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2004 BUTTERFLY REPORT ROB PARKER Following on from the outstandingly good 2003 season, the much wetter 2004 has seemed an anticlimax, yet butterfly numbers have not been low. Indeed, some species, particularly the Whites, have produced higher counts than they did last year. High populations at the end of 2003 carried through another mild winter to produce a good start for most of our resident species. Silver-studded blues hit record counts at Minsmere, and had mixed results at other colonies. There was also some good news from our strongest Dingy Skipper colonies. Migrant Painted Ladies and Clouded Yellows were seen, but in much lower numbers than in 2003. A flurry of Swallowtail sightings in Ipswich and a single Camberwell Beauty added interest to the season, but may have been releases rather than genuine visitors. The long-term decline of a few once-common species continues to cause concern, though there were no dramatic downturns, just weak turnouts of Graylings at 2 transect sites and reduced evidence of Wall Browns away from the coast. Weather Average temperatures were again up on historic averages, but sunshine was only average, and rainfall was high, particularly in the summer months. The table below shows mean temperature, sunshine for and rainfall for East Anglia, all presented as anomalies compared to averages over the period 1961 to 1990. The frequency of wet summer days inhibited recording activity as well as restricting mating opportunities fir the insects, but lush foodplant growth may have benefited larvae to some degree. Table 1. 2004 Weather for East Anglia Season

Mean Temp °C

Anomaly % up

Sunshine hrs

Anomaly %

Rainfall mm

Anomaly %

Winter Spring Summer Autumn

5·1 9·5 16·9 11·4

1·3 1·3 1·3 0·9

180·8 445·5 560·9 342·8

108 100 99 108

181·6 136·4 250·2 163·4

126 98 162 100

Source: Anomolies are measured against the 1961 to 1990 averages.

Monitoring the BAP Species This year’s Dingy Skipper survey (Annex E) eliminated a number of former sites as lacking suitable habitat, whilst confirming that the known colonies in the King’s Forest, RAF Barnham and Center Parcs were all in good health. Indeed, the extent of the Kings/Wordwell colony was found to be greater this

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year than ever before noted, and numbers were high. A couple of stray individuals were seen north and east of the Chalk Lane area, unexpectedly extending the known flight area into 2 fresh tetrads. The Silver-studded Blue (Plate 3) (Annex D) again appeared early in the season, and produced good counts at most sites, including a remarkable 3538 at all the Minsmere sites combined. This suggests that the favourable 2003 season boosted populations, although the heather at the Hollesley B site was found to be suffering from parching and dieback, with a count of only 341, less than half of the 2003 figure. The habitat at Martlesham Heath is also deteriorating, as much of the heather is now too tall, and without bare soil. The White-letter Hairstreak (Annex B) was not seen nearly as frequently as during the exceptionally hot 2003 season. Although three new sites were identified, at least one isolated site fell to Dutch Elm Disease, and observers had trouble finding them in the wet. This does not necessarily mean that populations suffered, but they may have done. Migrants For migrants, it was a year of variable impact; mass hoverfly movements, with some unusual moths, but for butterflies it was unexceptional. Painted Ladies were detected in sufficient numbers to identify movements, but only over a quarter of last year’s coverage, whilst 36 Clouded Yellows were seen, compared to 40 last year, with some flying through October and into November. Seven Red Admiral sightings in March provided evidence of successful overwintering, but the year’s count was well down on 2003. One Camberwell Beauty was seen close to the sea at Dunwich on 7 August. One Queen of Spain Fritillary was seen on the Shotley peninsula on 31 July, this being the first since 1999 (It was also a very late submission, and did not appear in the earlier version of this report in “Suffolk Argus”). Swallowtails An unexpected appearance occurred in the first week of June, when 4 independent reports of a Swallowtail came in from gardens in the north of Ipswich. This may have been a single butterfly, or more, but eggs were laid, as was evidenced by the discovery of a single larva on garden fennel (Plate 9) in the same district on 8 October. Unfortunately the larva did not survive, so it is not possible to say whether it came from Norfolk or Continental stock. A separate sighting occurred later at Nacton Meadows, possibly a genuine migrant. Residents This was a strong year for some of our commoner residents, particularly the Whites and Orange-tip. Gatekeepers also did well, but their more scarce relatives, the Grayling and the Wall both fared poorly. Transect counts are a useful indicator here: at Cavenham Heath only 14 Graylings were counted, compared to the previous season’s 74, whilst the Fynn Valley count of Walls was down from 17 to 3. Both these species merit careful scrutiny in the coming years, as their long-term trend is also downward. At least the grass grew well in the rain, so perhaps the young larvae entered winter in good condition.

