Page 1

74

THE TOTAL LIVING FAUNA OF SUFFOLK.

THE TOTAL LIVING FAUNA OF SUFFOLK. BY

CLAUDE M O R L E Y ,

F.E.S.,

F.G.S.,

F.Z.S.

Phylum i. : PROTOZOA. Class INFUSORIA. Family Noctilucidae. Noctiluca scintülans, Mac. (miliaris).—In Deben at Ramsholt ; Harwich harbour (Trans. SNS. i, 7 ; ii, 78 & 282 ; Vict. Hist.). Class M A S T I G O P H O R A . Subclass D I N O F L A G F L L A T A . Family Peridinidae. Peridinium sp. f The Orwell River is occasionally characterised Ceratium sp. 1 bv a large number of these small genera ; they multiplv to so remarkable a degree in Ipswich dock, tlie only localitv in which I have seen anvthing of the kind, as to alter the colour of the water (Vict. Hist. i, 1911, p. 89). Class RHIZOFODA. Order AMCEBINA. Family Amcebidae. Ameeba proteus, Leid.—Fritton Blocker Lane and Lake (Trans. n, p. xxxix ; iv. p. Ixx). Order F O R A M I N I F E R A . [No later work seems yet to have supplemented " The Foraminifera of Tidal Rivers " bv G. S. Brady, C.M.Z.S. & David Robertson, F.G.S. (Annais & Mag. Natural History ser. 4 vol. vi, Oct. 1870, pp. 273-309, with folding Table & pll. iv-xii), whose obsolete nomenclature is here reproduced to avoid error : we are interested, not in synonymy, solelv in number of species. Omitted in Vict. Hist. Suffolk, 1911]. Biloculina ringens, Lam.—' Common at any part of our coast (p. 284). Biloculina elongata, Orb.—Yarmouth, rare. Triloculina trigonula, Lam.—Breydon Water, rare Triloculina oblonga, M o n t - Y a r m o u t h & Breydon Water, frequent. Quinqueloculina seminulum, L.—' One of the commonest (p. 285). Quinqueloculina subrotimda, Mont.—Yarmouth, frequent. Quinqueloculina secans, Orb.—Breydon Water, frequent. Quinqueloculina fusca, Brad. sp. nov.—Yarmouth rare. Trochammina inflata, Mont.-Yarmouth & Breydon Water, common. Lituola Canariensis, Orb.—Breydon Water, common. Lagena sulcata, W . - J . - O u l t o n Broad, Yarmouth, Breydon Water, common. Lagena laevis, M o n t . - Y a r m o u t h & Breydon Warter, common. Ladern gracilima, Seg.—Breydon Water, rare. Lagern globosa, M o n t . - O u l t o n Broad & Yarmouth, common. Lagena semistriata, Will.—Breydon Water, rare. Lagena squamosa, Mont.-Yarmouth, rare. Lagena Meto, Orb.—Breydon Water, rare. Dentalina communis, Orb.—' Common everywhere on our coast (v. 295).


THE TOTAL LIVING FAUNA OF SUFFOLK.

75

Polymorphina oblonga, Will.—Breydon Water, rare. Polymorphina compressa, Orb.—Breydon Water, common. Uvigerina irregularis, Brad.—' Has been found (fossil [onlyl) in the Crag of Suffolk ' (p. 298). Planorbulina Mediterranensis, Orb.—Yarmouth & Breydon Water, rare. Truncatulina lobatula, Walk.—Oulton Broad & Yarmouth, rare. Rotalia Beccari, Linn. | Oulton Broad, Yarmouth, PolystomelJa striatipunctata, F.-M. • Breydon Water, Nonionina depressula, W . - J . ) abundant. Phylum ii. : PORIFERA. Class CALCAREA. Homocoelidae. Leucosolenia botryoides, Ellis.—In the Orwell near Pin-mill & in the Wallet (V.H.). Leucosolenia lacunosa, Jhnst.—Dredged in the Wallet (V.H.). Grantia compressa, Fab. ) In the Orwell (Bowerbank's Grantia capillosa, Schm. f Brit. Spongiadae). Class SILICEA. Ephydatia fluviatilis, Jhnst.—Needham (Tr. iv, pp. 58 & xliv). Order HADROMERINA. Cliona celata, Grnt.—In its borings into Oyster-shells (V.H.) Östren edulis, L. and Neptunea antigua, L., everywhere (Mly.) Order HALICHONDRINA. Halichondria panicea, Pall.—Near Pin-mill, abundant before 1895 (V.H.) ; frequent on shore, from Walton-Naze to Horsey beach (Mly : Tr. ii, p. lxxix). Isodictya fucorum, Bow. )—Two species dredged in the Wallet Isodictya palmata, ? Bow. ) (V.H.). Order PCECILOSCLERINA. Chalitia oculata, Pall.—Harwich Harbour and near Pin-mill (V.H.) ; constantly washed up along our shore at Bawdsey, Southwold, &c. (Tr. ii, pp. lxxix & cl ; iv, p. xxxiii). Phylum iii: C C E L E N T E R A T A . Class HYDROZOA. Order HYDROIDA (Zoophytes). Suborder ATHECATA. Hydridae. Hydra oligactis, Pall. (fusca, L).)—Fritton (Tr. ii, p. xxxix). Hydra vulgaris, Pall. (grisea, L). 1 Hydra viridis, Linn.—Fritton (Tr. iii, p. lxiii; iv, p. lxxx). Clavidae. Cordylophora lacustris, Allm.—Herringfleet, in brackish water (Tr. ii, p. lxxx). Corynidae. Coryne muscoides, L. (vaginata, Hinc.).—Found by Mr. G. H Hope, June-July (V.H.).


76

THE TOTAL LIVING FAUNA OF SUFFOLK.

