. Common everywhere on stumps. X. polymorpha (Pers.) Grev. Otley(ENB). On stumps of cherrylaurel, Mendlesham. SPHJERIACEJE—HYALODIDYMTE.

Apioporthe vepris (de Laer.) Wehm. On bramble. Bertia morijormis (Fr.) de Not. On wood, Fritton (EAE). Cryptodiaporthe Aesculi (Fkl.) Petr. On horse chestnut. C. salicella (Curr.) Wehm. Common on willows. Diaporthe Aucuba Sacc. On Aucuba. D. brachyceras Sacc. On privet. D. Carpini (Fr.) Fkl. On hornbeam twigs. D. controversa (Desm.) Nits. On ash branches. D. Corr.i Fkl. On dogwood. D. Crataegi (Curr.) Nits. On hawthorn. D. crustosa Sacc. and Roum. On holly twigs. D. cryptica Nits. On honeysuckle. D. culta Sacc. and Speg. On Jasminum nudiflorum. D. decedens (Fr.) Fkl. On hazel twigs. D. discors Sacc. On dead dock stems. D. discutiens (Berk.) Sacc. On elm branches. D. eres Nits. On dead elm twigs. D. faginea (Curr.) Sacc. On beech twigs. D.fibrosa (Fr.) Nits. On buckthorn. D. glyptica (Berk. & Curt.) Sacc. On osiers. D. incarcerata (B. & Br.) Nits. On dogrose stems.


THE ASCOMYCETES OF SUFFOLK

D. D. D. D.

19

inquili?ia (Fr.) Nits. On hogweed stems. Landeghemia Nits. On Philadelphias. Laschii Nits. On Euonymus europseus. leiphemia (Fr.) Sacc. On oak, Worlingham (EAE), Mendlesham. D. lirella (Fr.) Nits. On Spiraea ulmaria, Bury (H&S) Mendlesham. D. nucleata (Curt.) Cooke. On gorse. D. oncostoma (Duby.) Fkl. On Robinia. D. pulla Nits. On old ivy stems. D. pustulata (Desm.) Sacc. On sycamore. D. putator Nits. On poplar. D. resecans Nits. On lilac. D. revellens Nits. On hazel. D. retecta Nits. On stems of box. D. rudis (Fr.) Nits. On Cytisus laburnum, Abbey Garden, Bury. D. Ryckholtii (West.) Nits. On Symphoricarpus. D. samaricola Phill. & Plowr. On ash keys. D. Saroihamni var. dulcamara (Nits.) Wehm. On Solanum dulcamara. D. scobina Nits. On ash branches. D. striceformis (Fr.) Nits. On willowherb. D. strumella (Fr.) Fkl. On Ribis sanguinea. D. taleola (Fr.) Sacc. On oak branches. D. varians (Curt.) Sacc. On maple. D. velata (Fr.) Nits. On lime twigs. Didymella Corni Sacc. On dogwood. D. nigrella (Fr.) Sacc. On Angelica. D. superflua (Fkl.) Sacc. On nettle stems. Gnomonia cerastis (Riess.) Ces. and de Not. On peduncles of sycamore. G. inclinata (Desm.) Auers. On sycamore leaves. G. petiolicola (Fkl.) Karst. On petioles of sycamore. G. rostellata (Fr.) Bref. On brambles. Hercospora Tilice (Pers.) Fr. On lime branches. Melanconis Alni Tul. On alder, Ipswich. M. stilbostoma (Fr.) Tul. On birch branches, Fritton (EAE) Foxhall. M. xanthostroma (Mont.) Sehr. On hornbeam. Mycophcerella atomus (Desm). Oud. On beech leaves. M. brassicicola (Dub.) Oud. On cabbage leaves. M. Cratagi (Fkl.) Oud. On hawthorn leaves. M. isariophora (E>esm.) Johnst. On Stellaria Holostea. M. latebrosa (Cooke) Sehr. On sycamore leaves. M. ligustri (Reg.) Lind. On privet leaves. M. maculiformis (Pers.) Sehr. Common everywhere on fallen oak leaves. M. punetiformis (Pers.) Starb. On leaves of Quercus cerris.


20

THE ASCOMYCETES OF SUFFOLK

M.