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 41 (2005)



The Holly Blue came back decisively from its poor showing in 2003, but Brown Argus sightings were made at only 65% of last year’s density. Like the White-letter Hairstreak, the White Admiral was hard to find in a wet July, and yet it put in a second brood at at least two sites, with sightings in September, and even early October. Other residents had an average year, with Commas and Peacocks typically failing to match their strong 2003 showings. The Small Tortoiseshell remained our most well reported butterfly, being noted in 63% of tetrads visited. Early/Late Records Spring brought earlier than ever records for 2 grass-feeding species: Meadow Brown (25/5) and Ringlet (8/6), whilst latest-ever records followed for other grass-feeders: Large Skipper (18/9) & Gatekeeper (26/9). October brought second brood White Admiral (11/10) as well as a very late Meadow Brown (5/10). All in all, this was a significant number of early/late records, in a season extended by wet spells. Geographic Coverage Records received for 2004 covered 530 tetrads, materially more than last year, with contributions from 155 individual recorders. Geographic cover improved, with recorders responding well to my call to fill the gaps. The resulting cover for the 5 year period brings us up to 80% of the county; a great achievement, though some way short of the outstanding achievement of the Millennium Survey’s full cover. Millennium Plus Five Five years on from the Millennium Survey, and Butterfly Conservation has assembled enough records to update the distribution maps compiled for the Millennium Atlas. The Suffolk contribution, when viewed at 10 km square level, does cover the whole county, and generally masks the gentle decline which can be detected at the 2 km tetrad level. Species such as Grayling, Wall, and Small Heath are declining nationally, as well as in Suffolk. A view of the Millennium Survey plus the last five years (10 in all) does appear to show improvements for some species, but this is mainly due to return visits to under-recorded squares. The real extensions of range by the Speckled Wood and Brown Argus may now have reached high water mark; indeed, the Brown Argus may be falling back to find its proper level. Species Maps Distribution Maps for individual species have also been prepared for our 31 regulars, and these are available for reference as required. There are no maps for Swallowtail or Camberwell Beauty, though these bring the 2004 species count to 33. Analysis A crude assessment of relative scarcity can be deduced from a count of the number of tetrads from which each species has been recorded. After the few sightings of Camberwell Beauty & Swallowtail, our rarest butterflies are our BAP species, followed by the White Admiral. This year’s league table, which

