Page 1

THE DIPTERA OF

SUFFOLK.

183

THE DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK. FAMILY i: BY THE

LIRIOPIDAE.

HON.

SECRETARY.

small and archaic Family has been monographed bv Audcent (Trans. Soc. Brit. Entom. i, 1934, p. 106) in only seven species ; it most naturally precedes the Tipulidae, though systematists still consider its position a moot point and my friend Edwards, in this uncertainty, omitted it from his enumeration of the Nematocera-families. THIS

Liriope (Mg. 1800=Ptychoptera, Mg. 1803) contaminata, L.— Sitting quiescently on water-plants in every marsh of the County, taking only feeble and short flights of a few inches • much our commonest species 31 May-8 Sept., with no centrai break to confirm Audcent's two broods : Sudbury (B. S. Harwood), Lavenham, Stanstead, Brantham, Felixstow Foxhall on Angelica flowers, Ipswich, always abundant about Monks Soham moat, Henstead, Barnby Broad • Burv district (W. H. Tuck), Ampton and Bamham (Col. Nurse). L. albimana, Fab.—Our next frequent kind, though local and always in marshes, normallv in Aug.-Sept. : Sudbury, frequent in Bentley and Blythbro woods; a ? on moth-sugar in Wangford Wood, 23 ix 1938; S. Cove, a hovering at Oak-leaves 8 feet high in sun, 19 ix 1939 ; Benacre, N. Cove Barnby Broad both sexes on (Enanthe crocata flowers in 1898, Lowestoft, Herringfleet; Timworth (Nurse) Tuddenham Fen (Tuck). An entirelv distinct and rarer early brood extends from 17 April to 20 May in Blythbro marshes. L. scutellaris, Mg.—Distinctly local among Alders in Fens through June to August : Cornard Magna (Harwood), Foxhall ö beaten from pine in Bentley Woods 1 v 1897, rare at Monks Soham, Frostenden and a $ at moth-light beside Fritton Lake 19 viii 1935; Timworth (Nurse), Brandon staunch on Little Ouse River in osier carr. L. minuta, Tonn.—One J swept in swamp at Thorndon Fen on 1 x 1944. L. paludosa, Mg.—Scarce in marshes from early vi to early viii : rare beside stream in Bentley Woods "1922-9; fens at Enswell chapel ; Timworth (Nurse), Exning (Verrall). L. lacustris, Mg.—Rare and extremely local: Cornard Parva (Harwood), Ipswich in 190,8 (Raymond Bennett), Thelnetham Fen Sept. 1940 ; sitting commonly and sluggishly on Polygonum hydropiper leaves beside a muddv ditch in Blythbro Wood on only 18 ix 1936, and $ at moth-light bv Fritton Lake on 8th of preceding month. Thus we possess six of the seven British species.


184

THE DIPTERA OF

SUFFOLK

F A M I L Y ii: T I P U L I D A E . BY

MELVILLE HOCKEN,

M.B.,

B.S.

(LOND.),

F.R.E.S.

IN revising and bringing up to date (cf. Trans. Norf. Soc. 1915, Suppl. 22-30; Trans. Suff. Soc. 1932, 39-40) this family of our Diptera, I must acknowledge my indebtedness to our Hon. Secretary for kindly loaning me his collection of these insects, gathcred together in the past 50 years, as well as his invaluable data on localities and habits. Also must I thank M r . P. J. Burton for collecting, at light & elsewhere, many specimens of great interest. Other assistance is acknowledged in the text. I have followed the nomenclature of Audcent and Edwards respectively in the arrangement of this paper. T h e Tipulidae or Daddy-longlegs, are divided into two groups ; those possessing long palps or Tipulinae, and the short palped Craneflies which include two subfamilies, the Cylindrotominae and the Limoniinae. Most of these insects frequent or live in damp spots, their larvae feeding on rotten Vegetation, decaying logs, fungi or the vegetable matter contained in mud ; but some have adapted themselves to live on dry heaths & grass-lands, as does Tipula oleracea, which may become a serious agricultural pest, the larvae or leather-jackets feeding on grass roots. On the whole, comparatively little is known about the life histories of these insects & a widc field of biological research is open to any painstaking Student. It is a mistaken belief among many, that the adult Daddy-longlees is a blundering, clumsy, foolish creature. T h e reverse is really the case, for he is well able to take care of himself. His undĂźlating & tortuous flight, and the boldness with which he will dive into a bramble thicket, make him difficult to follow. Sometimes he will hang, suspended by the forelegs in an easy attitude of r e s t ; or when hunted will swiftly alight on a hedge twig & expertly shuffle sideways along it, at times peeping from behind a leaf before disappearing into the gloom. Quick to seize an opportunity of escape from the net, if given the slightest chance of seeing the light above him, he will shoot past one's peering face & be gone. No, our Daddy-longlegs is no fool! T h e long legs, especially the hind ones, are used by the ovipositing female to steady herseif & give her hcight enough to bend the abdomcn at right angles to the ground & bore the ovipositor into the soil or mud with about a quarter-turn from side to side. If the insect has hard garden earth to pierce, as with a specimen of Palcs flazcscais I watched, this may take some minutes. She then remains still & quiet for about five more in this position, whilst the eggs pass ; after which she goes a little way off & rests on a leaf for about fifteen minutes before Aying away.


THE DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.