Rumicis (Desm.) Grove. On dock leaves, Blythburgh, Worlingham (EAE), Mendlesham. Sph arella Rhododendri Cooke. On Rhododendron, Fritton (EAE). Venturia inaequalis (Cooke) Wint. On fallen apple leaves. Vialcea insculpta (Fr.) Oud. On leaf-stalks of Holly, Sudbourne. SPHiERIACEiE—PH/EODIDYM/E. Didymosphceria celata (Curr.) Sacc. On elm branches. D. diplospora (Cooke) Rehm. On bramble. D. epidermidis (Fr.) Fkl. On bramble. D. fenestrans (Duby). Wint. On hairy willowherb. D. futilis (B. & Br.) Rehm. On dogrose. D. trivialis (B. & Br.) Sacc. On dogwood. Massariella Curreyi (Tul.) Sacc. On lime branches. Otthia populina (Pers.) Fkl. On black poplar. SPH/ERIACE/e—HYAEOPHRAGMI/E.

Broomella Vitalbce (B. & Br.) Sacc. On Clematis Vitalba. Calospora platanoides (Pers.) Neissl. On sycamore. Hypospila pustula (Pers.) Karst. On fallen oak leaves, Bury (H&S) Mendlesham. Lasiosphteria canescens (Pers.) Karst. On rotten wood. L. biformis (Fr.) Sacc. On rotten wood. L. felina (Fkl.) Cooke. On bramble. L. hirsuta (Fr.) Ces. & de Not. On dead ash wood. L. ovina (Pers.) Ces. & de Not. On rotten wood. L. rhacodium (Pers.) Ces. & de Not. On dead wood, Bury (H&S) Mendlesham, Ipswich. L. spermoides (Hoff.) Ces. & de Not. Frequent (H&S) Worlingham (EAE) Mendlesham. Massarina eburnea (Tul.) Sacc. On beech branches. Melomastia mastoidea (Fr.) Sehr. On ash branches. Metasphceria complanata (Tode) Sacc. On stems (H&S). M. conformis (B. & Br.) Sacc. On alder, Creeting. M. corticola (Fkl.) Sacc. On dead rose stems. M. Hederce (Sow.) Sacc. On ivy leaves. M. persistens (B. & Br.) Sacc. On dead rose stems. M. recutita (Fr.) Sacc. On Aira coespitosa. Sphcerulina intermixta var abbreviata Grove. On bramble. Zignoella collabens (Curr.) Sacc. On dead wood. Z. peerilostoma (B. & Br.) Sacc. On gorse. Z. pulviscula (Curr.) Sacc. On dead wood. SPH/EREACE/E PlEEOPHRAGMI/E. Chcetosphceria pheeostroma (D. & M.) Fkl. On dead wood, Worlingham (EAE) Mendlesham. Clypeosphceria Notarisii Fkl. On dogrose stems, Mendlesham & Foxhall. On Epilobium hirsutum Mendlesham. Leptosphceria acuta (Hoffm.) Karst. On nettle stems everywhere.


