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grasp. Mother Nature füll well knows how hard it is to write her lessons on our brain, with no preface from our fleshly fads : she wets you to the skin then drys you with her heat, she starves your body in a barren yield ere showering manna with a lavish hand.— And so I found it now, as wet and weary with the warfare of the winds I gazed upon the elemental force of fire and sleet let loose to grapple in the central blue. For greyer grew the sky and softer feil the drops. No sudden veil uplifted from the earth, but like a wraith before an honest torch's glow, night glided ever to the north with all her threatening hosts in flight. Like Phoenix resurgit, Sol approached me o'er the sward: his track illumined as some conqueror's car with trophies of the fray, for wheresoe'er he touched the earth there nstantly outsprang bright silver from each blade of grass, each tiny twig.—Thus came the Lord of Day,with warming and invigorating beams to chase away the dank and chill sensations of the routed Night. The wind had hurtled on its path and in its stead great calmness filled the air, save where again burst forth the glad seraphic psean of the nesting Lark, and honey Bees took up the strain among the early flowers of Whitlowgrass or blue Veronica upon this glowing heath. Once more I set my face towards the nearing crest, as Kirby might have done : with lithesome step and bounding heart I passed upon my way : This (thought I) is Nature's doing ; it is wondrous in our eyes.


Phylum i : P L A T Y H E L M I N T H E S . Class CESTODA. Order PSEUDOPHYLLA. Family PHYLLOBOTHRIIDJE. 1. Ichthyoteenia ambigua, Duj.—Several of these Tape-worms were encysted on Sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus, L., in Yare at Yarmouth 25 Feb. 1934 (Trans, ii, 284). Phylum II : N E M A T H E L M I N T H A . Class NEMATODA (olim Entozoa, cf. Entom. Wk. Intell. 1 8 6 1 ) . These are the Thread Worms of which very many kinds are parasitic ; a score of them attack man and sometimes fatally, nor are they all small for a subeutaneous one attains a length of six feet in the tropics and another, in Mammals' kidneys, may be over three feet. Will our medical Members kindly supply Suffolk data ? Their economy is extremely various, however : 2. Tylenchus tritici, Bauer , is an Eel-worm that was found distorting wheat-ears at Barham before 1810 by the Revd. William Kirby (cf. his Life by Freeman 1852, 150; Monograph



Anguillulidae, Trans. Linn. Soc. xxv, 87).—3. T. millefolii, auct., lives in leaves of Achillea millefolium, L., at Gorleston cliff, 13 May 1933 (Trans, ii, 174).—4. At least one species of Filaria of the genus Gordius, Müller 1773, has beert detected inside Suffolk Beetles; G. formicarum, Dies., destroys Ants' bodies (Don. Guests 1927, 218); and F. sanguis-hominis passes its larval State inside Mosquitoes, which imbibe embryos along with the human and other Mammalian blood in which they live.—5. Fully a half-dozen are marine, like that specimen of the genus Nectonema, Verrill, which was taken by Dr. Sorby swimming in Harwich harbour (Vict. History); others live in Pollacks' and Plaices' intestines.—6. The disease, called Gapes, of young Fowls is caused by Sclerostoma syngamum, auct., only too frequent in our County (Trans, iv, 185). Phylum m : NEMERINI. Order ANOPLA.—Family LINEUWE. 7. Lineus obscurus, Desor.—Known with us only in the mud of Seafield Bay, south of Brantham (V. Hist.). Order ENOPLA.—Family AMPHIPORIDJE. 8. Amphiporus lactifloreus, Jhns.—One in the Orwell mud at Pinmill a good many years before 1911 (V.H.). CH^ETOGNATHA.

