THE MOLLUSCA OF SUFFOLK.
THE MOLLUSCA OF SUFFOLK. BY OUR CONOHOLOGICAL MEMBERS.
THE compilation of a comprehensive account of the Land and Fresh-water Snails, along with Marine Shell-fish, of the County has been a simple matter, excepting in the way of synonymy, on account of the paucity and completeness of earlier literature upon the subject. The very generai segregation of the two groups has ever appeared unnatural to the Hon. Editor and is not perpetuated here, as has been the case in all local notices hitherto. We are unusually fortunate in possessing a most valuable basis for the former group so early as 1825, when appeared ' Desscriptions of Seven new British Land and Fresh-water Shells, with Observations upon many other Species, including a List of such as have been found in the County of Suffolk ' by the Rev. Revett Sheppard, F.L.S., dated from Wrabness Parsonage, May 16, 1822. " I have (says he) been induced to lay before the Society a list of those Shells hitherto discovered in Suffolk, by which it will be seen that the eastern* parts of this island are fertile in those elegant productions of Nature." Follows a bare catalogue of seventy kinds in the order of Linn aus, Draparnaud and Lamarck, whereof thirty-six are later elaborated in articles. Among these figure Teilina Henslowana, Turbo Offtonensis, Helix Somershamiensis, Helix Kirbii ( ' I hope this species will be called after one of the best of men, and best of friends, the Rev. William Kirby of Barham ' ), all of which titles but the first are unfortunately lost by priority : some records are from the ' estate of John Sheppard, Esq., of Campsey Ash,' others indifferently from ' my brother's garden at Campsey Ash ' ; at times the Revd. Revett collected, as at Friston Wood in May 1821, with his ' son.' The whole displays an industry and knowledge of Nature that this Society has been too slow in recognising, mainly because his publications appeared in a serial not in every library. John Sheppard of Monewden in Suffolk married Mary daughter of John Revett of Brandeston there ; he inherited the Manor of Morehall Hall in Campsey Ash in 1747 on the death of his cousin John Sheppard ; and died in 1793. They had sons, John of Campsey Ash, who married Letitia Wilson in 1797, had lssue, and died in 1824 ; The Revd. Revett, F.L.S. ; and Lieut. Frederic, fifth son, born 1790-1, died 1812, aged 21 (Charles Partndge, *Fairly obviously, it was D r . W . G . M a t o n ' s u t t e r ignorance of a Single Mollusc f r o m Suffolk, in his " Descriptive Catalogue of t h e British Testacea " ( T r a n s . L i n n . Soc. viii, 1807, pp. 17-250 & 5 coli, p l l . ) — p r e sumably the first at all complete list of indigenous species and to excluae Sabella, L — t h a t caused S h e p p a r d to bring f o r w a r d his account ot o u r Shells—Ed.
THE MOLLUSCA OF SUFFOLK.
M . A . , F.S.A., in lit. 26 Jan. 1838). T H E REVD. REVETT SHEPPARD was born at Campsey Ash in 1778 ; school Ipswich six years under Mr. King, afterwards private tuition at Barton in Norfolk under Mr. Forby [Rev. Robert, M.A., F.L.S., of Wareham in 1823 ; son of author of Vocab. EAnglia], Age 17, admitted Pensioner of Gonville and Caius College 21 June 1796; B.A. 1801 ; M.A. 1804; Scholar Michs. 1796 to Michs. 1804. Ordained deacon of Norwich 23 September 1804, and priest 22 September 1805. Curate of Wrabness; perpetual curate of Willisham in Suffolk 1809-30; rector of Thwaite in Suffolk 1825-30. Died at Glebe House in Wrabness on 10 August 1830, aged 52. He was author of Description of the British Lizards(a) and a contributor to the Gentleman's Magazine, &c. (Biog. Hist. cf that College, ii, 1898, by Dr. John Venn ; kindly extracted by our Member, Mr. Lingwood).
1788 1825 1853 Gr.
1903 1902 1903
M 2 . 1903 M2A. 1905 M 3 . 1908 M4.
LITERATURE. Shells of Baudsey Cliff, by ' A ' (Gentleman's Magazine lviii, p. 321). Descriptions of L a n d Shells with Observations, by Revd Revett Sheppard, M.A., F . L . S . (Trans. Linnean Soc. vol. xiv, pp. 148-70 ; cf. his earlier paper, I.e. xiii, p. 86). List of S u d b u r y Shells, by W . D . K i n g ( T h e Zoologist, vol. xi, p. 3916). Catalogue of L a n d and Freshwater Shells of Suffolk, by C. Greene (Suff. Inst. Archasol. vii, p. 275). List of M a r i n e Mollusca Recorded in Suffolk, by id. (loc. cit. xi, p. 320). Census of L a n d and Freshwater Mollusca, by L. E. Adams (Journ. Conchol. Soc.) Paludestrina anatina, new to Britain, by Claude Morley (Proc. Soc. cit., April). T h e Mollusca of a Suffolk Parish [Mendlesham], by A r t h u r Mayfield (Trans. Norf. Nat. Soc. vii, p p . 348 & 584). Notes on ditto of ESuffolk, by id. (Journ. Conch. x, p. 295). Notes on ditto of WSuffolk, by id. (I.e. xi, p. 333). M a r i n e and Estuarine ditto of Suffolk, by id. (Journ. Ipswich Field Club, i, p. 5). T h e N o n e - m a r i n e Mollusca of Suffolk, by id. (Journ. Conch. xii, no. x, p. 269). i (1) M a r i n e Zoology : Mollusca (8), \ . t TT. I by D r . H . C. Sorby, F.R.S., &c! ( „ V £ t o r m History 1(2) N o n - m a r i n e Mollusca, by (ante > ' PP' 93 and l 1907) W o o d w a r d and Mayfield. I 9 6 )
(<*)However valuable at the period of its publication may have been this Description of the British Lizards ; and of a N e w British Species ot Viper By Revett Sheppard, A.B., F . L . S . Read M a r c h 2, 1802 " U r a n s . L i n n . Soc. vii, 1804, pp. 49-56), it is now entirely superceded. 1 he author nowhere localises his material : if Suffolcian, one finds males f m Tta vwiPara ( S N S - T r a n s , ii, 212) ' in vast a b u n d a n c e ' and males ot Molge vulgaris ' very c o m m o n ' here, at that time. Even the beautiful and new " Blue-bellied Viper, Coluber cseruleus," Shepp., of 212-25 inches (merely var. 7 of Vipera berus, L., sec. Bell 1839), is unlocalised. —fc.d. (ö)Adds n o m o r e than four species to M 3 :—Helcion pellucidum, L . ; Lam — E d 8 ' " 6 3 ' L ' ' O d o s t o m ' a u n i d e n t a t a , M o n t . ; and Polypus vulgaris,
THE MOLLUSCA OF SUFFOLK.
1922 1926 1932 1929
Census of L a n d and Freshwater Mollusca, by W . D . Roebuck (Journ. Conch. Soc.). British Snails, by A. E. Ellis ; Oxford. List of British Marine Mollusca, by R. Winkworth, M.A., President Conch. Soc. et seqq. Numerous records on Mollusca in Trans, butiolk Naturalists' Soc.