185

1t is a noteworthy fact that Jüly* and the first 3 weeks of August are a lean time for the collector, for comparatively fevv species are on the wing. Doubtless the autumn hrood is in the larval stage. But with the end of August many species put in an appearance sometimes in bewildering numbers, and so continue tili well into October. T h e dancing & mating habits of adults are worthy of close study. T h e congregations of some of the smaller species, which dance at sunset, are composed mostly of males. Pairing may take place in the air, or the couple may adjourn to neighbouring Vegetation. Coitus may last an hour or more, or may be only a matter of few moments, it may even be resumed after interruption ; and various positions are adopted, according to the species. In Lipsothrix remota the female slung her body horizontally, as in a cradle, between her bent legs, just above the ground, whilst the male, straightening his tarsi & tibiae in a line, stood above & behind her, his abdomen bent in a semicircle. T h e mating habits of Tipula marmorata I described in our Trans. S N S . v, p. 168. As will be seen from the notes appended to the individual species, many kinds are photophilous & noted either by entering houses or appearing at moth-lights. Sugar, too, attracts many. Xumerous species fly actively in sunshine, others in shatly glades during the daytime, but most seem on the wing at dusk. Sweeping low Vegetation is usually produetive of females, sitting there doubtless awaiting the attentions of their mates, or about to oviposit; whilst the under surface of leaves on low tree branches is the haunt of others. M a n y more students of this fascinating group of insects are needed. T h e field is sadlv neglected, and it will amply repay any young entomologist who will engage in the study. T h e localities are roughly arranged from south to north ; but the County has not been touched south-west of S u d b u r y — T u d d e n ham—Newmarket : a promising Boulder-clay area for Flabellifera and Tanyptera, with considerable Beech-woods on the Gravels around Denston and along the Valleys of both the Kennet and upper Stour, bordering northerly on Chalk. T h e main County collections (not exclusively Suffolcian) are Mr. Morley's and my own, containing respectively 156 species represented 1165 speeimens ; 108 species and 703 speeimens : of common kinds we retain only a dozen of each. In SuiTolk, the following records show there have now been found 43 out of the 76 British species of Tipulinae, 2 out of the 4 Cylindrotomina, and 106 out of the 204 Limoniince : several not before taken in England. T h i s makes a total of 151 kinds out of the 284 in the British List. • C e r t a i n l y a large p r o p o r t i o n of T i p u l i d species oviposit in early J u l y . O n 3 r d I n o t e d t h a t t h e eggs of Gonomyia lateralis, M c q . , t h e n j u s t e x t r u d e d , w e r e black, s u b c y l i n d r i c a l a n d b o a t - s h a p e d , c o n v e x a b o v e a n d Hat b e l o w , s u b a c u t e at b o t h e x t r e m i t i e s . Palis is r e m a r k a b l y c o n s t a n t in t h e p e r i o d of its k i n d s ' e m e r g e n c e a n d d i s a p p c a r a n c e . B u t , t h a t t h e r e is a s u c c e s s i o n of b r o o d s r a t h e r t h a n a n y fixed p e r i o d s in Tipula, s e e m s p r o b a b l e f r o m t h e great f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h m o r i b u n d f e m a l e s p r o d u c e e g g s a f t e r b e i n g

carded.—C.M.


186

THE DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.

Subfamily T I P U L I N A E . Prionocera turcica, F.—Extremely local and apparently rare : a half dozen $ takcn, along with T . lateralis, in Blythbro Wood in May & Aug. 1944 ( H k n ) ; & two $ 9 swept there, on 9 ix 1945 (Mly). Dictcnidia bimaculata, L.—Locally not infrequent about rotting Iogs: rare at Sudbury (Harwood), Stanstead Wood 30 v 1898 (Ii. A. Elliott); Brandeston in vii 1943 (Btn.); occasionallv on windows and in garden at Monks Soham 29 vi-28 vii 1912-43 (Mly). West Stow in July 1913 (Col. Nurse). Flabellifera pectinicornis, L.—Extremely local, in woods : sitting on Oak-trunk in Barking Wood 31 v 1941 (Mly) ; Aying beside lake at Fritton Hall 31 v 1937 (Geo. Baker).' Pales crocata, L.—Not obtrusively frequent : sitting on Whitton pales 20 vi 1904, &c. P. flavipalpis, DeG.—Common generally during July & Aug. : Bentley Woods, Ipswich, Staverton Thicks in Butley, Monks Soham, Haiesworth windows & garden, Blythboro Wood, Bulcamp ; Herringfleet 1945 (Major Ross-Lewin). P. scurra, Mg.—Locally profuse on only dry heaths among Bracken: singly on Foxhall plateau, in Staverton Thicks 17 ix 1916, E laxhall Junction Wood 22 vi 1945 and Southwold Pier (Mly) ; Blythboro Heath 3 x and Bulcamp 12 viii 1944 (Hkn) ; Herringfleet vii 1945 (R.-Lewin). But on 1 vii 1945 Mly & Btn discovered it in utmost profusion on heaths at Tangham Forest near Boyton ; & it is tolerably common in Aug. about Barton Mills (Verr. all Emm 1888). P. maculata, Mg.—Very common, especially along roadsides, in v & vi over all the County. P. flavescens, Mg.—Profuse in every cornfield, hedge & garden v-vii, often seen sucking Heracleum stylopods. Our commonest species of the subfamily : both sexes at light in Heveningham Park 14 vii 1945 (Btn) and midnight in Brandon ; puparia sometimes found lying loose on surface of ground in late May (Mly). P. lunulicornis, Schum.—Uncommon : Monks Soham 1910 (Mly). P. quadrifaria, Mg.—Locally plentiful in meadows, hedges & gardens ; often rest in shady porches during day : vi-vii. P. guestfalica, Westh.—A garden & hedgerow insect, not uncommon 23 vi-4 viii: Ipswich in 1901, often at Monks Soham light, Brandon waterworks (Mly), Walpole, common in garden Sc often at light in Haiesworth"; Spexhall (Hkn). P. cornicina, L.—Infrequently noticed : Monks Soham paddock & Brandeston marsh among four-feet herbage 3 vii 1944 (Mly); New market (Yerrall 1888). Tipula maxima, I'od.—Wide spread and fairly common, especially about woods, v & vi, from Sudbury (Harwood) & Bentley tö Shipmeadow & Bungay (Tuck) on the Waveney, Timworth and West Stow.


THE DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.