THE ASCOMYCETES OF SUFFOLK

21

L. arundinacea (Sow.) Sacc. On reeds, St. Olaves (EAE) Needham Market. L. clivensis (B. & Br.) Sacc. On Centaurea nigra stems. L. coniothyrium (Fkl.) Sacc. On bramble, Mendlesham, Lound and Worlingham (EAE). L. culmifraga (Fr.) Ces. & de Not. On dead grass culms. L. dioica (Fr.) Sacc. On gorse. L. doliolum (Pers.) de Not. On nettle and other herbaceous stems. L. derasa (B. & Br.) Thum. On ragwort stems. L. fuscella (B. & Br.) Ces. & de Not. On dogrose stems. L. juncina (Auers.) Sacc. On rushes. L. marram (Cooke) Sacc. On marram grass, Southwold. L. microscopica Karst. On Dactylis culms. L. nigrans (Desm.) Ces. & de Not. On grass culms. L. Rusci (Wallr.) Sacc. On Ruscus, Herringfleet (EAE) Mendlesham. Massaria argus (B. & Br.) Fresm. On birch, Earl Stonham. M. inquinans Fr. On sycamore branches. Melanomma Aspegrenii (Fr.) Fkl. On blackthorn. M. epochnii (B. & Br.) Sacc. On Corticium on elm. M. pulvis—pyrius (Pers.) Fkl. On dead wood, frequent (H&S) Worlingham (EAE) Mendlesham. Melogramma spiniferum (Wallr.) de Not. On dead wood. Pseudovalsa aucta (B. & Br.) Sacc. On alder, Creeting. P. Berkleyi (Tul.) Sacc. On elm branches. P. lanciformis (Fr.) Ces. & de Not. On birch, Worlingham (EAE) Knettishall, Foxhall, Earl Stonham. P. longipes (Tul.) Sacc. On oak branches. Thyridaria rubronotata (B. & Br.) Sacc. On dead elm branch. SPHiERI ACEiE—DlCTYOSPOR/E. Cucurbitaria Berberidis (Fr.) Grev. On Berberis Thunbergii, Brockford. C. Laburni (Fr.) de Not. On Cytisus, Whatfield (R. Burn). C. Spartii (Nees.) de Not. On gorse. Fenestella fenestrata (B. & Br.) Sehr. On hazel. Pleospora eustegia (Cooke) Sacc. On grey sallow. P. herbarum (Pers.) Rab. On various herbaceous stems. P. Scrophularice (Desm.) v. Hohn. On fruits of-water figwort. P. vagans Niessl. On grass culms. P. verecunda (Curr.) Sacc. On blackthorn. Pyrenophora pheeocomes (Reb.) Fr. On straw. SPH^RIACEiE—SCOLECOSPOR/E. Ophiobolus acuminatus (Sow.) Dub. On thistle and knapweed, Worlingham and Fritton (EAE) Mendlesham. O. erythrosporus (Riess.) Wint. On nettle stems. O. eucryptus (B. & Br.) Sacc. On Carex pseudo-cyperus. O. herpotrichus (Fr.) Sacc. On grasses. O. immersus Trail. On old nettle stems.


22

T H E ASCOMYCETES OF

SUFFOLK

O. rubellus (Pers.) Sacc. On hogweed stems. Sillia ferruginea (Pers.) Karst. On hazel, Corton (EAE) Mendlesham. H Y P O C R E A L E S . — N ECTRIACE/E.

Apiocrea chrysoperma (Tul.) Syd. On Boleti. Calonectria ochraceopallida (B. & Br.) Sacc. On dead wood and hogweed, Mendlesham. On lupin, Gorleston (EAE). Dialonectria galligena (Bres.) Petch. On apple and pear trees. D.peziza (Fr.) Cooke. On eider, beech and Polyporus squamosus, Mendlesham. Bury (H&S). D. sanguinea (Fr.) Cooke. On Diatrype Stigma, Worlingham and Corton (EAE), Mendlesham. Gibberella cyanogena (Desm.) Sacc. On old cabbage stalks. G. pulicaris (Fr.) Sacc. On bramble, eider and willow. G. Zece (Schw.) Petch. On Phalaris culms. Hypomyces aurantius (Fr.) Tul. On Polyporus betulinus, Staverton Thicks (EAE). On Polyporus versicolor, Brockford and Mendlesham. H. ochraceus (Pers.) Tul. On Lactarius volemus. H. rosellus (Fr.) Tul. On Polyporus squamosus & Stereum hirsutum. Hyponectria Buxi (Desm.) Sacc. Wangford & Fritton (EAE) Mendlesham. Lasionectria leptosphcerice (Niessl.) Petch. On nettle stems. Lentendrcea helminthicola (B. & Br.) Weis. On a black mould on bramble. Nectria aquifolii (Fr.) Berk. On holly, Corton (EAE), Mendlesham. N. cinnabarina Fr. On dead sticks everywhere. N. coccinea Fr. On elm bark, Mendlesham, Gorleston (EAE). N. Coryli Fkl. On hazel, Mendlesham. On salix, Blythburgh (EAE). N. mammoidea var. Rubi (Oster) Weis. On wild raspberry, Worlingham (EAE). N. punicea (K. & S.) Fr. On holly, Mendlesham. On beech, Fritton (EAE). N. Ralfsii B. & Br. On fallen branch of horse chestnut. N. sinopica Fr. On ivy stems, Flixton (EAE), Mendlesham. Protocrea farinosa (B. & Br.) Petch. On rotten wood. Pseudonectria Rousseliana (Mont.) Woll. On box leaves. Sphcerostilbe aurantiaca Tul. On elm branches. S. flavo-viridis Fkl. On larch wood, Worlingham (EAE). HYPOCREACE/E.