Besides these really excellent papers in various periodicals, rough lists of local species have been occasionally included in parish histories, though such are usually too indefinite to be included here. Thus Sir John Cullum's dear old 1784 (postLinnean) History of Hawstead near Bury specifies no Mollusca ; but in the appendix on its hamlet of Hardwick he thence records (p. 233) " the sharp snail (Helix [Helicigona] lapicida), the bristly snail (Helix [Trichia] hispida), and the Turbo bidens " [Penn. Marpessa laminata, post.], along with ' that very beautiful bird, and the smallest of any English one, the golden crested wren (Motacilla Regulus), a constant inhabitant of the same garden.' The Pagets in 1834 refer to Mollusca around Yarmouth, but instance none. The " shells and fossils " listed in Wake's 1839 ' Southwold,' page 216, are mainly referrable to the latter and too vague to be reliable. Greene in 1891 included work done by Dr. Babington of Cockfield who acquired King's collection at the sale of Sudbury Museum ; Mr. E. B. Skepper of Bury (whose collection seems to have disappeared from Moyses-hall Museum there : notes on it in M3 are from Revd. E. N. Bloomfield); Miss F. B. Powles of Ipswich ; Mr. Frank Norgate of Sandy Downham; and our Original Member, the late Mr. G. T . Rope. T h e following enumeration is uniform with former comital ones e.g. The Fishes of Suffolk (Trans, ii 104); but, unlike this Society's resumes of Vertebrata (I.e. ii, 13 & 209), FOSSIL species are omitted from the present paper, on account of their multiplicity. Recent Shells may be mistaken in washed-out Fossils: hence such modern records as those of Anomia ephippium, L., Cyprina Islandica, L. and Calyptraea Chinensis, L., occurring in 'both periods, are suspicious until verified. Also populĂ¤r titles are omitted : " I strongly deprecate English names. Most Mollusca have none or at most English translations of their Latin names. Every one knows what a Red Admiral Butterfly is but who what a Grove Snail is ? Mammals, birds, and fishes are all given under their English names by Bell (Mammals) Yarrel, (Birds & Fishes) and Couch (Fishes) but neither ForbesandHanley or Jeffreys give English names to Mollusca. If we don't give them to lepidoptera as Ed. Newman and South do, we can surely leave them out for Mollusca," considers Mr. Doughty, 15 March 1938. T h e British species of Mollusca (excluding all doubtfully authenticated kinds, those occurring in only the Channel Isles, and all fossils ; but including such introduetions, like Cochliella elegans, as have gained a firm footing here) Mr. J. R. Le B. Tomlin
THE MOLLUSCA OF SUFFOLK.
of the British Museum, M.A., F.E.S., considers to total 795, whereof 606 are marine (in lit. 10 April 1938). Among the odd 189, we boast the respectable proportion of 120 ; but among Sea Shells Suffolk must ever be weak, on account of the lack of all rocks off our coast, the best Substitutes for which are oleaginous London-clay at Bawdsey and adventitious concrete blocks. Hence it is improbable that the present total of 234 species will ever become materialy extended. PELECYPODA (Bivalves). 1. Nucula nucleus, Linn.—Quite uncommon : Felixstow (Babington), Aldeburgh, Lowestoft (Gr. 1903), Gorleston (M3,D), 1934 (Mly). 2. N. turgida, Leck, (nitida, Sow.)—Felixstow (Gr. 1903), not common (M3) ; rarely frequent at Bawdsey, always rare at Gorleston (Mly). 3. Anomia ephippium, Linn.—Felixstow (Gr. 1903) : no recent specimens later recorded. 4. Mytilus edulis, Linn.—Felixstow to Gorleston (Gr), very common (M3) along the entire coast: said (Tr. Norf. Nat. Soc. vii. 400) to be the main food of Hooded Crows at Breydon. 5. M. modiolus, Linn.—Orwell haven (M3), Felixstow and Aldeburgh (Gr), Dunwich (Mly) and Gorleston, where a colony near the Bell-buoy was destroyed in 1906 (Tr. Norf. Soc. vii, 566 & viii, 464), but others are still washed up here. 6. Musculus marmoratus, Forb.—In Orwell river by Babington (Gr) : rare at Gorleston (M3), in 1931-2 (D); Hopton, April 1933 (Mly). 7. M. discors, Linn.—Orwell river, by Clarke (Jeffrey's Brit. Conch. 1862) ; common at both Aldeburgh and Lowestoft (M3). 8. Ostrea edulis, Linn.—Ipswich and Felixstow to Aldeburgh (Gr) ; very common (M3) throughout our coast. 9. Chlamys (Pecten) vaiia, Linn.—Felixstow to Southwold (Gr), common (M3); local at Kessingland, &c. (Proc. SNS i, lxxiii). 10. C.(P.) nivea, Macg.—Felixstow only (Gr, M) : probably a mere white form of the last species, always common here. 11. C. (P.) opercularis, Linn.—Felixstow to Lowestoft (Gr), rare (M3) as recent, though often washed out of the Crag (Mly). 12. Cyprina Islandica, Linn.—Southwold (Gr. 1903): no recent specimens later. 13. TJnio pictorum, Linn.—Rare; Ipswich (M3) and near Oulton Broad (Gr. 1903), in which Broad it was very numerous in May 1931 (Proc. i, lxxiii). Lound ' run ' (D). 14. Anodonta anatina, Linn.—Bures (Babington), Ipswich (Gr. 1891), " in Mr. Kirby's pond at Barham " and Campsey mere (Sheppard), Oulton Broad (M3).
THE MOLLUSCA OF SUFFOI.K.
15. A. cygnea, Linn.—Suffolk (Sheppard) Sudbury, Ipswich, Helmingham, Barton mere, Cockfield, Livermere (Gr. 1891); Ipswich, Needham, High Suffolk but not in Mendlesham, Thorndon and Oulton Broad (Ml & 2); Tattingstone in 1903 and common in Monks Soham moats (Mly). Var. Zellensis, Gmel., at Blaxhall (Rope). , . 16 Dreissensia polymorpha, Pall.—Suffolk, taken by Christy (teste Greene 1891 : omitted by Adams 1902). Earlier recorded (Trans. Norf. Nat. Soc. i, pt. iii, 1871-2, p. 48) from Breydon water by Mr. John Brooks Bridgman of Norwich. Not observed since that time. 17. Phacoides (Lucina) borealis, Linn.—Three specimens at Bawdsey beach in May 1931 (certainly not fossils: Mly). 18. Loripes lucinatis, Turt. (lacteus, Linn).—Gorleston only (Gr. 1903) ; one specimen (M. 1908). None later. 19. Mvsella (Montacuta) bidentata, Mont.—Recorded off the Suffolk coast by Dr. Sorby (Vict. Hist. 1911, 93). 20 Sphcermm corneum, Linn.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Sudbury Ipswich, Bury, Cockfield, Mildenhall (Gr) ; common at Mendlesham (Ml); five localities (M2). Common from Brandon in 1903 to Gorleston (Mly). 21. S. lacustre, Müll.—Sudbury and Barton mere (Gr. 1891). Mendlesham, not uncommon, only (Ml & 2). 22. S. rivicola, Lch.—In Brit. Mus. from Ipswich (quened by Gr. 1891 & M4). Specimens, certainly of this species, were discovered by me at Kessingland dam on 1 April, 1933. It occurs in north Essex, Herts, 8cc. (Mly). 23 Pisidium amnicum, Müll.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Sudbury, Ipswich, Bury (Gr) ; Bramford, Needham, Oulton, fairly common but not in Mendlesham (Ml,24,*) ; Brandon (Mly). 24 P. casertanum, Poli—West Suffolk (M : Roebuck, Journ. Conch. 1922). ,, „ , r 25. P. Henslowana, Shepp.—The type was found by Professor Henslow at probably Hitcham, of which he was long rector ; later captured at Holbrook by Revd. Revett Sheppard of Offton (Trans. Linn. Soc. xiv, p. 150). Sudbury (King); Needham and Mildenhall (M4). 71 , , 26. P. Hibernicum, Wes.—West Suffolk (M : Roebuck, Journ. Conch. 1922). 27 P. milium, Held, (roseum, Schol.)—Rather common in ditches and pools at Mendlesham (Ml & Tr. Norf. Soc. 1903, 584) and Knettishall; Thetford in Suffolk (Gr. 1903) and near Lake Lothing (M2). . 28. P. nitidum, Jen.—Not uncommon, Mildenhall (M. in lit.). 29. P. obtusale, Lam.—Lowestoft, Wyverstone, Mendlesham, Lavenham Sudbury: notMr. uncommon 2,ens4).of this particular *Whateverand the others may be, Mayfield's(Ml, specim genus are correctly determined by the Conchological Society.—td.
THE MOLLUSCA OF SUFFOLK.