Tubulariidae. Tubiilaria indivisa, L.—Suffolk ? (V.H.); Gorleston beach, 1931 (Tr. i, 224). Tubiilaria Larynx, Ell.— Often on yacht's bottom, Suffolk ( V . H . ) . Suborder HECATA. Haleciidae. Halecium halecinum, L —Gorleston beach, 1933 (Tr. ii, p. lxxx). Campanulariidae. Obelia geniculata, L.—Gorleston and Yarmouth harbour (Tr. ii, pp. 188 & lxxx). Laomedea gelatinosa, Fall.—In the Orwell (V.H.) ; Southwold, Kessingland, Gorleston (Tr. ii, pp. lxxx, cxlvii, cl). Sertulariidae. Dynamena pumila, Linn.—At all seasons near Harwich (VH.). Sertularella polysonias, L.—Found near Harwich (VH.). Abietinaria abietina, L — Near Harwich (VH.) ; Bawdsey, Kessingland, Gorleston (Tr. ii.). Hydrallmama falcata, L.—Near Harwich (VH.); Bawdsey, Dunwich, Gorleston (Tr. ii). Sertularia cupressina, L. (argentea, Ell.).—Near Harwich (VH.) ; Kessingland, Gorleston (Tr. ii, pp. lxxx & cxlvni). Sertularia operculata, L.—Near Harwich (VH.) ; Southwold and Hopton shore (Tr. ii, pp. lxxx & cl). Plumulariidae. Plumularia pinnata, L. (echinulata, Lam.).—Bearing gonophores in June & Oct. (VH). Plumularia setacea, Ell.—Bearing gonopores in Orwell mear Pmmill (VH). Nemertesia antennina, L.—Near Harwich (VH) ; Bawdsey and Hopton shore (Tr. ii, pp. lxxx & cli). Nemertesia ramosa, Lmour.—Noticed only on Gorleston shore (Tr. ii, p. lxxx). Order HYDROMF.DUSÄJ (Jelly-fish). Eucopidae. Phialidium (hemisphericum, L.—Many of one species in tow-net (VH). /Equoridae. JEquorea Forskalea,Per— Southwold harbour in Aug. 1935 (Tr. iii, 75V Order SIPHONOIIORA. Caravellidae. Physalia physalis, L. .(? Arethusa, Br.).—A half-dozen on beach north of Aldeburgh in 1883 (Tr. i, 79). Class SCYPHOMEDUS/E. Order SEM/EOSTOME/E. Pelagiidae. Pelagia noctiluca, Per.—Sizewell and Lowestoft shore (Tr. ii, 282 ' & iü, 278). Chrysaora isosceles, L.—Harwich harbour, Felixstow with tent" acles 5-6 feet long (VH) ; Felixstow, Southwold, &c. (Tr. i, 70 ; ii, 79 ; iii, 75).


THE TOTAL L I V I N G FAUNA OF SUFFOLK.

77

Cyaniidae. Cyanea capillata, Linn.—Considerable numbers for some years in Harwich harbour, the Orwell and at Orford in the Aide ; 99J per centum of their weight is water (VH ; Tr. i, 81 ; iii, 279). Cyanea Lamarci, Per.—Usuallv rare ; possibly once seen in the Orwell; fairly common in the Aide near Shingle-street in Hollesley during Sept. 1884 (VH). Cyanea sp.—A third species with lower appendages of a fine brown, apparently of this genus, in the Orwell during 1884 (VH. i, 1911, p. 90). Aureliidae. Aurelia aurita, Linn.—By far our commonest Jelly-fish : Stour, Deben and Aide, sometimes with a diameter of 15 inches in Harwich harbour ; but much commonest in the Orwell, where a hundred are sometimes to be seen in a Square yard of water (VH). Order RFFLZOSTOMIE. Rhizostoma octopus, Linn.—A few large ones in the Wallet, but I have never seen it in Sufiolk estuaries (VH). Class A N T H O Z O A . Subclass A L C Y O N A R I A . Alcyonium digitatum, Linn.—Uncommon outside Harwich harbour (VH) ; general on our shore from Bawdsey on London-clay rocks to Gorleston in March ; Southwold, Oct. 1939 (Tr. ii, pp. lxxvii & clv ; iv, 119). Subclass ACTTNIARIA (Anemones). [The ten Suffolk species are detailed at T r . iv, 25.] Subclass M A D R E P O R A R I A (Corals). [No recent ones recorded.] Class C T E N O P H O R A . Pleurobrachia pileus, Müll.—In Stour and Orwell, 1897-1901 (VH) ; Southwold 1929, Hopton shore, common at Gorloston (Tr. i, 7 0 ; ii, p. lxxx ; iii, 182). f Phylum iv : PLATYHELMINTHES. | Phylum v : NEMATHELMINTHA. 'Worms Phylum vi: NEMERTINI. | Phylum vii: ANNELIDA. L Phylum viii: GEPHYREA. [The sixty-four Suffolk species are detailed at T r . iv, 228.] Phylum ix : ROTIFERA. I Fhe thirty-seven Suffolk species are detailed at Tr. iii, 252.] Phylum x : PHORONDEA. [None recorded.]


78

THE TOTAL LIVING FAUNA OF SUFFOLK.

