THE RUST-FUNGI OF SUFFOLK.
B Y ARTHUR MAYFIELD,
or Rusts are a group of parasitic fungi which attack the leaves, stems, and sometimes other parts of living phanerogams and ferns. A rust, during its various stages, raay produce as many as five different kinds of spore. In autcecious species the parasite completes its life-cycle on a single host â€˘ but in many species the earlier stages are produced upon one host, and the later ones, producing uredospores and teleutospores, are transferred to another host which can better accommodate the parasite during the autumn and winterâ€”a phenomenon known as heteroecism. T H E UREDINALES
After the infection of a leaf by the entry of the Contents of a basidiospore, the presence of the rust makes itself evident by the appearance of yellow or brown pustules, generally on the upper surface of the leaf, followed by the formation of ajcidia or clustercups on the under surface. T h e former are pycnidia or spermogones producing pycnidiospores ; the latter, often beautiful objects, consist each of an outer wall or peridium enclosing vertical chains of yellow or golden ascidiospores. In a few cases the peridium is absent, and the ascidiospores form a pulverulent mass bursting through the epidermis of the host, and spreading over a considerable area. Such fructifications are called CEeomata and are conspicuous objects in early summer on brambles, roses, etc. Germ-tubes from the germinating secidiospores find' access through the: stomata, infecting fresh tissue, either on the same host, or, as in heteroecious rusts, on a host of an entirely different species. A new mycelium is formed in the intercellular spaces of the host and soon uredo-spores are produced. They occupy pulverulent yellow or brown sori, mostly on the under surface of the leaves. T h e uredospores, on germinating, reproduce their own kind again and again, and it is in this stage that the fungus spreads very rapidly. Later in the year teleutospores or winter spores" make their appearance, either among the uredospores or in separate sori. They are generally dark brown in colour, and are one-celled in the genus Uromyces, two-celled m Puccinia, three-celled in Triphragmium, or many-celled in Phragmidium and Xenodochus. Teleutospores are thick-walled and more durable, and their funetion is to preserve the chain of nfe during the winter. On germinating they produce basidiospores, generally four in number, from each cell. The lifehistory of a rust is not always so complex; in some species the ascidial stage is omitted and in others, such as the Hollyhock nist, only teleutospores and basidiospores are formed.
THE RUST-FUNGI OF SUFFOLK.
Very little attention has hitherto been given to these minute fungi by Suffolk botanists. A short list of about thirty species, mainly the work of the late Edmund Skepper of Bury, is included with other fungi in Henslow and Skepper's 1860 " Flora of Suffolk." The relationship of the various spore-forms was at that time unknown, so that often the same rust was recorded under three separate genera—Aecidium, Uredo and Puccinia. The following list of 159 species is, with a few exceptions,* the result of observations made by me during the last five years. I acknowledge, with sincere thanks, much kind help given me by our Member, Mr. Edward A. Ellis of Norwich Castle Museum, chiefly in sending me notes and specimens from the north-east corner of the County, several of which have not otherwise come under my notice : records furnished by Mr. Ellis are initialled ' (E.).' My thanks for help with obscure species are also due to Mr. W. B. Grove, whose 1913 handbook of ' The British Rust F u n g i ' is the Standard English work on the subject.—In enumerating the various stages, which occur in each species, the following symbols are used :— 0 = Spermogones ; I = Aecidiospores ; II = Uredospores ; and I I I = Teleutospores. Spore-forms which have not yet been noticed in Suffolk are enclosed in Square brackets. Genus
Valeriana, Fckl.—0,1, II, III on Valeriana officinalis : Blundeston and St. Olaves (E.); Hinderclay, Ipswich. On V. dioica at Bramford (E.). Limonii, Lev.—0, I, II, III on Statice Limonium : Blythburgh, Iken Mere, Trimley (E.); Ipswich, Waldringfield, Wherstead. Armerice, Lev.—[0,1], II, III on Armeria maritima : Walberswick. Trifolii, Lev.—II, III on Trifolium pratense : Corton (M.B. Ellis); Mendlesham. flectens, Lagerh.—III on Trifolium repens: common. Jaapianus, Kleb.—II, III on Trifolium dubium: Mendlesham ; on T. procumbens, Old Newton. Loti, Blytt.—[0, I on Euphorbia Cyparissias], II, III on Lotus corniculatus : Gorleston and Thorpeness (E.) ; Southwold. Faha, De Bary.*—0, I, II, III on Vicia bithynica : Kessingland (E.); on V. Cracca : Lound (M.B.E.); on V. lutea : Felixstow (F. W. Simpson); on Lathyrus pratensis: Ipswich, Mendlesham ; common on Faba vulgaris. Pisi, De Bary.—[0, I on Euphorbia Cyparissias], II, III on Pisum sativum : Southtown (E.A.E.); Corton (M.B.E.). *Of these 159, no less than 134 are NE.W to Suffolk : i.e. all excepting t h e 25 species that bear an asterisk, as well as Skepper's " A E c i d i u m Compositarum, Mart.; AE. Ranunculacearum, D.C. ; Uredo Embeilatarum, J o h n s t . , " etc., each of which m i g h t refer to several different species and m u s t be ignored here.