9. Sagitta bipunctata, Quoy (now considered 3 spp.)—The Arrow worm is common in North Sea, at times abounding in offshore plankton ; first taken in Sept. 1925 at Gorleston (Trans, ii, 174: coli. Mly). Phylum IV : ANNELIDA. Class CHJETOPODA.—Order POLYCH/ETA (all marine).— Family APHRODITIDTE. 10. Aphrodite aculeata, Linn.—Often dredged in Stour off Harwich (V.H.) ; bushels at sheltered side of a wreck on Aldburgh north beach about 1885 (Trans, i, 143); usually found singly, Bawdsey in March 1933, a dozen at Kessingland in March 1934, &c. (Trans, i, pp. lxxvii and cxlviii; cf. ii, 277 and iü, 274). Lepidonotus squamatus, Linn.—Along most of our coast, in no great numbers (V.H.). Family PHYLODOCIDTE. 12. Phylodoce maculata, Linn.—Somewhat rare in sandy mud near low-water level off Harwich (V.H.). Family SYLLIDJE. 13. SyUis armillaris, Müll.—Quite possibly common : dredged in Stour off Harwich (V.H.)



Family Nereide. 14. Nereis pelagica, Linn.—Occasionally dredged in the Aide off Orford ; and, before 1901, common among masses of Sabellaria spinulosa tubes outside Harwich harbour, bu in 1901 only a few occurred there among broken tubes (V.H.; cf. Trans ii, 284 and 301). 15. N. diversicolor, Müll.*—Common in several estuaries in mud left dry at low water, and very abundant in Orwell at Pinmill in 1901 (V.H.); Breydon Water, sometimes swimming in hundreds, as on 5 June 1899 (Tr. Norf. Soc. vii, 65 ; ix, 456 ; x, 164) ; Gorleston, swimming in sea (Tr. Suff. Soc. i, 103) ; Lowestoft, dug from mud in Oct. 1938 (I.e. iv, 58 ; cf. ii, 283 : coli. Mly). 16. N. fucata, Sav.—Fairly frequent as a commensal in shells of Eupagurus Bernhardus, L., on Gorleston beach (Tr ii, 284; iv, 59). 17. N. longissima, Jhns.—Apparently rare : in the Orwell near Pinmill, 1889 and 1901 (V.H.) 18. Perinereis cultrifera, Gbe.—Common in sandy mud near low-water off Harwich in only 1901 (V.H.) 19. Platynereis Dumerili, A - & - E. —Probably common : old buoy near Pinmill; ' something like a million ' were swimming in Harwich harbour early on 16 July 1898. One laid some 10,000 eggs in a few minutes. Live in branching tubes open at both ends, and feed on TJlva latissima, L. (V.H.) Family Nephthydid/e. 20. Nephthys cceca, Müll.—A few near Pinmill and off Harwic but much rarer than the next kind (V.H.) 21. N. Hombergi, Lam.—Fairly common in Suffolk estuaries; many in Orwell mud (V.H.) Family Ariciid/e. 22. Scoloplus armiger, Müll.—Essex, and probably I found it in sandy mud off Harwich (V.H.) Family Spionid^e. 23. Nerine foliosa, A - & - E.—Apparently rare ; found in Orwe mud (V.H.) Family Cirratulidje. 24. Audouinia tentaculata, Mont.—One speeimen on our coast about 1890 (Garstang, in V.H.); Gorleston breakwater (Trans, iv, 59). * We consider that this (or a smaller, allied species termed Nereis margaritacea or Sea-centipedc by Dr. J. E. Taylor in his capital little 1880 Half-hours at the Sea-side, p. 80 ; certainly not Polynoe scolopendrina, Sav.) is theraostlikely Animal to have been Leathe's Marine Centipede (cf. Trans, iii, 77).—Ed.










33. 34.