187

T. fulvipennis, DeG.—Local & nearlv always sylvan : a rare survival of lost woodlands lingering in lanes & paddock at M o n k s Soham, only 16-25 Aug. (Mly) ; Bentley, and fairly common in Blvthbro Woods (Btn) ; Aying in sun in Wissett lane 1 ix 1945 (Hkn) ; on sugar in marsh at both N o r t h Cove 13-17 ix 1932 & Fritton wood 12-19 ix 1932 (Mly). Newmarket at light 1891. T. littata, M g . — I n f r e q u e n t but wide spread : ovipositing at Foxha!l 11 v 1901 ; Blvthbro Wood ovipositing in wet m u d beside bog at 2 p.m. 18 iv 1936 ; Monks Soham in 1905 & at light 10 p.m. in temp. 55a ; common in Thelnetham Fen 4 vi 41 ; Brandon (Mly). T. nigra, L.—Extremely Iocally numerous in only vcry swampy rneadows Sc woodsides ; flies among low herbage with hovering, darting fiight that is hard to follow on account of dark wings : Stratford Mary and Fiatford 10-18 vi 1944 (Hkn) ; never seen anywhere near Ipswich 1892-1904 (Mly). Minsmere Level near Dunwich 3 p.m. 22 vi. 21 (Dr. Vinter) ; Cretingham Watery Wood Sc Brandeston marshes 5 vii 45 ( H k n ) ; T h o r n d o n Fen, annually common 20 vi-20 vii (Btn) ; singly in Oulton Broad, Thelnetham Fen by Waveney, Sc Knettishall by Little Ouse (Mly). T u d d e n h a m Fen. T. zariicornis, Schum.—First discovered in Suifolk commonly in Shipmeadow marshes of the Waveney on 20 v 1945 (Mly Sc B t n ) ; Blythboro Wood later (Mly) & subsequently (Hkn). T. scripta, M g . — W i d e spread and not rare ; sometimes on sugar, often found resting on pales : East Bergholt June, Bentley Woods May, Blythboro Wood Oct., Fritton Lake J u n e ( H k n ) ; Gorleston pales 4 viii 30 (Mly); Newmarket, common (V'err.). T. peliostigma, S c h u m . — N o t uncommon in Newmarket garden in July (Verr. 1888). T. cava, Ried.—Local but plentiful where it occurs, m i d - M a y July : M o n k s Soham Sc Wantisden Heath ( M l y ) ; Heveningham Park at light 14 vii 45 (Btn) ; Blythbro Wood, Haiesworth and Spexhall, often among Broom (Hkn). T. lunata, L„—Common throughout east half of County, late M a y to late June in gardens, hedgerows and especially swamps. Bred in west Surfolk by Col. Nurse of Timworth Hall. T. fasciipennis, Mg.—Widely distributed but uncommon : Bentley Woods 12 v Z8 (t. Edw) ; East Bergholt 14 vi. 1944, Brandeston 5 vii 1945, Walpole 10 vi 1945, Sc Bulcamp 31 v 1945 ( H k n ) ; Wantisden Heath 1 vii 1945 (Mly). T. oLracea, L.—Ubiquitous ; double brooded, the first appearing on 29 April and more sparsely than Sept. second, which abounds in utmost profusion, especially in the rank-grassy flats round Southwold. T. paludosa, Mg.—Generally distributed and plentiful, mainly in damp rneadows and woods, late summer and the autumn.


188

THE DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.

T. vernalis. Mg.—Abundant in spring in all hedgerows and grass. T. lateralis, Mg.—Common and evenly distributed, occurring from spring to autumn. Mr. Morley records it numerously in sunshine at 2 p.m. beside the River Deben at Brandeston on 24 April 1943 ; and I have watched manv males at the same spot, skimming the vvater's surface, dipping into the stream during their undulating flight or alighting on wet mud 11 viii 44 ; a garden insect in Haiesworth, there attracted to li»ht. Tostock (W. H. Tuck). T. marginata, Mg.—Both sexes common on Reeds in Deben at Brandeston, 24-28 April 1943-4 (MlyJ. T. montium, Egg.—First taken in Britain at Barton Mills by Verrail ( E M M . 1924, 83). T. Couckii, Tonn.—Among stream-side Reeds, along with T . lateralis, at Brandeston, $ at 3 p.m. on 26 June 1945 (Mly). T. variipennis, Mg.—Rarely noticed : Assington Thicks 21 v 1899, and ovipositing in Bentley Woods 28 v 1939 (Mly). T. marmorata, Mg.—Profuse upon heaths in autumn, appearing at mid-Sept. with great regularity ; males emerge before females, for pairing cf. Trans, v, 168 ; commonest in Oct. (1897-1945): Bentley Woods on sugar, Martlesham Lion hill, Staverton Thicks, Monks Soham on walls ; Blythbro Heath abundant since 1928 (C. G. Doughty), profuse at light on Benacres denes (Btn), Tuddenham Heath. Sole spring specimen : Bentley Woods on 25 May 1937 (Mly). T. Stageri, Niel.—Uncommon : Aying in stiff breeze with T . marmorata over Heather at 2 p.m. on Blythbro Heath, 4 x 43 ; Monks Soham, and on sugar at Fritton Lake ( M l y ) ; one in Haiesworth garden 28 ix 1943 (Hkn). T. obsoleta, Mg.—Autumnal, locally not rare, 22 ix-28 x : Monks Soham & Bentley Woods (Mly). T. unca, Wied.—Widespread and fairly common, 17 v—16 vii: both sexes Aying by Bentley Woods stream, and bearing a score of Gamasiid Mites at Brandeston in 1944 (Mly), one there 1945 ; Haiesworth house-window 7 a.m. and garden ; Blythburgh Wood ( H k n ) ; Shipmeadow marshes of the Waveney (Btn). T. signata, Sta^g.—Taken at Exning on 22 Sept. (List 1915). T. pabulina, Mg.—Apparently quite uncommon ; known here solely by a Q sitting on Öak trunk in Assington Thicks on 1 June 1898 (Mly). T. pruinosa, Wied.—Found locally and usually singly near running water, 23 v—10 vii & on 10 ix 1944 : Brandeston several q on Reeds, Blaxhall Junction Wood swept Equisetum (Mly) ; Blythbro Wood swept bog-herbage, one $ on Haiesworth house-window ; Shipmeadow marshes of the Waveney (Btn). T. melanoceros, Schum.—Three $ $ only hitherto noticed : Brandeston on 24 April 1943, Monks Soham on a post 18 Oct. 1929 (Mly) and Huntingtield 27 July 1942 (Hkn).


THE DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.