Claviceps purpurea Fr. On Glyceria and Lolium. Cordyceps ophioglossoides (Ehrh.) Link. On Elaphomyces variegatus, Redgrave. Epichloe typhina (Pers.) Tul. Common on grass culms.


THE ASCOMYCETES OF SUFFOLK

23

Hypocrea citrina (Pers.) Fr. On old wood, Bentley (R. Burn). H. pulvinata Fkl. On Polyporus betulinus, Staverton Thicks (EAE) Fritton. H. rufa (Pers.) Fr. On dead wood, Bury (H&S). Podostroma alutaceum (Pers.) Atkinson. Under a fir tree Westley (H&S). Polystigma rubrum (Pers.) Chev. On blackthorn leaves, Bury (H&S) Mendlesham. LOPHIOSTOMATACE/E.

Lophiostoma arundinis (Fr.) Ces. and de Not. On reeds, Creeting, Thorpeness. L. caulium (Fr.) Ces. & de Not. On Epilobium hirsutum. L. macrostoma (Tode.) de Not. On holly, Sudbourne. L. excipuliforme (Fr.) Ces. & de Not. On gorse. Lophiostrema angustilabrum (B. & Br.) Sacc. On gorse. L. prcsmorsum (Cooke) Sacc. On eider and elm. L. sexnucleatum (Cooke) Sacc. On nettle stems. L. vagabundum Sacc. On Spiroea ulmaria. DOTHIDIALES.

Dothidiella Trifolii Baylis Elliott & Stansf. On Trifolium repens. Endodothella Junci Theiss. & Syd. On rushes, Fritton & Blythburgh (EAE) Mendlesham. Euryachora betulina (Fr.) Sehr. Bury (H&S) Sutton. On birch leaves. Phyllachora Angelicce (Fr.) Fkl. On Angelica leaves. P. graminis (Fr.) Fkl. On leaves of grasses, very common. P. Heraclei (Fr.) Fkl. On hogweed leaves. Plowrightia ribesia (Fr.) Sacc. On red currant (H&S). On black currant, Mendlesham. Rhopographus filicinus (Fr.) Fkl. On bracken, Fritton & Corton (EAE). Bury (H&S). Barham and Coddenham. Scirrhia rimosa (Fr.) Fkl. On reeds. Systremma natans (Fr.) Theis & Syd. On eider. 5. Ulmi (Fr.) Theis & Syd. On elm leaves, Bury (H&S) Mendlesham. MICROTHYRIALES.

Microthyrium microscopicum D'esm. On leaves of evergreen oak. Stigmatea Aegopodii (Pers.) Oud. On goutweed. 5. Robertiani Fr. On leaves of Geranium Robertianum. HYSTERIALES.

Acrospermum compressum Tode. On Sonchus palustris, St. Olaves (EAE). Dichaena faginea (Pers.) Fr. On beech trunks. D. quercina (Pers.) Fr. On oak branches. Gloniopsis curvata (Fr.) Sacc. On bramble stems. Glonium varium (Fr.) Sacc. On yew branches. Hypoderma commune (Fr.) Duby. On hogweed stems. H. Hederce (Mart.) de Not. On dead ivy leaves.


24

THE ASCOMYCETES OF SUFFOLK

H. virgultorum D.C. On brambles. Hysterium pulicare Pers. Common on bark of trees. H. angustatum (A. & S.) Chev. On a dead stick. Hysterographium elongatum (Fr.) Corda. On rose stems and on osicrs. H. Fraxini (Pers.) de Not. On ash twigs. Common (H&S) Mendlesham. Lophium mytilinum (Pers.) Fr. On pines, Bury (H&b). Lophodermium arundinaceum (Sehr.) Chev. On reeds, Redgrave. L. culmigenum (Fr.) Karst. On culms of Dactylis. L. gramineum (Fr.) Chev. On Ammophila, Southwold. On Triticum, Mendlesham. L. juniperum (Fr.) de Not. On Juniper leaves. L. pinastri (Sehr.) Chev. On pine needles, Common (H&b) Foxhall and Mendlesham. DISCOMYCETES. HELVELLACEIE.