Cirratulus cirratus, Müll.—In Orwell mudbanks near Pinmill, uncommon in 1890, but hundreds were quickly collectable there in both 1900-1. One laid some 600,000 eggs in a very short time. Unknown elsewhere in Suffolk, and rare throughout Tharaes estuary (V.H.) Family C H L O R H ^ M I D ^ E . Flabelligera affinis, Sars.—Apparently confined with us to the Orwell near Pinmill, where it was abundant and nearly covered many dredged objects up to about 1890; few obtained in 1899-1900, none in 1901 (Vict. Hist.) Family C A P I T E L L I D / E . Notomastus latericeus, Sars.—Uncommon in sandy mud near low water off Harwich (Vict. Hist.) Family A R E N I C O L I M E . Arenicola marina, Linn.—The Lob-worm abounds. Fine and common in Orwell and Stour mud, smaller in other estuaries (Vict. Hist.); a colony at Gorleston breakwater in 1931 (Tr. iv, 59) ; Gorleston (Doughty, in coli. Mly). Family SABEELARIID/E. Sabellaria alveolata, Linn.—Common on Gorleston breakwater in Nov. 1933 ; many tubes washed up at Bawdsey in March 1931 and May 1934 (Trans, ii, 173, cli, clv, clxvii: coli. Mly) ; common at Southwold in Aug. 1935 (I.e. iii, 75). S. spinulosa, Leu.—Masses of their sandy tubes common outside Harwich harbour; but, since 1900, broken up and almost disappeared (Vict. Hist.); numerous on Hopton shore on 11 Jan. 1936 (coli. Mly). Family A M P H I C T E N I D J E . Pectinaria Koreni, Malm. (Belgica, auet.)—Thousands of this Comb-worm and their sand-tubes scattered along tidemark between Corton and Gorleston on 20 Nov. and numerous on Hopton beach in March 1933 (Trans, ii, 173 and lxxx ; iv, 59). Family AMPHARETID/E. Melinna cristata, Sars.—Common in the Deben mud at Kirton, a few near Pinmill and off Harwich (Vict. Hist.) Family TEREBEEEID/E. Amphitrite Johnstoni, Malm.—Not uncommon in Orwell mud before 1901, when it became rare. One laid some two million eggs (Vict. Hist.) Lanice conchilega, Pall.—Fairly common in Orwell mud near low water ; probably also in other similar localities (Vict. Hist.); tubes dredged in deepish water off Southwold in Sept. 1929 (coli. Mly) ; a colony of their long sand-tubes, &c., at mouth of the Yare 1933 (Trans, ii, 173). 2B


35. 36. 37.







44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49.


Denophilus tieniatus, Harm.—Recorded by Harmer in pools on shore near Harwich (Vict. Hist.), so doubtless also to north of Orwell-mouth. Nicolea zostericola, (Erst.—Abundant in dredgings from the Orwell near Pinmill during 1890-97, after which the character of the river-bottom changed (Vict. Hist.) Polycirrus aurantiacus, Gbe.—One in mud at Pinmill, whose body was nearly all a mass of eggs, whence the head-end detached within twenty-four hours and seemed as lively as before (Vict. Hist.). Terebellides Stromi, Sars.—Taken once in Scotland before 1811 and never in England tili about 1890, when Dr. Sorby discovered many in the Orwell mud at Pinmill, where in 1901 he could find but one (Vict. Hist. 1911, 92). Later found off Plymouth. Family SABELLIDTE. Sabella pavonina, Sav.—Common in the Orwell at lowtide level (Vict. Hist.) ; Gorleston beach, uncommon on 6 May 1931 and dredged in shallow water off Southwold in Sept. 1929 (coli. Mly). Family SERPULID/E. Serpula vermicularis, Linn.—Abundant along our coast; Bawdsey in March 1934 (coli. Mly). Encrusted on old Flemish bottle dredged from the Orwell in 1937 (Trans, iii, p. clxvii). Pomatocerus triqueter, Linn.—Common : Bawdsey (I.e. ii, p. cli and elv) ; Southwold (Collings). Often on Whelkshells, sometimes directly on indurated London Clay or pebbles (coli. Mly). Spirorbis borealis, Daud.—Frequently washed ashore on Fucus serratus, L . : Gorleston beach (Trans, iv, 59 coli. Mly). Order O L I G O C H / E T A . — F a m i l y GLOSSOSCOLECIDJE. Anagaster fontinalis, Frd.—In the freshwater of a well at Mildenhall, recorded by Hilderic Friend (Trans, i, 118). Family LUMBRICID/E (Trans, i, 1 1 9 ) . Lumbricus rubellus, Hoffm.—The Red Worm occurs sparingly at roots of grass : Mendlesham and Needham Market. L. castaneus, Sav.—In garden refuse: Mendlesham, &c. L. terrestris, Linn.—Common Earth-worm is less common than A. longa, more especially in central and south-west Suffolk (cf. Trans, ii, 99, 100, 221 ; iii, 215). Octoclasium lacteum, (Erl.—Milky-worm rather plentiful at Mendlesham. Eisenia feetida, Sav.—Brandlings common in dung-hills. E. rosea, Sav.—The Mucous-worm is rather plentiful at Mendlesham ; frequent at Needham Market and Creeting.