30. P. personatum, Malm.—Mendlesham and Wetherden (M. in lit.). 31. P. pusillum, Gmel.—Taken by the Little Ouse nver at Brandon staunch in June 1903 (Mly, and named at that time by Brockton Tomlin). 32. P. pulchellum, Jen.—Lowestoft (M2) and Mildenhall (M4). 33. P. subtruncatum, Malm.—Mildenhall (M4) and Mendlesham (M. in lit.) 34. Macoma (Tellina) Baltica, Linn.—Ipswich and Felixstow to Breydon water (Gr. 1903), very common (M3). No rarer in such estuaries as Slaughden and Blythburgh (Mly) ; Flounders' stomachs are sometimes padded with Tellina shells at Breydon (Tr. Norf. Soc. 1920, p. 76).* 35. Tellina tenuis, Cost.—Felixstow (Gr. 1903); and Lowestoft: rare (M3). 36. T. fabula, Gmel—Orford and Lowestoft (Gr. 1903), rare (M3) ; Gorleston beach. 37. Abra (Scrobicularia) nitida, Müll.—At Aldeburgh by Babington (Gr), rare in Orwell haven (M3). 38. A. (S.) alba, Wood.—Felixstow, Aldeburgh, Lowestoft (Gr) and Gorleston, not uncommon (M3). Sometimes abundant on Bawdsey shore (Mly) and by the Deben river at Ramsholt (Proc. ii, clxxiii). 39. A. (S.) tenuis, Mont.—Ipswich and Felixstow to Lake Lothing (Gr), common (M3) ; River Deben (Jeffreys, B.C. v, 1869, p. 189); Felixstow and Southwold only (Mly). 40. Scrobicularia plana, Cost. (piperata, Gmel.)—Ipswich and Orwell haven to Breydon water (Gr. 1903), common (M3) ; and even commoner in our estuaries: Ramshalt, Oulton (Mly). 41. Donax vittatus, Cost.—Felixstow (Gr. 1903), rare ( M 3 ) ; never found (Mly). 42. Spisula (Mactra) solida, Linn.—Felixstow ( G r : Mly), Walberswick, rare (M3), Bawdsey, Southwold and Gorleston. 43. S. (M). elliptica, Br.—Once at Bawdsey beach, with 23 species of marine shells together on 27 Feb. 1931 (Mly). 44. S. CM) subttuncata, Cost.—Plentiful at Felixstow (M3) ; Southwold 1 in 1903 (Gr) and 1919 (Mly). 45. Mactra corallina, Mont. (stultorum, Linn).—Felixstow to Gorleston (Gr), not uncommon (M3) along our whole coast. Abnormal (Trans, iii, 298). ' Busheis ' washed on to Gorleston beach in December 1899 ; ' many thousands ' there in November 1901 ; between Gorleston and Corton is a hard-ground bottom, where shrimpers find a goodly bed of M. stultorum and Scoters much to interest them (Tr. Norf. Soc. vii, 69 & 398 ; viii, 321). *Specimens, sometimes w a s h e d u p o n Gorleston beach in large quantities, a p p e a r to be var. attenuata, Jeff. Shells, taken at W a l t o n - o n Naze in Essex, appear to a p p r o x i m a t e t o t h e t y p e f o r m . I have thick dull shells f r o m m u d d r e d g e d f r o m a dyke outside t h e river-wall at Aldeburgh.—C.G.D.
1 H E MOLLUSCA OF SUFFOLK.
46 Tapes virgineus, Linn.—Found in the Orwell River and at Felixstow (Gr. 1903 ; Vict. Hist. 1911 P- 93) 47 Paphia (T.) pullastra, Mont.—Southwold (Gr. 1903; Mly. 1904) • abundant at both Felixstow (M3) and Bawdsey beach. 48 ' Petricola pholadiformis, Lam.—First introduced from West Indies as British in 1890 ; discovered by M r . Mayfield at Felixstow and Lowestoft, between which it IS now common, in May 1907 (M3) : along the whole coast (Mly) and greganous at Corton (Proc. ii, cxlviii). 49 Cardium exiguum, Gmel.—Orwell river and Felixstow to Lowestoft (Gr.) not uncommon (M3). Never found by me (Mly). 50 C. edule, Linn.—Entire coast (Gr.) very common (M3) and as far up estuaries as Blythburgh and Oulton Broad (Mly). 51. Mya arenaria, Linn.—Ipswich and Felixstow to Breydon ^52& ^M^ truncata, Linn—Felixstow, Aldeburgh, Southwold (Gr) Walberswick; occasional and sometimes common (M3). ' 53 Ensis (Solen) siliqua, Linn.—Aldeburgh (Gr), Felixstow, Walberswick (M3), Dunwich, Easton, Covehithe, Kessingland. 54 Solen marginatus, Mont. (vagina, Linn.)—Found new to SufTolk on Kessingland beach in May 1931 (Proc. i, p. lxxui). 55 Hiatella gallicana, Lam. (Saxicava rugosa, Linn).—First recorded in 1908 as not uncommon at Gorleston (M3). A dozen at Bawdsey beach on 27 Feb. 1931 & 12 April 1934 (Mly). 56. Pholas dactylus Linn.—Felixstow (Gr), not uncommonly ( M 3 ) ; Bawdsey and Southwold (Mly). 57 Barnea (P.) Candida, Linn.—Aldeburgh, Lowestoft, Gorleston (Gr) ; plentiful at Felixstow, Dunwich, Walberswick (M3), also Bawdsey, Kessingland (Mly). Boring chalk at Southwold 58. B. (P-) parva, Penn.—Occurs at Fehxstow (Gr. 190.5), "'s? ^Zirphcea (P.) crispata, L i n n . - F e l i x s t o w , by Miss Powles (Gr) and Walberswick; occasional (M3). Bawdsey (Mly). 60 Teredo navalis, Linn.—Felixstow and Gorleston on y (Gr. 1903); Southwold and Lowestoft (M3); Bawdsey, Sizewell, Dunwich, Covehithe, &c. (Mly). SCAPHOPODA (Spade-footed). 61 Dentalium entalis, Linn.—First recorded as occurring occasionally at Felixstow in 1908 (M3 ; not in Vict. Hist. 1911). Often common on Bawdsey beach, e.g. 1932 (Mly). GASTROPODA
62. Acanthochitona crinitus, Penn. (Chiton fascicluaris Linn.)—Taken alive off Suffolk coast by Dr. Sorby (Gr. 1903). 63 Lepidopleurus asellus, Gmel. (C. cinereus, Linn.)—On a plant in the Stour river at Melford (Babington, forte in errore);
THE MOLLUSCA OF SUFFOLK.
Aldeburgh (Gr) ; plentiful in Orwell haven (M3) ; taken on south side of Breydon water in 1935 by Martin Ellis (Norwich Mus. i, 1936.—Mly). The synonymous C. Onyx, Spen., is recorded a's being found alive off our coast by Dr. Sorby (Gr. 1903); and in Harwich harbour (M3). AURICULID/E,
64. Carychium minimum, Müll.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Sudbury, Felsham, Bury, Hardwick, Blaxhall (Gr. 1891), on breck at Brandon in 1903 (Mly) ; common (Ml & 2). 65. Lencopepla (Melampus) bidentata, Mont.— Felixstow and Aldeburgh (Gr) ; abundant in all salt-marshes at Blythburgh, &c. (Mly). 66. Phytia (M.) myosotis, Drap.—Felixstow, Snape, Iken, Southwold (Gr) : very common in salt-marshes at Ramsholt, Slaughden, &c. (Mly) and estuaries at Ipswich, Woodbridge, Orford, Aldeburgh : its var. denticulata, Mont., at Ipswich and Felixstow (M3). LLMNIEID/E.