Genistce-tinctorice, Wint.—[0, I on Euphorbia Cyparissias], II, I I I on Cytisus Scoparius: Beiton, 25-10-34 (E.); on Genista tinctoria: Mendlesham, 13-11-34. Geranii, Ott. et Wartm.—0, I, II, III on Geranium dissectum: south side of Breydon (M.B.E.); on G. molle: Needham Market; on G. pyrenaicum: Somerleyton (M.B.E.); Barham, Creeting, Needham Market. Ficaria, Lev.—III on Ranunculus Ficaria : common. Caryophyllinus, Wint.—[0, I on Euphorbia Gerardiana], II, III on Dianthus Caryophyllus : Barham. Behenis, Unger.—I, III on Silene inflata : Thorpeness ; on Silene maritima, Shingle Street. sparsus, Lev.—0, I, II, I I I on Spergularia media: Trimley marshes and on the Suffolk side of Breydon (E.). Chenopodii, Schrot.—I, II, I I I on Suseda maritima : Suffolk shore of Breydon. 14-9-35 (E.). Beta, Lev.—0, I, II, I I I on Beta maritima : Aldeburgh (E.); Ipswich, Wherstead, Felixstow; common on garden-beet and sugar-beet at Mendlesham. Salicornia, De Bary.—I, II, III on Salicornia europaea: Suffolk shore of Breydon, 14-9-35 (E.). Rumicis, Wint.—[0, I on Ranunculus Ficaria], II, I I I on Rumex s p p : on R. crispus, R. maritimus and R. sanguineus, Bramford (E.) ; on R. obtusifolius and R. conglomeratus, Mendlesham ; on R. Hydrolapathum, Ipswich. Acetosce, Schrot.—[0, I], II, III on Rumex Acetosa: Blundeston and Fritton (E.) ; Redgrave; on R. Acetosella at Hinderclay. Polygoni-avicularis, Ramsb.—0,1, II, I I I on Polygonum aviculare : I at Hopton (M.B.E.) ; II, I I I very common. Scillarum, Wint.—III on Scilla non-scripta: Blundeston (E.); Freston, 16-5-33. Junci, Tul.—0, I on Pulicaria dysenterica, II, I I I on Juncus subnodulosus: Bradwell, St. Olaves, Latimer Dam (E.); Mendlesham, Redgrave, Hinderclay, Sudbourne. Scirpi, Burr.—0, I on Glaux maritima, II, I I I on Scirpus maritimus : Suffolk shore of Breydon (E.); Freston, Dunwich, Shingle Street. Dactylidis, Otth.—0, I on Ranunculus acer, R. bulbosus and R. repens, II, I I I on Dactvlis glomerata : very common. Poce, Rabh.—0, I on Ranunculus Ficaria, R. bulbosus and R. repens, II, I I I on Poa s p p . : common. Genus
Tripolii, Wallr. ( = P . asteris, Duby).—III on Aster Tripolium: Aldeburgh (E.); Wherstead, Woodbridge, Walberswick. Millefolii, Fckl.—III on Achillea Millefolium : Gorleston (E.), Mendlesham, Rougham.