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follows as Annex A, finds the Holly Blue much improved on last year’s placing, and the migrants, particularly Painted Lady, all showing less abundant against an unchanged background of our more widespread species. Year-onyear change is not simple to quantify: a straight tetrad count would have suggested that 11 species increased by comparison with 2003, whilst 10 decreased. However, to make a more fair comparison of 2004’s survey of 536 tetrads with 2003’s survey of just 449, an additional measure of density has been presented – the percentage of survey squares in which each species was found. Judged by this standard, 9 species have diminished by over 10% whilst 7 species have increased, 3 of them by more than 10%. Neither measure assesses a butterfly’s abundance at its breeding site as accurately as the “index” derived from transect walks. A further table (Annex C) shows each species’ tetrad count over the past 10 years of intensive survey. Transects Detailed data was submitted for the transects at North Warren (Rob Macklin), Fynn Valley (Richard Stewart), RSPB Minsmere (Robin Harvey), Bradfield Woods (Steve Hunt), Center Parcs (Graham Hersey-Green) Walberswick (Adam Burrows) and Bury St Edmunds (Rob Parker). In addition, singlespecies transects for Silver-studded Blue were conducted at Aldringham Walks (Rob Macklin) and Martlesham Heath (Phil Smith). Special thanks are due to all those transect walkers for their regular monitoring, which provides an objective abundance count as well as site-specific observations, and flight times. Annex A. Scarcity 2003 & 2004 for 34 species seen in Suffolk in 2004 % of Tetrads Species 449 tetrads 2003 0·2 0·2 0·4 0·2 1·1 4·0 5·6 3·8 6·5 11·6 8·9 8·9 18·3 18·5 20·0 20·7 19·6 20·7 1 2

1 1 0 2 1 5 18 25 17 29 52 40 40 82 83 90 93 88 93

[Chalkhill Blue] [Large Tortoiseshell] Queen of Spain Fritillary Camberwell Beauty Swallowtail Dingy Skipper Silver-studded Blue White-letter Hairstreak White Admiral Green Hairstreak Grayling Clouded Yellow Purple Hairstreak Brown Argus Wall Large Skipper Small Heath Essex Skipper Brimstone

Strays found in adjacent tetrads But strong colony counts

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 41 (2005)


% of cf last 2004 536 tetrads See Note

1 1 2 7 11 13 13 31 34 36 37 65 66 90 93 102 106

0·2 0·2 0·4 1·3 2·1 2·4 2·4 5·8 6·3 6·7 6·9 12·1 12·3 16·8 17·4 19·0 19·8

0·42 1·68 1·17 0·51 0·44 0·64 0·90 0·55 0·75 0·77 0·66 0·67 0·84 0·84 0·97 0·95

Change See Note



% of 449 tetrads 25·4 61·2 31·4 33·4 34·7 18·3 49·2 33·6 64·1 48·8 43·2 45·2 54·6 55·9 52·3 54·6 64·4

Tetrads Species 2003 114 275 141 150 156 82 221 151 288 219 194 203 245 251 235 245 289

Small Skipper Painted Lady Small Copper Ringlet Common Blue Holly Blue Comma Orange-tip Red Admiral Peacock Gatekeeper Green-veined White Speckled Wood Large White Meadow Brown Small White Small Tortoiseshell


115 % of

cf last

2004 536 tetrads See Note 121 22·6 0·89 143 26·7 0·44 160 29·9 0·95 161 30·0 0·90 164 30·6 0·88 185 34·5 1·89 198 36·9 0·75 199 37·1 1·10 225 42·0 0·65 231 43·1 0·88 248 46·3 1·07 257 47·9 1·06 270 50·4 0·92 283 52·8 0·94 291 54·3 1·04 293 54·7 1·00 332 61·9 0·96

Change See Note DOWN



Recovery following a poor 2003 "Change" - UP/DOWN indicates a change of over 10% records per surveyed tetrad, compared to last season. Such a count is not necessarily a valid indicator of population strength or distribution. The latest available count figures have been used. As a result 2003 figures are higher than those published in the annual report. "cf last" column indicates the proportion of last years cover achieved in current year.

Annex B White-letter Hairstreak 2004 Although we have lost many of our mature elms, there remains an abundance of elm in the hedgerows of Suffolk, and searches are progressively detecting small colonies living on the “sucker” elm. White-letter Hairstreak nonetheless remains scarce, and under-recorded, and has been accepted as a Suffolk BAP species. Survey work this year was dogged by wet summer weather, and only 12 tetrads produced definite sightings, nonetheless three fresh sites were found. Checks on established colonies mostly confirmed presence, but one isolated elm in Bury St Edmunds has fallen prey to DED and its small colony appears lost. White-letter Hairstreak has been found in a total of 73 tetrads during the 10 year survey from 1995 to date.