67. Ancylus lacustris, Linn.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Sudbury, Woodbridge, Botesdale (Gr. 1891), Blaxhall (Gr. 1903); on Potamogeton natans in only one Mendlesham pond ( M l ) ; Ipswich (M2). 68. Ancylastrum (Ancylus) fluviatile, Müll.—Hitcham (Hensslow), Sudburty, Botesdale (Gr.) Bramford, Needham (M2), Brandon 1903 (Mly). 69. Myxas(L.)glutinosa, M ü l l — Mildenhall only (Greene 1891). Fast Suffolk (Adams 1902). Two specimens in a broad ditch at Needham (M2). 70. Limruea auricidaria, Linn.—Holbrook, Baylham, Campsey mere (Sheppard) ; nine localities (Gr); Gipping river (M2), Sproughton 1903, Barnby Broad, Burgh Castle (Mly). 71. L. glabra, Müll.—Suffolk (Jeff. Brit. Conch. i, 1862, p. 118 & Leith, Leach's Mollusks of Gt. Brit. 1852). No later record. 72. L. palustris, Müll.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Six locs. and two vars (Gr) ; 3 locs. (M2) ; Oulton Broad, Beck Row and Brandon ; generally distributed (Mly). 73. L. peiegia, Müll.—In every pond throughout High Suffolk. Suffolk (Sheppard). Five locs. and others for 5 vars (Gr); abundant, with var. pulchella, Roff. (Ml & 2) : from Oulton Broad to Brandon (Mly). 74. L. stagnalis, Linn.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Six locs. and others for 2 vars. (Gr) ; abundant at Mendlesham, and 7 other locs. (Ml 8c 2) ; ubiquitous, Brandon, &c. (Mly). 75. L. truncatula, Müll. — Holbrook, Sutton, Higham, Claydon (Sheppard). Three locs. and 2 vars. (Gr) ; Thwaite, Needham and abundant at Mendlesham (Ml & 2) ; Brandon, Kessingland, Oulton Broad, Herringfleet, &c. (Mly).
THE MOLLUSCA OF SUFFOLK.
76. Planorbis albus, Müll.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Sudbury and var. Draparnaldi, Shep., at Holbrook (Gr.) ; Mendlesham and 4 locs. ( M l & 2) ; Tattingstone, Oulton Broad, Brandon. 77. P. carinatus, Müll—Gipping river (Sheppard). Nine locs. in ( G r ) ; Ipswich, Bramford, Needham, Oulton, but not Mendlesham ( M l & 2) ; abundant in north from Southtown to Brandon (Mly). 78. P. complanatus, Linn, (umbilicatus, Müll, marginatus, Drap.—Holbrook, Higham, Baylham, rivers Ore and Blyth (Sheppard). Four locs. in Gr. 1891. Sproughton, Bramford, Needham and not common at Mendlesham ( M l & 2) ; Monks Soham, Brandon, &c. (Mly). 79. P. contortus, Linn.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Six locs. in G r ; Bramford, Needham, Oulton, Lowestoft (M2) ; Brandon in June 1903 (Mly). 80. P. corneus, Linn.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Four locs. in Gr ; Oulton Broad, but not in Mendlesham ( M l & 2 ) ; Monks Soham moat, Barnby Broad, Brandon, Beck Row (Mly). 81. P. vorticulus, Trosc. One live specimen was recorded from Redgrave Fen by Mayfield in 1907 (M4), and a fossil from one of Holocene deposit at Knettishall (sec. V.H.). 82. P. crista, Linn, (nautileus, L.)—In a pond at Offton, in another in Dynes' meadow near Nettlestead church, and both the glebe ponds near parsonage at Spexhall (Sheppard); Iken and Rickinghall (Gr. 1891). Now known only as plentiful in one pond at Mendlesham ( M l & 2). 83. P.fontanus, Ltf—Baylham and Campsey-Ash (Sheppard) ; Sudbury (Gr. 1891) and Tuddenham (Gr. 1903). Four locs. and sparingly at Mendlesham ( M l & 2) ; Oulton and Tuddenham Marv (Mly). 84. P. spirorbis, Linn.—Ipswich, Bury (Gr), abundant everywhere ( M l & 2). 85. P. vortex, Linn.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Five locs. (Gr), 4 locs. (M2). Monks Soham, Oulton, Brandon (Mly). 86. Segmentina nitida, Müll. (P. lineatus, Walk).—In a Needham pond (M2) and at Mildenhall, rare (Vict. H. 1911, 99). PHYSIDIE.
87. Physa fontinalis, Linn.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Sudbury, Bury, Blaxhalf ( G r ) ; 5 locs. ( M 2 ) ; North Cove, Southtown, Beck Row and Brandon (Mly). 88. Aplecta (P). hypnorum, Linn.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Sudbury, Cockfield, Botesdale (Gr. 1891), Gisleham (Gr. 1902), abundant in stagnant pools at Mendlesham (M & 12) ; Brandon in 1903 (Mly) Kessingland dam in Nov. 1925 : none later (Trans, i, 140). TESTACELUDTE.
89. Testacella halliotidea, Drap.—Bury (Norgate); Blaxhall, Woolverston (Gr.), Dallinghoo (Journ. Malacology, 1893).
THE MOLLUSCA OF SUFFOLK.
Six locs. and var. flavescens, Moq., at Martlesham (M4)* and at Helmingham (M). 90. T. scutulum, Sow. (Maugei, auct.)—Campsey-Ash only, by A. S. Kennard (M4, 1907). LIMACID/E.
91. Milax (Amalia) gagates, Drap.—St. Margarets in Ipswich (Webb, in Journ. Mal. 1893). 92. M. (A.) Sowerbii, Fer. (marginata, Müll.)—Woodbridge (Gr.); two locs. and rare at Mendlesham ( M l , 2). Occurs in some numbers at Gorlestcn (D). 93. IAmax flavus, Linn.—Exceedingly common at Woodbridge in May 1886 (S. Spencer Pearce, teste Taylor) ; Blaxhall (Rope). Three locs. and Mendlesham (Ml, 2). 94. L. arborum, Bouch.—Brandon 1903 (teste B. Tomlin). Mixed with Sowerbii, supra. Rare on willows at Mendlesham and Wetheringsett (M2). 95. L. maximus, Linn. — Hardwick, Woodbridge, Blaxhall (Gr); six locs. and var. fasciatus, Moq. (M4). 96. Agriolimax (L.) agrestis, Linn.—Common everywhere (Ml, 2, 4) from Bentley Woods to Brandon (Mly). 97. A. (L.) lavis, Müll.—Woodbridge (Gr) ; five locs, and sparingly at Mendlesham (M). 98. Arion ater, Linn.—Common (M4) everywhere from Sudbury to Brandon (Mly). Three locs. (in Gr.) ; and seven, with the var, rufa, Linn. (M2). 99. A. intermedius, Norm, (minimus, Sim. ; flavus, Forb.)— Mendlesham (Mayfield, Tr. Norf. Soc. 1903, 584). 100. A. hortensis, Fer.—Blaxhall (Gr.); five locs, and Mendlesham ( M l , 2). At Fornham Mary, by W. R. Burrell (Taylor). 101. A. circumscriptus, John. (Bourguignati, Mab.)—Woodbridge (Gr. 1891) ; three locs. and a few in Mendlesham ( M l , 2). HELICIM;.
102. Vitrina pellucida, Müll—Shotley and in ' the Parsonage garden at Offton ' (Sheppard). Six locs. (Gr.) ; six locs., rather common ( M l , 2). Frequent from Tattingstone to Brandon (Mly). 103. Oxychilus (Zonites) lucidus, Drap. (Draparnaldi, Gord.)— Ipswich, by Boycott (Taylor's Mon.). Frequently found at base of brick-walls, and occasionally in my garden, in Upper Cliff road, Gorleston in autumn, when they are evidently seeking Winter quarters (D). *In the s u m m e r of 1904, I f o u n d several specimens of this species o n the lawn of M a r t l e s h a m rectory, w h e n collecting Worms at night for babbing. I n t h e following S e p t e m b e r I sent s o m e specimens to t h e Revd. Spencer Pearce, formerly a curate at W o o d b r i d g e , including one of the var. flavescens. I n S e p t e m b e r , w h e n sugaring for M o t h s , I f o u n d them more o f t e n on t h e garden p a t h s . — C . G . D .