THE RUST-FUNGI OF SUFFOLK. 58 Chrysanthemi, Roze.—II, III on Chrysanthemum Chinense. More common on plants grown in greenhouses : Barham, Bradwell, Coddenham, Hintlesham. Absuithii, DC—II, III on Artemisia maritima: Bawdsey, Wherstead, Walberswick. Tanaceti, DC.—II, III on Tanacetum vulgare: Ipswich (E.); Mendlesham, 13-8-31. glomerata, Grev.—III on Senecio Jacobsea : Ampton, 11-6-32. Centaurea', DC.—0, II, III on Centaurea nigra: very common. Cyani, Pass.—0, II, III on Centaurea cyanus: on cultivated plants in gardens at Brockford and Mendlesham. Carlina, Jacky.—0, II, III on Carlina vulgaris : Lound Heath (E.); Risby and Stuston. Carduorum, Jacky—II, III on Carduus nutans: Gorleston (E.); Aldeburgh, Barking, Creeting. Cardui-pycnocephali, Syd.—II, III on Carduus pycnocepha forma tenuiflorus: Burgh-castle and Lowestoft (E.); Aldeburgh, Dunwich. Cirsii, Lasch.—II, III on Cirsium palustre at Mendlesham, Creeting, Freston and Hinderclay; on C. acaule at Old Newton. Cirsii-lanceolati, Schrot.—[0, I], II, III on Cirsium lanceolatum II, III at Creeting, Ipswich and Mendlesham. Le-Monneriana, Maire—III on Cirsium palustre: Bradwell (E.); Freston, Mendlesham, Stuston. obtegens, Tul.*—0, II, III on Cirsium arvense : very common. Lapsance, Fckl.—0, I, II, III on Lapsana communis : common I on seedlings, Mendlesham, 2-5-31. Picridis, Hazsl.—II, III on Picris hieracioides : Pakefield, 11-6-33 (E.); Old Newton, 28-8-34. Hypocharidis, Oud.—II, III on Hypochseris radicata : Corton and Thorpeness (E.); Mendlesham, 15-8-32. Leontodontis, Jacky.—0, II, III on Leontodon hispidus: Mendlesham, 18-7-32; on L. autumnale, Ashby, 1934 (E.). Trapopogi, Corda.—0, I, III on Tragopogon minus: Burghcastle (E.); Somerleyton (M.B.E.); on T. pratensis, Mendlesham. Chondrillce, Corda.—I, IT, III on Lactuca muralis : Brome, 9-8variabilis, Grev.—0, I, II, III on Taraxacum vulgare: Trimley (E.); Cotton, Ipswich. Taraxaci, Plowr.—0, II, III on Taraxacum vulgare: Burghcastle, Bramford(E.); Barking, Creeting, Ipswich, Mendlesham, Rougham. Sonchi, Rob.—0, II, III on Sonchus arvensis, S. oleraceus and S. asper : common. Crepidis, Schrot.—[0, I], II, III on Crepis capillaris: Hobland and Gorleston (E.); Southwold.
THE RUST-FUNGI OF SUFFOLK.
Hieracii, Mart.—0, II, III on Hieracium umbellatum : Hopton V (E.); Aldeburgh. Piloselloidearum, Probst.—0, II, III on Hieracium Pilosella: Needham Market. Adoxa, Hedw. f.*—III on Adoxa Moschatellina: Bury St. Edmunds (H. & S.); Herringfleet (E.); Barham, Creeting, Freston. albescens, Plowr.*—0, I [II, III] on Adoxa Moschatellina : I at Bury St. Edmunds (H. & S.) ; 0, I at Barham Slade. punctata, Link.—0, I, II, III on Galium verum at Risby and Rougham; on G. Mollugo at Barking, Brockford, Mendlesham. Celakowskyana, Bubak.—0, II, I I I on Galium Cruciata: Mendlesham. Valantia, Pers.—III on Galium Cruciata: Bramford (E.);. Mendlesham ; on G. hercynicum, Blythburgh (E.). Antirrhini, Diet. et Hol.—II, I I I on Antirrhinum majus. This North American rust, which has rccently become such a pest, appeared in Ipswich gardens in September 1933. In the following year it was difficult to find anywhere in the county a bed of Antirrhinums that was not affected in some degree. Mentha, Pers.*—0, I, II, III on various Labiata. On Mentha spicata, M. arvense and M. aquatica: Mendlesham; on Clmopodium, Barking (E.), Brockford; on Calamintha officinalis, Thurston. Glechomatis, DC.