189

T.flavilineata, M g . — U n c o m m o n in marshy places and vvct woods ; larvae are said to live u n d e r bark of decaying wood : botli se\es in Blythbro W o o d 17 v 1945 ; Benacre Broad on sugar at 10 p . m . on 22 ix 1935 ; and swept f r o m a m o n g ten-feet Heeds in Henstead marshes 17 ix 1935 (Mly). '/'. juncea, M g . — N e w to Suffolk, and, indeed it would seem, to England, for Verrall ( E M M . 1912, p. 23) knew b u t 4 Scots specimens and Audcent in 1932 nothing further. T w o J $ were Aying in sun bv hedge adjoining Bulcamp Heath in Blythbro on 9 J u n e 1945 ; one $ was swept f r o m hedgerow in an avenue of mixed trees at Walpole ten davs later ; on 20th two <J & a $ were netted in the same Situation at Walpole ; and on 21 J u n e occurred there four rather tattered 0 3, suggesting they had been long on the wing : none there later. But on 8 July 1945 a second ? was boxed at rest in Barham churchyard : singular to find a new Suffolk insect in William K i r b y ' s erstwhile parish (Hkn). T. luteipennis, M g . 1818.*—Locally f r e q u e n t in marshes from 5 viii—7 x only :—Ipswich, Brandeston, M o n k s Soham, Reydon, Covehithe, Benacre Broad at light on 19 Sept. 1935, and T h e l n e t h a m Fen by the Little Ouse ( M l y ) ; Barton Mills, 3 3 only (Verr. 188S). T. pagana, M g . — C u r i o u s l v local : nowhere noted except at M o n k s Soham, where both the winged J and brachypterous $ are quite f r e q u e n t t h r o u g h o u t only October 1904-1940, on Iawns and f o r m e r carries latter in cop. to light ; earliest date is a <J on Ivy blossom, 6 ix 45 (Trans, ii, p. cxii). T. luna, W e s t t . — P r o f u s e in swamps during spring, 22 iv—8 v i : — R a y d o n and Bentley Woods, Ipswich, Brandeston at light in a bog, Blythbro Wood, Barnby Broad, T u d d e n h a m Fen, Brandon staunch, See (Mly). Tostock (Tuck), A m p t o n . Subfamily C Y L I N D R O T O M I N ^ . Cyhndrotoma distinetissima, Mg.—Bentley Woods, commonly Aying u n d e r bushes in dappled sunshine in d a m p bosky dell at noon on 30 M a y 1932 (Mly). Phalacrocera replicata, L . — B r e d numerously in the Waveney near Beccles ( T r a n s . Ent. Soc. 1897, 343 ; T r a n s . S N S . iv, 77). Subfamily L I M O N I I N V E . Tribe LIMONIINI. Limonia bifasciata, Sehr.—Very local and essentially sylvan, usually on nocturnal sugar. Profuse in Bentley Woods during viii & ix 1893-98; at light in Barking Wood on 7 viii 39 ; Dunwich m a r s h e s ; Blythboro W o o d in ix 1931-9; Frostenden on sugar in ix 1939 ; Fritton Woods during viii & ix 1932-3 ; T u d d e n h a m (Verr). "Tipula pendens, Harris, Expos. 1782, 56, pl. xiv, fig, 4, pnonty.—CLAUDE

MORLEY.

has


190

THE DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.

L. quadrinotata, Mg.—Rare ; emerges in June & Sept. : Ipswich 1894 ; Blythbro Wood, several ix 1944 ( H k n ) ; Thelnetham Fen, 4 vi 41 (Mly); Gorleston, in Greenings Lane circa 1935 (C. G . Doughty). L. nubeculosa, Mg.—Abundant everyvvhere ; somctimes in cop. ; apparently not gregarious & never seen ' swarming', an erroneous term. Bentley Woods on sugar ; Ipswich in 1894 ; Staverton ; Brandeston, a $ Aying at felled Willow-stool ; Monks Soham 9 iv—23 xi, rarely sucking Ivy blossom ; Blythbro ; Halesworth, frequent on windows but during all 1945 scarce ; Fritton at light ; Ampton (Col. Nurse). L.flavipes, Fab.—Local, but in fair numbers where it occurs. May 6 J u n e : Bentley Woods, common on bushes 1932-45 ; Wherstead, swept lane 1904 ( M l y ) ; Walpole, Wenhaston Heath and in Chedeston ditch-bottom (Hkn) ; Shipmeadow marshes 1945 (Btn) ; Nevmarket (Bloomfield). L. dilutior, Edw.—On Monks Soham museum window 13 v 1932 (teste Edw.). Apparently rare in Blythbro Wood : <J $ Aying in sun over Heather at noon on 10 April 1943 (Btn) and one $ on 3 x 1943 (Hkn). L. maculipennis, Mg.—Rare, usuallv occurring singly in late May : Belstead 1900 ; Ipswich 1894 ; Monks Soham 1943 ; Icklingham 1929 (Mly) ; freelv in a hedgerow at Exning 12 May 1886 (Verr.). L. nigripunclata, Schum.—Sylvan and locallv profuse during only 7 v—7 vi : Assington Thicks 1901 ; Raydon Wood in cop. 1 vi 1941 ; Bentley Woods, beaten from bushes 1902 et seqq.; Monks Soham, but one in forty years (Mly) ; Timworth. L. Masoni, Edw.—May, apparently quite rare : Assington Thicks 1902 ; and Brandon staunch osier bed 1932 (Mly). L. tripuncatata, Fab.—Common locallv in woods and sometimes hedges, May to 12 July : East Bergholt meadows ; Assington Thicks, Wherstead, Bentley Woods, among bushes ; Brandeston, one bcaring a Gamasiid Mite on thorax ; Monks Soham, often at light, always about 10 p.m. ; Heveningham Park, profuse in bog ; Blythbro Wood, swept H e a t h e r ; Darsham in hedge ; Chedeston, in hedges and at moth-light: Westhall & Henstead Wood ; Timworth, Xewmarket. L. trivittata, Schum.—Apparently rare : $ swept from Recds in Thorndon Fen swamp at noon 15 July 1944 ( M l y ) ; Huntingfield, in swampy ground 10 June 1943 (Hkn). L. macrostignia, Schum.—Abundant during spring and autumn in swampy woods : Blythbro Wood, plentiful on low herbage in both May-July and October, the broods well separate«! throughout 1942-5 ( H k n ) ; a $ in Thorndon Fen swamp at noon 1 Oct. 1944 ; and a pair on sugar in marshes of the Waveney at North Cove 17 Sept. 1932 (Mly).


THE DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.