T H E M O L L U S C A OF
104. O. (Z). alliarius, Müll.—Six locs. (Gr, 1891); Mendlesham (Tr. Norf. Soc. 1903, 584). Rare (M2): Tattingstone, Monks Soham, Staverton, Brandon, &c., (Mly). 105. O. (Z.) cellarius, Müll.—Six locs. (Gr. 1891); common at Mendlesham, &c. (Ml. 2). Brandon in 1903, Gisleham sand-pit, &c. (Mly). 106. O. (Z.) Helveticus, Blum, (glaber, Stud.)—East and west Suffolk ("Adams, 1902). Butley mills (Mly); rather plentiful in Mendlesham alone in the County (Ml, 2). Felsham and Chedburgh, by Babington (Gr). 107. Vitrea (Z.) crystallinas, Müll.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Five locs. (Gr.) ; very common at Mendlesham, and seven other locs. (Ml, 2). Tuddenham Fen 1903, Oulton Broad, &c. (Mly). 108. Zonitoides (Z.) excavata, Aid.—Hardwick near Bury in Mus. Brit. (Gr.) : not found later (M4). 109. Z. (Z.) nitida, Müll.—Sudbury, Bury (Gr.) ; Sproughton, Needham and near Lake Lothing, moderately common (M 2, 4). Tattingstone, Oulton, Brandon, &c. (Mly). 110. Eucottulus (Z.) fidvus, Müll.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Five locs. (Gr.) ; Bramford and rare at Mendlesham (Ml, 2). Brandon in 1903, Tuddenham Fen, Foxhall, &c. (Mly). 111. Retinella (Z). nitidula, Drap.—Offton (Sheppard). Seven locs. (Gr.); very common in east Suffolk (Ml, 2), at both Ipswich and Beck Row (Mly). 112. R. (Z). pura, Aid.—A few in Mendlesham and four other locs. (Ml, 2) ; Foxhall and Tuddenham Fen (Mly). Cockfield ; and its var. margaritacea at Felsham, by Babbington (Gr.) 113. R. (Z) tadiatula, Aid.—Blaxhall (Rope), Cockfield and Sudbury (Gr.) ; very sparingly at Mendlesham and three locs. (Ml, 2); Brandon and Tuddenham Fen (Mly). 114. Cochlicella (Bulimus) acuta, Müll.—A single colony o one live and numerous dead specimens discovered among bricksheds at Newbourn, 27 May 1933 (Trans, ii, p. 188). 115. Ena (B.) montana, Drap.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Lavenham, Cockfield, Whepstead and Drinkstone (Greene, 1891) ; none found later (M4). The species appears to be dying out (Vict. Hist. 1911, 98) and is not recorded nearer than Bucks. 116. E. (B.) obscma, Müll.—Ipswich, Offton, Friston, Spexhall (Sheppard). Sudbury, Lavenham, Cockfield, Brockley, Bury, Drinkstone, Woodbridge (Gr.) Mendlesham, rather plentiful; and six other locs. (Ml & 2). Haughley, &c. ; beaten at eight feet from ground out of ivy on an old elm at Frostenden in May 1938 (Mly). 117. Acanthinula (Helix) aculeata, Müll.—Suffolk (Shepp Four locs. (Gr), 3 locs. and not uncommon in Mendlesham (Ml & 2). 118. Arianta (H.) arbustorum, Linn.—Suffolk (Sheppar 6 locs. and 2 var. (Gr.), Oulton and Somerleyton (M2).
13 119. Helix aspersa, Müll.—Felixstow, Sudbury, Cockfield, Mildenhall ; var. exalbida, Menk., at Woodbridge and Blaxhall ; var. minor, Pic., at Southwold and Wickham Mkt. (Gr. 1891) and three more vars. (Gr. 1903) ; not very common at Mendlesham, with varr.flammeaand Sonata (Ml). Very common everywhere (M2), though suggested to be restricted to urban districts by Doughty (Trans, iii, 100) : Ipswich, Wenhaston, Monks Soham and all the most primitive districts (Mly). 120. H. pomatiay Linn.—Unknown here to Prof. Henslow, who died 16 May 1861 (ECount. Mag. 1901, p. 196). Introduced to Blaxhall during 1882-4 by Rope (Gr, 1891 ; Trans, i. p. xlvii) ; apparently now extinct there. Several examples crawling in Blakenam Parva chalk-pit on 25 Sept. 1897, far from any dwelling and pretty surely indigenous ; but not noticed later and probably exstirpated by fowls (Mly). Aflourishingcolony in large chalk-pit at Rickinghall, recorded 1907 (M4 : before which year the Yict. Hist. article was written, tho' not pub. tili 1911). [Kings Lynn is its NE. limit in Britain, where the Romans did NOT introduce it because fossils exist in Surrey.—Ed.] 121. Theba (H.) Cantiana, Mont.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Ten locs. and three vars. (Gr.) ; Coddenham, Needham, Lowestoft (M2); Martlesham in 1903 and Monks Soham (Mly). Abundant in East, rare in west, moiety of the County (Vict. Hist. 96). 122. T. (H.) Cartusiana, Müll.—Needham and Glemham Parva (Gr. 1903); a colony on chalk at the former (M2). 123. Helicella (H.) capeiata, Mont.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Nine locs. and two vars. (Gr. 1891) and three vars. (Gr. 1903). Mendlesham, where a mottled form alone occurs (Ml). Ipswich, Corton, Brandon, on beech-trunks at Gisleham, &c. (Mly). 124. H. (H.) virgata, Cost.—Suffolk (Sheppard): surely ubiquitous throughout Country. ' In endless variety on sandy ground to north of Aldeburgh ' (Science Gossip 1892, p. 214). 125. H. (H.) Itala, Linn, (ericetorum, Müll).—Felixstow and Offton (Sheppard). Eight locs. and var. minor at Bury (Gr. 1891), and two varr. (Gr, 1903); fairly common, and at Mendlesham not rare with two varr. (Ml, 2). Nacton, Witnesham, Beck Row, &c. (Mly). 126. Hygromia subrufescens, Mill. (H. fusca, Mont.)— Cockfield and Felsham, by Babington (Greene, 1891) : nothing later. 127. Ashfordia granulata, Aid. (H. sericea, Müll.)—Bury (in Mus. Brit., Greene 1891); in osier-beds at Needham and Stowmarket (M2). Oulton Broad, Tuddenham Fen, Brandon. 128. Trichia (H.) striolata, Pfeif, (rufescens, Penn.)—Suffolk (Sheppard). Seven locs. and var. albida, Jeff., at Bury (Gr,); six locs. (M2). Frequent everywhere, except in extreme east where it is very rare indeed (Vict. Hist. 1911, 96). THE MOLLUSCA OF SUFFOLK.
THE MOLLUSCA OF SUFFOLK.
129. T. (H.) hispida, Linn.—Levington and Baylham (Sheppard). Eight locs. and two varr. (Gr, 1891) and two more varr. (Gr, 1903) : typical form rare, but the var. hispidula, Mous., abundant at Mendlesham ( M l , 2). Tattingstone, Ipswich, Martlesham, Brandon, &c. (Mly). Var. concinna, Jeff. : Stratford Mary, Blaxhall, Weybread (Greene, 1891), nothing later. 130. Cepcea (H). hortensis, Müll.—Numerous locs. for both tvpe and fifteen varr. (Gr. 1891 & 1903). A common species, abundant with four varr. in Mendlesham ( M l , 2). Ipswich, &c. 131. C. (H.) nemoralis, Linn.—Not rare in Suffolk (Babington) ; common, with two varr. ( M l , 2). Abundant f r o m Ipswich to Brandon (Mly). 132. Helicigona (H). plaicida, Linn.—Somersham (Sheppard). Bramford, Needham and rare, only one spot, at Mendlesham ' M 133. 2 ' Vallonia (H.) pulchella, Müll.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Stratford Mary, Sudbury, Cockfield, Barton mere, Bury, Hardwick, Blaxhall (Gr,) ; four locs. and sparingly in Mendlesham ( M l , 2 ) ; Brandon in 1903 (Mly). 134. V. (H.) costata, Müll.—Snape in 1890 (Rope). Common at Ipswich, Barham, Needham, Hopton, Knettishall (M4). 135. V. (H.) excentrica, Strk.—Common at Ipswich, Needham, Mendlesham, Hopton (M4). 136. Goniodiscus (H.) rotundatus, Müll.—Abundant everywhere : Monks Soham. 137. Punctum (H.) pygmceum, Drap.—Blakenham Magna and Baylham (Sheppard). Cläre, Sudbury, Hardwick (Gr,) ; six locs. and common at Mendlesham ( M l , 2). PUPIDJE.