—III on Glechoma hederacea : Beiton, Fritton, Hopton, Blundeston, Barking (E.) ; Mendlesham, Needham'. annularis, Schlecht.—III on Teucrium scorodonia : Ashbv (E ) • Foxhall Heath. * K ''' Vinco;, Berk.*—0, II, I I I on Vinca major : Mellis, Sudbourne, Waldringfield. The rust in the last locality was attacked by Tuberculina persicina. Primules, Duby.—I, II, I I I on Pnmula vulgaris: Blundeston (E.); Butley, Sudbourne. Saniculce, Grev.*—0, I, II, III on Sanicula europaja : Bury St Edmunds (H. & S.); Blundeston (E.) ; Barham. Cicutce, Lasch.—0, I, II [III] on Cicuta virosa : I, II at Fritton Lake, 22-6-34 (E. & M.B.E.). Aegopodii, Mart.—III on Aegopodium Podagraria: Lound S (M.B.E.); Mendlesham. tumida, Grev.—III on Conopodium majus : Blundeston (E.) • Barham, Freston. Pimpinella, M a r t . - [ 0 , I], II, III on Pimpinella saxifraga: Old Newton, 31-8-33. Aethusa, Mart. ( = P. petroselini L i n d r . ) - I I , III on Aethusa ^ y n a p m m : Brockford, Mendlesham.
Angelicce, Fckl.—0, II, I I I on Angelica sylvestris: Bradwell and Bramford (E.); Hinderclay Fen. Silai, Fckl.—0, II, III on Silaus flavescens : Thwaite, 28-9-32. Chcerophylli, Purt—0, I, II, I I I on Anthriscus sylvestris: Coddenham, Mendlesham. Conti, Fckl.—II, I I I on Conium maculatum : Herringfleet (E.) ; Martlesham, Wherstead. Smyrnii-Olusatri, Lindr.—0, I, I I I on Smymium Olusatrum : Burgh Castle, Corton, Gorleston, Lowestoft (E.); Barham, Claydon, Coddenham. Circcece, Pers.—III on Circaea lutetiana: Freston, 25-8-33. pulverulenta, Grev. ( = P . epilobii-tetragoni, Wint.)—0, I, II, III on Epilobium hirsutum, very common; on E. tetragonum, Beiton (E.) and by the Gipping at Ipswich ; on E. montanum at Corton, 9-9-35 (M.B.E.). Viola, DC.—0,1, II, I I I on Viola canina, V. Riviniana, V. odorata and V. hirta : very common. depauperans, Sydow. (=P. agra, Grove)—I, II, I i i on cultivated species of Viola. In gardens: Brockford, Mendlesham. Fergnssoni, B. & Br — III on Viola palustris : Fntton, 3-7-32 (E.). Buxi, DC *—III on Buxus sempervirens: Bury St. Edmunds (H. & S.); Wangford (E.); Mendlesham, 19-2-32. Malvacearum, Mont.—III on Malva sylvestris, M . rotundifolia and Althaea rosea: very common, especially on Hollyhocks. Pruni-spinosa, Pers.*—0, I on Anemone coronaria; II, I I I on various species of Prunus: 0, I, Brockford, Eye; II, I I I common on cultivated plum. fusca, Wint.—0, I I I on Anemone nemorosa: Barking, 22-6-32. Zopfii, Wint. ( = P . calthacola, Schrot.)—0, I, II, I I I on Caltha palustris: Bramford (E.); Bamham Cross Common. tnirabilissima, Peck.—0, I, II, I I I on Mahonia Aquifolium. T h e occurrence in the vicinity of Edinburgh of this North American species was described by Dr. Malcolm Wilson in Trans. Bot. Soc. Edin. 1922. It has since spread over most ot southern Scotland and to many English counties. Butley, 24-4-32, Mendlesham, Wetheringsett. Arenaria, Wint.—III on various Caryophyllacese. Forma Lychnideanim, Link, on Lychnis dioica at Barham, Freston and Mendlesham. Forma Dianthi, D.C., on Dianthus barbatus, Harleston, Mendlesham. Forma arenaria, Schum., on Stellaria Holostea at Freston ; on S. graminea at Thwaite ; on S. media at Blundeston (E.); on Gypsophila elegans at Mendlesham. Behenis, Otth.—0, I, II, III on Silene inflata at Gorleston (E.), Cavenham and Hinderclay; on Lychnis alba, Gorleston and Beiton (E.). Acetosa, Korn.—II [III] on Rumex Acetosa: Creeting, Hinderclay, Sudbourne, Mendlesham, Needham Market.