50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55.


Dendrobcena arborea, Eisen.—Two specimens of this Treeworm under rotten Willow wood at Creeting and Pine wood at Wordwell (Tr. iv, 119). D. subrubtcunda, Eisen.—The Gilt-tail common dung-hills, &c. Allolobophora chlorotica, Sav.—The Green-worm is plentiful at Needham, Creeting, &c. (cf. Trans, iii, xxxi). A. turgida, Eisen.—The Turgid-worm occurs sparingly at Needham, Creeting ; and in Monks Soham lawn on 21 Oct. 1934 (Trans, ii, 283). A. longa, Ude.—This Long or Blue-nosed Worm is the most frequent kind everywhere. Eiseniella tetresdra, Sav.—Typical Square-tailed Worms occur by the Gipping's banks, in the Little Ouse's fens, and in mud around Mendlesham ponds ; and its var. lutea under the Liverwort, Marchantia, at Needham Market (Trans, i, 120).

Class HIRUDINEA.—Family RHYNCHOBDELLID^:. 56. Pontobdella muricata, Linn.—One on under surface of a Skate, Raja batis, L., off Southwold in Dec. 1932 (Trans, ii, p. xciv). 57. Glossosiphonia complanata, Linn.—Norfolk, March 1933 (Trans, ii, 173) ; PSuffolk. 58. Helobdella stagnalis, Linn.—In ditches at Fritton marshes, March 1940 (Hynes). 59. Hemiclepsis marginata, Müll.—One of this handsome parasite of Roach, Leuciscus cephalus, L., was taken at Knettishall on 18 Jan. 1934 (Trans, ii, 264). Family GNATHOBDELLIDTE. Aulastoma gulo, auct.—In freshwater ditches: abundant by the Gipping at Ipswich in May 1912, and common at N. Cove in Oct. 1933 (Trans, ii, p. cxi). 61. Hcemopis sanguisuga, Linn.—The Horse Leech is abundant in water throughout Suffolk, notably in Southtown (Trans, i, 118) brackish ditches on 10 June 1931 (coli. Mly). 62. Herpobdella atomaria, Linn.—Norfolk (Trans, ii, 173); Fritton marsh-ditches in March 1940 (Hynes). 63. Trocheta subviridis, Dut.—This Land Leech was taken in garden of Dallinghoo rectory by Revd. Ellis Walford about 1858 (Trans, i, 94 and 118). 60.

Phylum V : GEPHYREA.—Family E C H I U R I M : . 64. Priapulus caudatus, auct.—For many years so common in the Deben mud near Waldringfield that I could collect a hundred in a few hours. No indication of developed eggs (H. C. Sorby, LL.D., F.R.S., F.S.A., in Victoria History 1911, p. 92).

The Worms of Suffolk: Preliminary List  
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