138. Pupilla muscorum, Linn. (Pupa marginata, Drap.)— Shotley, Ipswich, Blakenham Parva (Sheppard). Sudbury, Bury, Melton, Minsmere sluice (Gr. 1891), Landguard fort and Brandon to T h e t f o r d (Gr. 1903). On sandy ground to north of Aldeburgh (Sei. Goss. 1892, p. 214). Felixstow, Sutton hoo, Witnesham, Bedfield, Brandon, &c. (Mly). Var. edentula, Menk., at Blaxhall (Rope). , T 7 TT x 139. P. triplicata, Stud.—Barton Mills and Brandon (V. H.). 140. Truncatellina cylindracea, Cost. (P. umbilicata, Drap.)— Sudbury, Bury, Woodbridge, Melton, Blaxhall, Walberswick (Gr. 1891) ; three locs. and rather rare in one spot at Mendlesham ( M l , 2). Abundant at Tattingstone, Foxhall and many beaten eight feet from the ground out of ivy on old elms at Frostenden in May 1938 (Mly). , , T 141 Vertigo angustior, J e f f — T a k e n at Aldeburgh, by James E. Cooper (Journ. Conch. Jan. 1896); Redgrave Fen (M4 ; Ellis). 142 V antivertigo, Drap.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Sudbury, Blaxhall ( G r . ) ; near Lake Lothing (M2). North Cove and Brandon (Mly).
THE MOLLUSCA OF SUFFOI.K.
143. V. minutissima, Htm.—One on Burgh Castle-wall (Gr. 1903 & M 2 ) ; Redgrave (M4). 144. V. Moulinsiana, Dup.—One dead shell in rejectment of Little Ouse river at Knettishall by Mayfield (Vict. Hist. 1911 : earlier records erroneous). 145. V. pusilla, Müll.—Taken at Thwaite by Mayfield (Greene. 1903) ; Hopton near Redgrave (M4). 146. V. pygmcea, Drap, (punctum, Ger. ?).—Sudbury, Blaxhall, Wenhaston (Gr. 1891); three locs. and Mendlesham (Ml & 2); Brandon in 1903 (Mly). 147. V. substriata, Jeff.—Suffolk (Turton's Land & FWater Shells of Gt. Brit. 1840.) E. Suffolk (Adams 1902) ; Thornham (M2) and Hopton near Redgrave (M4). 148. Columella (V.) edentula, Drap.—Offton, Somersham, Friston (Sheppard). Bury, Hardwick, Melton (Gr) ; Mendlesham, abundant in churchyard only (Ml & 2 ) ; Foxhall (Mly). 149. Balea perversa, Linn.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Sudbury, Hitcham, Felsham, Cockfield, Bury, Woodbridge, Blaxhall (Gr.) ; Wickham Skeith and sparingly in Mendlesham (Ml & 2). Monks Soham, several times attracted to light (Trans, iii, 99 & 298) ; Frostenden, among ivy, 1938 ; Foxhall (Mly). 150. Marpessa (Clausilia) laminata, Mont.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Plentiful (Ml & 2); ten locs. (Gr). [Miss Powles' records of C. biplicata, Mont., from Bury and Melton are erroneous.] 151. Clausilia rugosa, Drap, (perversa, Putt. ; bidentata, Ström.).—Suffolk (Sheppard). Seven locs. and 2 vars. (Gr) ; common ( M l & 2) ; Offton in 1903, Ipswich, Staverton, Benacre denes 1938, Haughley, Tuddenham Fen, Burgh Castle (Mly). 152. Cochlicopa lubrica, Müll.—Suffolk (Sheppard). 6 locs. (Gr) ; 7 locs. (M2) ; Monks Soham garden. Abundant from Ipswich to Brandon, in marshes as well as on arid sands, e.g. Sizewell coast (Mly). 153. Azeca Goodalli, Fer. (C. tridens, Pult.)—Twenty-four in Friston Wood in May 1821 (Sheppard). Very abundant at Mendlesham; 3 locs. (Ml & 2). STENOGYRID/E.
154. Achatina acicula, Müll.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Sudbury, Bury, Melton (Gr); Aldeburgh (Journ. Conch, 1896) ; dead Shells in affluent of Dove river at Mendlesham (Ml). SuCCINEIDiE.
156. Succinea elegans, Ris.—Six locs. and 1 var. (Gr. 1891); Mendlesham (Tr. Norf. Soc. 1903, 584) ; 4 locs. (M2). Brandon in 1903, Ramsholt and common in Oulton Broad (Mly). 157. S. Pfeifferi, Rosm.—Discovered to be abundant at St. Olaves bridge over the Waveney river in May 1934 (Trans. SNS. ii, clxxii).
T H E MOLLUSCA OF S U F F O L K .
158. S. putris, Linn.—Campsey mere (Sheppard). 6 locs. and 2 vars. (Gr) ; 9 locs (M2). Oulton Broad to Brandon, abundant everywhere (Mly). Patellid/e.
159. Patella vulqata, Linn.—Felixstow and Gorleston only (Gr. 1903 & M3) ; dead shells abundant and often of large size on Bawdsey beach (Mly). 160. Patina (Helcion) pellucida, Linn.—Recorded on oui coast by Dr. Sorbv (Vict. Hist. 93) and found at Felixstow in April 1911 (Mayfield). Trochid/e.
161. Gibbula (Trcchus) cineraria, Linn.—Aldeburgh, Southwold (Gr. 1%3) and not uncommon at Felixstow (M3). 162. G. umbilicalis, Cost. (T. umbilicatus, Mont.)—Felixstow by Mayfield (Gr), Orford, Southwold and Lowestoft ; common (M3). [Circulus striatus, Phil. (T. Duminii, Req.) cccurs at Walton-on-Naze, tho' unrecorded here]. 163 Caliostoma (T.) zizyphinum, Brit. Cat.—Aldeburgh, Southwold (Gr), Felixstow and Walberswick ; common (M3). Alwavs abundant at Bawdsey (Mly). Neritid^e.
164 Theodoxus (Neritina) fluviatilis, Linn.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Sudbury (Gr. 1891), Gipping river at Bramford (Gr 1903 & M2). Brandon in 1903 (Mly); common in Waveney river from Shipmeadow and Beccles to Burgh Castle (Trans, ii, 187). Naticidje.
165. Natica fusca, Blain. (»ordida, Phil.)—Southwold beach, Gorleston and Bawdsev (Trans, ii, pp. xxiv, lxxxu, cli). 166 N. catena, Cost.—Aldeburgh, Southwold (Gr), Walberswick and plentiful at Felixstow (M3). Occasional all along the coast (Mly). , , „ _ , 167. N. Alderi, Forb.—Bawdsey beach on 27 February 1931 and Kessingland (Mly); empty shells at Dunwich (D). CAPUI.IDiE.
168. Calvptraa Chinensis, Linn.—Found at Felixstow only, by Babington (Gr. 1903). 169 Crepidula fornicata, Linn.—Introduced from West Indies to the Lines, coast in 1887, Essex in 1894, and now in profusion throughout our own. First found at Felixstow in 1919 (Mayfield). Littorinid/e.
170. Littorina obtusata, Linn, (littoralis, L.)—Ipswich and Felixstow to Southwold (Gr), common (M3). 171. L. petreea, Mcnt. (neritoides, B. Cat.)—Breydon (Greene, 1903), on the wall rarely (M3). 172. L. saxatilis, Oliv, (rudis, Mat.)—Commonly along entire coast with vars. saxatilis, Jhnst, and tenebiosa, Mont. (Gr).
THE MOLLUSCA OF SUFFOI.K.
173. L. littorea, Linn.—Very common along entire coast (Gr & M3). 174. L. cestuarii, Jeff.—In the Deben river and Martlesham creek (Gr) ; plentiful at Woodbridge, Ipswich (M3) and Shottisham creek (Jeff. Brit. Conch. v, 205, pl. ci, f. 8 ; Trans, ii, 284). Deben river at Kyson Point, Woodbridge, 1935 (D). 175. Lacuna crassior, Mont.—Frequent at Felixstow (1908, M3 only). 176. L. vincta, Mont. (divaricata, Fab.)—Felixstow by Mayfield and Aldeburgh only (Gr. 1903), Gorleston; rare (M3). 177. L. palliduL, Cost.—Aldeburgh (Gr. 1903) and Lowestoft ; rare (M3). CYCLOSTOMATID/E. 178. Pomatias (Cyclostoma) elegans, Müll.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Sudbury, by King (Gr, 1891) ; abundant on chalk at Bramford, with var. ochroleuca (M2). Common (Mlv). ACICULIDJE.