THE RUST-FUNGI OF SUFFOLK. Polygoni-amphibii, Pers.* [0,1],
II, III on Polygonum amphibium : Cavenham, Risby, Ipswich. Polygoni-Convolvuli, DC.—0, II, III on Polygonum Convolvulus : Gorleston and Wickham Market (E.); Mendlesham. Thesii, Chaill.*—0, I, II, III on Thesium humifusum : Risby Heath (Revd. E. N. Bloomfield, 1889). There was an abundance of this rust at Risby, 3-8-33. Iridis, Wallr.—II, III on Iris fcetidissima, Blakenham, 13-5-33 ; common on cultivated Irises. Asparagi, DC.—0, I, II, III on Asparagus officinalis : Brockford, Hintlesham. obscura, Schrot.—0, I on Bellis perennis, II, III on Luzula campestris: Barking and Browston (E.); Mendlesham. oblongata, Wint.—II, III on Luzula campestris: Blundeston (E.); Hinderclay, Mendlesham ; on Luzula pilosa at Bentley Long Wood (E.). Caricis, Reb.*—0, I on Urtica dioica, II, III on various Carices: common. Pringsheimiana, Kleb.*—I on Ribes, II, III on various Carices. I on Ribes Grossularia and R. nigrum at Mendlesham ; on the latter at Herringfleet (E.). Schceleriana, Plowr. et Magn.—I on Senecio Jacobaea, II, III on Carex arenaria: Benacre and Worlington (E.); Ampton, 11-6-32. graminis, Pers.*—0, I on Berberis vulgaris and Mahonia Aquifolium; II, III on various grasses. I on Berberis vulgaris : Yaxley and Browston (E.); Mendlesham, Waldringfield; on Mahonia Aquifolium at Mendlesham. II, III common. coronata, Corda—[0, I on Rhamnus Frangula], II, III on various grasses. Common on Holcus spp. and Dactylis glomerata. Lolii, Niels. (= P. coronifera, Kleb.)—[0, I on Rhamnus catharticus], II, III common on Lolium perenne, Alopecurus pratensis and Arrhenatherum elatius. Festuca, Plowr.—0, I on Lonicera Periclymenum, II, III on Festuca ovina: Beiton (E.); Bixley Heath, Ipswich. glumarum, Er. et Henn.—II, III on Agropyron repens, Brachypodium silvaticum, Hordeum vulgare and Triticum vulgare : common. Phlei-pratensis, Er. et Henn.—II, III on Phleum pratense: Mendlesham, 2-9-33. Secalina, Grove—0, I on Lycopsis arvensis, II, III on Seeale cereale : Bradwell (M.B.E.); Needham Market. Symphyti-bromorum, Fr. Mull. ( = P. bromina, Erikss.)—[0 Symphytum officinale], II, III on Bromus sterilis : Brockford and Mendlesham. Triticina, Erikss.—III on Triticum vulgare: Mendlesham, 8-8-32.