191

L. decemmaculata, L w . — O f infrequent occurrence : a r j swept f r o m long bog-grasses, near decaying Birch-logs, in Blythbro Wood 8 ix 1944 (Mly). L. dumetorum, M g . — P l e n t i f u l but mainly in woodlands : East Bcrgholt, on d a m p riverside herbage in M a y ; c o m m o n Aying round and possibly ovipositing in rain-watcr pools in old Spanish-chestnuts at noon 21 M a y 1944 (Hkn) in Bentlev Woods, in which Situation it was first found on 7 J u n e 1943 (Btn) ; quite rare on M o n k s Soham windows, and Aying in to house on 1 Aug. 1945 at 4 p.m. two feet f r o m g r o u n d (Mly) ; and in Blythbro W o o d . Barton Mills. L. ornata, M g . — O n e swept f r o m marsh herbage in T h o r n d o n Fen 20 July 1944 (Hkn). L. lucida, Meij.—Suffolk (Edw.). Very l o c a l : a pair Aying in leafy lane adjoining Brandeston marsh 5 July 1945, where the next day M r . Morley took it in some n u m b e r s by sweeping ; singlv in T h o r n d o n Fen 20 vii 1944 ( H k n ) and T h e l n e t h a m Fen mid-July 1942 (Mly). L. didyma, Mg.—Several sitting on Gorleston pales in early Sept. 1932 (Mly) ; Mildenhall 2 ix 1895, Verr. (in M u s . Brit.). L. chorea, M g . — U b i q u i t o u s and profuse, o u r commonest L i m nobiid, especially h a u n t i n g gardens b u t also f o u n d in leafy lanes and meadow-corners. Fly to light and frequently found on house-windows ; commonly noted on underside of leaves, where they are identified by the choreic or vibratory vertical movements. Aerial dances are their notable feature on calm evenings, when they sport four to six feet f r o m ground a hour before and at dusk in shade or low sunshine. Fiatford to Palgrave and Brandon. L. mitis, M g . — W i d e s p r e a d and u n c o m m o n : Wherstead saltmarshes by the Orwell 6 vi 1904 ; on M o n k s Soham window 27 v 1931 (Mly) ; Huntingfield 13 v 1943 ; in T h o r i n g t o n lane 17 v 1943 ( H k n ) ; Bcnacre Broad, at moth-light on coast denes at 9 p.m. 20 ix 1935 (Btn). Yar lutea : one $ Aying in Belstead village herbage late on 5 J u n e 1904 (Mly). L. modesta, Mg.—Locally broadly distributed : Wherstead in J u n e 1904 ; Ipswich garden in Sept. 1901 ; u n d e r M o n k s Soham lime-leaves in Aug. 1910 (Mly) ; H e v e n i n g h a m Park at light m i d - J u l y 1945 (Btn) ; Aying in Blythbro W ood in Sept. 1944 (Hkn) ; T h o r n d o n Fen 1 Oct. 1944 (Mly) ; a b u n d a n t near Mildenhall and Exning in Aug.-Sept. 1886 (Verr). L. sera, Walk.—Suifolk (Edw.). C o m m o n l y swept around S o u t h wold in Sept. 1928-9 : in the town, at Buss Creek, Reydon and Benacre Broad (Mly). L. autumnalis, S t g . — M o n k s Soham, § flew in to light at 9 p . m . on 21 J u n e 1945, and swept in swamps at mid-day in Heveningham Park on 9 April 1945 (Mly) and Blythbro Wood in


192

THE DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.

Sept. (Hkn) ; Benacre Broad at light on coast at 9 p.m. 20 Sept. 1935 (Btn). L. sericata, Mg.—Very general, especially in herbage on arable field-edges May-June : Heveningham Park, frequent in Blvthbro Wood (Mly) and all parishes round Haiesworth (Hkn), Dixie-lane in Rumburgh, at moth-light in Wangford Wood at 10.30 p.m. in Sept. 1939 ; Easton Broad 1913 ; Monk-park Wood in Bradfield 1935 and Icklingham in 1929 (Mly) ; abundant in grass-field at Newmarket 1886 (Verr). L. complicata, Meij.—Orford (Edw.) ; profuse in coast swamps in Sept. at Covehithe Broad 1928 and Benacre Broad 1929 (Mly). L. stigmatica, Mg.—Purely svlvan : flving in Bentley Woods 12 vi 1904 ; many in Blvthbro Wood 20-24 ix 1938-9 (Mly). L. Danica, Kun.—Blythbro Wood, one $ swept in swamp at 11 a.m. on 29 April 1945, just after a snow-storm (Mly). L. halterella, Edw.—Two o o swept in Blythbro Wood swamp 10 Sept. 1944 (new to England : Trans, supra 1944, p. 142). L. rufiventris, Strobl.—One on Monks Soham window 7 October 1922 (Mly). L. morio, Fab.—Generally distributed and double brooded, but taken singly : always in May-June at Bentley Woods on Birch, Ipswich in April 1898, Dunwich beach under a board at 2 p.m. ; Walpole pond 11 Sept. 1945 (Mly) ; Aying in Haiesworth sycamore hedge in Aug. and female on Rushes in Bulcamp marshes on 10 Oct. 1943 (Hkn) ; swept in Thelnetham and T u d d e n h a m fens, and at Brandon staunch (Mly). L. occidua, Edw.—Swept from Reeds in brackish part of Easton Broad 29 Sept. 1913 (Mly). L. maculata, M g . — C o m m o n and generally distributed in both moist and sandy places from April to October, often sitting on palings and sometimes bearing Gamasiid Mites : Wolverstone Park, Bentley Woods, several at light at 10 p.m. in Sept. at Blythbro Wood ; in all parishes round Haiesworth, sometimes on windows and swept profusely from ditch-bottoms ; Chedeston Hall at mid-day, on sugar in North Cove marshes of the Waveney, Sept. on Gorleston pales ; Newmarket. Taphrophila vitripennis, Mg.—One specimen in Blythbro Wood on 29 May 1943 (Hkn). Orimarga attenuata, Walk.—One swept in Redgrave Fen, at source of Waveney, at 3 p.m. on 7 July 1945 (Mly). Helius longirostris, Mg.—Swept beside the Little Ouse on Knettishall Heath 25 vi 1944 ; and at Brandon staunch 31 May 1929 (Mly). H. flavus, Walk.—Not rare, Aying over a shady rill, on N. edge of Bentley Woods in sun on 8 July 1945 (Mly). H. pallidirostris, Edw.—Swept in swamp at Blythbro Wood on 17 May 1945 (Mly).


THE DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.