Phylum x i : ARTHROPODA. Class I : CRUSTACEA. Subclass

Order CLADOCERA. CALYPTOMERÄ. Sididae. Diaphanosomn brachyurum, Liev.—Found in Fritton Lake, 1903 (Norfolk Nat. Soc. Trans, vii, p. 659, like most of the following. Classification of Ambleside Biol. Assoc. 1941, p. 8). Daphniidae. Daphnia maqna, Strau.—In brackish water at Ploughmans Ham bv Lake Lothing, 1903 (I.e. viii, 434) ; Fritton district, 1903. Daphnia Atkinsoni, Baird.—Tn pond at Herringfleet, 1901 (I.e. viii, 434); Fritton, 1903. Daphnia pulex, DeG.—Profuse in Monks Soham moat, May 1929 and Nov. 1932 (Morley, Tr. iv, p. cxxxviii) ; Oulton pond, May 1907 (VH) ; fresh water at Breydon, Dec. 1920 (Norf. Soc. xii, 579) ; Fritton, 1903. Daphnia lon^ispina, Müll—Fresh water at Breydon, Dec. 1920 (Norf. Soc. xii, 579) ; Oulton, Fritton Lake and district, 1903. Daphnia hvalina, Levd., var. lacustris, Sars.—Fritton Lake, 1903 (Norf' Soc. vii, 641). Daphnia cucullata. Sars.—Fresh water at Breydon, Dec. 1920 (Norf. Soc. xii, 558 & 579) ; Fritton Lake district, 1903. Scapholeberis mucronata, Müll.—Fritton district, 1903. Scapholeberis aurita, Fisch.—New to Britain in a Herringfleet pond, 1903 (Norf. Soc. vii, 641) and on 27 Sept. 1904 (I.e. viü, 151). • . T Simocephalusvetulus Müll.—Oulton and Fritton district; Lowestoft. Simocephalus exspinosus, Koch.—Only in ponds and ditches, Somerleyton, Blundeston, 1903 (Norf. Soc. vii, 641). Ceriodaphinia reticulata, Jur.—Fritton district, 1903. Ceriodaphnia megalops, Sars.—Fritton district, 1903. Ceriodaphnia ouadrangula, Müll.—Fritton Lake and district, 1903. Ceriodaphnia pulchella, Sars.—Fritton Lake and district; Oulton. Ceriodaphnia laticaudata, Müll.—Fritton district, 1903. Moina rectirostris, Levd.—Herringfleet. and Hopton in Lothingland, 1903 (Norf. Soc. vii, p. 642). Bosminidae. Bosmina longirostris, Müll.—Oulton, Fritton Lake and district. Macrothricidae. Ilyocrvptus sordidus, Liev.—Common in an Oulton Broad creek, 1903 (Norf. Soc. vii, 642). Macrothrix laticornis, Jur.—Lound Bridge, 1903 (I.e.). Chydoridae. Eurycercus lamellatus, Müll.—Everywhere (Morley); Lowestoft ( V H ) ; Fritton district. Alonopsis ambigua, Lill.—New to Britain in Herrmgfleet pond, 27 Sept. 1904 (Norf. Soc. viii, 48 & 151 ; xii, 573). Alona quadrangularis, Müll.—Fritton, 1903. BRANCHIOPODA.


THE TOTAL LI VING FAUNA OF SUFFOLK.

79

Alona tenuicaudis, Sars.—Verv rare, in one pond at Herringfleet, 1903-4 (Norf. Soc. vii, 643 & viii, 151). Alona guttata, Sars.—Fritton, 1903. Alona rectangula, Sars.—Fritton, 1903. Leydigia Leydigi, Schod.—In the Fritton district, 1903. Pleuroxus trigonellus, Müll.—In the Fritton district, 1903. Pleuroxus aduncus, Jur.—Fritton and Oulton, 1903. Chydorus sphcericus, Müll.—Oulton, Fritton Lake and district, 1903 ; Lowestoft, 1907 (VH) ; in fresh water at Brevdon, I Dec. 1920 (Norf. Soc. xii, 579). • S u b c l a s s OSTRACODA.

Order

PODOCOPA.

Cvprididae. Cypris ovum, Jur.—Waters of Lothingland (nearly all our Ostracoda occurred in M M . Brady & Robertsons very füll survey of the Stour, Deben, Aide, &c. which ' appear zoologically distinct' from the Waveney, Yare, Bure, Cam & Nene where also they worked : Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, vi, 1870, pp. 1-33 ; et Vict. Hist. 1911). All or many of Brady's following species were NEW TO SCIENCE. Herpetocypris reptans, Baird.—Lothingland (I.e.) ; common in Kirklev Run at Lowestoft, 1907 (Stebbingl ; Burgh Castle, I I Mav 1935 (coli. Morley). Cyprinotus pratensis, Brad.—Deben or Stour. Cypria ophthalmica, Jur.—Deben or Stour, and (Stebbing) in 1907 at Lowestoft. Cyclocypris laevis, Müll.—Deben or Stour. Cyclocypris Serena, Koch.—Lowestoft in 1907 (Stebbing). Ilyocypris gibba, Ram.—Stour or Deben. Ilyocypris Bradii, Sars.—Stour or Deben. Cypridopsis obesa, Brad.—Stour or Deben. Cypridopsis aculeata, Cost.—Lothingland. Cypridopsis Nezvtoni, Brad.—Lothingland. Candona Candida, Müll.—Stour or Debem ; and (Stebbing) in a broad ditch at Oulton, 1907. Candona lactea, Baird.—Stour or Deben. Candona compressa, Koch.—Lothingland. Candona albicans, Brad.—Stour or Deben. Candonopsis Kingsleii, Brad.—Lothingland. Cytheridae. Cythere castanea, Sars.—Stour or Deben. Cythere cicatricosa, Sars.—Lothingland. Cythere porcellanea, Brad.—Stour or Deben. Cythere lutea, Müll.—-Stour or Deben. Cythere fuscata, Brad.—Stour or Deben. Cythere viridis, Müll.—Stour or Deben. Leptocythere pellucida, Baird.—Lothingland. Hemicythere villosa, Sars.—Stour or Deben, but not at their mouths.


80

THE TOTAL LIVING FAUNA OF SUFFOLK.

Cythereis antiquata, Baird.—Lothingland. Metacypris cordata, Brad.—Lothingland. Limnicythere inopinata, Baird.—Stour or Deben. Limnicythere tnonstrifica, Norm.—Lothingland. Cytherideis torosa, Jon.—Both Stour or Deben and Lothingland. Cytherideis subidata, Brad.—Lothingland. Cytherideis elongata, Brad.—Dredged off Yarmouth in 1868. Loxoconcha impresso, Baird.—Stour or Deben. Loxoconcha elliptica, Brad.—Stour or Deben. Loxoconcha pusilla, Brad.—Stour or Deben. Xestoleheris aurantia, Baird.—Stour or Deben. Sclerochilus contortus, Norm.—Lothingland. Cytheruia nigrescevs, Baird.—Stour or Deben. Cytherura striata, Sars.—Lothingland. Cytherura clathrata, Sars.—Dredged off Yarmouth in 1868. Cytherura flavescens, Brad.—Lothingland. Cytherura Robertsoni, Brad.—Stour er Deben. Cytherura gibba, Müll.—Stour or Deben, but not at their mouths. Paradoxostomatidae. Paradoxostoma variabile, Baird.—Stour or Deben. Paradoxostoma ensiforme, Brad.—Lothingland. Paradoxostoma abbreziatum, Sars.—Lothingland. Paradoxostoma Normcni, Brad.—Breydon Water. Cytherois Fischeri, Sars.—Stour or Deben. Darwinulidae. Darwinida Stevensoni, Brad.—Stour or Deben ; and ' the most characteristic Entomostracan of the EAnglian fen district, where it is widelv spread and often occurs in considerable abundance ' (Trans. R. Dublin Soc. iv, 1889, 122). S u b c l a s s COPEPODA.*

O r d e r EUCOPEPODA.