Holcina, Erikss.—II, I I I on Holcus lanatus and H . mollis : very common. Agropyrina, Erikss.—II, I I I on Agropyron r e p e n s : c o m m o n . Triseti, Erikss.—II, I I I on T r i s e t u m flavescens : Brockford. simplex, Erikss.—II, I I I on H o r d e u m vulgare and H . m u r i n u m : Mendlesham, Old N e w t o n , etc., c o m m o n . Orchidearum-Phalaridis, Kleb.—0, I on various Orchids, I I , I I I on Phalaris arundinacea : 0, I on Orchis maculata, O . prastermissa at Beiton and Blundeston ( E . ) ; on O . latifolia at Hinderclay ; I I , I I I c o m m o n . Phalaridis, Plowr.*—0, I on A r u m maculatum, I I , I I I on Phalaris arundinacea : 0, I at Bungay (H. & S . ) ; Herringfleet and W a n g f o r d (E.) ; Old N e w t o n . Magnusiana, K o r n . — 0 , I on Ranunculus repens and R. bulbosus, I I , I I I on Phragmites communis : M e n d l e s h a m , Chelmondiston. Phragmitis, K o r n * — 0 , I on R u m e x crispus, R. obtusifolius and R. conglomeratus, I I , I I I on Phragmites c o m m u n i s : 0, I at Gorleston, Bradwell, Herringfleet (E.) ; D u n w i c h , Ipswich, M e n d l e s h a m ; I I , I I I at Ipswich, Martlesham, Woodbridge, Redgrave, Shingle Street, etc. Trailii, Plowr.—0, I on R u m e x Acetosa, I I , I I I on Phragmites c o m m u n i s : I at Beiton, Bradwell and St. Olaves ( E . ) ; Cavenham, D u n w i c h . Poarum, N i e l s — 0 , I on Tussilago Farfara, I I , I I I on species of Poa: Gorleston and Kessingland (E.); Brockford, M e n d l e s h a m , Old N e w t o n . Baryi, W i n t . — I I , I I I on Brachypodium s y l v a t i c u m : Oulton and Blundeston ( E . ) ; G i p p i n g , M e n d l e s h a m , Old N e w t o n . persistens, Plowr.—0, I on T h a l i c t r u m flavum [II, I I I on Agropyron r e p e n s ] ; St. Olaves ( E . ) ; by t h e riverside at Ipswich, 6-5-33. Ulmaria,
G e n u s TRIPHRAGMIUM, Link. Link.—0, I I , I I I o n Spirsea U l m a r i a : very c o m m o n .
G e n u s PHRAGMIDIUM, L i n k . Fragariastri, Schrot.*—0, I, I I , I I I on Potentilla stenlis : Blundeston (E.) ; Brockford, M e n d l e s h a m and Wetheringsett. Sanguisorbce, Schrot.—0, I, I I , I I I on P o t e r i u m Sanguisorba : Risby, Stuston. disciflorum, James ( = P. mucronatum, Schi.).*—0, I, I I , I I I on Rosa canina, R. Eglanteria and cultivated roses : very c o m m o n . violaceum, Wint.*—0, I, I I , I I I on R u b u s fruticosus : widespread. Rubi, W i n t . — 0 , I, I I , I I I on R u b u s cacsius : Brockford, Cotton, M e n d l e s h a m and F r e s t o n ; on R . f r u t i c o s u s : Gorleston ( H . E . Hurrell). Rubi-idcei, Karst.—0, I, I I , I I I on R u b u s idaeus : on cultivated raspberries at Brockford and M e n d l e s h a m .
THE RUST-FUNGI OF SUFFOLK.
Genus KUEHNEOLA, Magnus. albida, P. Magn.—0, II, III on Rubus fruticosus : Blundeston (E.); Freston. Tormentillee, Fckl.—II [III] on Potentilla erecta : Lound, 25-2-35 (E.).
Genus XENODOCHUS, Schlecht. carbonarius, Schlecht.—I, III on Poterium officinale : Hinderclay, 9-9-31. Genus GYMNOSPORANGIUM, Hedw. fil. clavariaforme, DC.*—0, I on Crataegus Oxyacantha, III on Juniperus communis : 0, I on hawthorns at Hardwick, Bury St. Edmunds (Skepper MSS., July, 1860); III, Mendlesham churchyard. Genus CRONARTIUM, Fries. Ribicola, Waldh—[0, I on Pinus spp.], II, III on Ribes nigrum : Brockford, 14-9-30. [C. quercuum, Miyabe*—Henslow and Skepper record the uredospores on oak " near Bungay," but the specimens referred to were undoubtedly gathered by Mr. D. Stock on the Norfolk side of the border.] Genus COLEOSPORIUM, Lev. Seneäonis, Fr.—[0, I on Pinus sylvestris], II, III on Senecio vulgaris: common. Tussilaginis, Lev.—[0, I on Pinus sylvestris], II, III on Tussilago Farfara : common. Petasitis, Ed. Fisch—[0, I on Pinus sylvestris], II, III on Petasites ovatus: Creeting, Needham Market, Ipswich. Sonchi, Lev.—[0, I on Pinus sylvestris], II, III on Sonchus oleraceus, S. asper, S. arvensis and S. palustris : widespread. Euphrasia, Wint.—[0, I on Pinus sylvestris], II, III on Euphrasia officinalis : Barham, Mendlesham ; on Bartsia officinalis at Mendlesham ; and on Rhinanthus Crista-galli at Hinderclay. Melampyri, Tul.—[0, I on Pinus sylvestris], II, III on Melampyrum pratense: Oulton, 18-7-30 (M. B. Ellis). Campanula, Lev.—[0,1 on Pinus sylvestris], II, III on Campanula spp.: Mr. Ellis sent me this rust on Campanula Trachelium gathered at Whatfield by our Member Mr. R. Burn, September 1932 ; on C. persicifolia in gardens at Mendlesham. Genus OCHROPSORA, Dietel. Sorbi, Diet. (=0. arüe, Syd.}—0, I on Anemone nemorosa, [II, III on Pyrus spp.]: at Barking, 4-5-33. Genus ENDOPHYLLUM, Lev. Euphorbia-silvaticce, Wint.*—0, III on Euphorbia Amygdaloides : " Suffolk " (H. & S.). Sempervivi, De Bary—0, III on Sempervivum tectorum: Mendlesham, 31-5-31.