193

Tribe PEDICIINI. Pedicia rivosa, Linn.—Extremely local in swamps, Aying by day and to moth-light at n i g h t : Lound Wood in Sept. 1832 (Pagents ; Hemley (Canon Waller); Foxhall marshes, May 1898 (late E. C. Bedwell) and 1901. Blythbro Wood, not infrequent, and sometimes at light in Sept., 1912-45 (Mly) ; on 17 May (Hkn) Sept. (Btn) 1945. Tuddenham Fen (Verr). P. immaculata, Mg.—Common in Suffolk (Verr. 1887) and probably our most ubiquitous marsh Limnobiid ; never attracted by light; often in cop. on Polygonum amphibium ; 28 April to 1 Oct., excepting July : Cornard Magna, Bentley, Bramford, Staverton, Brandeston (never at Monks Soham), Heveningham, Blythburgh, Chedeston, Walberswick salt-marshes, Reydon, Henstead on ten-foot Reeds, Shipmeadow, Thorndon and Tuddenham fens, Ampton, Brandon. Dicranota bimaculata, Schum.—' Suffolk ' (Edwards 1938). Ula sylvatica, Mg.—Apparently not very general ; in marshy ground : swamp at Bentley Woods 16 vi 1919, and one Aying solus at old Spanish-chestnut stump there at noon 21 v. 1945 ; Staverton marsh 4 vi 1931 ; Blythboro Wood 2 p.m. 27 v 45 (Mly) and 3 ix 1944 (Hkn). Newmarket and Exning. Tribe HEXATOMINI. Dactvlolabis sexmaculata, Mcq.—Newmarket on 30 April 1885 (Bloomfield). D. transversa, Mg.—Apparently quite rare : swept in a Wherstead marsh 10 May 1900, and on Monks Soham window 22 August 1920 (Mly). Epiphragma ocellaris, Linn.—Local and singly : Chedeston Hall bushes 25 vi 1942 (Trans, v, 57) and 28 v 1943 ; Aying at dusk in stiff W. wind in Haiesworth garden 8 vi 45 (Hkn) ; Monks Soham windows 22 v 1943 (after 40 years residence !) et seqq., 9-11 a.m. & 5-5.50 p.m. (Mly). Austrolimnophila ochracea, Mg.—Common and very general in v-vii, less so in viii-ix : Fiatford, Bentley Woods ; Monks Soham outhouse (E. A. Elliott) and windows ; Heveningham Park, at light (Btn) ; Blythbro Wood, all parishes round Haiesworth, Southwold, Frostenden, at light by Fritton lake, on Mr. J. L. Moore's Gorleston garden ; Newmarket (Verr). Limnopliila Meigeni, Verr.—Local on heaths and in adjoining woods Aying by day and often sitting at noon eight feet up on Oak and Birch trunks ; 27 April to Sept. : mainly at Blythbro ; once in Thelnetham Fen, & once, in 1897, Aying along ditch at Dodnash Wood in Bentley (Mly). L. phceostigma, Schum.—New to England ; rare, by sweeping herbage by stream at Ilketshall St. Michael 5 June 1945 (Hkn). L. dispar, Mg.—Common and general; usually on bushes in woods but not infrequent in hedgerows ; 28 iv—22 vi & a few in viii to 28 ix ; only once at light: Bentley & Parham woods,


194

L.

L.

L. L.

L. L.

L. L. L.

L.

L.

L.

THE DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.

Ipswich, rare and decadent at M o n k s S o h a m , Blythbro Wood, all round Haiesworth, Chedeston (Btn), Redesham, Fritton lake, Blackhorse Wood in T h e l n e t h a m , S h i p m e a d o w , K n e t tishall H e a t h . lirwola, M g . — G e n e r a l and not u n c o m m o n monthly 28 iv—3 x, when one was sucking Ivy flower at dusk in 1932 : S u d b u r y (Harwood) ; eame to sugar in Bentley W o o d s 1938, to lighton six occasions in Aug. 8-9.30 p.m. and on windows and in garden M o n k s Soham ; Heveningham, Blythbro, Frostenden, T h e l n e t h a m Fen ; at light at 1 a.m. by Fritton lake. Exning. fuli inervosa, S c h u m . — F a i r l y f r e q u e n t , especially in d a m p s p o t s : L e t h e r i n g h a m old park 13 ix 1920 ; several at light 10 p.m. in v & vi, & on windows in late ix, at M o n k s Soham (Mly) ; Walpole ; Blythbro W o o d in mid-v, mid-vi & midviii ( H k n ) ; H e v e n i n g h a m Park at light 17 vii (Btn). aperta, V e r r . — O n c e taken, flving in sun, in woods by Fritton Lake 3 p . m . 28 vi 1942 (Hkn). ferruginea, M g . — G e n e r a l and fairly c o m m o n ; ' Suffolk ' (Verr. 1887): c o m m o n at Fiatford v 1944 ( H k n ) ; M o n k s Soham and Benacre Broad, rarely at light in Sept. ( M l y ) ; Blythbro Wood, Chedeston, Oulton Broad in v 1905 ; H e v e n i n g h a m lakeside vi 1943 (Btn). B a m h a m . abdominalis, S t g . — O n c e onlv, swept f r o m low bog-herbage in Blythbro Wood 29 v 1943 "(Hkn). squalens, Z e t t . — A p p a r e n t l y sublitoral with us and confined to S e p t e m b e r : Blythbro Wood 1928; R e y d o n ; at light on coast in Benacre Broad at 9 p . m . 19 & 20*ix 1935 ; Herringfleet marshes 20 ix 1932 (Mly). trimaculata, Zett.—Brandeston Wood 20 v, and on M o n k s Soham window 1 vi 1944 (Mly). apicata, L w . — R a r e l y noticed : sitting outside M o n k s Soham windows, 15 vi 06 & 30 viii 20 (Mly). maculata, M g . — S p a r s e and taken b u t singly ; v-vi & again viiiix : Bentley W o o d s Aying over stream, H o g s H i g h l a n d by the Orwell 1897 (Mly), Brandeston on Burr-reed, M o n k s Soham windows, H e v e n i n g h a m (Btn), Blythbro Wood, at light by Fritton lake ; A m p t o n . siibmarmorata, V e r r . — W i d e spread, often in association with L. m a c u l a t a ; v-vi & again in viii: Belstead village 1904; M o n k s S o h a m shrubbery, Aying in shade 1919-20 (Mly) ; one near Lowestoft 21 Aug. 1898 (B. S. Harwood). punctata, S e h r . — C o r n a r d Parva (Harwood, T r a n s , ii, 4 0 ) ; a b o u n d i n g by small reedy stream at Fiatford 27-30 v 1944 (Hkn) ; profuse for only two h u n d r e d yards, ovipositing in wet m u d of the D e b e n at Brandeston iv-v 1943-5 ( M l y , Btn). lucorum, M g . — R a t h e r c o m m o n locally : singly in June-July on Bentley W o o d s bushes, on reeds in D e b e n at Brandeston and in 1921 at A s h f i e l d - T h o r p e ( M l y ) ; reedy brook-sides at Huntingfield M a y to July ( H k n ) ; Blythbro W o o d in v-ix.


THE DIPTERA OF SÜFFOLK.