S u b o r d e r CALANOIDA.

Centropagidae. Centropages hamatus, Lill.—Breydon Water on 5 June 1921 in plankton (Norf. Soc. xii, 578). Temoridae. Eurytemora affinis, Pop.—Oulton in 1903 & in brackish water at ' Breydon June 1921 (Norf. Soc. vii, 660 ; xii, 578). Eurytemora velox, Lill.—In pools ncar Stour at Manningtree ; Suftolk Broads (VH). Eurytemora lacimüata, Fisch.—Fritton and Oulton in 1903. Parapontellidae. Parapontella brevicornis, Lubb.—Breydon (Norf. Soc. xii, 574). Acartiidae. Acartiabifilosa, Gies.—Breydon in plankton on 5 June, 1921. * W e have no s o u t h e r n records for, t h o u g h " I collected m a n y C o p e p o d a in t h e estuaries of t h e S t o u r , Orwell, D e b e n , O r e and Aide, t h e material h a d been kept too long and deteriorated t o o m u c h for p r o p e r identification " ( D r S o r b y , Vict. H i s t . 1911, 92).


THE TOTAL LIVING FAUNA OF SUFFOLK.

Suborder

HARPACTICOIDA.

81

Ectinosomidae.

Ectinosoma curticorne, Böck.—InZostera at Breydon Water, 5 June 1921 ; fairly common there, also in Oulton Broad, 1903 (Norf. Soc. vii, 647 ; xii, 578). Harpacticidae. Harpacticus gracilis, Claus.—Oulton, Fritton and the Fritton district (Norf. Soc. vii, 660). Zaus Goodsirii, Brad.—Breydon Water in June 1921 (Norf. Soc. xii, 574). Idyidae. Idya furcata, Baird.—Ploughmans Harn near Lake Lothing, Sept. 1906 (Norf. Soc. viii, 436). Thalestridae. Dactylopusia tisboides, Claus.—In brackish pools near the Stour, Suffolk (Vict. Hist.). Dactylopusia vulgaris, Sars.—Fritton district in 1903 (Norf. Soc. vii, 660). Dactylopusia neglecta, Sars.—Breydon in Zostera, June 1921 (Norf. Soc. xii, 574). Diosaccidae. Amphiascus minutus, Claus.—Oulton Broad in 1903 (vii, 660). Amphiascus debilis, Gies.—Breydon Water (Norf. Soc. xii, 574). Amphiascus hispidus, Brad.—Somerleyton bridge in the Waveney, 24 Sept. 1906 (Norf. Soc. viii, 536). Stcnhelia palustris, Brad.—Ploughmans Harn by Lake Lothing ; in brackish pools at Bürgh Castle ; Breydon Water (Norf. Soc. viii, 436 ; xii, 574-9); by the Stour and Oulton (VH). Canthocamptidae. Canthocamptus minutus, Müll.—At Lowestoft (V. Hist. 1911, 162). Canthocamptus crassus, Sars.—Oulton Canthocamptus staphylinus, Jur.—Oulton and „ in 1903 (Norf. about Fritton Soc. vii, 660). Canthocamptus trispinosus, Brad.— Fritton and Oulton Nitocra typica, Böck.—Breydon Water in Zostera, June 1921 (Norf. Soc. xii, 575). Nitocra spinipes, Böck.—Oulton Broad by Mr. Brady ; not uncommon there only, in 1903 ; Somerleyton bridge in brackish water in 1906 (Norf. Soc. vii, 647 ; viii, 436 ; xii, 575). Nitocra Hibernica, Brad.—Fritton in 1903 (Norf. Soc. vii, 660). Mesochra Lillieborgi, Böck.—Oulton Broad and Ploughmans Ham near Lake Lothing in highly saline water, Sept. 1906 ; Breydon Water in Zostera, 5 June 1921 (viii, 436 ; xii, 578). Mesochra oestuarii, Gurn.—Breydon Water in June 1922 (Norf. Soc. xii, 5741.


82

THE TOTAL LIVING F A U N A OF SUFFOLK.

Laophontidae. Laophonte nana, Sars.—Breydon Water in June 1921. Platychelipiis litoralis, Brad.—-In Zostera at Breydon Water, June 1921 (Norf. Soc. xii, 575) ; a colony among Fuci between tide-marks in Lake Lothing (VH). Nannopus palustris, auct.—In Zostera at Breydon Water, 5 June 1921 (Norf. Soc. xii, 578). Tachidiidae. Tachidius brevicornis, Lill.—-Breydon brackish water, 1 Dec. 1920. Tachidius litoralis, Pop.—Oulton Broad and in 1903 common in the Waveney as far up as salt water extends ; Breydon in Zostera, 5 June 1921 (Norf. Soc. vii, 647 ; xii, 578). Cyclopinidae. Cyclopina litoralis, Brady 1 —Ploughmans Harn by Lake Lothing Cyclopina gracilis, Claus, i Sept. 1906 (Norf. Soc. viii, 436). Cyclopidae. Cyclops strenuus, Fisch.—Oulton, Fritton and Fritton district, 1903 (Norf. Soc. vii, 660). Cyclops Leucarti, Claus.—Fritton Lake and district, 1903 ; in Breydon fresh water, 1 Dec. 1920 (Norf. Soc. xii, 579). Cyclops hyalinus, Reh.—Fritton in 1903 (Norf. Soc. vii, 660). Cyclops Dybowskii, Lande.—In Herringfleet ponds, 1903 (Norf. Soc. vii, 645). Cyclops bicuspidatus, Claus.—Fritton district, 1903. Cyclops viridis, Jur.—Plentiful in Suffolk Broads (Brady, Mon. Brit. Copepoda i, 106); Oulton and Fritton, 1903. Cyclops albidus, Jur. | Lowestoft (VH) ; the former form at Cyclops fuscus, Jur. also Oulton and Fritton, in 1903 j (Norf. Soc. vii, 660). Cyclops serrulatus, Fisch.—Lowestoft ( V H ) ; Oulton and Fritton, Cyclops macrurus, Sars.—Fritton in 1903 (Norf. Soc. vii, 660). Cyclops macruroides, auct.—Breydon in fresh water, 1 Dec. 1920 (Norf. Soc. xii, 579). Cyclops fimbriatus, Fisch.—Lowestoft (VH) ; Fritton district and Oulton, 1903 (Norf. Soc. vii, 660). Cyclops agilis, auct.—Breydon in fresh water, 1 Dec. 1920 (Norf. Soc. xii, 579). Cyclops quadricornis, auct.—In Monks Soham House moat, 6 Nov. 1932 (Morley). Cyclops vernalis, Fisch.—At Lowestoft (Vict. Hist. 1911, 161). Cyclops brevicornis, Claus.—Suffolk Broads (Brady's Mon. i, 106). Cyclops affinis, Sars.—Suffolk Broads (VH). Cyclops Helleri, Brad.—Oulton Broad in 1878 (Tr. Nat. Hist. Soc. Northumb. xi, 92). Diaptomus gracilis, auct.—Brevdon in fresh water, 1 Dec. 1920 (Norf. Soc. xii, 579). Halicyclops aequoreus, Fisch.—' Manningtree, Suffolk ' in brackish pools (Brady's Mon. i, 120).