Cudoniella acicularis (Bull.) Schrot. Bury (H&S) Freston. Geoglossum difforme Fr. Rougham (H&S) Risby (ENB). G. glutinosum Pers. Bury (H&S). G ophioglossoides (L.) Sacc. Farnham (ENB) Rougham & Sapiston (Dr. Hind), Mendlesham Helvella crispa (Scop.) Fr. Bury (H&S) Gt. Glemham (ENB) Mendlesham. H. lacunosa Afz. Bury (H&S). Leotia lubrica (Scop.) Pers. Hardwick (H&S) Gt. Glemham (ENB) Leptopodia elastica (Bull.) Boud. Otley (ENB) Bury (E. Skepper). Mitrophora gigas Lev. In a garden, Mendlesham M. hybrida (Sow.) Boud. Santon Downham (H&S), Gt. Olemham (ENB) Mendlesham. Mitrula cucullata (Bat.) Fr. Among pine needles, Foxhall, near MoMatulgaris (Pers.) Boud. Frequent at Bury (H&S) Hawstead (Cullum) Gt. Glemham (ENB) Mendlesham, Creeting. Physomitra esculenta (Pers.) Boud. On a ditch bank, Mendlesham. Spathularia clavata (Sch.) Sacc. Bury and Corton (H&S) Coney Weston (E. Skepper). Trichoglossum hirsutum (Pers.) Boud. Bury and Rougham (H&S) Hawstead (Sir J. Cullum). Verpa digitaliformis Pers. Gt. Glemham (ENB). PEZIZÄ; (Cup-fungi). Acetabula vulgaris Fkl. Bury (H&S) Gt. Glemham (ENB) Mendlesham. _ „ . TT. ,, Aleuria cerea (Sow.) Gill. Bury (H&S) Honmgton (Dr. Hind) Fritton. A. hepatica Gill. On rabbit dung, Mendlesham. A. Petaloides Boud. East Bergholt (Berkeley).


T H E ASCOMYCETES O F

SUFFOLK

25

A. repanda (Pers.) Gill. Honington (Dr. Hind). A. vesciculosa (Bull.) Boud. Frequent on heaps of rotten garden refuse. Anthracobia melaloma (A. & S.) Boud. On burnt earth, Mendlesham & Redgrave. Belanopsis excelsior (Karst) Reb. On reeds, Fritton (EAE). Calycella citrina (Hedw.) Quel. On dead wood. C. claroflava (Grev.) Boud. On fallen branches, Barham, Coddenham, Mendlesham. C. pallescens (Pers.) Quel. On rotten tree stumps. Caprobia granulata (Bull.) Boud. Common on cow dung. Chlorosplenium aruginosum (Oed.) de Not. Hitcham (H&S). Choilymenia stercorea (Pers.) Boud. Common on cow dung. Ciboria amentacea (Balb.) Fkl. On catkins, Oulton (EAE). Ciliaria scutellata (L.) Quel. Gt. Glemham and Santon Downham (H&S) Mendlesham. C. trechispora (B. & Br.) Boud. On the ground, Martlesham. Cyathicola coronata (Bull.) de Not. Common on dead herbaceous stems. C. inflexa (Bolt.) Sacc. On old nettle stems. Dasyscypha bicolor (Bull.) Fkl. On dead and fallen branches. D. cerina (Pers.) Fkl. On dead wood, Bury (H&S) Mendlesham. D. ciliaris (Schrad.) Sacc. On fallen oak leaves, Kesgrave. D. clandestina (Bull.) Fkl. Bury (H&S) Mendlesham. D. nivea (Hedw.) Sacc. On rotten wood, Bury (H&S) Mendlesham. D. virginea (Bat.) Fkl. Common on dead wood. Disciotus venosa (Pers.) Boud. var. reticulata (Grev.) Boud. Hawstead (H&S) Gt. Glemham, Otley (ENB). Galactinia badia (Pers.) Boud. Hardwick (E. Skepper) Honington (Dr. Hind).' Helotium alniellum Nyl. On alder catkins, Freston. H. cyathcideum (Bull.) Karst. Common on dead herbaceous ttsms. H. epiphyllum (Pers.) Fr. On fallen oak leaves. H.fructigenum (Bull.) Fkl. On beech mast, Bury (H&S) Mendlesham. H. herbarum (Pers.) Fr. Common on old nettle stems. H. imberbe (Bull.) Fkl. On dead sallow stems H. pygmaeum (Fr.) Karst. On gorse roots, Hinderclay. H. salicellum (Haz.) Fr. On dead osiers. H. scutula (Pers.) Karst. On dead herbaceous stems. H. serotinum (Pers.) Fr. Horringer, Gt. Glemham (H&S) Mendlesham. H. virgultorum (Wahl.) Karst. On dead branches. Humaria humosa (Fr.) Sacc. Fornham (H&S). Hyalinia dilutella (Fr.) Boud. On dead willowherb stems. Hyaloscypha punctiformis (Grev.) Boud. On fallen oak leaves.