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Annex C. Analysis of 10 Years to 2004. A measure of Abundance - for residents and regular visitors. Survey from: to:

1995 1999

2000 2004

1995 2004




Period: Tetrads:Species/Tetrad:

5 yrs 1089 15.4

5yrs 855 11.1

10yrs 1090 17.2

1yr 338 8.5

1yr 448 9.4

1yr 530 8.4

Small Skipper 639 Essex Skipper 714 Large Skipper 639 Dingy Skipper 5 Clouded Yellow 147 Brimstone 473 Large White 920 Small White 953 Green-veined White 973 Orange Tip 858 Green Hairstreak 151 Purple Hairstreak 216 W-L Hairstreak 40 Small Copper 543 Silver-studded Blue 17 Brown Argus 320 Common Blue 635 Holly Blue 703 White Admiral 56 Red Admiral 809 Painted Lady 570 Small Tortoiseshell 982 Peacock 923 Comma 619 Speckled Wood 452 Wall 350 Grayling 182 Gatekeeper 937 Meadow Brown 1002 Ringlet 669 Small Heath 359

Tetrads from which recorded 261 695 66 114 240 772 65 88 228 688 64 90 7 7 3 5 192 267 31 40 249 547 64 100 579 979 198 251 576 990 177 245 520 1009 170 203 401 910 117 151 83 181 23 29 109 262 34 40 43 73 16 25 297 605 94 141 20 25 13 18 160 390 26 82 327 704 92 156 370 778 113 82 36 70 13 17 538 882 158 288 410 691 144 275 538 1014 143 289 468 963 150 219 403 712 153 221 535 703 184 245 200 409 61 83 107 212 49 52 495 985 145 194 582 1027 184 235 334 747 105 150 195 424 50 93

Trend 121 102 90 7 36 106 283 293 257 199 31 37 13 160 11 65 164 185 13 225 143 332 231 198 270 66 34 248 291 161 93


unclear stable settling


infilling declining unclear


Notes: Chalkhill Blue, Camberwell Beauty, Large Tortoiseshell, Queen of Spain, Swallowtail all excluded. 2003 totals are slightly higher than those published in last year’s annual report as they include some extra records.

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Annex D: Silver-studded Blue Count 2004 Monitored sites listed geographically from the North Location

Grid reference Date


Blackheath Wenhaston Walberswick Comn NNR Aldringham Walks Westleton Heath NNR Westleton Common Westleton Football Pitch Minsmere Westleton Walks Minsmere Sawmills Minsmere Football pitch Minsmere Natterjack pond Minsmere SW Comp 1 Minsmere Pit Comp 2 Minsmere SE Comp 3 Minsmere Comp 20 N Minsmere S Comp 3 Minsmere Central Comp 3 Minsmere Powerlines Minsmere North Bridleway Minsmere Potbriggs Minsmere North Grimstones Minsmere E Comp 13 Minsmere Comp 13 track Minsmere Comp13 Tanktrap Dunwich Heath Minsmere Comp 20 South Minsmere Gravel Pit Upper Hollesley MOD Lower Hollesley ‘A’ Lower Hollesley ‘B’ Rushmere Heath Martlesham Heath Parsnip Plantation Ipswich Golf Club, Purdis Purdis Heath Industrial Estate

TM420749 TM491752 TM464612 TM4569 TM44306870 TM44406880 TM459689 TM452692 TM451691 TM451693 TM450694 TM457692 TM457691 TM446683 TM456693 TM453693 TM461683 TM468687 TM468689 TM462688 TM468681 TM464681 TM466683 TM468687 TM445670 TM449669 TM33344723 TM342465 TM343461 TM202448 TM2445 TM32724579 TM208432 TM21204270 TM207419 2004 Totals:

Richard Havard Adam Burrows Rob Macklin Adam Burrows David Rous David Rous Mel Kemp Mel Kemp Mel Kemp Mel Kemp Mel Kemp Mel Kemp Mel Kemp Mel Kemp Mel Kemp Mel Kemp Mel Kemp Mel Kemp Mel Kemp Mel Kemp Mel Kemp Mel Kemp Mel Kemp David Sutton Mel Kemp Mel Kemp David Mason Richard Stewart Richard Stewart David Mason Phil Smith David Mason Neil Sherman Richard Stewart Richard Stewart

07.07 04.07 27.06 04.07 28.06 28.06 30.06 28.06 28.06 30.06 30.06 30.06 30.06 30.06 28.06 28.06 28.06 28.06 28.06 28.06 30.06 30.06 28.06 15.07 30.06 30.06 13.07 01.07 01.07 19.07 11.07 13.07 30.06 01.07 01.07


2 35 221 107 41 238 8 675 291 48 25 256 74 18 3

1 9 45 28 9 52 8 287 139 34 2 134 23 5 2

5 10 155 920

4 20 55 268

1 2


3 44 266 135 50 290 16 962 430 82 27 390 97 23 5 0 9 30 210 1188 0 0 1 3 0 68 167 608 341 4 259 18 1 63 101 5891

52 16 119 48 545 63 302 39 1 3 not split 16 2 1 49 14 80 21 4300 1332

Annex E: Dingy Skipper Survey, 2004 SUMMARY This year’s searches for the Dingy Skipper were well planned, but the season ran late, some of our early surveys were too early for the flight period, and one took place in a torrential downpour. Perhaps the most important achievement was the completion of negative searches that confirmed that a number of former sites are regrettably inactive. In several cases, the habitat is no longer suitable. A more satisfactory result late in the season was the discovery of a previously unknown colony just north of the existing Wordwell site; it has an

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extensive area of Birds-foot trefoil and looks like a strong reservoir in the heart of the King’s Forest. All visits were conducted with the landowner’s consent, or along public rights of way. A total of 12 sites were visited during the 2004 flight period. In addition to the new site mentioned above, Dingy Skippers were found at 4 of the established sites, including a stable colony at Center Parcs and a few sightings scattered around the Chalk Lane site. The butterfly appears to be holding its own in a very limited area of the Suffolk Brecks, covered by just 5 tetrads. 2004 SURVEY The Dingy Skipper was on the wing from late April elsewhere in U.K., and on the Devil’s Dyke (Cambs/Suffolk border) by 2 May, but again there were no early records from Suffolk. None were flying on 3, 5 or 7 May, and the first definite record was from Wordwell on 15 May, the same date as last year. The main survey events were: 15 May 04. Training event; count at Wordwell, but nothing found at Chalk Lane or to the north east. 22 May 04. Counts at RAF Barnham and Center Parcs. 23/24 May 04. An extensive search of the south western corner of King’s Forest, with negative results. 27 May 04. Chalk Lane; 2 seen. 30 May 04. Habitat Condition Survey at Wordwell, to Butterfly Conservation guidelines. 8/9 Jun 04. King’s Forest; negative at John O’Groats, but extended colony detected north of Wordwell. 15 to 31 May 04. At least 6 negative searches made at other sites. 19 Jul 04 King’s Forest site visit with Forestry Conservation Officer. A grant from the Suffolk Biodiversity Partnership enabled volunteers to be reimbursed for mileage undertaken during the survey. The sites visited are listed individually below, as active, defunct or for future investigation. ACTIVE COLONIES RAF Barnham [TL8580/8680] Two visits were made to the Barnham Training Area, and Dingy Skippers were found on both occasions, having apparently extended their flight area south from the known areas by as much as 500 m to grassland with plenty of Birds-foot trefoil, but rather less shelter. A total of 19 were noted on 22 May, which is not as strong as has been recorded some years. A few trees have been felled in the plantations to let the light in, but not quite sufficient to create the sheltered glades desired. Sheep now graze the training area, but in small numbers, and no change in the sward is yet evident. King’s Forest (Wordwell) [TL834732] This site was well visited, and a maximum count of 22 was noted on 23 May. The strip of land that was rotavated to benefit the Basil thyme case-bearer moth remains in good condition, and the Dingy Skippers were flying further to