THE TOTAL LIVING FAUNA OF SUFFOLK.

Halicyclops magniceps, auct.—The Water (Norf. Soc. xii, 566). Suborder LERNAEOIDA. Lerneocera cyprinacea, Linn.—On in Butley River at Stäverton

83

dominant Copepod of Breydon Lernaeidae. Leuciscus rutilus, L., below ice Thicks, 1933 (Tr. ii, p. lxxii).

Subclass C I R R I P E D I A . Lepadidae. Lepas anatifera, Linn.—On floating timber near Southvvold shore, Feb. 1930 ( T r . Suff. Nat. Soc. ii, 175). Chthamalidae. Chthamalus stellatus, Poli.—On Gorleston break-water in 1931 ( T r . iv, 59). Balanidae. Baianus tintinnabulum, L.—Doubtless numerous on ships' bottoms, from tropics ; noticed in such a Situation in ortly Ipswich dock, 1900 (Morley). Baianus porcatus, Cost.—Bawdsey shore, 1932; Kessingland, 1934 ; Sizewell, 1933 (Tr. ii. p. lxxxiv). Baianus balanoides, L.—Profuse between tide-marks all up our coast, especially so on rusty iron which they totally cover at Slaughden in April 1930 (Morley). ' Baianus improvisus, Darwin.—Nauplii of Cirripedes were in 1903 often met with in Oulton Broad, where water is always distinctly saline ; adults abundant there, 1906 (Norf. Soc. vii, 645 ; viii, 437 ; xii, 565), in May 1924 and May 1931 (Tr. i, p. lxxiii), attached to dead Reed-stems, dead Clam-shelis, Scrokicularia-shells, carapaces of Portunus-crabs, Pebbles of every strata present, but never on mud. Baianus ? crenatus, Brug.—Profuse and crowded on drift-wood on Ramsholt shore of Deben in May 1935 [also Walton-on-Naze beach] (Morley). Subclass O r d e r ISOPODA.

MALACOSTRACA.

S u b o r d e r FLABELLIFERA.

Anthuridae.

Cyathura carinata, Kroy.—First British specimens were five 2 2 taken in mud below the bark of piles Standing in salt water at Oulton Broad, and in Norfolk on the Bure, during 1906 (Norf. Soc. viii, 432, fig.). Gnathiidae. Gnathia maxillaris, M o n t . — T h e only Broad in which it occurs is Oulton, 1903 (Norf. Soc. vii, 650). Cirolanidae. Conilera borealis, Lill.—First met with at Yarmouth by a shrimper on 8 May 1908 (Norf. Soc. viii, 756).


84

THE TOTAL LIVING FAUNA OF SUFFOLK.

Limnoriidae. Limnoria lignorum, Rath.—' Coast of Suffolk ' (Leach, Edinb. Encycl. vii, 1814, 433) ; in submerged woodwork of Gorleston pier, 1931 (Tr. i, 227). Sphaeromidae. Spharoma senatum, Fab.—The only Broad in which it occurs is Oulton, 1903 (Norf. Soc. vii, 650-6). Spharoma rugicauda, Lch.—Kessingland fishing-boats in May 1934 (Tr. ii, p. clxvii). Spharoma longicauda, Lch.—Common in brackish water from Trimley Marshes (VH) and Wherstead Strand to Slaughden and ponds at Herringfleet (Tr. ii, p. lxxxii). Spharoma Ilookeri, Lch.—' Habitat in Suffolica ad littora maris. . . W. J. Hooker' (Trans. Linn. Soc. xi, 1815, 369). Suborder VALVIFERA. Idoteidae. Baltica, Pall. "1 — In Breydon Water during August 1904, (3-cuspidata, j " was a singular scarcity oi Jelly-fishes Desm). y and the various high-swimming CrustIdotea linearis, \ aceans such as these two Idoteae, that Linn. J are usually so abundant in summer " (Norf. Soc. viii, 114), though on " 11 M a y 1905 the water seemed alive with I. linearis " (I.e. 316), which abounded in Kessingland and Dunwich fishing-boats in May, 1934-8 (Tr. ii, p. clxvii). Former in Yarmouth harbour (Metzger, Nordseefahrt der Pommerania, Kiel 1875, 285). Idotea viridis, Slab.—Orwell-mouth by Dr. Sorby (VH) ; abundantly swimming, often in cop., "in sah pools of Slaughden marshes on 4 June 1930 et post. (Morley) ; in Ploughmans Ham near Lake Lothing, 1903 and in pools at Burgh Castle (Norf. Soc. vii, 651 ; viii, 424-34). Arcturidae. Astacilla longkornis, Sow.—One dredged by Brady in coli. Stebbing, 1911 (VH. 157). Suborder ASELLOTA. Asellidae. Asellus aquaticus, Linn.—Common everywhere, 1903 (Norf. Soc. vii, 650).: marshes in fresh water, at Bramford April 1904, Monks Soham moat Aug. 1929, Slaughden M a y 1929, Kessingland Dam, Kirkley Run and near Oulton (VH), North Cove April 1935 and Jan. 1936, Fritton, Herringfleet, Southtown ditches June and Sept. 1931. Thelnetham F e n ; Brandon June 1903 (Morley). Asellus meridionalis, auet.—Numerous in fresh water at Fritton March 1940 (Tr. iv, p. cvi.) Janiridae. Jara marina, Fab.—In marsh pools at Burgh Castle (Norf. Soc. viii, 424-34). Suborder ONISCOIDEA. [The thirteen Suffolk species are detailed at Tr. iv, pp. 28 & xlix.] Jdotea


THE TOTAL LIVING FAUNA OF SUFFOLK.