26

THE A S C 0 M Y C E T E 3 OF SUFFOLK

Lachnea hemisphcerica (Wigg) Gill. Gt. Glemham (H&S) Mendlesham. Lachnella corticalis (Pers.) Fr. On bark, Icklingham. L. fraxinicola B. & Br. On ash bark. L. iiidula Schum. and Kze. On willowherb. L. sulphurea (Pers.) Quel. Common on old nettle stems. Micropodia chrysostigma (Fr.) Boud. On bracken, Barham and Creeting. M. hyalina (Phill.) Brad. On old wood, Bury (H&S) Mendlesham. Mollisia atrata (Pers.) Karst. On dead hogweed stems. M. ccesia (Fkl.) Sacc. On chips of willow wood. M. cinerea (Bat.) Karst. On wood. Common everywhere. M. conigena (Pers.) Boud. On old pine cones. M. fusca (Schum.) Karst. Bury (H&S) Mendlesham. Otidea alutacea (Pers.) Mass. On the ground, in a wood. O. cochleata (L.) Fkl. Bury (H&S) Honington (Dr. Hind) Mendlesham. O. leporina (Batsch.) Fkl. East Bergholt (Berkeley). O. onotica (Pers.) Fkl. Brook Hill Wood, Ipswich and Mendlesham. Pachydisca ochracea (Grev.) Boud. On a pine stump. Pezisa aurantia Pers. Horringer (H&S) Gt. Glemham (ENB) Foxhall, Ipswich, Mendlesham. P. rutilans Fr. Bury (H&S) Shrubland Park, Wantisden. Phialia echinophila (Bull.) Quel. On acorn cup of Turkey Oak. P. firma (Pers.) Gill. On rotten oak sticks. Bentley (R. Burn) Fornham (H&S) Mendlesham. Polydesmia pruinosa (B. & Br.) Boud. On Diatrype Stigma and D. disciformis. Pseudopeziza cerastiorum (Wahl.) Fkl. On chickweed. P. petiolaria (A. & S.) Mass. On sycamore petioles. P. ranunculi (Wahl.) Fkl. On leaves of Ranunculus repens. P. spharoidis (Pers.) Bull. var. Lychnidis (Phill.). On stems of Lychnis dioica. P. trifolii (Biv-Bem.) Fkl. On leaves of Trifolium repens. Pseudotis radiculata (Sow.) Boud. Rougham (H&S). Pustularia cupularis (L.) Fkl. Bury (H&S). Pyrenopeziza arundinacea (D. C.) Boud. On reeds, Redgrave. P. plantaginis Fkl. On leaves of Plantago lanceolata. Pyronema omphalodes (Bull.) Fkl. On wood-ash, Mendlesham, Darmsden, Kesgrave. Sarcoscypha coccinea (Jacq.) Fr. Not uncommon, Mendlesham, Bacton. Sclerotinia curreyana (Berk.) Karst. On rushes, Blythburgh (EAE). S. tuberosa (Hedw.) Fkl. Hardwick (H&S). Sepultaria sepulta (Fr.) Mass. East Bergholt (Berkeley).


THE ASCOMYCETES OF SUFFOLK

27

S. Sumneri (Berk.) Boud. Gt. Glemham (ENB). Tapesia mutabilis (B. & Br.) Phil. On Aira csspitosa. T. prunicola Fkl. On dead blackthorn. T. rosa (Pers.) Fkl. On rose stems. Trichopheea albo-spadicea (Grev.) Boud. Otley (H&S). Trichopeziza escharodes (B. & Br.) Boud. On twigs of Rubus and Rosa. Trichoscypha calycina (Schum.) Brad. On larch twigs, Bury (H&S) Kesgrave, Foxhall. Urceolella Berkeleyi (Blox.) Boud. On hogweed stems. U. scrupulosa (Karst.) Boud. On rotten beech sticks. Velutaria rufo-olivacea (A. & S.) Fkl. On dead rose stems. Flixton (EAE) Mendlesham. ASCOBOLEA:.