Trans. Suffolk Nat. Soc. 41 (2005)



the south and west than had been noted in previous years, extending their domain to include the sheltered glades to the west of the main ride. The trees to the east of the ride are growing and casting more shadow each year. A habitat condition survey was carried out on 30 May, and showed an encouragingly high quality of foodplant and nectar availability, albeit over a rather limited area. The flight period continued until 9 Jun (at least). King’s Forest (Archery) [TL831737] – New Site Only 300 m north of the Wordwell site, but cut off by a forest compartment, lies an east-west track with good Bird’s-foot trefoil along the margins. This links to an area used for archery practice, part of which is kept mown. Although this had been identified in 2003, it was not properly checked until 9 Jun 04, and at least 11 Dingy Skippers were flying in the area. This is a previously undetected flight area, and may represent a recent extension of the Wordwell colony. King’s Forest (Chalk Lane) [TL827752] Hopes that this verge would have become repopulated proved over-optimistic. Although numerous visits were made, only one Dingy Skipper was found in this precise area, though another was found 200 m further north on the more open parallel track. The shade cast by the pines to the south has rendered the south side of the track unsuitable, and the Forestry Commission (Nick Gibbons) has generously undertaken to scallop the forest to the south to prevent the shade reaching the north side. On 31 May, 3 were seen further east along Chalk Lane than ever previously noted, where the forest meets Culford Heath at TL846746. A single Dingy Skipper at TL824760 on 9 Jun also shows that the insect is at least searching for suitable habitat 800 m further north. Both these sightings were in “new” tetrads, but should not yet be interpreted as a permanent expansion of the colony. Elveden (Center Parcs) [TL810805] Early visits here were unsuccessful, but on 22 May they were found in the area of the “bird walk” over rough ground. Six or more were seen, indicating that the colony survives in reasonable health. The bare ground of the drainage ditch deserves to be preserved as it provides a good basking site. DEFUNCT SITES (checked in 2004, but no Dingy Skippers found) Kings Forest South [TL7872/8073/8272SW] A group of a dozen knowledgeable volunteers gathered in perfect weather on 23 May for this survey, and walked the most promising forest rides in TL 7872 and 8073. Green Hairstreaks were flying in good numbers, but the morning was passed in vain pursuit of Dingy Skippers. Very little Birds-foot trefoil was found, and none of the area was judged suitable habitat, or even worthy of a further visit. Some more promising patches between the West Stow forest trails and Wordwell Covert were inspected the following day, but to no avail. King’s Forest (John O’Groats Cottages) [TL818737] Occasional past reports from this area made a search worthwhile, and this was conducted twice without finding any promising habitat, or seeing Dingy Skippers.