85

Suborder EPICAKIDA. Hemiarthrus abdominalis, Rath.—Often with her small mate under the pleon of Shrimps, Pandalus Montagui, Lch. (VH, 158). Order A M P H I P O D A . Suborder GAMMARIDEA. Ampelisca typica, Bäte Bathyporeia pelagicu, Bäte Perioculodes longimana, Bäte -Among North Sea plankton off our Coast (Tr. ii, p. Aphernsa bispinusa, Bäte xxxiii). Apherusa Clevii, Sars Megaluropus agilis, Hok. Hyperoche Kroyeri, Bov. Melita pellucid'a, Sars.—First British specimens vvere found burrowing in soft mud under stones in nearly sah water at Ouiton Broad, and Bure, during 1906 (Norf. Soc. viii, 434). Megamcera Alderi, Bäte.—Among plankton off our coast. Gammarus marinus, Lch.—" Commonly found to abound far up estuaries beneath weed below high-water mark. . . T u r n stones [Arenaria interpres, L.] on the Breydon Bladderwraek [Fucus vesiculosus, L] in search of G. marinus " on May 25 1899 (Norf. Soc. vii, 64). Gammarus pnlex, Linn.—Common everywhere in fresh water : Kirklev Run (VH) ; in Little Ouse marshes at Brandon in June 1903 (Morley), &c. Gammarus Duebeni, Lill.—Ouiton and Fritton, 1903 ; in pools at Burgh Castle, 1906 (Norf. Soc. vii, 660 ; viii, 424). Gammarellus Homari, Fab. (Sabinii, Lch.).—Dredged in 16 fathoms, SE. of Yarmouth (VH). Talitrus saltator, Mont. (locusta, Pall.).—Ubiquitous under seaweeds : Wherstead Strand, 9 iii 1903 & 17 iii 1904 ; Felixstow, 1904; Slaughden, 20 May 1929 & 7 May 1931 ; Dunwich beach, 24 Sept. 1930 ; Blyth at Blythbrö, 14 Sept. 1933 ; Southwold, trawled in deep water, Sept. 1929; Easton Broad, 6 Sept. 1933 ; Benacre Broad shore, attracted to moth-light, 23 Sept. 1937 (Tr. iii, 280); Ouiton Broad, semi-terrestrial (Norf. Soc. viii, 434); Southtown, brackish ditches, 10 June 1931 (Morley). Orchestia litorea, Mont.—Semi-terrestrial and abundant under stones by salt water at Ouiton Broad (Norf. Soc. viii, 434). Talorchestia Deshayesii, Aud.—One or two 1 on Lowestoft south beach [ 1Q11 Talorchestia Brito, Slab. Apparently on ( ' ' ^ Lowestoft south beach j Microdeutopus gryllotalpa, Cost.—A few in Ploughmans Ham by Lake Lothing in 1903 (Norf. Soc. vii, 652). Lembos Websteri, Bp'-e.—Among North Sea plankton (Tr. ii). Coremapus versiculatus, Norm.—In both Waveney River and Ouiton Broad, 1906 (Norf. Soc. viii, 434).


86

THE TOTAL LIVING FAUNA OF SUFFOLK.

Jassa pulchella, Lch.—' The Orwell bottom in 1897 covered by tough material built into imperfect tubes by countless numbers, mainly this species (VH. 1911, 86 & 158). Corophium volutator, Pall. (grossipes, F.).—Slaughden brackish pools, 10 April 1930 (Morley); Aldeburgh salt water ditches, 1902 (VH.) ; Southwold fishing boats (Tr. ii, p. cxlviii); Covehithe Broad, 14 Sept. 1929 (Tr. i, 15) ; Yarmouth (Tr. iii); many floating dead in ditch near Breydon Water, 31 March 1906 (Norf. Soc. vii, 462). Suborder H Y P E R I I D E A . Hyperia galba, Mont.—Parasitic on Medusae. After a week's heavy easterly gales, on 21 March 1901 " thousands ot a species of Hyperia were strewn along the tide-mark " north of Yarmouth (Norf. Soc. vii, 184) and, doubtless, of Suffolk then : most likely H. galba, the commonest British kind, which was given by Prof. Henslow of H'tcham in Suffolk to Bates about 1860. Among North Sea plankton (Tr. ii. Orders SCHIZOPODA & D E C A P O D A . [To the 50 Suffolk species of Podophthalma, detailed at Tr. ii, 265, is added :—] Macropsis Slabberi, Ben.—An estuarine Mysid found in Breydon Water (Tr. iii, 77). Class i i : A R A C H N I D A . [To the 308 species, detailed at Tr. iv, 156, are added :—] Tegenaria larva, Sim.—Waveney marshes at Shipmeadow, 8 June. Heliaczeus populi, Nal. \—Common on Aspen, Bentley Woods, Phytoptus tremulce, auct. J 8 July 1941 (Tr. v, 32). Class iii: M Y R I A P O D A . Subclass S Y N G N A T H A . Lithobiidae. Litliobius forficatus, Linn.—Numerous everywhere : e.g. Foxhall; Monks Soham at light; attacking Lumbricus terrestris, L., in Haiesworth garden, Sept. 1941 ; Fritton at sugar, Sept. 1932 ; Brandon (Tr. ii, 80 & 88 ; iii, p. xxiii; iv, 247). Lithobius variegatus, Leach.—Several in Monks Soham garden, 1929 (coli. Mly). Lithobius Duboscqui, Bröl.—Monks Soham under log, 6 Apr. 1938 ; Gisleham sand-pit, 2 Oct. 1930 (Tr. ii, 80). Geophilidae. Geophilus longicornis, Leach.—Wangford marshes near Brandon, May 1929 (Tr. ii, 80). Geophilus flavus, Deg.—Upstairs in Herringfleet Hall (Leathes, Notes Nat. Hist. ECount. 1887, 95) ; ? under stones on Knettishall Heath, March 1941 (Tr. iv, p. cxxxi).