Ascobolus stercorarius (Bull.) Schrot. On cow dung, Bury (H&S) Mendlesham. Ascophanus testaceus (Moug.) Phil. On old thatch. Lasiobolus ciliatus (Berk.) Sacc. On cow dung. BULGARIEN.

Bulgaria inquinans (Pers.) Fr. Frequent on felled oaks. Calloria fusarioides (Berk.) Fr. Common everywhere on old nettle stems. Coryne sarcoides (Jacq.) Tul. Bury (H&S) Mendlesham, Redgrave. Orbilia luteo-rubella (Nyl.) Karst. On dead wood. O. vinosa (A. & S.) Karst. On fallen branches. O. xanthostigma Fr. On dead wood, Fritton and Worlingham (EAE). DF.RMATE/E.

Encoelia populnea (Pers.) Schrot. On dead osiers. Pezicula rhabarbarina (Berk.) Tul. On dead bramble, Creeting. Tympanis fraxini Swarz. On dead ash branches. PATELLARIACE/E.

Durella compressa (Pers.) Tul. On wood, Bury (H&S) Mendlesham. Heterospharia patella Grev. On stems of wild carrot. Karschia lignyota (Fr.) Sacc. On rotten beech wood. Lecanidion atratum (Hedw.) Reb. On dead lime wood. Placographa flexella (Ach.) Fr. On yew bark. STICTE^.

Cryptodiscus pallidus (Pers.) Corda. On a rotten stump. Propolis faginea (Sehr.) Karst. On a fallen branch. Stictis arundinacea Pers. On dead grass culms. S. radiata (L.) Pers. Bury (H&S) Creeting. PHACIDIACETE.

Coccomyces coronatus (Schum.) de Not. On fallen oak leaves. Common. C. dentatus ( K . & S.) Sacc. On fallen oak leaves. Common.


28

THE ASCOMYCETES OF SUFFOLK

C. pini (A. & S.) Karst. On pine needles, Fritton (EAE). Colpoma quercinum (Pers.) Wallr. Common on young oak branches. Phacidium multivalve (D. C.) K. & S. On dead holly leaves. Rhytisma acerinum (Pers.) Fr. Common on sycamore leaves. R. salicinum Pers. Common on willow leaves. Stegia ilicis Fr. Common on dead holly leaves. Trochila craterium (D. & C.) Fr. On dead ivy leaves. T. laurocerasi (Desm.) Fr. On dead leaves of cherry-laurel. GYMNOASCE/E.

Exoascus deformans (Berk.) Fkl. On living leaves of Almond, Thwaite. E. turgidus Sadeb. Causes " witches' broom " on Birch trees, Foxhall.

THE BRITISH DISTRIBUTION OF PHYGADEUON, WITH SOME SPECIES NEW TO SCIENCE. B Y CLAUDE M O R L E Y , F . E . S . ,

F.G.S.,

F.Z.S.

THE known ränge of probably no genus among our Parasitic Flies has been so fully extended, since the publication forty years ago of my ' Ichneumonologia Britannica,' as Phygadeuon which IS one of the more typical Cryptid groups. Collectors are still sparse, but several correspondents have most kindly sent me matenal of varying extent ; and I myself have worked a majority of the English counties, with certain districts of Wales, Scotland and Ireland. T h e result demonstrates these beneficial little Hymenoptera to be practically omnipresent, in degree of frequency according to their species ; and this is just what would be expected, since they are well known to prey upon and slay (at least an uncertain proportion of) the noxious 4775 kinds of two-winged Dipterous Flies that have been actually recorded as existing in Britain. The specimens in my collection were discovered at the attached localities, here arranged as radiating from Suffolk SW. to Wales and NW. to Scotland and Ireland. Where no captor's name has been affixed, the record is my own. 1 Phygadeuon bitinctus, G m e l . - O n the wing 24 v-2 x. SUFFOLK (new to Suffolk, cf. Trans, iii, p. 148): Swilland, Monks Soham, Brandon staunch (Ernest A. Elliott) ; SURREY : many at Shere (in coli. Dr. Edw. Capron); H A N T S : New Forest; DEVON : Bickleigh & Exeter (ex coli. C. G. Bigneil) ; L I N C S : Louth. 2 P. rufulus, Gmel. (for synonymy of Medophron mger, ct. Pfankuch, Abh. Nat. Verh. Bremen 1904, p. 140).—7 vi-4 ix.

The Ascomycetes (Fungi) of Suffolk  
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