195

L. sepium, Yerr.—Usually f o u n d in marshy ground alons; with L . lucorum in vii—ix : Bentley W o o d s , Brandeston, H e v e n i n g h a m Park at light in mid-vii (Btn) ; Huntingfield ( H k n ) ; Blvthbro W o o d & T h e l n e t h a m Fen (Mly). L. discicollis, M g . — E v e r y w h e r e a b u n d a n t in d a m p spots, often sitting on Reeds low over r u n n i n g streams, and on E q u i s e t u m plants; iv-x. Edwards in 1938 c o m m e n t s on darker m e s o n o t u m of Sutfolk examples, other colour changes, shortcr verticals & hairier ninth $ tergite. Fiatford to at least Haiesworth. L. fuseipennis, M g . — N o t i c e d at onlv Brandon staunch on 30 M a v 1929 (Mly). L. netnoralis. M g . — A c o m m o n , variable and very general species, f r o m late v to m i d - A u g . ; (typical form) W h e r s t e a d in 1904, M o n k s S o h a m windows, H e v e n i n g h a m Park, Blvthbro W o o d , Haiesworth windows, near S o u t h E l m h a m All SS. c h u r c h , T h e l n e t h a m Fen, Knettishall marshes. (Yar. minuscula, E d w . ) ; onlv once, in Brandeston marshes 15 vi —2 viii (Mly), and in Blvthbro W o o d on 17 vi 45 (Hkn). (Var. srparata, Walk.) By stream-side at Fiatford on 31 v 1944, and in Haiesworth garden 23 vi 1945 (Hkn). L. adjuneta, Walk.—A $ resting on old C a b b a g e - s t u m p at Bulcamp in Blvthbro 6 ix 1945 (Hkn). L. filata. W a l k . — O n e on H e v e n i n g h a m Park stream-side on 11 J u n e 1943 (Hkn). Oxydiscus senilis, H a i . — N o t u n c o m m o n in swampy places : Ö at m o t h - l i g h t 9 p . m . 1 ix 45 in Bentley Woods (Btn) ; swept low herbage at Linstead ponds 30 v 1943, in Blythbro Wood 4 x 1943 (Hkn) and 10 ix 1944, and in Frostenden marshes on 13 ix 1935 (Mly). Tribe

ERIOPTERINI.

Lipsothrix remota, Walk.—Local : beaten f r o m old Lime-tree at Brandeston 6 vi 43 ; settled on motor-car at M o n k s S o h a m 21 viii 43 (Mly) ; a fine pair in cop. on rushes in Heveningh a m Park 11 vi 43 ( B t n ) ; Aying in Fritton woods 28 vi 1942. Gnophomyia lugubris, Zett.—Suffolk (Edw.). Locally profuse on individual Black Poplar-trees : H e v e n i n g h a m Park vi & ix 1942-4 ( H k n ) ; T h o r n d o n Fen, ovipositing ( T r a n s . 1944, 145); new to Britain at Mildenhall ( E M M . 1919, 176). Gonomyia lateralis, M c q . — P r o f u s e in swamps, iv-vii ; ' Sutfolk ' ( E d w a r d s 1938): Ipswich in 1914 (Mly), Brandeston, Blaxhall, H e v e n i n g h a m Park, T h o r n d o n Fen, T h e l n e t h a m Fen, Redgrave, Brandon staunch, &c. West Stow (N'urse). G. tenella, M g . — A single speeimen, taken flving in Haiesworth garden 10 viii 1942 ( H k n ) ; N e w m a r k e t garden (Verr. 1887). G. lucidula, M e i j . — B u t little noted : ' Sutfolk ' ( E d w a r d s 1938) ; swept f r o m aquatic weeds in the River Deben at Brandeston 11 viii 1944 ( H k n ) and at Brandon staunch 31 v 1929 ( M l y ) .


196

THE DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.

G. recta, Tonn.—Occurs in ' Suffolk ' (Edwards 1938) ; a single $ swept from ditch on N. edge of Bentlev Woods at 3 p.m. on 8 July 1945 (Mly). Cheilotrichia cinerascens, Mg.—Common, but few localities: Monks Soham in May to 16 Sept. 1929 ; Blythbro Wood, Reydon and district 1936 ( M l y ) ; frequent all round, and at light in, Haiesworth May-Sept. 1942-5 (Hkn). C. imbuta, Mg.—Taken at Exning in July (List 1915). Erioptera jiavescens, Linn.—Doubtless much overlooked : by the Gipping at Ipswich July 1896 ; on Monks Soham windows 3-31 May 1914-5 (Mly) ; at light in Heveningham Park on 14 July 1945 (Btn). E. Meijerci, Edw.—Apparently quite rare : Orford in June-Julv (Edwards 1938). E. divisa, Walk.—A single specimen at Monks Soham light on 18 August 1919 (teste Edw). E. griseipennis, Mg.—Not uncommon on pond-edges, 29 April— 30 May only ; Fiatford, Linstead ponds, Haleswprth, Chedeston, Westhall. E. tcenionota, Mg.—Abundant throughout the County, May to October, mainly in swamps. Sometimes dances low down in shade in afternoon and sunlight before dusk. Raydon Wood 1932, Monks Soham at light at dusk in Aug., Blythbro Wood, Haiesworth district; Benacre Broad at light 9 p.m. 20 ix 1935. Verrall saw them literally crowded by hundreds on underside of stone opening to Newmarket sewer in 1887 ; Timworth and Ampton. E. fusculenta Edw.—June-Aug. : reported from Orford by Edwards in 1938. E. fuscipennis, Mg.—Common enough in moist situations ; 27 v-14 vi & 3-10 ix : Monks Soham, at light 11 p.m. 23 vii 45 ; Bramfield, on low herbage near river; Suffolk (Curtis) ; Blythbro Wood ; South Elmham All SS., near pond. E. trivialis, Mg.—Distinctly common ; dances beside water in shade at 18-24 feet from ground in afternoon & evening ; 10 iv—26 vi & 4 ix—14 x : East Bergholt, profuse on reeds at Brandeston in May, Blythbro Wood, Haiesworth garden, Chedeston, South Elmham All SS., Bulcamp marshes, Frostenden ; Barton Mills, West Stow, Brandon, Exning. E. diuterna, Walk.—Apparently quite rare : swept from low herbage in marshy glade of Blythbro Wood on 4 October 1943 (Hkn) ; J $ on salt-mud of Blyth River by Walberswick heronry, at roots of plants 21 April 1937 (Mly). E. hybrida, Mg.—Swept from Rushes in Bulcamp marshes 10 Oct. 1943 (Hkn); $ $ not rarely swept from bog in Blythbro Wood in May ; Southwold (Mly). E. stictica, M g . — A littoral species, frequent in salt marshes, abundant all up our coast, and a few miles inland along river Valleys,


THE DIPTERA OF

SUFFOLK.