THE TOTAL LIVING FAUNA OF SUFFOLK.

87

Geophilus carpophagus, Lch.—Roydon ; Browston Hall in Beiton, Jan. 1933 (Tr. ii, 100). Geophilus electricus, Linn.—Barham, injurious to Carrots and Parsnips (Kirby, Introd. 1859, 103), attacks Earthworms (I.e. 148) ; Monks Soham in damp scullery, 1923 (Mly); Herringfleet (Tr. iii, 78). Linotaenia (Scolioplanes) maritima, Lch.—In beach-shingle at Glaucium-roots at Easton Broad, 11 Sept. 1935 (coli. Mly). Scolopendridae. Scolopendra sp.—Imported in Bananas from Canaries into Lowestoft, Oct. 1936 (Tr. iii, 281 & cxli). Subclass

CHILOGNATHA.

Polydesmidae. Polydesmus complanatus, L.—Numerous everywhere : e.g. Injurious to roots at Barham (Kirby, ut supra) ; Bentley Woods ; Monks Soham ; dead, in nest of Ants Tetramorium caespitum, L., Knettishall Heath, July 1941 (Tr. iv, 246). Brachydesmus superus, Latz.—Several under log in Tuddenham Fen, 14 May 1930 (coli. Mly ; Tr. ii, 80). Julidae. Julus (Schizophyllum) sabulosus, Linn.—Woodcroft Hall in Monks Soham 1929; Walberswick Heath, March 1938 ; Fritton on sugar, Sept. 1932 ; on Ivy-blossom at Gorleston, Oct. (coli. Mly ; Tr. ii, p. cx ; iv, p. xxvii). Julus albipes, Müll.—Monks Soham ; Fritton on sugar, Sept. 1932 (Tr. ii, 88 & 179). Julus Huscus, Mein.—Knettishall Heath under stones, March 1941 (Tr. iv, p. cxxxi). Julus terrestris, L.—Monks Soham, frequent on walls in autumn, &c. ; West Stow, common under boards in marsh, 23 Apr. 1936 (coli. Mly). Julus albilineatus, Luc.—Several beaten from bushes : Bentley Woods in April 1931, and Westleton Heath in Sept. 1938". Banjulus (Trichoblaniulus) ? guttulatus, Bosc.—Many at Brandon, May 1929 ; feeding on Rabbits exereta on heath there, 6 May. Banjulus (Amsteinia) fuscus, Stein.—Under bark on Oak-trees in Letheringham Wood, 5 Aug. 1929; in Birch-fungus at Blythburgh Wood, 14 Apr. 1936 (coli. Mly). Polyxenidae. Polyxenus lagurus, Linn.—Monks Soham, on window Aug. 1931 & 1935, many on Ivy in May 1940 (Tr. i, 227 ; iii, 78 ; iv). Glomeridae. Glomeris marginata, Vill— Several near Ipswich in 1894 (Tr. i, 337); in Gisleham sand-pit, 15 Sept. 1930 (coli. Mly).


88

THE TOTAL LIVING FAUNA OF SUFFOLK.

Class iv : INSECTA. [Vol. iv of Our Trans, added 125 species to the totals given at Vol. iii, p. 247 :—] Order C O L E O P T E R A 2127 species. Order H E M I P T E R A 659 species. Order O R T H O P T E R A

29 species.

Order N E U R O P T E R A Order L E P I D O P T E R A Order D I P T E R A

213 species. 1519 species. 1986 species.

Order H Y M E N O P T E R A

2265 species.

Total I N S E C T A of Suffolk in 1941 :

8798 species.

Phylum xii : M O L L U S C A . [To the 234 species, detailed at T r . iv, 2, is added :—] Fissurella Graca, Linn.—Erom Revd. G. Lombard's coli. (Tr. iv). Phylum xiii : BRYOZOA. [To the 26 species, detailed at T r . iii, 254, is added:—] Celleporidae. Cellepora pumicosa, Linn.—A colony on Bawdesy beach, 13 April 1934 ( T r . ii, p. cli). Phylum xiv : E C H I N O D E R M A T A . [ T h e recent species, detailed at T r . i, 86, are revised extended :—] Class ASTEROIDEA.

Astropecten

O r d e r PHANEROZONIA.

and

Astropectinidae.

irregularis, Penn.—Trawled at Smith's Knoll ; T r . ii.

Order SPINULOSA. Solasteridae. Solaster papposus, Linn.—In most esturaries, but nowhere abundant (VH) ; on coast from Felixstow, Bawdsey and Dunwich to Gorleston and Yarmouth. Order FORCIPULATA. Asteriidae. Asterias rubens, Linn.—By far our most commonest Star-fish : whole coast from Bawdsey, Orford, Aldeburgh, Dunwich, Southwold, Covehithe to Lowestoft and Yarmouth. Class OPHIUROIDEA. Ophiotrichidae. Ophiothrix fragilis, Abil.—Sometimes abundant in the Orwell, trawled by Southwold and Kessingland fishing-boats, &c. Ophiolepidae. Ophiura texturata, Lam. (ciliaris, auct.).—Common along our whole coast. Ophiura albida, Forb.—Not uncommonly trawled off Southwold.


THE TOTAL LIVING FAUNA OF SUFFOLK.

Class ECHINOIDEA.

O r d e r DIADEMATOIDEA.