179. Acicula lineata, Drap.—Sudbury by King and Ipswich by Babington (Gr. 1891) ; one specimen at Oulton (M2). Very rare ; none found later (M4) TRUNCATELLIDJE.
180. Acmea subcylindrica, Linn. (Truncatella truncata, Mont.)— In the Orwell river at Ipswich and drift in Harwick harbour (M3) ; Felixstow and Bawdsey (Greene). RlSSOIDiE. 181. Rissoa parva, Cost.—Rare at Aldeburgh only, with var. interrupta, Ad., both there and at Felixstow by Mayfield (Greene) ; and at Dunwich (M3). 182. R. inconspicua, Aid.—Taken alive by Sorby (Gr. 1903); rare on seaweed at Dunwich (M3). 183. R. membtanacea, Adams.—Type common at Ipswich, Felixstow and Aldeburgh (M3); and var. labiosa, Mont., at Felixstow (Gr), and Aldeburgh commonly (M3). Beside the Deben river at Ramsholt (Trans, ii, p. clxxiii). HYDROBIID.®.
184. Pernigia (Hydrobia) ulvce, Penn. (Paludestrina stagnalis, Bast.)—Coast and estuaries from Felixstow to Lowestoft with var. albida, Jeff., at Aldeburgh (Gr. 1903) and var. tumida, Msh., at Ipswich (M3). Exceedingly abundant in our estuaries (M3); by Brevdon water in July it constitutes the main food of starlings (cf. Tr. Norf. Soc. viii, 318). 185. Hydrobia confusa, Frau. (anatina, Drap.).—First British specimens of Pseudamnicola anatina, Drap., were taken at Oulton Broad in May 1899 by Mr. Claude Morley (Proc. Conch. Soc. April 1903). Later it was identified with a shell that once abounded near the lower reaches of the Thames and
THE MOLLUSCA OF SUFFOLK.
was known as Hydrobius similis tili recently (M3). Later taken at Oulton by Mayfield and several at Blythburgh by Kennard (M4), usually crawling on damp mud. But, in August, 1924, a friend and I found a good many specimens on an anchored submerged bough in a dyke out of the Oulton Dyke under the marsh wall, having searched the mud and reeds in vain (D). 186. H. ventrosa, Mont.—Abounds in estuaries. Aldeburgh, Southwold (Gr. 1891) to Breydon (Gr. 1903). Var. pellucida, Jeff., Breydon (Gr.) and rare at Lake Lothing (M3). 187. H. Jenkinsi, Sm.—General on our coast (M4); Walberswick, Aldeburgh and var. carnata, Sm., also at Ipswich and in drift in Orwell haven (M3). Oulton Broad in 1898, Slaughden, &c. (Mly). 188. Bithynia Leachi, Shep.—Discovered at Holbrook (Sheppard). Sudbury, Icklingham, Barton and Campsey meres, Blaxhall (Gr. 1891) ; Needham in Gipping river (M2) ; Brandon in 1903 and abundant at Southtown (Mly). 189. B. tentaculata, Linn.—Suffolk (Sheppard); 8 locs. (Gr); 4 locs. (M2). Common (M4) from Tattingstone to Brandon. Assimixeidte. 190. Assiminea Grayana, Flem.—Several discovered* in the Aide river at Aldeburgh in June 1906 ; one at mouth of Crwell river in July 1907 by Mayfield, and one in Blyth river at Blythburgh by A. S. Kennard, F.G.S., before 1908 (Journ. Ipsw. Field Club, i, pt. i, p. 7). Lake Lothing and in profusion at St. Olaves bridge in March 1933 (Trans, ii, pp. lxxviii & cxlviii). VlVIPARID/E. 191. Viviparus fasciatus. Müll, (contecta, Mill.)—Felixstow (Sheppard). Theberton, Leiston and common in Minsmere river (Rope) ; Orwell river and Ixworth (Gr. 1891) ; Oulton Broad (M2) ; abundant at Barnby Broad and West Row, but none throughout High Suffolk (Mly). 192. V. viviparus, Linn.—Suffolk (Sheppard). Sudbury, Icklingham (Gr) ; Leiston (Rope) ; Ipswich, Bramford and in Oulton Broad ditch (M2); abundant at Kessingland dam (Mly). Valvatidje. 193. Valvata cristata, Müll—Suffolk (Sheppard). Sudbury, Cockfield, Livermere, Barton mere, Blaxhall, Botesdale (Gr. 1891) ; Brandon (Mly). Abundant (Ml & 2). 194. V. macrostoma, Steen.—Taken at Brandon by Charles Oldham (Journ. Conch. xxvi, p. 155). * T h e occurrence in our estuaries of A. Grayana, known in Belgium and Denmark and formerly in Britain from only the T h a m e s estuary, and of Paludestrina confusa, is of great interest, adding a link in evidence that the T h a m e s with our own rivers commonly connected with the Rhine along the broad valley now lying beneath N o r t h Sea (V.H. 96).
THE MOLLUSCA OF SUFFOLK.
195. V. piscinalis, Müll.—Sudbury, Barton mere, Blaxhall, Leiston ( G r ) ; Sproughton, Needham, Oulton, Lowestoft, but not in Mendlesham ( M l & 2). Fairly common from Tattingstone to St. Olaves (Mly). Cerithiid^e.
196. Bittium (Cerithium) reticulatum, at Gorleston by J . B. Beckett (M3).
197. Trivia monatcha, Cost. (Cyprsea Europasa, Mont.)— Felixstow, by Rev. G. Lombard (in coli. Mly : certainly not Crag fossil) and in April 1911, by Mayfield. [Common at Margate.] Turritfxi.id/e.
198. Turritella communis, Riss.—Taken at Felixstow by Mayfield (Greene), rarely (M3). _ 199. Cirsotrema (Eulimella) commutata, Mter. (lsevis, B r . ) — Felixstow by Babington (Greene, 1903); in river Orwell at Ipswich and Orwell haven (M3). 200. Turbonilla elegantissima, Mont. (Odiostomia lactea, L . ) — Aldeburgh only, taken by J . E. Cooper about 1900 (Greene 1903 & M3). Pyramidellid^e.
201. Odostomia unidentata, Mont.—Recorded on our coast by Dr. Sorby alone (Vict. Hist. 1911, 93). Muricid/e.
202. Ocenebra (Murex) erinacea, Linn.—Very common (M3) on coast at Felixstow, Aldeburgh, Southwold (Gr.), Bawdsey, &c. (Mly). 203. Nucella (Purpura) lapilla, Linn.—Ipswich and the entire coast (Gr.), very common, the var. imbricata, Lam., at Felixstow (M3). I found several specimens at the mouth of Martlesham Creek, where Musseis used to occur, in Sept. 1905 ; what was then the mouth of the Creek is now a solid mudflat (D). Nassid/e.
204. Nasarius (Nassa) reticulatus, Linn.—Plentiful at Felixstow ( M 3 ) ; Aldeburgh and Southwold (Greene). 205. N. (N). nitidus, Jeff.—Orwell estuary, abundant at 3-5 fathoms (Jeffreys); Felixstow and Aldeburgh (Gr. 1903). I gather this is regarded as a variety of the last species. I got several specimens from a fisherman's hoop-nets, set for catching Whelk-bait, at Ramsholt at Christmas 1936, and got the fisherman to send Mr. Tomlin a consignment of them (D). 206. N. (N.) incrassatus, Ström.—At Felixstow by Babington and Mayfield (Gr), not uncommonly (M3). Buccinidje.
207. Buccinum undatum, Linn.—Ipswich and Felixstow to Southwold (Gr), very common (M3) and often, as at Bawdsey,
THE MOLLUSCA OF SUFFOLK.
in huge piles (Mly). Var. paupercula, Jeff., from brackish water at Ipswich (Jeffreys); at Aldeburgh (Gr), and occasional at Felixstow (M3). FASCIOLARIIDJE.
208. Neptunea (Fusus) antiqua, Linn.—Felixstow,* Aldeburgh (Gr), and Southwold, occasionally (M3) by no means rare but usually singly (Mly). CONIDJE.
209. Lora (Pleurotoma) rufa, Mont.—Felixstow and Aldeburgh (Gr.), not uncommon at former (M3). 210. L. (P). turricula, Mont.—Ipswich by Babington, Orwell river by Greene and occasionally at Felixstow up to 1919 by Mayfield (Gr & M3). TORNATINID/E.