THE RUST-FUNGI OF SUFFOLK.
Genus MELAMPSORA, Cast. Larici-Caprearum, Kleb.*—[0, I on Larix decidua], I I , I I I on Salix Caprea, S. aurita : common. Euonymi-Caprearum, Kleb.—0, I on Euonymus europaeus [II, I I I on Salix spp.] : caeomata at Mendlesham, 5-5-33, and Creeting, 4-5-33. Larici-epitea, Kleb.*—[0, I on Larix decidua], II, I I I on Salix cinerea and S. alba: common. Orchidi-repentis, Kleb. ( = M . repentis, Plowr.)—0, I on Orchis spp. [II, I I I on Salix spp.] : on Listera ovata at Blundeston (E ) ; on O. maculata, Mendlesham. Larici-Populina, Kleb.—[0,1 on Larix decidua], II, I I I on Populus nigra : Mendlesham and Sudbourne. Rostrupii, G. W a g — 0 , I on Mercurialis perennis, II, I I I on Populus alba, P. tremula : 0, I : Blundeston (E.) ; Mendlesham, Needham Market and Barking ; II, I I I at Brockford and Mendlesham. Euphorbia, Cast.*—I, II, I I I on Euphorbia Peplus and E. exigua : very common. Helioscopice, W . M u l l . - O , I, II, I I I on Euphorbia Helioscopia : common. . Hypericorum, Wint.—I, I I I on Hypericum perforatum : Barking (E.), and on H. elatum near Lowestoft, September 35 (M.B.E.). „ ,. Lini, Cast.—[0, I], II, I I I on Linum catharticum: Barking and Kessingland (E.) ; Needham Market, Old Newton, Risby. Genus MELAMPSORIDIUM, Kleb. Betulinum, Kleb.—[0, I on Larix decidua], I I , . I I I on Betula alba : Beiton (E.) ; Foxhall, Bromeswell, Sutton. Genus MELAMPSORELLA, Schrot. Caryophyllaceorum, Schrot.—[0, I on Abies pectinata], II, I I I on Cerastium arvense at Mendlesham, 15-5-31 (host mtroduced with railway ballast); on C. viscosum at Kessingland (E.). Genus PUCCINIASTRUM, Otth. Agrimonia, Tranzsch.—II, I I I on Agrimonia Eupatoria : Barking, Coddenham, Mendlesham. Circaa, Speg.—II, I I I on Circaea lutetiana: Barking (E.); Elmsett, Martlesham, Freston. Abieti-Chamcenerii, Kleb. ( = P. pustulatum, Diet ) - [ 0 , I on Abies pectinata], II, I I I on Epilobium angustifohum: Hopton, Herringfleet (E.); Freston, Redgrave, Bury St. Edmunds. Epilobii, O t t h — I I , I I I on Epilobium montanum: Hopton, 1Z-S-.». Appendix. Vredo Ammophilina, Kleb, et L i n d . - I I on Ammophila arenaria: Gorleston, August 1934 (E.).