89 Echinidae.

Psammechinus miliaris, Gmel.—Common everywhere on our coast; Smith's Knoll (Tr. i, lxxxiv). Echinus sphaera, Müll.—Felixstow, Bawdsey (Tr. ii, p. lxxvii), &c ; mixed with the last. Order CLYPEASTROIDEA. Fibulariidae. Echinocyamus piisillus, Müll.—A considerable number of this small green species was washed ashore 'along the northern part of the Suffolk coast' (Wild Life 1932, No. 647). It escaped record in our Trans, because Mr. Ellis thought he possessed several thence, of which we heard nothing further. Order SPATANGOIDEA. Spatangidae. Spatangus purpureus, Müll.—Trawled in 23 fathoms in Yarmouth Deep, August 1931 ; several at Smith's Knoll, thirty miles off Gorleston, in Sept. 1933 (Tr. i, p. lxxxv ; ii. 283). Echinocardium cordatum, Penn.—Not rarely washed up at tidemark : Bawdsey, Sizewell, Dunwich, Gorleston; trawled at Southwold and Smiths Knoll (Tr. ii, p. lxxvii ; &c). Class HOLOTHURIOIDEA. Cucumariidae. Cucumaria lelongata, Düb.—This is doubtless the fairly fine species that was moderately common in the Stour about 1890, though seen no later (Vict. Hist. 1911, 94). Thyone fusus, Müll.—Single and somewhat small specimens in both Stour and Orwell estuaries (I.e.). Order APODA. Synaptidae. Leptosynapta inheerens, Müll. Many in mud near low-water mark, slightly below Pin-mill, before 1900 (I.e.). Phylum xv : T U N I C A T A . Order ASCIDIACEA. Styelidae. Polycarpa pomaria, Sav.—None seen in the Orweli tili seme occurred near Pin-mill in 1901 ; very abundant in Deben below Martlesham Creek. Polycarpa fibrosa, Stim. (comata, Aid.).—Sometimes very abundant near Pin-mill; less so in our other estuaries. Dendrodoa grossularia, Ben.—Common in Deben near Waldringfield, more or less so in mouths of other estuaries (VH). Botryllidae. Botryllus Schlössen, Pall.—Has come ashore at Gorleston beach on occasion in the last few years (Tr. 1931, 300); Orwell. Botrylloides rubrum, MEdw.—Far from common in the Orwell and on Harwich pier. Bonylloides Leachi, Sav.—Dredged in Orwell below Pin-mill before 1900, later poor. Ascidiidae. Ascidiavirginea, Müll.—Rare in Orwell, compared with A. aspersa. Ascidiaplebeia, Aid.—In lower reaches of the Stour, not commonly.


90

THE TOTAL LIVING FAUNA OF SUFFOLK.

Ascidia producta, Hanc.—Fairly abundant in lower part of the Orwell in 1901. Ascidiella aspersa, Müll.—Fairly common in lower parts of all our estuaries : circa a hundred thousand cleaned off yacht's bottom. Abundant on Orwell-bottom below Pin-mill in 1901 (VH. 86 & 94). Cionidae. Ciona intestinalis, L.—Not common, in most of our estuaries and outside them ; unusually good at ' the Rocks ' above Ramsholt in Deben, up to only 1890. Polycitoridae. Clavelina lepadifornris, Müll.—Common in Essex within a few miles of Suffolk, where it cannot be absent. Synoicidae. Polyclinum aurantium, MEdw.—A few dredged in the Orwell. Didemnidae. Diplosoma IListeranum, MEdw. | Examples of these genera Didemnum "igelatinosum, MEdw. occur in the Orwell. Leptoclinum sp. ) Order A P P E N D I C U L A R I A . lOikopleura dioica, Fol.—' Specimens of this Order are common [as is this species off Plymouth] in seivings of sea-water along the coast' of Suffolk (all Victoria History 1911, 94-5). Phylum x v i : ENTEROPNEUSTA. Phylum xvii: CEPHALOCHORDA. [None recorded.) Phylum xviii: VERTEBRATA. Class P I S C E S . [To the 151 extant species, detailed at Tr. ii, 104, are added :—] Mugil auratus, Ris.—Several in the Yare at Yarmouth, Jan, 1934 (Tr. iii, 101). Blennius pholis, Linn.—Fairly common at Southwold (Tr. ii, xxxi). Zeugopterus punctatus, Bich.—In Cobholm side of Breydon Water, Dec. 1932 (Tr. iii, p. xlvi). Dentex (Box) vulgaris, Cuv.—One on Easton Broad shore, Jan. 1876 (Tr. iii, 101). Classes R E P T I L I A et B A T R A C H I A . [To the 12 extant species, detailed at Tr. ii, 209, is added :—] Coronella Austriaca, Lac.—' Has been captured in Suffolk ' (Tr. iii, 102 & 202).


THE TOTAL L1VING FAUNA OF SUFFOLK.

91

Class AVES. [To the 294 species, detailed by Ticehurst (Birds of Suffolk, 1932), are added :—] Acrocephalus palustris, Bch.—Nested at Culford, 17 June 1922 • &c ( T r . ii, 204). Phalacrocorax carbo-Sinensis, auct.—Killed on Oulton Broad, 11 Dec. 1935 (Tr. iii, 211). Lagopus mutus, Mont.—Killed at Lowgate-street in Eye, 3 Sept. 1938 (Tr. iv, 91). Dafila spinicanota, auct.—Killed on saltings near Waldringfield, Aug. 1916 (Tr. iv, 92). Totanus flavipes, auct.—Killed on Deben near Waldringfield 1 Sept. 1930 (Tr. iv, 92). Pagophila eburnea, Bew.—Observed on south of Breydon Water, 15 May 1933 (Tr. iv, 24). Class M A M M A L I A . [To the 52 extant feral species, detailed at T r . ii, 13, is added :—] Zapus Hudsonius, Zimm.—Two or three trapped in Earl Soham bungalow, Sept. 1934-5 (Tr. ii, 313 ; iii, p. lxii). SUMMARY OF T H E ZOOLOGICAL SPECIES IN SUFFOLK. Protozoa 30 Mollusca Porifera 10 Bryozoa Ccelenterata 32 Echinodermata Worms 64 Tunicata Rotifera 37 Pisces Crustacea 243 Reptilia Arachnida 311 Batrachia Myriapoda 20 Aves Insecta 8798 Mammalia Total number of comital Animals

KNOWN 235 27 14 17 155 6 7 300 53

10,359 - C . M . Dec. 1942.

P I N E H A W K - M O T H S . — S p h i n x pinastri, L., still occurs in the locality of Leiston. I was able to take a perfect Dufay-colour photograph of one reared from a caterpillar taken near Aldeburgh last autumn ; another, fully grown, was found outside my garden and two hundred yards from the nearest Pine on 20 September. D R . G A R N E T T , October.—I have seen several this year here, where the species seems to be on the increase. C E C I L H . L A Y , F.R.I.B.A. Aldringham ; in lit. 23 Sept.—Pinastri was taken on 23 June last dose to Reydon School : cf. Trans, iii, 87 & iv, 147 ( G E O . BAKER, v.v. 1 Oct.).

(A summary of) the Total Living Fauna of Suffolk  
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