197

rare on uplands ; March to October ; comes to light: East Bergholt, at Wherstead, Brandeston, Slaughden, Monks Soham light, Haiesworth, Chedeston, Wissett, Westhall, Wenhaston Heath, Bulcamp in Blythbro, Walberswick saltmarsh, Southwold Buss Creek, Reydon, Covehithe, Benacre denes, Oulton Broad, Lowestoft, Gorleston pales. E. maculata, Mg.—Fairly frequent in damp places ; May & rarely Sept. : Fiatford on ditchside herbage, Monks Soham, Bramfield marshes, Blythbro Wood, Wissett, South Elmham All SS. near pond. Newmarket garden. Ormosia lineata, Mcq.—Locally common in moist ditches, 18 April -13 June : on Monks Soham windows, swept at Huntinpfield, Chedeston, Spexhall and Southwold. Ampton. O. nodulosa, Mcq.—Quite common in moist ditches during, at least, spring ; in autumn rare : once swept in Cretingham boggy wood in September 1943 ; Brandeston, Monks Soham in May, June & Oct. ; Blythbro Wood (Mly) ; Chedeston and Westhall in May (Hkn) ; swept in marsh at Knettishall Heath in June (Btn). O. hederce, Curt.—More frequent than O. nodulosa, usually in damp places, in both spring and sutumn : Fiatford in May, common on Ivy at Monks Soham, Blythbro Wood in May & Oct., Wissett & All SS. in May, Southwold Buss Creek in May ; and Reydon in September 1928 ; Thorndon Fen. Abundant on Ivy-bush in Suffolk (Curtis). O. albitibia, Edw.—But once swept from hedgerow near Spexhall church on 12 vi 1945 (Hkn). O. bicornis, Meij.—Apparently quite rare, not taken for a decade : Southwold on 27 August 1937 (Mly : teste Edw.). O. Danica, Ned.—One $ swept in bog at Blythbro Wood on 31 May 1943 (Mly). O. varia, Mg.—Our most numerous species of the genus, but rarely taken outside Blythbro very boggy wood, where for the last thirty years it has abounded, during only 14 ix—3 x, on low herbage and the branches of Alders and Sallows, beneath which it dances in Company six feet from ground on dull and warm afternoons ; two in Letheringham marsh in April & two Aying in Herringfleet marsh in Sept. 1932. O. bifurcata, Goet.—Apparently quite rare : swept herbage beside slow stream in Heveningham Park 10 October 1942 ( H k n ) ; and in bog at Blythbro Wood 14 Sept. 1944 (Mly). O. hämorrhoidalis, Zt.—Taken at Exning in Sept. (List 1915). Molophilas niger, Goet.—Local and uncommon in marshes : by sweeping at Brandeston by the Deben June 1943 ; in Heveningham Park 13 Sept. 1944 ; Thorndon Fen on 1 Oct. and in Thelnetham Fen 30 July 1943 (Mly). M. Czizeki, Lack.—New to England. Swept from herbage in a boggy part of Bentley Woods on 21 May 1945 (Hkn).


198

THE DIPTERA OF SUFFOLK.

M. bihamatus, Meij.—Swept among herbage over a damp ditch by roadside at Wissett in June 1943 ( H k n ) ; and in Knettishall marshes on 25 June 1944 (Mly). M obscurus, Mg.—Local but often profuse on reeds : Brandeston in June 1922, Blythbro Wood 24 Sept. 1923, & Reydon 21 Sept. 1928 (Mly, teste E d w . ) ; Frostenden abundant & Brandon staunch (Mly). Newmarket in late June. M. pleuralis, Meij.—Apparently quite rare : several swept Buss Creek, & Southwold, Sept. 1928 (Mly, teste Edw.). M. propinquus, Egg.—Mildenhall on 8 Sept. 1895 (in M u s . Bnt). M. eriseus, Mg.—Very common in a diversity of situations, 27 May—19 June & September : Bentley Woods. Brandeston, Monks Soham, Heveningham Park (Mly), Blythbro Wood and Haiesworth (Hkn), on Gorleston palings at noon 8 Sept. 1932 (Mly, teste Edw.), Thelnetham Wood ; in Newmarket garden. M. serpentigcr, Edw.—Locally not rare in swamps : swept in marshy ground at stream-side in East Bergholt 31 May 1944 & in bog at Heveningham Park 11 June 1943 (Hkn). M ockrescens, Edw.—Rare apparently : Bentley Woods ; at Monks Soham by M r . Morley (Edw. 1938) ; Aying among tall reeds in the River Deben at Brandeston at noon 26 June 1943 ; in cop. on alder-trunk in Heveningham Park in May and swept in Blythbro Wood in Sept. 1944 (Mly). M ochraceus, Mg.—By no means uncommon, probably very g e n e r a l : ' freely attracted to moth-light in Barking Wood & Cretingham marshes, vi & vii (Btn) ; Monks Soham 9 Aug. 1923 (teste Edw.) & 27 May 1921 (Mly); Heveningham (Hkn). M appendiculatus, Stasg.—Locally quite f r e q u e n t : Bentley Woods at moth-light 9 p.m. 1 ix 1945 (Btn) ; on Monks Soham Window 2 June 1928 (Mly, teste Edw.), Ubbeston church 23 July 1943 & Walpole 20 June 1945 (Hkn) ; Blythbro Wood & Herringfleet marshes 20 Sept. 1932 (Mly, teste Edw.). M. medius, Meij.—Frequent at Brandeston & Monks Soham in July ;' Blythbro Wood (Mly) ; abundant in hedgerows & waste ground in Haiesworth district during June-July, at Bramfield beaten from bushes in clouds (Hkn). Tasiocera murina, M g — D o u b t l e s s much overlooked : one specialen on garage wall at Monks Soham House on 24 May ; others Aying over moat there on 2 July, 1943 (Mly). SUMMARY.

Subfamily Tipulinse „ Cyclindrotominae Limoniinas

43 species 2 „ 106 „

Tipulidas of Suffolk

151 species

The Diptera of Suffolk: Family i, Liropidae. Family ii, Tipulidae  
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