211. Retusa (Tornatinus) truncatula, Brug. (retusa, Mat.)— Rare at Aldeburgh only, taken by J. E. Cooper (Gr & M3). 212. R. alba, Kan. (T. obtusus, Mont.)—Aldeburgh, by Babington, &c. (Gr) not uncommon in Orwell river at Ipswich (M3). BULLIDJE.
213. Haminaea navicula, Cost. (Bulla hydatis, Linn.)—Taken in Orwell river, by Babington (Gr. 1903) ; very rarely discovered at low tide line on Bawdsey beach, e.g. on 12 April 1934 (Mly). 214. Acera bullata, Müll.—Orwell river (Jeffreys' Brit. Conch. 1867, iv, p. 431); rare in Orwell haven (M3). Numerous in brackish ditch alongside the Aide at Slaughden in April 1929 (Trans, i, 102); none there in May 1931-8 (I.e. i, lxxiii & ii, clxxii). Two at Martlesham creek circa 1904 and at Walton in August 1933 (I.e. ii, 188). Dead shells by Deben river at Ramsholt in May 1934-5 (Mly). PLIILINIDIE.
215. Philine aperta, Linn.—Felixstow by Mayfield 1903); occasionally in Harwich harbour (M3).
*Our earliest record of this species is contained in a comparison with its fossil form in an anonymous letter printed in the Gentleman's Magazine of 1788, vol. lviii, p. 321, carefully extracted by our Member, Mr. Lingwood :—" Feb. 19. Mr. Urban.—I wish, among your many ingenious correspondents, the following phieonomenon could be explained. Upon the coast of Suffolk, from the high cliff (which we descend to Landguard Fort) to Baudsey Ferry, the cliff is a composition of marine shells, among which are found a great number of the Spiral wilk-shells. Time, and the want of an animated inhabitant, has given them a yellow coat ; but they are exactly the same, as to size and form, with the life-shell on the beach beneath, of which [but mainly of Buccinum undatum, one [guesses a cart might be filled in an hour, with this very Singular difference that every shell in the cliff has its Spiral turn contrary to that of the lifeshell. I have dug in the cliff, at times, for years, and never could find a Single shell in it that did not twist as in plate ii, fig. 4 [showing Form contraria, Gmel.], while all the life-shells are as in fig .5 [typical N. antiqua]. We call the yellow ones ante-diluvians ; but did the deiuge invert their nature, Mr. Urban ? Yours etc., A."—Ed.
1HE MOLLUSCA OF SUFFOLK
216. Onchidoris fusca, Müll.—Gorleston breakwater : hundreds spawning, Jan.-Feb., 1924, and a few found later (Ellis, in lit. 29 Oct. 1938). 217. Coryphella verrucosa, Sars.—Gorleston breakwater: usually a few on Tubularia indivisa, L. (id.). 218. Molidia (/Eolis) papillosa, Linn.—Yarmouth (Tr. Norf. Soc. viii, 122) ; one mature on Gorleston breakwater after a scour in May 1933 (Ellis, I.e. ; cf. Trans, ii, 188). 219. Facelina longicornis, Mont. (M. coronata, F-&-G.)— Taken alive on our coast by Sorby (Greene, 1903); none later recorded. 220. Eubranchus (JE.) vittatus, Aid.—On the coast of Suffolk, alive, by Sorby (Greene.) 221. Fiona marina, H-&-E.—Found along with the last two species (Greene, 1903), in both the Orwell and Stour (Sorby). 222. Polycera quadiilineata, Müll.—Gorleston breakwater, occasionally among Tubularia indivisa, L. (Ellis, in lit. 29 Oct. 1938). 223. Ancula cristata, Linn.—Found very small, feeding on Obelia geniculata, L., about low-tide level on river-piles near Gorleston lower ferry, 13 May 1933 (Ellis, I.e.). Doridid/e.
224. Acanthodoris (Doris) pilosa, Abil.—Taken alive on the coast by Sorby (Greene). Goniodorid/e. 225. Goniodoris castanea, A-&-H.—On the coast of Suffolk, alive, by Sorby (Greene, 1903). CEPHALOPODA (Squids & Octopods). 226. Octopus vulgaris, Lam.—More often caught than recorded ; apparently uncommon. Ipswich dock on 15 June 1900 (Daily Paper, 16th) ; off Aldeburgh in October 1936 (Trans, üi, 201) ; Yarmouth in November 1901 (Tr. Norf. Soc. vii, 398). 227. Eledone cirrhosa, Lam.—Taken off Suffolk coast (preserved in Lowestoft Marine Laboratory : Trans. 1932, p. xxxiii). 228. Architeuthis tdux, Steen.—This is most probably the Giant Squid outside Pakefield Gap on 29 October 1896 (Trans, ii, 1 et. iv). A "monster," quite likely co-specific, appeared close to Southwold pier at 8.45 a.m. on 20 Oct. 1938 ; and was described by two experienced fishermen four miles eastward the same morning. 229. Loligo Forbesi, Steen (Polypus vulgaris, Lam.)—Suffolk (Vict. Hist, 1911, 93); Yarmouth (Zool, May 1903 & Tr. Norf. Soc. vii, 469). Whole animals on Dunwich and Gorleston shore ; bones on Gorleston beach on 24 March 1923 (D) and in March 1932; Kessingland fish-boats in May 1934 (Mly): doubtless common.
RECENT BIRDS ROUND LOWESTOFT.
230. Alloteuthis media, Linn.—Suffolk ( G r ) ; Orwell river and Harwich harbour (Sorby) ; much commoner in Stour river in 1890 than in 1900 (Vict. Hist.). Southwold (Trans, i, 71 : recte). Four in Kessingland fish-boats in May 1934 (D). Yarmouth (Zool. May 1903) ; Breydon water in July 1906 (Tr. Norf. Soc. vii, 465) ; Caister beach in April 1934 (Rumbelow). 231. Todarodes sagittatus, Lam. (Ommastrephes todarus, Ch.)—Gorleston beach on 16 December 1933 (Trans, ii, 284) ; Hopton beach on 24 Dec. 1936 (I.e. iii, 299). 232. Sepiola Atlantica, Orb. (Rondeleti, Lch.)—Alive on Suffolk coast (Gr. 1903). Much commoner in Orwell and Stour rivers in 1890 than 1900 (Vict. Hist.) ; Southwold (Trans, i, 71) ; Gorleston beach strewn with them on 26 August 1909 (Tr. Norf. Soc. ix, 85); Yarmouth in 1904 and abundant there early in 1906 (I.e. vii, 112 & 462). 233. S. Scandica, Steen.—Taken at Lowestoft (Gr. 1903) ; Yarmouth (Zool. May 1903). 234. Sepia officinalis, Linn.—Holbrook Bay in the Stour, June 1930 and one of 32 inches in length, July 1934 (Trans, i, 140) ; Harwich harbour (M3); Aldeburgh (Gr). Bones abundant from Dunwich northwards (Mly). Five entire speeimens on Gorleston beach on 20-1 December 1927, untouched by the numerous Gulls (D).
RECENT BIRDS ROUND LOWESTOFT. BY FREDERICK C .
1937 OCTOBER.—A small party of Lapwings arrived from the east on 3rd. A boisterous north-easter on 5th favoured the advent of a large number of Song-thrushes, several flocks of which came from eastward in early morning and one or two were washed ashore : it is difficult to judge how many small Birds perish while crossing the North Sea, owing to the ever-increasing hordes of Gulls that patrol the foreshore on the look out for any edible morsels. At night many Song-thrushes were audible passing over the town. The first Redwing was seen on 6th and, from 7th onwards, their call-notes could be heard nightly, as they crossed the coastline. Our Member, Mr. Jenner, to whom I am indebted for certain of these notes, reported on 12th a male Ringouzel on the north denes here. Düring 17th-31st persisted a steady immigration of Corvidoe, Starlings and Sky-larks. No spectacular rushes of migrants occurred, but one morning a Starling was seen to drop, from an incoming flock, into the waves ; it was washed ashore exhausted but, when an attempt was made to pick it up, enough strength was mustered to flutter