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Barnhamcross Common [TL864811] This site lies adjacent to RAF Barnham, and occasional strays are seen on the south edge of Barnhamcross Common, which lies in administrative Norfolk, but in Suffolk’s biological recording area. Several visits were made to the southern margin and the wider area of the common. Although Bird’s-foot trefoil was available, no Dingy Skippers were found in 2004. Marmansgrave Wood [TL8480] There have been very few Dingy Skipper sightings from this area in recent years, and 2 visits confirmed that the habitat has deteriorated to the point that restorative maintenance is unlikely to prove cost-effective. The best remaining patch was further west, in the adjacent tetrad at TL837804 in the Elveden Estate’s Sketchfar domain. Although no Dingy Skippers were found, it might be worth a visit next year. Euston Quarry [TL896775] This wonderful CWS has everything that ought to make a good Dingy Skipper site, including Bird’s-foot trefoil and a Common Blue colony. It was inspected in good weather on 25 May, but for the second year in succession, no Dingy Skippers were found. Barnham Heath SSSI [TL885795] This site is close to RAF Barnham, and a quick look in marginal weather in 2003 had given no reason for optimism, as very little Bird’s-foot trefoil was evident. Nothing was found this year either. Knettishall Heath [TL9480/9481/9580] Past records have not provided precise locations, so the search was, of necessity, broad. No apparently suitable habitat was identified. SITES FOR FUTURE INSPECTION Cut-off Channel [TL7386] During Norfolk’s survey for Grizzled and Dingy Skipper, both were found along the watercourse known as the Cut-off channel, which has a chalky double embankment along a nine mile stretch in Norfolk. Two visits were paid, on 27 and 28 May, to the Suffolk stretch, which looked suitable only at the northern extremity, near Hiss Farm. Further south, the embankment lacks chalk, and is alternately cattle-grazed or nettle-bound. The northern section, owned and managed by the Environment Agency, is a high priority for a search in 2005. Thetford Rifle Range [TL8480] This MoD site lies in Administrative Norfolk, but is in Suffolk’s biological recording area. It has plenty of Bird’s-foot trefoil in a suitably sheltered area, and has not been checked before. Berner’s Heath [TL7977] The northern edge of Berner’s Heath has plenty of Bird’s-foot trefoil and is rarely visited because it is within the Elveden Estate. Identified too late for a visit in 2004, it merits a visit next year. Sketchfar [TL837804] See remarks above, under Marmansgrave Wood.

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North Farm/West Farm [TL860790/854777] Just south of RAF Barnham, a disused railway line presents a possibly suitable site, and this was inspected 2003 (but not 2004). It runs from North Farm (Euston Estate) past the East of England Tank Museum (aka the tyre dump) to West Farm (Elveden Estate/Stamper Farms), and features Bird’s-foot trefoil in rather rank grass, with some promising disturbed ground in the area used for tank driving. No Dingy Skippers were seen, and the terrain is judged marginal, but worth an occasional re-inspection in future years. Rob Parker 66 Cornfield Road, Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk IP33 3BN

Butterflies around Framlingham, 25 July–6 August Our Observations in 2004 were on the following dates: Species Small Skipper Large Skipper Clouded Yellow Large White Small White Green-veined White Small Copper Brown Argus Common Blue Holly Blue Red Admiral Painted Lady Small Tortoiseshell Peacock Comma Speckled Wood Wall Brown Grayling Gatekeeper Meadow Brown Ringlet

Dates (25 July–6 August) 26, 27, 27,

29, 30, 31, 1, 29, 31,

25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 29, 30,

31, 1, 31, 1, 31, 1, 31,

29, 30, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 1, 28, 29, 31, 1, 30, 31, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 1, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 1, 27, 28, 30, 31, 29, 31, 1, 27, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 1, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 1, 29, 30, 31, 1,




2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2,

3, 3, 3,

4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4,

3, 3,

2 2, 2, 2, 2,

2, 2, 2,

3, 3,

4 4 3, 3,

6 6

4, 4, 4, 4,

5, 5, 5 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5 5 5, 5, 5, 5

4, 4, 4,

5, 5, 5,

6 6 6

6 6 6 6 6 6 6

6 6 6

25 July was dull and overcast but the following twelve days of good weather brought out 21 species, with a peak of 19 species on 5 August. The walks undertaken were much the same as in previous years and it is therefore possible to draw comparisons. The 2004 daily species average of 12.5 stands well against other seasons, particularly when one considers the small contribution made by 25 July (2 species only). We were pleased to watch a Clouded Yellow on 5 August as it visited roadside leguminous plants. Again, the Wall Brown was welcome evidence of its hanging on. The absence of Brimstones and Small Heaths may only be a signal that they would be appearing later on. Alasdair Aston Wakes Cottage, Selborne, Hampshire, GU34 3JH

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Rob Parker